PMID(sorted ascending)
Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay.Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and ...201222075596
synthesis of novel quinoxalinone derivatives by conventional and microwave methods and assessing their biological this study, twenty-one arylaminoquinoxalinone derivatives were synthesized and their antibacterial activities against staphylococci aureus, pseudomonas aureus, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, salmonella typhi, and shigella pneumoniae were evaluated relative to known antibiotics; augmentin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol. the insecticidal activities of the prepared compounds were also investigated against tribolium castaneum using permethrin as a standard insecticide. the derivatives wer ...201122076760
approach to the patient with infectious provide current recommendations for evaluation and treatment of patients with infectious colitis. infectious colitis is diagnosed in someone with diarrhea and one or more of the following: fever and/or dysentery, stools containing inflammatory markers such as leukocytes, lactoferrin, or calprotectin, or positive stool culture for an invasive or inflammatory bacterial enteropathogen including shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) or clostridium diff ...201222080825
site-specific incorporation of photo-cross-linker and bioorthogonal amino acids into enteric bacterial pathogens.enteric bacterial pathogens are known to effectively pass through the extremely acidic mammalian stomachs and cause infections in the small and/or large intestine of human hosts. however, their acid-survival strategy and pathogenesis mechanisms remain elusive, largely due to the lack of tools to directly monitor and manipulate essential components (e.g., defense proteins or invasive toxins) participating in these processes. herein, we have extended the pyrrolysine-based genetic code expansion st ...201122084898
outbreak of shigella sonnei infection in norway linked to consumption of fresh basil, october 2011.we report a shigella sonnei outbreak of 46 cases that occurred in norway during october 2011. two municipalities were involved. a large cluster (42 cases)was concentrated in north norway, while a smallcluster (4 cases) occurred in the south-east region.epidemiological evidence and trace back investigations have linked the outbreak to the consumption of imported fresh basil. the product has been withdrawn from the market. no further cases have been reported since 25 october.201122085618
diarrhea associated with shigella in children and susceptibility to antimicrobials.objective: to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility to antimicrobials of shigella isolated from children with acute diarrhea and without diarrhea in teresina, state of piauí, brazil. methods: four hundred children aged up to 60 months were studied. stools were collected from all the patients between january 2004 and august 2007. shigella was identified by conventional methods and antibiogram and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) were performed by agar diffusion. results: shigellosis ...201122089139
[Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shigella spp. isolated from feces samples in Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital between 1999-2010].The symptoms of infections caused by Shigella spp. are diverse and may change from person to person. The choice of antibiotics as well as the prevention of the loss of fluid and electrolytes are important in the clinical recovery. The local resistance rates to antibiotics should be taken into consideration when planning empirical therapy. The aims of this retrospective study were to detect the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 605 Shigella spp. strains isolated from feces samples of child ...201122090291
[Protozoal antigen positivity in diarrheal patients admitted to emergency service: a point prevalence study].Intestinal parasites are the important etiological agents of water and food related diarrhea cases which are frequently seen during summer/early autumn seasons in developing countries. This point prevalence study was aimed to determine the protozoal antigen positivity rate in diarrhea cases admitted to the emergency service in one single day. A total of 198 diarrheal patients (90 male, 108 female; age range: 1-82 years, mean age: 29 years) who were admitted to the emergency service of Ankara Tra ...201122090311
phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the gut of house flies (musca domestica l.).house flies (musca domestica l.) are cosmopolitan, ubiquitous, synanthropic insects that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for various microorganisms. to fully assess the role of house flies in the epidemiology of human diseases, it is essential to understand the diversity of microbiota harbored by natural fly populations. this study aimed to identify the diversity of house fly gut bacteria by both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. a total of 102 bacterial strains wer ...201122092755
Evolutionary and functional insights into Leishmania META1: evidence for lateral gene transfer and a role for META1 in secretion.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Leishmania META1 has for long been a candidate molecule for involvement in virulence: META1 transcript and protein are up-regulated in metacyclic Leishmania. Yet, how META1 contributes to virulence remains unclear. We sought insights into the possible functions of META1 by studying its evolutionary origins. RESULTS: Using multiple criteria including sequence similarity, nucleotide composition, phylogenetic analysis and selection pressure on gene sequence, we present evide ...201122093578
Antibiotics shaping bacterial genome: deletion of an IS91 flanked virulence determinant upon exposure to subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations.The nucleoid-associated proteins Hha and YdgT repress the expression of the toxin a-hemolysin. An Escherichia coli mutant lacking these proteins overexpresses the toxin a-hemolysin encoded in the multicopy recombinant plasmid pANN202-312R. Unexpectedly, we could observe that this mutant generated clones that no further produced hemolysin (Hly(-)). Generation of Hly(-) clones was dependent upon the presence in the culture medium of the antibiotic kanamycin (km), a marker of the hha allele (hha::T ...201122096603
foodborne-associated shigella sonnei, india, 2009 and 2010. 201122099103
A new piece of the Shigella pathogenicity puzzle: spermidine accumulationby silencing of the speG gene.The genome of Shigella, a gram negative bacterium which is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, shares strong homologies with that of its commensal ancestor, Escherichia coli. The acquisition, by lateral gene transfer, of a large plasmid carrying virulence determinants has been a crucial event in the evolution towards the pathogenic lifestyle and has been paralleled by the occurrence of mutations affecting genes, which negatively interfere with the expression of virulence factors. In this ...201122102881
Differential host immune responses to epidemic and endemic strains of Shigella dysenteriae type I.Shigella dysenteriae type 1 causes devastating epidemics in developing countries with high case-fatality rates in all age-groups. The aim of the study was to compare host immune responses to epidemic (T2218) and endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1. Shigellacidal activity of serum from rabbits immunized with epidemic or endemic strains, S. dysenteriae type 1-infected patients, and healthy adult controls from Shigella-endemic and non-endemic regions was measured. Immunogenic cross-reactivity ...201122106748
gene decay in shigella as an incipient stage of host-adaptation.background: many facultative bacterial pathogens have undergone extensive gene decay processes, possibly due to lack of selection pressure during evolutionary conversion from free-living to intracellular lifestyle. shigella, the causative agents of human shigellosis, have arisen from different e. coli-like ancestors independently by convergent paths. as these bacteria all have lost large numbers of genes by mutation or deletion, they can be used as ideal models for systematically studying the pr ...201122110755
analysis of synonymous codon usage in shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 and other shigella and escherichia coli this study, we analysed synonymous codon usage in shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 (sf301) and performed a comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in sf301 and other strains of shigella and escherichia coli. although there was a significant variety in codon usage bias among different sf301 genes, there was a slight but observable codon usage bias that could primarily be attributable to mutational pressure and translational selection. in addition, the relative abundance of dinuc ...201122112197
Autophagy as an innate immunity paradigm: expanding the scope and repertoire of pattern recognition receptors.Autophagy is rapidly developing into a new immunological paradigm. The latest links now include overlaps between autophagy and innate immune signaling via TBK-1 and IKKa/ß, and the role of autophagy in inflammation directed by the inflammasome. Autophagy's innate immunity connections include responses to pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns including alarmins such as HMGB1 and IL-1ß, Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors including NLRC4, NLRP3 and NLRP4, and RIG-I-like receptors. ...201122118953
reflectron maldi tof and maldi tof/tof mass spectrometry reveal novel structural details of native lipooligosaccharides.lipooligosaccharides (los) are powerful gram-negative glycolipids that evade the immune system and invade host animal and vegetal cells. the structural elucidation of los is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms of infection at the molecular level. the amphiphilic nature of los has been the main obstacle for structural analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (maldi) mass spectrometry (ms). our approach has resolved this important issue and has permitted us to obtain reflectron ...201122124985
Atypical Shigella boydii 13 encodes virulence factors seen in attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes watery diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis. In this study, we identified StcE, a secreted zinc metalloprotease that contributes to intimate adherence of EHEC to host cells, in culture supernatants of atypical Shigella boydii 13 (Shigella B13) strains. Further examination of the Shigella B13 strains revealed that this cluster of pathogens does not invade but forms pedestals on HEp-2 cells similar to EHEC and enteropathogenic E. col ...201122126649
applications of pcr (real-time and masstag) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed u.s. military personnel during exercise balikatan 2009, philippines.laboratory-based surveillance for diarrheal and respiratory illness was conducted at the 2009 republic of the philippines-united states balikatan exercise to determine the presence of specific pathogens endemic in the locations where the military exercises were conducted. ten stool and 6 respiratory specimens were obtained from individuals meeting case definitions for diarrhea or respiratory illness. stool specimens were frozen in dry ice and remotely tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...201122128641
Molecular Techniques in Ecohealth Research Toolkit: Facilitating Estimation of Aggregate Gastroenteritis Burden in an Irrigated Periurban Landscape.Assessment of microbial hazards associated with certain environmental matrices, livelihood strategies, and food handling practices are constrained by time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques that lead to health risk assessments of narrow geographic or time scope, often targeting very few pathogens. Health risk assessment based on one or few indicator organisms underestimates true disease burden due a number of coexisting causative pathogens. Here, we employed molecular techniques i ...201122146856
an inverse and independent association between helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of shigellosis and other diarrheal diseases.objectives. we examined the association between helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of diarrheal diseases.methods. in a nested case-control study participants were sampled from cohorts of male israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, serving in field units and followed up for diarrheal diseases. case patients (n = 177) were subjects who visited the base clinic because diarrhea and were positive for shigella sonnei (n = 66), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (n = 31) or negative for b ...201122157171
polyclonal antibody against conserved sequences of mce1a protein blocks mtb infection in macrophages.the pathogenesis of mycobacterium tuberculosis is largely due to its ability to enter and survive within human macrophages. it is suggested that a specific protein namely mammalian cell entry protein is involved in the pathogenesis and the specific gene for this protein mce1a has been identified in several pathogenic organisms such as rickettsia, shigella, escherichia coli, helicobacter, streptomyces, klebsiella, vibrio, neisseria, rhodococcus, nocardioides, saccharopolyspora erthyrae, and pseud ...201122159737
The effects of solid media type on routine identification of bacterial isolates using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.Background: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis is a rapid method for the identification of bacteria based upon the comparison of protein profiles. Factors that may alter profiles include culture conditions and presence of exogenous substances and could hinder identification. Methods: Bacterial isolates identified using conventional methods were cultured on various media and identified using the MALDI Biotyper system (Bruker Dalton ...201122162546
Nicotinamide dependence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli UTI89 and application of nadB as a neutral insertion site.NAD and NADP function ubiquitously in the metabolism of Escherichia coli K-12. NAD auxotrophy can be rendered by mutation in any of the three genes, nadB, nadA, and nadC. The nadB and nadA genes were defined as anti-virulence loci in Shigella spp., as a mutation (mainly in nadB) disrupting the synthesis of quinolinate is required for virulence. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates, from acute cystitis patients, exhibiting nicotinamide auxotrophy were of serotype O18:K1:H7. E. coli UTI89, the mo ...201122174382
[etiological surveillance and analysis of infectious diarrhea in beijing in year 2010].to explore the pathogenic form, epidemic features and serotype distribution of the pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in beijing.201122177306
Gut microbiota and pediatric disease.Background: Researchers have made every effort to assess the role of gut microbiota in pediatric diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), celiac disease, asthma, allergy, and autism. The leading hypothesis is that an altered microbial composition is present (other than the presence of a specific pathogen) and that it could be involved in the pathogenesis or progression of such disorders. Methods: Cultural, molecular, metabolomic, and metagenomic approaches are trying to define the pediatr ...201122179208
evolutionary silence of the acid chaperone protein hdeb in enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.the periplasmic chaperones hdea and hdeb are known to be important for cell survival at low ph (ph<3) in escherichia coli and shigella spp. here we investigated the roles of hdea and hdeb in the survival of various enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec) following exposure to ph 2.0. similar to k-12 strains, the acid protections conferred by hdea and hdeb in ehec o145 were significant: loss of hdea and hdeb led to over 100- to 1000-fold reductions in acid survival, depending on the growth condition of ...201122179243
synthesis and biological evaluation of some thiazolidinones as antimicrobial agents.a novel series of thiazolidinone derivatives namely 4-(4-dimethylamino-6-{4-[5-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl)-4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl]-phenylamino}-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yloxy)-1-methyl-1h-quinolin-2-one have been synthesized from the key intermediate 4-[4-(4-aminophenylamino)-6-dimethylamino-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yloxy]-1-methyl-1h-quinolin-2-one (7). condensation reaction of compound 7 with different aldehyde derivatives were performed to obtain schiff base derivatives, which after cyclization gav ...201122182927
genomic characterization of enteroaggregative escherichia coli from children in mali.background. enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) is a cause of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea, yet its role as an enteric pathogen is not fully understood. methods. we characterized 121 eaec strains isolated in 2008 as part of a case-control study of moderate to severe acute diarrhea among children 0-59 months of age in bamako, mali. we applied multiplex polymerase chain reaction and comparative genome hybridization to identify potential virulence factors among the eaec strains, coupled wit ...201122184729
Two Cases of Hemorrhagic Diarrhea Caused by Cronobacter sakazakii in Hospitalized Nursing Infants Associated with the Consumption of Powdered Infant Formula.Two cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in 5-month-old infants hospitalized in a mother-and-child hospital in Queretaro, Mexico, on 24 January 2010. C. sakazakii was recovered from the powdered infant formula (PIF), rehydrated PIF (R-PIF) fed to infants, and their fecal samples. The microorganism was present at levels of 0.33 most probable number (MPN)/g and 24 MPN/ml in PIF and R-PIF, respectively. The total ingested dose for the day before the onset of the diarrheic syndrome ranged betwee ...201122186061
topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase iv (gtriv) of shigella flexneri.abstract:201122188643
How We Didn't Clean Up Until We Washed Our Hands: Shigellosis in an Elementary and Middle School in North Texas.Shigella outbreaks often continue for months and are linked frequently to poor hygiene and hand washing. Such outbreaks are found often in day care facilities, but rarely are reported in schools. We present the investigation of an outbreak in autumn 2007 at a building that housed an elementary school and a middle school in separate wings in a small Texas city north of Dallas-Fort Worth.201222189658
Reactor performance and bacterial pathogen removal in response to sludge retention time in a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating sewage sludge.The effects of sludge retention time (SRT) on reactor performance and bacterial pathogen removal of sludge mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) were investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The average volatile solids removal remained around 20% and the biogas production rate varied from 100 to 132ml/ld. The MAD process was efficient to remove Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli with removal efficiencies increased with SRT from 11d, 16d to 25d. However, the Shigella sp. removal was ins ...201122197074
structuring the bacterial genome: y1-transposases associated with rep-bime sequences{dagger}reps are highly repeated intergenic palindromic sequences often clustered into structures called bimes including two individual reps separated by short linker of variable length. they play a variety of key roles in the cell. reps also resemble the sub-terminal hairpins of the atypical is200/605 family of insertion sequences which encode y1 transposases (tnpa(is200/is605)). these belong to the huh endonuclease family, carry a single catalytic tyrosine (y) and promote single strand transposition. ...201122199259
a broadly protective shigella vaccine based on type iii secretion apparatus proteins.shigella ssp. are food and water-borne pathogens that cause severe diarrheal and dysenteric disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. individuals most often affected are children under 5 years of age in the developing world. the existence of multiple shigella serotypes and the heterogenic distribution of pathogenic strains as well as emerging antibiotic resistance require the development of a broadly protective vaccine. all shigella ssp. utilize a type iii secretion system (ttss) to ...201122202122
comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophage ep23 infecting shigella sonnei and escherichia coli.bacteriophage ep23 that infects escherichia coli and shigella sonnei was isolated and characterized. the bacteriophage morphology was similar to members of the family siphoviridae. the 44,077 bp genome was fully sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that ep23 was most closely related to phage so-1, which infects sodalis glossinidius and phage ssl-2009a, which infects engineered e. coli. genomic comparison indicated that ep23 and so-1 were very s ...201122203555
emergence of ceftriaxone resistant shigella.shigellosis is endemic in many resource-poor countries due to feco-oral transmission, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. there is rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant (mdr) shigella spp. resulting in poor reliability of first line antibiotics like quinolones, co-trimoxazole and ampicillin. ceftriaxone has been used as a reserved antibiotic for treatment of mdr shigella spp. the authors report a case of ceftriaxone resistant shigella flexneri successfully managed with meropenem ...201122205379
long-term trends in the epidemiology and resistance of childhood bacterial enteropathogens in this study, we investigated the long-term trends in the epidemiology and susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens among children in a well-defined area of adequate health standards. the study included all children younger than 14 years of age treated for enteritis at heraklion university general hospital on the island of crete during the 18-year period from january 1993 to december 2010. stool specimens were tested for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, enteropathogenic escherichia coli ...201122207394
Genesis of a novel Shigella flexneri serotype by sequential infection of serotype-converting bacteriophages SfX and SfI.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Fifteen serotypes have been recognized up to now. The genesis of new S. flexneri serotypes is commonly mediated by serotype-converting bacteriophages. Untypeable or novel serotypes from natural infections had been reported worldwide but have not been generated in laboratory. RESULTS: A new S. flexneri serotype-serotype 1 d was generated when a S. flexneri serotype Y strain (native LPS) was sequentially in ...201122208551
analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) isolate e24377a.enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) is an important pathogenic variant (pathovar) of e. coli in developing countries from a human health perspective, causing significant morbidity and mortality. previous studies have examined specific regulatory networks in etec, although little is known about the global effects of inter- and intra-kingdom signaling on the expression of virulence and colonization factors in etec. in this study, an e.coli/shigella pan-genome microarray, combined with quantita ...201222215741
[characterisation of a ctx-m-15-producing shigella sonnei in a spanish patient who had not travelled abroad.]one hundred and seven shigella spp. strains were isolated in our laboratory during the years 2000 to 2010. one shigella sonnei harboured the genes that coded the β-lactamases tem-1 and ctx-m-15, identifying the structure, isecp1+bla(ctx-m-15)+orf477, in their genetic environment. the strain also carried a class 2 integron with the gene cassettes dfra1+sat+aada1. a plasmid group inci1 st31 (cc-31) was detected and its mobilization by conjugation was demonstrated. we describe for the first time a ...201222244530
evaluation of a quantitative h(2)s mpn test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.the sensitivity and specificity of the h(2)s test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with h(2)s-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or escherichia coli. false-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with h(2)s-negative samples found to contain e. coli. using biochemical and molecular methods an ...201222244995
galectin 8 targets damaged vesicles for autophagy to defend cells against bacterial invasion.autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial infection. efficient pathogen engulfment is mediated by cargo-selecting autophagy adaptors that rely on unidentified pattern-recognition or danger receptors to label invading pathogens as autophagy cargo, typically by polyubiquitin coating. here we show in human cells that galectin 8 (also known as lgals8), a cytosolic lectin, is a danger receptor that restricts salmonella proliferation. galectin 8 monitors endosomal and lysosomal integri ...201222246324
antibacterial effect and cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1, 4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.we studied the antibiotic activity and selective cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.201122260051
epidemiological, clinical features and susceptibility pattern of shigellosis in the buea health district, cameroon.abstract: background: shigellosis is an acute invasive enteric infection caused by bacteria belonging to the genus shigella; it is clinically manifested by bloody diarrhoea. shigellosis is endemic in many developing countries including cameroon and also occurs in epidemics causing considerable morbidity and mortality. this study evaluated the epidemiological and clinical features of shigella and the resistance pattern of isolates to commonly used antibiotics in the buea health district in camer ...201222264300
antimicrobial activity of ulopterol isolated from toddalia asiatica (l.) lam.: a traditional medicinal plant.aim of the study: the leaves of toddalia asiatica (l.) lam. (rutaceae) are widely used in folk medicine in india to treat various ailments. in our earlier communication we have reported the antimicrobial study on the various extracts of the leaves and the isolation and identification of flindersine, a quinolone alkaloid as the major active principle. in the present study, we report the antibacterial and antifungal activities of ulopterol, a coumarin isolated as another major active antimicrobial ...201222265751
the evolution of the escherichia coli phylogeny.escherichia coli are familiar to biologists as a classical model system, ubiquitous in molecular biology laboratories around the world. outside of the laboratory, e. coli strains exist as an almost universal component of the lower-gut flora of humans and animals. although usually a commensal, e. coli has an alter ego as a pathogen, and is associated with diarrhoeal disease and extra-intestinal infections. the study of e. coli diversity predates the availability of molecular data, with strains in ...201222266241
the patient presenting with acute dysentery - a systematic review.objectives: the etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy. methods: we conducted a systematic review of literature published between january 2000 and june 2011 to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen-specific dysentery. results: shigella, salmonella, and campylobacter remain the most frequent bacterial causes of dysenter ...201222266388
culture-independent real-time pcr reveals extensive polymicrobial infections in hospitalized diarrhoea cases in kolkata, india.clin microbiol infect abstract: culture-independent identification of diarrhoeal aetiological agents was performed using dna harvested from diarrhoeal stool specimens with sybr-green-based real-time pcr targeting vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, campylobacter spp., shigella spp. and three different pathotypes of diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli. conventional culture-dependent methods detected bacterial enteropathogens in 68 of 122 diarrhoeal stool specimens. of 68 specimens, 59 (86.8%) h ...201122268636
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