TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
synthesis and biological evaluation of some thiazolidinones as antimicrobial agents.a novel series of thiazolidinone derivatives namely 4-(4-dimethylamino-6-{4-[5-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl)-4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl]-phenylamino}-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yloxy)-1-methyl-1h-quinolin-2-one have been synthesized from the key intermediate 4-[4-(4-aminophenylamino)-6-dimethylamino-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yloxy]-1-methyl-1h-quinolin-2-one (7). condensation reaction of compound 7 with different aldehyde derivatives were performed to obtain schiff base derivatives, which after cyclization gav ...201122182927
diarrhea associated with shigella in children and susceptibility to antimicrobials.objective: to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility to antimicrobials of shigella isolated from children with acute diarrhea and without diarrhea in teresina, state of piauí, brazil. methods: four hundred children aged up to 60 months were studied. stools were collected from all the patients between january 2004 and august 2007. shigella was identified by conventional methods and antibiogram and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) were performed by agar diffusion. results: shigellosis ...201122089139
an inverse and independent association between helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of shigellosis and other diarrheal diseases.objectives. we examined the association between helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of diarrheal diseases.methods. in a nested case-control study participants were sampled from cohorts of male israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, serving in field units and followed up for diarrheal diseases. case patients (n = 177) were subjects who visited the base clinic because diarrhea and were positive for shigella sonnei (n = 66), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (n = 31) or negative for b ...201122157171
antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from cameroon traditional medicine.infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (etoac) and hexanic fractions of five cameroonian medicinal plants (piptadeniastum africana, cissus aralioides, hileria latifolia, phyllanthus muellerianus and gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and ...201121867554
microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in roadside restaurants of bangladesh.the microbiological status of water from dispensers in different roadside restaurants of dhaka city and savar area was analyzed in this study. seven samples from dhaka and 8 samples of savar were checked. the heterotrophic plate count was in a range of 1.0 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) to 2.0 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) (from new bottles), 1.0 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) (after dispensation), and 1.5 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) to 1.0 x l0(5) cfu ml(-1) (from serving glass). in several of the samples, the heterotrophi ...201121916267
validation of the h2s method to detect bacteria of fecal origin by cultured and molecular methods.using biochemical and molecular methods, this research determined whether or not the h(2)s test did correctly identify sewage-contaminated waters by being the first to use culturing and molecular methods to identify the types and numbers of fecal indicator organisms, pathogens, and other microbes present in sewage samples with positive h(2)s test results. for the culture-based method, samples were analyzed for the presence of fecal bacteria by spread plating the sewage sample onto differential a ...201122038242
antibacterial characteristics and activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by the maillard reaction.the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by maillard reactions against staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, shigella dysenteriae, and salmonella typhimurium was examined. relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. in addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-solu ...201121989311
toxic megacolon.toxic megacolon represents a dreaded complication of mainly inflammatory or infectious conditions of the colon. it is most commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), i.e., ulcerative colitis or ileocolonic crohn's disease. lately, the epidemiology has shifted toward infectious causes, specifically due to an increase of clostridium difficile-associated colitis possibly due to the extensive (ab)use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. other important infectious etiologies include salmone ...201122009735
the effect of the potential phoq histidine kinase inhibitors on shigella flexneri virulence.phoq/phop is an important two-component system that regulates shigella virulence. we explored whether the phoq/phop system is a promising target for new antibiotics against s. flexneri infection. by using a high-throughput screen and enzymatic activity coupled assay, four compounds were found as potential phoq inhibitors. these compounds not only inhibited the activity of sf-phoqc autophosphorylation but also displayed high binding affinities to the sf-phoqc protein in the surface plasmon resona ...201121853073
crosslinking of (cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii and its complexes with specific dna duplexes provides an insight into their structures.(cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii (m.ssoii) functions as a methyltransferase and also as a transcription factor. chemical and photochemical crosslinking was used for exploring the structure of m.ssoii-dna complexes and m.ssoii in the absence of dna. photocrosslinking with 4-(n-maleimido)benzophenone demonstrated that in the m.ssoii complex with dna containing the regulatory site, the m.ssoii region responsible for methylation was bound to dna flanking the regulatory site, which contained ...201121888553
salmonella typhimurium-specific bacteriophage φsh19 and the origins of species specificity in the vi01-like phage family.whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. trials involving the biosanitization of salmonella typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, φsh19.201122047448
real-time multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, shigella and yersinia species in fecal samples.diarrheal diseases due to notifiable bacterial infections require rapid diagnosis of the causative pathogens. to facilitate detection, a real-time multiplex pcr was developed that identifies common diarrhea-causing bacteria in fecal samples. on the basis of published sequence data, sets of primers and probes were designed that were specific for campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, shigella/enteroinvasive escherichia coli eiec, and yersinia species, suitable for use in a one-tube pcr assay. the assa ...201121855409
global distribution of shigella sonnei investigate global epidemiology of shigella sonnei, we performed multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 1,672 isolates obtained since 1943 from 50 countries on 5 continents and the pacific region. three major clonal groups were identified; 2 were globally spread. type 18 and its derivatives have circulated worldwide in recent decades.201122000369
intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in gondar teaching hospital, northwest ethiopia.abstract:201122041102
antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional chinese herb pairs, angelica sinensis and sophora flavescens.the purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of angelica sinensis extract (ae), sophora flavescens extract (se), and herb pair a. sinensis and s. flavescens extract (hpe). endotoxin-induced uveitis (eiu) was induced in rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide. the anti-inflammatory potential of ae, se, and hpe in the regulation of nuclear factor kappa b (nf-κb), maleic dialdehyde (mda), polymorphonuclear cells (pmn), interleukin-1β ...201121976127
waterlogsy nmr experiments in conjunction with molecular-dynamics simulations identify immobilized water molecules that bridge peptide mimic mdwnmhaa to anticarbohydrate antibody sya/j6.x-ray crystallographic data of the carbohydrate mimic mdwnmhaa when bound to an anti-shigella flexneri y mab sya/j6 indicate the immobilization of water molecules, that is, the presence of "bound" waters, in the active site. water ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (waterlogsy) was used in conjunction with saturation transfer difference (std)-nmr spectroscopy to probe the existence of immobilized water molecules in the complex of mdwnmhaa 1 bound to mab sya/j6. molecular dynamics simulati ...201121887835
[etiological surveillance and analysis of infectious diarrhea in beijing in year 2010].to explore the pathogenic form, epidemic features and serotype distribution of the pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in beijing.201122177306
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria and yeasts in a clinical microbiological laboratory: a review.recently, maldi-tof ms devices designed for use in clinical laboratories have been commercially introduced in various large centres worldwide. all published studies conclude that maldi-tof ms can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria and yeasts in a clinical microbiological laboratory. although all data show that maldi-tof ms correctly identifies the great majority of isolates processed routinely, it cannot yet identify every such isolate. until today, maldi-tof ms is inap ...201121938981
structural segregation of gut microbiota between colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers.despite a long-suspected role in the development of human colorectal cancer (crc), the composition of gut microbiota in crc patients has not been adequately described. in this study, fecal bacterial diversity in crc patients (n=46) and healthy volunteers (n=56) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing of the v3 region of the 16s ribosomal rna gene. both principal component analysis and unifrac analysis showed structural segregation between the two populations. forty-eight operational taxonomic units ...201121850056
Atypical Shigella boydii 13 encodes virulence factors seen in attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes watery diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis. In this study, we identified StcE, a secreted zinc metalloprotease that contributes to intimate adherence of EHEC to host cells, in culture supernatants of atypical Shigella boydii 13 (Shigella B13) strains. Further examination of the Shigella B13 strains revealed that this cluster of pathogens does not invade but forms pedestals on HEp-2 cells similar to EHEC and enteropathogenic E. col ...201122126649
social-economic factors and irrational antibiotic use as reasons for antibiotic resistance of bacteria causing common childhood infections in primary healthcare.the most prevalent childhood bacterial infections in primary healthcare are respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital infections. the main aim of this paper was to consider factors (socio-economic factors and irrational antibiotic use) that contribute to the development of bacterial resistance, as well as measures that resulted in a reduction of this problem. computerized search through the medline of published articles on antibiotic resistance from 1996 to 2011 in english or serbian was comp ...201121987082
Reactor performance and bacterial pathogen removal in response to sludge retention time in a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating sewage sludge.The effects of sludge retention time (SRT) on reactor performance and bacterial pathogen removal of sludge mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) were investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The average volatile solids removal remained around 20% and the biogas production rate varied from 100 to 132ml/ld. The MAD process was efficient to remove Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli with removal efficiencies increased with SRT from 11d, 16d to 25d. However, the Shigella sp. removal was ins ...201122197074
analysis of synonymous codon usage in shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 and other shigella and escherichia coli this study, we analysed synonymous codon usage in shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 (sf301) and performed a comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in sf301 and other strains of shigella and escherichia coli. although there was a significant variety in codon usage bias among different sf301 genes, there was a slight but observable codon usage bias that could primarily be attributable to mutational pressure and translational selection. in addition, the relative abundance of dinuc ...201122112197
Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among men who have sex with men, Canada, 2010.In 2010, we observed isolates with matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from 13 cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Montréal. We report on the emergence of this resistance type and a study of resistance mechanisms. The investigation suggested local transmission among men who have sex with men associated with sex venues.201121888811
characterization of a vii-like phage specific to escherichia coli o157:h7.phage vb_ecom_cba120 (cba120), isolated against escherichia coli o157:h7 from a cattle feedlot, is morphologically very similar to the classic phage vii of salmonella enterica serovar typhi. until recently, little was known genetically or physiologically about the vii-like phages, and none targeting e. coli have been described in the literature. the genome of cba120 has been fully sequenced and is highly similar to those of both vii and the shigella phage ag3. the core set of structural and repl ...201121899740
Further characterization of Shigella sonnei live vaccine candidates WRSs2 and WRSs3-plasmid composition, invasion assays and Sereny reactions. 201121983066
Clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Shigella gastroenteritis in Ankara, Turkey between 2003 and 2009, and comparison with previous reports.The aim of this study was to define the epidemiological, clinical, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Shigella gastroenteritis cases occurring during the years 2003-2009 and to compare results with those of the years 1987-2002.201121982814
convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the o-antigen of shigella boydii type 9.a convenient synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the o-antigen of shigella boydii type 9 has been achieved in excellent yield using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation strategy. tempo-mediated selective oxidation of the primary alcohol of the tetrasaccharide derivative 8 to the carboxylic group followed by deprotection of the functional groups furnished target tetrasaccharide 1 as its 4-methoxyphenyl glycoside in high yield.201121977201
synthesis of novel quinoxalinone derivatives by conventional and microwave methods and assessing their biological this study, twenty-one arylaminoquinoxalinone derivatives were synthesized and their antibacterial activities against staphylococci aureus, pseudomonas aureus, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, salmonella typhi, and shigella pneumoniae were evaluated relative to known antibiotics; augmentin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol. the insecticidal activities of the prepared compounds were also investigated against tribolium castaneum using permethrin as a standard insecticide. the derivatives wer ...201122076760
the role of oxyr and soxrs in oxidative stress survival in shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri, a facultative intracellular pathogen, is exposed to a variety of environments inside and outside of the human host. some of these environments may contain significant oxidative stress. s. flexneri mutants were generated with deletions in the major oxidative stress regulators oxyr and/or soxrs to test their importance in shigella biology. strains that contained a deletion of oxyr had reduced growth and survival during aerobic growth, but not microaerobic growth. the mutants wer ...201122015257
live attenuated shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine strains overexpressing shiga toxin b subunit.shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae 1) is unique among the shigella species and serotypes in the expression of shiga toxin which contributes to more severe disease sequelae and the ability to cause explosive outbreaks and pandemics. s. dysenteriae 1 shares characteristics with other shigella species, including the capability of causing clinical illness with a very low inoculum (10 to 100 cfu) and resistance to multiple antibiotics, underscoring the need for efficacious vaccines and t ...201121969003
Comparative evaluation of the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays for measuring mucosal immune responses to Shigella antigens.Accurately assessing mucosal immune responses to candidate vaccines remains a technical challenge. ELISPOT is widely used as a surrogate of mucosal immune response by directly enumerating circulating antibody secreting cells (ASCs), while antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) titers the total amount of antibody secreted by ASC ex vivo using ELISA. ALS is more practical than ELISPOT because the ASC supernatant is frozen for ELISA that can be conducted at any time, with any antigen, and in any ...201121939714
Molecular mechanism of multi-drug resistance in Shigella isolates from rural China.Diarrhoeal diseases and enteric infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Shigellosis was sixth in the rank of death caused by infectious disease in China. Present study assess the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and mutations in marA genes of Shigella isolates and its association. One hundred isolates of Shigella spp were tested to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and mutation of marA through PCR-SSCP. The antimicrobial resistance prof ...201121991697
Molecular Techniques in Ecohealth Research Toolkit: Facilitating Estimation of Aggregate Gastroenteritis Burden in an Irrigated Periurban Landscape.Assessment of microbial hazards associated with certain environmental matrices, livelihood strategies, and food handling practices are constrained by time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques that lead to health risk assessments of narrow geographic or time scope, often targeting very few pathogens. Health risk assessment based on one or few indicator organisms underestimates true disease burden due a number of coexisting causative pathogens. Here, we employed molecular techniques i ...201122146856
[Protozoal antigen positivity in diarrheal patients admitted to emergency service: a point prevalence study].Intestinal parasites are the important etiological agents of water and food related diarrhea cases which are frequently seen during summer/early autumn seasons in developing countries. This point prevalence study was aimed to determine the protozoal antigen positivity rate in diarrhea cases admitted to the emergency service in one single day. A total of 198 diarrheal patients (90 male, 108 female; age range: 1-82 years, mean age: 29 years) who were admitted to the emergency service of Ankara Tra ...201122090311
interaction of concanavalin a with bacterial lipopolysaccharides in agarose gel.binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin a to a series of molecular species of lipopolysaccharide (lps), purified from pathogenic bacteria, was studied via agarose gel precipitation experiments and the results were compared with available structural data.the lps species could be divided into cona-reactive and non-reactive ones. reactivity resided in the o-specific chain of lps, and binding to the lipid a or core moieties of lps could not be demonstrated by the present methods. ...201121983321
[Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide.201122046776
comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophage ep23 infecting shigella sonnei and escherichia coli.bacteriophage ep23 that infects escherichia coli and shigella sonnei was isolated and characterized. the bacteriophage morphology was similar to members of the family siphoviridae. the 44,077 bp genome was fully sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that ep23 was most closely related to phage so-1, which infects sodalis glossinidius and phage ssl-2009a, which infects engineered e. coli. genomic comparison indicated that ep23 and so-1 were very s ...201122203555
[Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shigella spp. isolated from feces samples in Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital between 1999-2010].The symptoms of infections caused by Shigella spp. are diverse and may change from person to person. The choice of antibiotics as well as the prevention of the loss of fluid and electrolytes are important in the clinical recovery. The local resistance rates to antibiotics should be taken into consideration when planning empirical therapy. The aims of this retrospective study were to detect the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 605 Shigella spp. strains isolated from feces samples of child ...201122090291
site-specific incorporation of photo-cross-linker and bioorthogonal amino acids into enteric bacterial pathogens.enteric bacterial pathogens are known to effectively pass through the extremely acidic mammalian stomachs and cause infections in the small and/or large intestine of human hosts. however, their acid-survival strategy and pathogenesis mechanisms remain elusive, largely due to the lack of tools to directly monitor and manipulate essential components (e.g., defense proteins or invasive toxins) participating in these processes. herein, we have extended the pyrrolysine-based genetic code expansion st ...201122084898
cloning, characterization and evaluation of potent inhibitors of shigella sonnei acetohydroxyacid synthase catalytic subunit.acetohydroxyacid synthase (ahas) is a thiamin diphosphate (thdp)- and flavin adenine dinucleotide (fad)-dependent plant and microbial enzyme that catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine. to identify strong potent inhibitors against shigella sonnei (s. sonnei) ahas, we cloned and characterized the catalytic subunit of s. sonnei ahas and found two potent chemicals (khg20612, khg25240) that inhibit 87-93% s. sonnei ahas act ...201122015678
systematic review: the use of proton pump inhibitors and increased susceptibility to enteric infection.background: the use of proton pump inhibitors (ppis) is increasing worldwide. suppression of gastric acid alters the susceptibility to enteric bacterial pathogens. aim  this systematic review was undertaken to examine the relationship between ppi use and susceptibility to enteric infections by a specific pathogen based on published literature and to discuss the potential mechanisms of ppi enhanced pathogenesis of enteric infections. methods  pubmed, ovid medline databases were searched. search t ...201121999643
liver mass in a young adult. 201121943702
shigella flexneri infection generates the lipid pi5p to alter endocytosis and prevent termination of egfr signaling.the phosphoinositide metabolic pathway, which regulates cellular processes implicated in survival, motility, and trafficking, is often subverted by bacterial pathogens. shigella flexneri, a bacterium that causes dysentery, injects ipgd, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that generates the lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (pi5p), into host cells, thereby activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-akt survival pathway. we show that epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) is required for pi5p-depe ...201121934107
genomic characterization of enteroaggregative escherichia coli from children in mali.background. enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) is a cause of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea, yet its role as an enteric pathogen is not fully understood. methods. we characterized 121 eaec strains isolated in 2008 as part of a case-control study of moderate to severe acute diarrhea among children 0-59 months of age in bamako, mali. we applied multiplex polymerase chain reaction and comparative genome hybridization to identify potential virulence factors among the eaec strains, coupled wit ...201122184729
culture-independent real-time pcr reveals extensive polymicrobial infections in hospitalized diarrhoea cases in kolkata, india.clin microbiol infect abstract: culture-independent identification of diarrhoeal aetiological agents was performed using dna harvested from diarrhoeal stool specimens with sybr-green-based real-time pcr targeting vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, campylobacter spp., shigella spp. and three different pathotypes of diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli. conventional culture-dependent methods detected bacterial enteropathogens in 68 of 122 diarrhoeal stool specimens. of 68 specimens, 59 (86.8%) h ...201122268636
antibacterial effect and cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1, 4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.we studied the antibiotic activity and selective cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.201122260051
Nicotinamide dependence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli UTI89 and application of nadB as a neutral insertion site.NAD and NADP function ubiquitously in the metabolism of Escherichia coli K-12. NAD auxotrophy can be rendered by mutation in any of the three genes, nadB, nadA, and nadC. The nadB and nadA genes were defined as anti-virulence loci in Shigella spp., as a mutation (mainly in nadB) disrupting the synthesis of quinolinate is required for virulence. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates, from acute cystitis patients, exhibiting nicotinamide auxotrophy were of serotype O18:K1:H7. E. coli UTI89, the mo ...201122174382
role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats.celiac disease (cd) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to cd pathogenesis. we aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production.201121249146
genomic characterization of asymptomatic escherichia coli isolated from the neobladder.the replacement of the bladder with a neobladder made from ileal tissue is the prescribed treatment in some cases of bladder cancer or trauma. studies have demonstrated that individuals with an ileal neobladder have recurrent colonization by escherichia coli and other species that are commonly associated with urinary tract infections; however, pyelonephritis and complicated symptomatic infections with ileal neobladders are relatively rare. this study examines the genomic content of two e. coli i ...201121252277
analysis of shigella flexneri-mediated infections in model organism caenorhabditis elegans.shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and generates a significant global disease burden. the aim of this study was to analyze the pathogenesis and host immune response, at both the physiological and molecular level, using the model organism caenorhabditis elegans, in response to s. flexneri. c. elegans is a nematode that responds to infection with a simple innate immune system, key aspects of which have been shown to be conserved.201121254954
shiga toxin and its use in targeted cancer therapy and imaging.shiga and the shiga-like toxins are related protein toxins produced by shigella dysenteriae and certain strains of escherichia coli. these toxins are composed of two non-covalently attached, modular parts: the a moiety (stxa) containing the enzymatically active a1 fragment, and the non-toxic, pentameric binding moiety (stxb). stx binds specifically to the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (gb3) at the surface of target cells and is then internalized by endocytosis. subsequently, in toxin-s ...201121255370
shigella enterotoxin-2 is a type iii effector that participates in shigella-induced interleukin 8 secretion by epithelial cells.we have previously described a protein termed shigella enterotoxin 2 (shet-2), which induces rises in short-circuit current in rabbit ileum mounted in the ussing chamber. published reports have postulated that shet-2 may be secreted by the shigella type iii secretion system (t3ss). in this study, we show that shet-2 secretion into the extracellular space requires the t3ss in shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t and a shet-2-tem fusion was translocated into epithelial cells in a t3ss-dependent manne ...201121219446
decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among shigella isolates in the united states, 2006 to 2009.we characterized 20 shigella isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. most patients (80%) from whom a travel history was obtained reported travel to south or southeast asia. mutations within the quinolone resistance determining regions of gyra and parc and plasmid-mediated resistance determinants (qnrb, qnrs, and aac(6')-ib-cr) were identified. the rise in antimicrobial resistance among shigella isolates may necessitate the increased use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins or ...201121220535
two promoters and two translation start sites control the expression of the shigella flexneri outer membrane protease icsp.the shigella flexneri outer membrane protease icsp proteolytically cleaves the actin-based motility protein icsa from the bacterial surface. the icsp gene is monocistronic and lies downstream of an unusually large intergenic region on the shigella virulence plasmid. in silico analysis of this region predicts a second transcription start site 84 bp upstream of the first. primer extension analyses and beta-galactosidase assays demonstrate that both transcription start sites are used. both promoter ...201121225241
structural and functional studies indicate that the epec effector, espg, directly binds p21-activated kinase.bacterial pathogens secrete effectors into their hosts that subvert host defenses and redirect host processes. espg is a type three secretion effector with a disputed function that is found in enteropathogenic escherichia coli. here we show that espg is structurally similar to vira, a shigella virulence factor; espg has a large, conserved pocket on its surface; espg binds directly to the amino-terminal inhibitory domain of human p21-activated kinase (pak); and mutations to conserved residues in ...201121235237
core and panmetabolism in escherichia coli.escherichia coli exhibits a wide range of lifestyles encompassing commensalism and various pathogenic behaviors which its highly dynamic genome contributes to develop. how environmental and host factors shape the genetic structure of e. coli strains remains, however, largely unknown. following a previous study of e. coli genomic diversity, we investigated its diversity at the metabolic level by building and analyzing the genome-scale metabolic networks of 29 e. coli strains (8 commensal and 21 p ...201121239590
immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. in industrialized country populations, l ...201121198669
dysbiosis of the faecal microbiota in patients with crohn's disease and their unaffected relatives.a general dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been established in patients with crohn's disease (cd), but a systematic characterisation of this dysbiosis is lacking. therefore the composition of the predominant faecal microbiota of patients with cd was studied in comparison with the predominant composition in unaffected controls. whether dysbiosis is present in relatives of patients cd was also examined.201121209126
volatile compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of the needles of pinus densiflora and pinus investigate the volatile compounds and the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of the essential oils of pinus densiflora needles (epdn) and pinus thunbergii needles (eptn), the volatile compounds of steam-distilled essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. antibacterial activities were analysed by performing disc-agar diffusion assay and determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of the essential oils. antioxidant activities were analysed via radica ...201121213230
autophagy targeting of listeria monocytogenes and the bacterial countermeasure.autophagy acts as an intrinsic defense system against intracellular bacterial survival. recently, multiple cellular pathways that target intracellular bacterial pathogens to autophagy have been described. these include the atg5/lc3 pathway, which targets shigella, the ubiquitin (ub)-ndp52-lc3 pathway, which targets group a streptococcus (gas) and salmonella typhimurium, the ub-p62-lc3 pathway, which targets mycobacterium tuberculosis, listeria monocytogenes and s. typhimurium, and the diacylglyc ...201121193840
structural variability of endotoxins from r-type isogenic mutants of shigella sonnei.the structural variations in the rough-type endotoxins [lipopolysaccharides (lpss)] of shigella sonnei mutant strains (s. sonnei phase ii-4303, r41, 562h and 4350) were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof-ms) and tandem ms. a series of s. sonnei mutants had previously been the subject of analytical studies on the biosynthesis of heptose components in the core oligosaccharide region of lpss. this study gives a complete overview o ...201121184397
serotypes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase types of clinical isolates of shigella spp. from the zhejiang province of understand the distribution of the serotypes of shigella spp. and to investigate the drug-resistant genes of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls) in shigella in zhejiang province, we have collected clinically isolated shigella isolates from 2 hospitals in zhejiang province during august to december of 2006. there are 11 shigella flexneri and 13 shigella sonnei isolates, respectively. among the 11 s. flexneri, 9 are serotype f4 and the remaining 2 are f1a and f2a. antimicrobial susceptibilit ...201121146721
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
autophagy in immunity and cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes.autophagy was viewed until very recently primarily as a metabolic and intracellular biomass and organelle quality and quantity control pathway. it has now been recognized that autophagy represents a bona fide immunologic process with a wide array of roles in immunity. the immunologic functions of autophagy, as we understand them now, span both innate and adaptive immunity. they range from unique and sometimes highly specialized immunologic effectors and regulatory functions (referred to here as ...201121349088
function-specific accelerations in rates of sequence evolution suggest predictable epistatic responses to reduced effective population size.changes in effective population size impinge on patterns of molecular evolution. notably, slightly deleterious mutations are more likely to drift to fixation in smaller populations, which should typically also lead to an overall acceleration in the rates of evolution. this prediction has been validated empirically for several endosymbiont and island taxa. here, we first show that rate accelerations are also evident in bacterial pathogens whose recent shifts in virulence make them prime candidate ...201121349981
rapid emergence of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in shigella sp. isolated in andaman and nicobar islands, india.shigellosis is a major cause of diarrheal diseases among children in andaman & nicobar islands, india, which have a population of 350,000 people, including settlers from mainland india and 6 indigenous tribes. from the last one-and-half decade, we have been monitoring the species distribution and emergence of antibiotic resistance among the isolates of shigella. the circulating shigella strains have been found rapidly acquiring resistance to a wide spectrum of antibiotics. the recent data indica ...201121352076
antigen-specific cd8(+) t cells fail to respond to shigella flexneri.cd8(+) t lymphocytes often play a primary role in adaptive immunity to cytosolic microbial pathogens. surprisingly, cd8(+) t cells are not required for protective immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, despite the ability of shigella to actively secrete proteins into the host cytoplasm, a location from which antigenic peptides are processed for presentation to cd8(+) t cells. to determine why cd8(+) t cells fail to play a role in adaptive immunity to s. flexneri, we investigated whe ...201121357720
[enterobacteriaceae infection - diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and prevention].intestinal infections caused by rod-shaped bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae genus are one of the major health hazards in countries where sanitation standards are low. strains of shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia are responsible for diarrhea, severe bacillary dysentery, typhoid, other intestinal diseases, as well as genitourinary tract and blood infections. according to the who there are 4.5 billion cases every year, of which 1.9 million end in death. this makes intestinal infectio ...201121357995
microbial safety of tropical fruits.there are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. norovirus and salmonella are the leading vi ...201121328109
multidrug resistant salmonella concord is a major cause of salmonellosis in children in ethiopia.s. concord in ethiopia. the objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of febrile and diarrhoeic illness in ethiopian children focussing on salmonella.201121330737
development of a duplex real-time pcr for differentiation between e. coli and shigella spp.the aim of this study was to develop a real-time pcr test for differentiation between shigella spp. and e. coli, in particular enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec).201121332893
crystal structure of the autochaperone region from the shigella flexneri autotransporter icsa.the icsa (intracellular spread gene a) autotransporter from shigella flexneri is a key virulence factor. we identified a stable fragment comprising residues 591 to 758, which corresponds to the autochaperone region of the icsa passenger domain. we showed that thermal unfolding of the autochaperone region is reversible and determined its crystal structure at 2.0-å resolution.201121335457
a comparison of disease caused by shigella and campylobacter species: 24 months community based surveillance in 4 slums of karachi, pakistan.despite the efforts of the international community diarrheal diseases still pose a major threat to children in children less than five years of age. bacterial diarrhea has also emerged as a public health concern due to the proliferation of drug resistant species in many parts of the world. there is a paucity of population-based data about the incidence of shigellosis and campylobacter infections in pakistan. we report country specific results for shigella diarrhea that were derived from a multic ...201121338955
monitoring shigella flexneri vacuolar escape by flow cytometry.invasive bacterial pathogens such as shigella flexneri force their uptake into non-phagocytic host cells. upon internalization, they rupture the endocytic vacuole and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. recent studies applying fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) based methods to track host-pathogen interactions have provided insights into the process of bacterial infection at the single cell level. we have previously reported that the vacuolar escape of invasive bacteria into the host ...201121317555
the effect of handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands.handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. however it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. in this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. they were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) ...201121318017
development of a dna microarray for detection and identification of legionella pneumophila and ten other pathogens in drinking water.the safety and accessibility of drinking water are major concerns throughout the world. consumption of water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals or radiological hazards represents a significant health risk and is strongly associated with mortality. therefore, we have developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray using the sequences of 16s-23s rdna internal transcribed spacer regions (its) and the gyrase subunit b gene (gyrb) found in the most prevalent and devastating waterborne ...201121276629
strategies to overcome extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (esbls) and ampc ß-lactamases in shigellae.oral cephalosporins and mecillinam are used to treat shigella infections, but are compromised by extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (esbls) and plasmid ampc ß-lactamases. potential solutions include combining an oral or intravenous cephalosporin with a ß-lactamase inhibitor (bli) or using an oral penem. these strategies were examined using escherichia coli transconjugants and clinical isolates with esbls or ampc, as a proxy for shigellae. the clinical and laboratory standards institute agar dilution ...201121276715
shigellosis outbreak linked to canteen-food consumption in a public institution: a matched case-control study.summaryon 13 november 2009, the authorities of flemish brabant, belgium, received an alert concerning a potential outbreak of shigella sonnei at a public institution. a study was conducted to assess the extent, discover the source and to implement further measures. we performed a matched case-control study to test an association between shigellosis and canteen-food consumption. water samples and food handlers' faecal samples were tested. the reference laboratory characterized the retrospectively ...201121281549
enteric glial cells: new players in mucosal defence against bacteria? 201121282131
isolation and partial characterisation of a novel lectin from aegle marmelos fruit and its effect on adherence and invasion of shigellae to ht29 cells.lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. we have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of aegle marmelos. the isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. the isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with n-acetylgalactosamine, man ...201121283697
purification and characterization of a ca2+-dependent novel lectin from nymphaea nouchali tuber with antiproliferative activities.a lectin (termed nntl) was purified from the extracts of nymphaea nouchali tuber followed by anion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, hydrophobic chromatography on hitrap phenyl hp and by repeated anion-exchange chromatography on hitrap q ff column. the molecular mass of the purified lectin was 27.0 ± 1.0 kda, as estimated by sds/page both in the presence and in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. nntl was an o-nitrophenyl ß-d-galactopyranoside sugar-specific lectin that agglutinated rat, ...201121291421
seizure and altered mental status in a 12-year-old child with shigella sonnei gastroenteritis.we report a case of shigella-associated altered mental status and seizure in a 12-year-old boy. although seizure is a known complication of shigellosis, it is quite unusual in patients older than 9 years. this case illustrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of shigellosis in any pediatric patient with altered mental status or seizure in the context of gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea.201121293224
efficient screening of a novel antimicrobial peptide from jatropha curcas by cell membrane affinity chromatography.a novel method named cell membrane affinity chromatography was used to screen antimicrobial peptides from jatropha curcas . a cationic antimicrobial peptide (kvflglk, jcpep7) was successfully isolated and identified. antimicrobial assays indicated that jcpep7 was active against the tested microorganisms ( salmonella typhimurium atcc 50013, shigella dysenteriae atcc 51302, pseudomonas aeruginosa atcc 27553, staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, bacillus subtilis atcc 23631, and streptococcus pneumoni ...201121268582
the crystal structures of the salmonella type iii secretion system tip protein sipd in complex with deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate.the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is a protein injection nanomachinery required for virulence by many human pathogenic bacteria including salmonella and shigella. an essential component of the t3ss is the tip protein and the salmonella sipd and the shigella ipad tip proteins interact with bile salts, which serve as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. sipd and ipad have long central coiled coils and their n-terminal regions form α-helical hairpins and a short helix α3 that pack ...201121031487
multiplex polymerase chain reaction method discriminating escherichia coli and shigella distinguish between escherichia coli and other bacteria that have similar biochemical characteristics, 3 polymerase chain reaction techniques were combined. the primer sets cyda-f2-a2 and cyda-r2-a2 were designed to amplify 605 base pairs of nucleotide sequence specific for the cyda gene of escherichia coli; primer sets lacz-f-a and lacz-r-a to amplify 1,023 bp of nucleotide sequence specific for the lacz gene of escherichia coli; and primers laca-f2-a2 and laca-r2-a2 to amplify 325 bp of nucle ...201121060994
whole-genome phylogeny of escherichia coli/shigella group by feature frequency profiles (ffps).a whole-genome phylogeny of the escherichia coli/shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (ffp) method. this alignment-free approach uses the frequencies of l-mer features of whole genomes to infer phylogenic distances. we present two phylogenies that accentuate different aspects of e. coli/shigella genomic evolution: (i) one based on the compositions of all possible features of length l = 24 (∼8.4 million features), which are likely to reveal the phenetic grouping a ...201121536867
rapid situation & response assessment of diarrhoea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone aila in india.background & objectives : cyclone aila hit indian states on eastern coast on may 25, 2009. an investigation was conducted to examine if aila was responsible for increased reporting of diarrhoea cases from the district of east-medinipur in west bengal. identifying causative organisms for diarrhoea and assessing their antibiotic susceptibility profile were other objectives. methods: rapid situation and response assessment technique was employed to triangulate primary and secondary data collected t ...201121537092
toxic megacolon from sexually transmitted shigella sonnei infection. 201121538050
development of a new guinea-pig model of shigellosis.shigellosis is a major form of bacillary dysentery caused by shigella spp. to date, there is no suitable animal model to evaluate the protective efficacy of vaccine candidates against this pathogen. here, we describe a successful experimental shigellosis in the guinea-pig model, which has shown the characteristic features of human shigellosis. this model yielded reproducible results without any preparatory treatment besides cecal ligation. in this study, guinea-pigs were discretely infected with ...201121539623
effects of probiotic fermentation on the enhancement of biological and pharmacological activities of codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment.this study was designed to evaluate the enhancement of antioxidant, antimicrobial, enzymatic, cytotoxic, and cognitive activities of codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment followed by probiotic fermentation. dried c. lanceolata samples were subjected to 400mpa for 20min and then fermented with bifidobacterium longum b6 (hpe-blf) and lactobacillus rhamnosus (hpe-lrf) at 37°c for 7days. compared to conventional extraction (ce-nf, 6.69mg gae/g), the phenol amounts of hpe-blf and ...201121543255
evaluation of the selective and differential et medium for detection of edwardsiella tarda in aquaculture systems.aims:  edwardsiella tarda is an important pathogen in aquaculture where it can cause serious losses. a rapid detection of it is vital to minimize the mortalities caused by this disease, and in this work, the effectiveness of the selective differential edw. tarda medium (et) was evaluated for the diagnosis of edwardsiellosis as well as for its possible use in epidemiological studies. methods and results:  et medium was evaluated in parallel with the commercial salmonella-shigella agar (ss), which ...201121554344
human immunodeficiency virus-associated gastrointestinal disease: common endoscopic biopsy diagnoses.the gastrointestinal (gi) tract is a major site of disease in hiv infection: almost half of hiv-infected patients present with gi symptoms, and almost all patients develop gi complications. gi symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea are frequent and usually nonspecific among these patients. endoscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for most hiv-associated gi diseases, as endoscopic and histopathologic evaluation can render diagnoses in patien ...201121559197
food-specific attribution of selected gastrointestinal illnesses: estimates from a canadian expert elicitation survey.abstract the study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of food-specific attribution for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in canada. it was based on a similar survey conducted in the united states and focused on campylobacter spp., escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal salmonella enterica, shigella spp., vibrio spp., yersinia enterocolitica, cryptosporidium parvum, and norwalk-like virus. a snowball approach was used to identify food ...201121561379
the decoupling between genetic structure and metabolic phenotypes in escherichia coli leads to continuous phenotypic assess the extent of intra-species diversity and the links between phylogeny, lifestyle (habitat and pathogenicity) and phenotype, we assayed the growth yield on 95 carbon sources of 168 escherichia strains. we also correlated the growth capacities of 14 e. coli strains with the presence/absence of enzyme-coding genes. globally, we found that the genetic distance, based on multilocus sequence typing data, was a weak indicator of the metabolic phenotypic distance. besides, lifestyle and phylog ...201121569155
a tecpr1-dependent selective autophagy pathway targets bacterial pathogens.selective autophagy of bacterial pathogens represents a host innate immune mechanism. selective autophagy has been characterized on the basis of distinct cargo receptors but the mechanisms by which different cargo receptors are targeted for autophagic degradation remain unclear. in this study we identified a highly conserved tectonin domain-containing protein, tecpr1, as an atg5 binding partner that colocalized with atg5 at shigella-containing phagophores. tecpr1 activity is necessary for effici ...201121575909
a shigella boydii bacteriophage which resembles salmonella phage vii.abstract: background: lytic bacteriophages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens. sequencing of their genomes is considered as an important preliminary step to ensure their safety prior to food applications. results: the lytic bacteriophage, phisbom-ag3, targets the important foodborne pathogen, shigella. it is morphologically similar to phage vii of salmonella enterica serovar typhi and a series of phages of acinetobacter calcoaceticus and rhizobium ...201121595934
shigella sonnei vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are as immunogenic as wrss1, a clinically tested vaccine candidate, in a primate model of infection.shigella causes diarrhea and dysentery through contaminated food and water. shigella sonnei live vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are attenuated principally by the loss of virg(icsa) that prevents bacterial spread within the colonic epithelium. in this respect they are similar to the clinically tested vaccine candidate wrss1. however, wrss2 and wrss3 are further attenuated by loss of sena, senb and wrss3 also lacks msbb2. as previously shown in cell culture assays and in small animal models, t ...201121596086
transient suppression of shigella flexneri type 3 secretion by a protective o-antigen-specific monoclonal iga.abstract mucosal immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri is mediated by secretory iga (s-iga) antibodies directed against the o-antigen (o-ag) side chain of lipopolysaccharide. while secretory antibodies against the o-ag are known to prevent bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. in this study, we report that the binding of a murine monoclonal iga (igac5) to the o-ag of s. flexneri serotype 5a suppresses activity ...201121610121
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