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environmental contamination of hokersar wetland waters in kashmir himalayan valley, india.this paper investigates the environmental contamination of himalayan wetland ecosystem (hokersar, kashmir) by analyzing the distribution and loading of bacterial population in waters. seven locations representing heterogeneous spatial habitat zonation of the wetland were studied. site-specific variability in bacterial load was markedly discernible at doodhganga inlet and zainakoot locations, with maximum values in the range of 242-276/100 ml against soziath, an outlet, with minimum value of 157- ...201021114125
predation of human pathogens by the predatory bacteria micavibrio aeruginosavorus and bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.the focus of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the predatory bacteria bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and micavibrio aeruginosavorus to control the pathogens associated with human infection.201021114596
laboratory detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of two screening agar plates and two confirmation techniques.the worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing esbl-producing enterobacteriaceae (esbl-e) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. in this study we investigated the performance of two esbl-e screening and two esbl-e confirmation techniques. in accordance with the dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by vitek2, was used to test the performances of two scr ...201021123527
conformational changes in ipad from shigella flexneri upon binding bile salts provide insight into the second step of type iii secretion.shigella flexneri uses its type iii secretion apparatus (ttsa) to inject host-altering proteins into targeted eukaryotic cells. the ttsa is composed of a basal body and an exposed needle with invasion plasmid antigen d (ipad) forming a tip complex that controls secretion. the bile salt deoxycholate (doc) stimulates recruitment of the translocator protein ipab into the maturing ttsa needle tip complex. this process appears to be triggered by a direct interaction between doc and ipad. fluorescence ...201021126091
lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid down-regulated shigella flexneri peptidoglycan-induced inflammation.bacterial peptidoglycans (pgns) are recognized by the host's innate immune system. this process is mediated by the nod/card family of proteins, which induces inflammation by activating nuclear factor (nf)-κb. excessive activation of monocytes by shigella flexneri pgn (flexpgn) leads to serious inflammatory diseases such as intestinal bowel diseases (ibd) and crohn's disease. in this study, we examined whether lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (plta) could attenuate the pro-inflammatory s ...201021129777
shigellosis from an interactive fountain: implications for regulation.in july 2003, the authors investigated an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in marion county, oregon. nineteen confirmed and 37 presumptive cases, mostly young children, were identified. a case-control study implicated play in an interactive fountain in a city park (matched odds ratio undefined; p < .002). the association was confirmed by a cohort study among local schoolchildren (rr [relative risk] = 12.6, p < .001) that allowed the authors to estimate that > 500 persons became ill. founta ...201021133311
arginine-dependent acid-resistance pathway in shigella boydii.ability to survive the low ph of the human stomach is considered be an important virulent determinant. it was suggested that the unique acid tolerance of shigella boydii 18 cdph, the strain implicated in a 1998 outbreak, may have played an important role in surviving the acidic food (bean salad). the strain was capable of inducing arginine-dependent acid-resistance (adar) pathway. this pathway was assumed to be absent in shigella sp. here, we have examined occurrence and efficacy of adar pathway ...201021136041
enteric glia protect against shigella flexneri invasion in intestinal epithelial cells: a role for s-nitrosoglutathione.enteric glial cells (egcs) are important regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (ieb) functions. egc-derived s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) has been shown to regulate ieb permeability. whether egcs and gsno protect the ieb during infectious insult by pathogens such as shigella flexneri is not known.201021139062
facile synthesis and antibacterial activity of naturally occurring 5-methoxyfuroflavone.a convenient synthesis of 5-methoxyfuroflavone (6, pongaglabol methyl ether), a constituent of some pongamia or millettia genus, was achieved by starting from 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone via a chalcone precursor, followed by treatment with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (ddq). this five-step reaction (total yield: 21.6%) is more facile with that of previously utilized procedures using each different starting material. antibacterial activities of the above compound and its prec ...201021139271
the shigella t3ss needle transmits a signal for mxic release, which controls secretion of effectors.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are key determinants of virulence in many gram-negative bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens. they inject 'effector' proteins through a 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface directly into eukaryotic cells after assembly of a 'translocator' pore in the host plasma membrane. secretion is a tightly regulated process, which is blocked until physical contact with a host cell takes place. host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle 'tip comple ...201021143311
antimicrobial resistance patterns and prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei isolated in uzbekistan.abstract:201021143880
prevalence and characterization of human shigella infections in henan province, china, in 2006.in 2006, 3,531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in henan province, china. a total of 467 (13.2%) shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. seventy-one shigella flexneri strains were characterized by mic determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and detection of genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. most infections were caused by s. flexneri variant x [iv:(7),8] (27.6%), s. sonnei (24.2%), and s. flexneri 2a (20.8%). however, large regional differences ...201021068291
the host outer membrane proteins ompa and ompc are associated with the shigella phage sf6 virion.assembly of dsdna bacteriophage is a precisely programmed process. potential roles of host cell components in phage assembly haven't been well understood. it was previously reported that two unidentified proteins were present in bacteriophage sf6 virion (casjens et al, 2004, j.mol.biol. 339, 379-394, fig. 2a). using tandem mass spectrometry, we have identified the two proteins as outer membrane proteins (omps) ompa and ompc from its host shigella flexneri. the transmission electron cryo-microsco ...201021071053
anaerobic environment of the intestine primes pathogenic shigella for infection.marteyn et al. have investigated the role of oxygen and the regulator fnr in infection by the intracellular enteric pathogen shigella flexneri. fnr is active under anaerobic conditions like those present in the lumen of the distal intestine. fnr causes elongation of a secretion apparatus required for bacterial entry into cells and represses secretion of proteins that trigger entry. higher oxygen levels present at the intestinal cell surface are sufficient to inactivate fnr, thereby derepressing ...201021073287
the structure of the escherichia coli o148 lipopolysaccharide core region and its linkage to the o-specific polysaccharide.recently it was demonstrated that shigella dysenteriae type 1, a cause of severe dysentery epidemics, gained its o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) from escherichia coli o148. the o-sps of these bacteria differ only by a galactose residue in the repeat unit of s. dysenteriae type 1 in place of a glucose residue in e. coli o148. herein, we analyzed the core structure and its linkage to the o-sp in e. coli o148 lps. both were found to be identical to those of s. dysenteriae type 1 structures, furthe ...201021074753
shigella flexneri spa15 crystal structure verified in solution by double electron electron resonance.shigella flexneri spa15 is a chaperone of the type 3 secretion system, which binds a number of effectors to ensure their stabilization prior to secretion. one of these effectors is ipgb1, a mimic of the human ras-like rho guanosine triphosphatase rhog. in this study, spa15 alone and in complex with ipgb1 has been studied by double electron electron resonance, an experiment that gives distance information showing the spacial separation of attached spin labels. this distance is explained by determ ...201021075116
caging targets for destruction.intracellular bacterial pathogens engage in a tug-of-war with innate host defenses. in this issue of cell host & microbe, mostowy et al. (2010) identify a role for the septin family of cytoskeletal proteins in targeting intracellular shigella to the autophagy pathway.201021075349
entrapment of intracytosolic bacteria by septin cage-like structures.actin-based motility is used by various pathogens for dissemination within and between cells. yet host factors restricting this process have not been identified. septins are gtp-binding proteins that assemble as filaments and are essential for cell division. however, their role during interphase has remained elusive. here, we report that septin assemblies are recruited to different bacteria that polymerize actin. we observed that intracytosolic shigella either become compartmentalized in septin ...201021075354
microbiological quality of blue mussels (mytilus edulis) in nunavik, quebec: a pilot study.this pilot study was aimed at documenting the presence of fecal indicators and enteric pathogens in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) from 6 communities in nunavik, quebec. one to four 2 kg samples of mussels were collected at low tide in each community. samples were investigated by enumeration methods for the fecal indicators enterococci, escherichia coli, f-specific coliphages, clostridium perfringens, and by molecular identification for the pathogens norovirus, salmonella spp., campylobacter jeju ...201021076488
extended-spectrum ß-lactamase production in shigella flexneri.emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of shigella is a growing concern across the globe. third-generation cephalosporins are used for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant shigellae. however, resistance to these cephalosporin antibiotics due to extended-spectrum ß-lactamases, has emerged as a new problem. so far extended-spectrum ß-lactamases producing shigella has not been reported from pakistan. we report such a case in shigella flexneri from an 8-year old girl with acute dysent ...201021078255
assessment of the underestimation of childhood diarrhoeal disease burden in israel.summarywe determined the extent by which mandatory reporting on isolates of shigella and salmonella underestimates the burden of diarrhoeal diseases in individuals aged <17 years in israel and examined paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to patient visits with diarrhoeal diseases. sources of data were a nationwide population-based telephone survey for presence of diarrhoeal diseases, maccabi healthcare services databases and a mail survey among its paediatricians. monte ca ...201021087537
incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens isolated from an integrated aquaculture system.to evaluate an integrated aquaculture system, microbiological analyses of water used in this system were carried out and the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens were determined in the related ecosystem.201021029138
decrease in shigellosis-related deaths without shigella spp.-specific interventions, asia.in 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in asia. our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. this estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than ...201021029529
shigella spp. antimicrobial drug resistance, papua new guinea, 2000-2009. 201021029550
effects of backbone substitutions on the conformational behavior of shigella flexneri o-antigens: implications for vaccine strategy.the o-antigen (o-ag), the polysaccharide part of the lipopolysaccharide, is the major target of the serotype-specific protective humoral response elicited upon host infection by shigella flexneri, the main causal agent of the endemic form of bacillary dysentery. the o-ag repeat units (rus) of 12 s. flexneri serotypes share the tetrasaccharide backbone →2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-β-d-glcpnac-(1→, with site-selective glucosylation(s) and/or o-acetylation defining the ser ...201021030536
genetic characterization of atypical shigella flexneri isolated in korea.three types of serotypically atypical shigella flexneri strains were isolated from 2007 to 2008 in patients at the korea national institute of health (nih). these strains were characterized and compared with serologically typical s.flexneri. one type of strain either displayed nonreacting typing or grouping sera, reacting strongly only with polyb antisera, which indicates this strain is s. flexneri (polyb:un). the second type displayed reactions with one of the typing sera (iv) and did not bind ...201021030833
plasmid-encoded multidrug resistance: a case study of salmonella and shigella from enteric diarrhea sources among humans.salmonellosis and shigellosis are significant and persistent causes of diarrheal diseases among humans in developing countries. with that in mind, the current study investigates the occurrence of plasmid-encoded multidrug resistances in salmonella and shigella from diarrheal cases among humans. the isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, transfer experiments and curing. the extended spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) was detected by the double disc diffusion syn ...201021031258
[type three secretion system and pathogenesis of shigella spp.--a review].the powerful weapon of shigella spp. is type three secretion system, which remains the focus of pathogenic research. the regulation and function of type three secretion system of shigella spp. are summarized in this review.201021268888
bacteriological profile and resistant pattern of clinical isolates from pediatric patients, gondar university teaching hospital, gondar, northwest ethiopia.infectious diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing world antibiotic resistance is increasing. knowledge of pathogens causing infection in pediatrics patients is essential for devising management strategies.201021280431
synthesis and evaluation of a class of new coumarin triazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.a series of new coumarin-based 1,2,4-triazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities in vitro against four gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, bacillus subtilis and micrococcus luteus), four gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi and shigella dysenteriae) as well as three fungi (candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus fumigatus) by two-fold serial dilution technique. the bio ...201021215620
prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.the prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. the effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. an attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the pla ...201021247040
molecular structure and vibrational spectra of three substituted 4-thioflavones by density functional theory and ab initio hartree-fock calculations.the vibrational frequencies of three substituted 4-thioflavones in the ground state have been calculated using the hartree-fock and density functional method (b3lyp) with 6-31g* and 6-31+g** basis sets. the structural analysis shows that there exists h-bonding in the selected compounds and the hydrogen bond lengths increase with the augment of the conjugate parameters of the substituent group on the benzene ring. a complete vibrational assignment aided by the theoretical harmonic wavenumber anal ...201021156350
notes from the field: emergence of shigella flexneri 2a resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin --- south carolina, october 2010.on october 20, 2010, the south carolina department of health and environmental control and cdc began investigating a cluster of three diarrheal illnesses caused by multidrug-resistant shigella flexneri 2a. the index case occurred in a girl aged 2 years who experienced the onset of diarrhea on september 25 and was hospitalized the next day because of a seizure and fever. on september 30, her brother, aged 6 years, was hospitalized with vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and hyponatremia. three days later ...201021160457
[study on the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains.]objective: to study the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains. methods: a series of primers were designed based on potential integration site of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains, and pcr were performed for 50 serotype 2b strains to amplify special genes located in host and prophages. pcr products were sequenced to identify integration sites and arrangement of sfii and sfx. results: in all the serotype 2b ...201021162847
emergence of a novel shigella flexneri serotype 4s strain that evolved from a serotype x variant in china.this paper describes the first isolation of a new shigella flexneri serotype, designated 4s, in beijing, china. genotypic and phenotypic profiling suggests that this isolate is a clone of the s. flexneri serotype x variant reference strain. of particular concern is the multidrug resistance exhibited by this isolate.201021177890
reinforcement of epithelial cell adhesion to basement membrane by a bacterial pathogen as a new infectious stratagem.the intestinal epithelium undergoes a rapid turnover in addition to rapid exfoliation in response to bacterial infection, thus acting as an intrinsic defense against microbial intruders. it has long been questioned how mucosal pathogens can circumvent the intestinal defense systems. our recent discovery of a bacterial ploy used by shigella provided us with fresh insight. shigella delivers ospe via the type iii secretion system during multiplication within epithelial cells. this effector protein ...201021178415
mapping the selection mechanisms by bacterial gefs.mimicry of eukaryotic signaling enzymes is a common strategy used by bacterial pathogens to manipulate host cellular signaling. the e. coli type iii effector protein map belongs to a large family of bacterial virulence factors that activate host rho gtpase signaling pathways through an unknown molecular mechanism. our recent structural study, coupled with biochemical and functional assays, establishes that this family protein, including map, ipgb1/2 and sifa/b secreted by e. coli, shigella, and ...201021178423
convergent synthesis of a common pentasaccharide corresponding to the o-antigen of escherichia coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4.a convenient synthetic strategy of the common acidic pentasaccharide repeating unit corresponding to the o-antigen of enterotoxigenic e. coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4 has been successfully developed. a stereoselective [2 + 3] block glycosylation method has been exploited to get the target pentasaccharide derivative. most of the synthetic intermediates were solid and prepared in high yields from commercially available reducing sugars following a series of protection-deprotection react ...201021181263
[antibacterial antibodies in human immunoglobulins and sera: past and present].to measure levels of several types of antibacterial antibodies in preparations of normal human immunoglobulin as well as in samples of donor sera obtained in 1965 and 2009.201021061576
[microsporidium spp. infection in an immunocompromised child diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction].microsporidium spp. may lead to a variety of clinical pictures like sinusitis, keratoconjunctivitis, hepatitis, myositis, peritonitis, nephritis, encephalitis and pneumonia in case of immune deficiencies. in this report, a case of diarrhea due to microsporidium spp. has been presented. a four years old male patient who was followed with the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophia, was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of respiratory distress and fever. due to the history of recurrent infecti ...201021063982
cutting edge: nlrc5-dependent activation of the inflammasome.the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins, nlrs, are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns. a subgroup of nlrs can form inflammasome complexes, which facilitate the maturation of procaspase 1 to caspase 1, leading to il-1β and il-18 cleavage and secretion. nlrc5 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has not been studied for inflammasome function. rna interference-mediated knockdown of n ...201021191067
imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic cu-zn sod of shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction.shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. hence, in present study an attempt was made to study t ...201021194882
sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in shigella gastroenteritis.the sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in the diagnosis of shigella gastroenteritis in a shigella sonnei prevalent center was investigated. the shigella-proven gastroenteritis cases who were admitted to hacettepe university ihsan doğramaci children's hospital diarrheal diseases unit (jan 2003 - oct 2006) constituted the study group (n=65). age- and sex-matched children admitting to the same center with non-shigella diarrhea constituted the control group (n=65). the sensitivity, speci ...201021434533
the modulation of hela cells secretory patterns by invasive shigella spp. and enteroinvasive e. coli bacterial cells and their soluble components.considering the important role of cytokines in the initiation and evolution of the inflammatory process induced by shigella and eiec strains, the purpose of this study was the characterization of the secretory patterns of hela cells induced by shigella ssp. and eiec strains and to link the obtained results with the invasiveness level of bacterial strains on this cellular line. during this study there were analyzed two eiec strains and 12 strains of the following shigella species: 2 sh. flexneri ...201021434590
travelers' diarrhea in nepal: an update on the pathogens and antibiotic resistance.diarrhea is the most common illness among travelers and expatriates in nepal. published data on the etiology of travelers' diarrhea (td) in nepal are over 13 years old and no prior data exist on antibiotic susceptibility for currently used drugs. we investigated the etiology of diarrhea and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens and compared the results to previous work from the same clinical setting.201021366793
ceftriaxone resistant shigella flexneri, an emerging problem.shigellosis is a disease of public health importance in developing countries. it may cause self-limited diarrhea to severe dysentery. emergence of multi drug resistant (mdr) strains is a growing concern globally. ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are the drugs of choice for mdr cases. here, we report a case of mdr shigella flexneri from an immunocompromised patient. the strain was resistant to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) ≥ 64 μg/ml], limiting the treatment option. simultaneou ...201021258157
shiga toxins: intracellular trafficking to the er leading to activation of host cell stress responses.despite efforts to improve hygenic conditions and regulate food and drinking water safety, the enteric pathogens, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) and shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 remain major public health concerns due to widespread outbreaks and the severity of extra-intestinal diseases they cause, including acute renal failure and central nervous system complications. shiga toxins are the key virulence factors expressed by these pathogens mediating extra-intestinal disease. de ...201022069648
shiga toxin is transported into the nucleoli of intestinal epithelial cells via a carrier-dependent process.shiga toxin (stx) produced by the invasive shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae1) causes gastrointestinal and kidney complications. it has been assumed that stx is released intracellularly after enterocyte invasion by s. dysenteriae1. however, there is little information about stx distribution inside s. dysenteriae1-infected enterocytes. here, we use intestinal epithelial t84 cells to characterize the trafficking of stx delivered into the cytosol, in ways that mimic aspects of s. dyse ...201022069640
serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates): biogenesis and function.serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates) constitute a large family of proteases secreted by escherichia coli and shigella. spates exhibit two distinct proteolytic activities. first, a c-terminal catalytic site triggers an intra-molecular cleavage that releases the n-terminal portion of these proteins in the extracellular medium. second, the secreted n-terminal domains of spates are themselves proteases; each contains a canonical serine-protease catalytic site. some of thes ...201022069633
Morning Glory Resin Glycosides as Modulators of Antibiotic Activity in Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.Twenty-six microbiologically inactive (MIC >?512?µg/mL) convolvulaceous resin glycosides ( 1- 26) were tested for resistance modulatory activity IN VITRO against ESCHERICHIA COLI Rosetta-gami and two nosocomial pathogens, SALMONELLA TYPHI and SHIGELLA FLEXNERI. These compounds exerted a potentiation effect of the clinically useful antibiotics tetracycline, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol against the tested gram-negative bacteria by increasing antibiotic susceptibility up to 32-fold at concent ...201122002849
Development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting O-antigen modification genes for molecular serotyping of Shigella flexneri.Shigella flexneri is the major Shigella species that causes diarrheal disease in developing countries. It is further subdivided into 15 serotypes based on O-antigen structure. Serotyping of S. flexneri is important for epidemiological purposes. In this study, we developed a multiplex PCR assay targeting the O-antigen synthesis gene wzx and the O-antigen modification genes gtrI, gtrIC, gtrII, oac, gtrIV, gtrV, and gtrX for molecular serotyping of S. flexneri. The multiplex PCR assay contained eig ...201121880974
a case of reactive arthritis after salmonella enteritis in in a 12-year-old boy.reactive arthritis comprises a subgroup within infection-associated arthritides in genetically susceptible hosts. researchers and clinicians recognize two clinical forms of reactive arthritis which occurs after genitourinary tract infection and after gastrointestinal tract infection. chlamydia infection has been implicated as the most common agent associated with post-venereal reactive arthritis. studies have proposed shigella infection, salmonella infection, or yersinia infection as the microor ...201122025926
Use of a DNA microarray for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens associated with fishery products.We established a microarray for the simultaneous detection and identification of diverse putative pathogens often associated with fishery products by targeting specific genes of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersinia enterocolitica and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. The microarray contained 26 sp ...201121965411
The iron-responsive Fur/RyhB regulatory cascade modulates the Shigella outer membrane protease IcsP.Actin-based motility is central to the pathogenicity of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella. Two Shigella outer membrane proteins, IcsA and IcsP, are required for efficient actin-based motility in the host cell cytoplasm, and the genes encoding both proteins are carried on the large virulence plasmid. IcsA triggers actin polymerization on the surface of the bacterium, leading to the formation of an actin tail that allows both intra- and intercellular spread. IcsP, an outer membrane pro ...201121859852
rates of mutation and host transmission for an escherichia coli clone over 3 years.although over 50 complete escherichia coli/shigella genome sequences are available, it is only for closely related strains, for example the o55:h7 and o157:h7 clones of e. coli, that we can assign differences to individual evolutionary events along specific lineages. here we sequence the genomes of 14 isolates of a uropathogenic e. coli clone that persisted for 3 years within a household, including a dog, causing a urinary tract infection (uti) in the dog after 2 years. the 20 mutations observed ...201122046404
polyclonal antibody against conserved sequences of mce1a protein blocks mtb infection in macrophages.the pathogenesis of mycobacterium tuberculosis is largely due to its ability to enter and survive within human macrophages. it is suggested that a specific protein namely mammalian cell entry protein is involved in the pathogenesis and the specific gene for this protein mce1a has been identified in several pathogenic organisms such as rickettsia, shigella, escherichia coli, helicobacter, streptomyces, klebsiella, vibrio, neisseria, rhodococcus, nocardioides, saccharopolyspora erthyrae, and pseud ...201122159737
long-term trends in the epidemiology and resistance of childhood bacterial enteropathogens in crete.in this study, we investigated the long-term trends in the epidemiology and susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens among children in a well-defined area of adequate health standards. the study included all children younger than 14 years of age treated for enteritis at heraklion university general hospital on the island of crete during the 18-year period from january 1993 to december 2010. stool specimens were tested for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, enteropathogenic escherichia coli ...201122207394
structuring the bacterial genome: y1-transposases associated with rep-bime sequences{dagger}reps are highly repeated intergenic palindromic sequences often clustered into structures called bimes including two individual reps separated by short linker of variable length. they play a variety of key roles in the cell. reps also resemble the sub-terminal hairpins of the atypical is200/605 family of insertion sequences which encode y1 transposases (tnpa(is200/is605)). these belong to the huh endonuclease family, carry a single catalytic tyrosine (y) and promote single strand transposition. ...201122199259
Antibiotics shaping bacterial genome: deletion of an IS91 flanked virulence determinant upon exposure to subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations.The nucleoid-associated proteins Hha and YdgT repress the expression of the toxin a-hemolysin. An Escherichia coli mutant lacking these proteins overexpresses the toxin a-hemolysin encoded in the multicopy recombinant plasmid pANN202-312R. Unexpectedly, we could observe that this mutant generated clones that no further produced hemolysin (Hly(-)). Generation of Hly(-) clones was dependent upon the presence in the culture medium of the antibiotic kanamycin (km), a marker of the hha allele (hha::T ...201122096603
a 35 kda antigenic protein from shigella flexneri: in silico structural and functional studies.shigella flexneri serotype 2a is a major public health concern in the developing and under-developed countries which contributes to shigellosis endemic and mortality. thus, there is an urgent need for a rapid diagnostic test for effective therapy and disease management. previous study showed that a ∼35 kda antigenic protein from s. flexneri is a potential biomarker. we therefore modelled the three-dimensional structure of the antigen to probe its functionality which could aid in the development ...201121982766
A gyrB-targeted PCR for rapid identification of Salmonella.Salmonella causes the majority of infections in humans and homeothermic animals. This article describes a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method developed for a rapid identification of Salmonella. A gyrB-targeted species-specific primer pair, S-P-for (5'-GGT GGT TTC CGT AAA AGT A-3') and S-P-rev (5'-GAA TCG CCT GGT TCT TGC-3'), was successfully designed. PCR with all the Salmonella strains produced a 366- bp DNA fragment that was absent from all the non-Salmonella strains tested. The de ...201121892633
Exploration of in vitro time point quantitative evaluation of newly synthesized benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives as potential antibacterial agents.Present communication deals with the in vitro time point quantitative antibacterial evaluation of newly synthesized 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles (3a-p) and 2-substituted benzothiazoles (5a-h) against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli. These compounds were synthesized under mild reaction conditions using Al(2)O(3)-Fe(2)O(3) nanocrystals as heterogeneous catalyst. Bio-evaluation s ...201122047695
emergence of ceftriaxone resistant shigella.shigellosis is endemic in many resource-poor countries due to feco-oral transmission, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. there is rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant (mdr) shigella spp. resulting in poor reliability of first line antibiotics like quinolones, co-trimoxazole and ampicillin. ceftriaxone has been used as a reserved antibiotic for treatment of mdr shigella spp. the authors report a case of ceftriaxone resistant shigella flexneri successfully managed with meropenem ...201122205379
Autophagy as an innate immunity paradigm: expanding the scope and repertoire of pattern recognition receptors.Autophagy is rapidly developing into a new immunological paradigm. The latest links now include overlaps between autophagy and innate immune signaling via TBK-1 and IKKa/ß, and the role of autophagy in inflammation directed by the inflammasome. Autophagy's innate immunity connections include responses to pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns including alarmins such as HMGB1 and IL-1ß, Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors including NLRC4, NLRP3 and NLRP4, and RIG-I-like receptors. ...201122118953
Two Cases of Hemorrhagic Diarrhea Caused by Cronobacter sakazakii in Hospitalized Nursing Infants Associated with the Consumption of Powdered Infant Formula.Two cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in 5-month-old infants hospitalized in a mother-and-child hospital in Queretaro, Mexico, on 24 January 2010. C. sakazakii was recovered from the powdered infant formula (PIF), rehydrated PIF (R-PIF) fed to infants, and their fecal samples. The microorganism was present at levels of 0.33 most probable number (MPN)/g and 24 MPN/ml in PIF and R-PIF, respectively. The total ingested dose for the day before the onset of the diarrheic syndrome ranged betwee ...201122186061
Investigation of the binding of a carbohydrate-mimetic peptide to its complementary anticarbohydrate antibody by STD-NMR spectroscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations.Saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR spectroscopy was used to probe experimentally the bioactive solution conformation of the carbohydrate mimic MDWNMHAA 1 of the O-polysaccharide of Shigella flexneri Y when bound to its complementary antibody, mAb SYA/J6. Molecular dynamics simulations using the ZymeCAD™ Molecular Dynamics platform were also undertaken to give a more accurate picture of the conformational flexibility and the possibilities for bound ligand conformations. The ligand topology, ...201121953925
a proteogenomic analysis of shigella flexneri using 2d lc-maldi tof/tof.new strategies for high-throughput sequencing are constantly appearing, leading to a great increase in the number of completely sequenced genomes. unfortunately, computational genome annotation is out of step with this progress. thus, the accurate annotation of these genomes has become a bottleneck of knowledge acquisition.201122032405
emergence of a novel shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o serogroup cross-reacting with shigella boydii type 10.this is the first report of the isolation of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains whose o antigens were genetically and serologically identical to those of shigella boydii type 10, from human feces. the novel stec o serogroup may be widespread in japan and associated with diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis.201121865424
contribution of the lipopolysaccharide to resistance of shigella flexneri 2a to extreme acidity.shigella flexneri is endemic in most underdeveloped countries, causing diarrheal disease and dysentery among young children. in order to reach its target site, the colon, shigella must overcome the acid environment of the stomach. shigella is able to persist in this stressful environment and, because of this ability it can initiate infection following the ingestion of very small inocula. thus, acid resistance is considered an important virulence trait of this bacterium. it has been reported that ...201121984920
bacterial aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases and antimicrobial resistance in dhaka, bangladesh, 2005-2008.summaryinfectious diarrhoea caused by bacterial pathogens contributes to the high level of mortality in developing countries like bangladesh. following standard bacteriological procedures, a total of 14 428 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 56 132 stool samples and rectal swabs collected from diarrhoeal patients between 2005 and 2008. the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility data were retrospectively analysed for these isolates and among them vibrio spp. (42·9%) were the most ...201122040529
[Antibacterial activity of nanostructured silver gel].Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of L-cysteine silver gel against various species of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.201121913399
Control of an outbreak of diarrhoea in a vascular surgery unit caused by a high-level clindamycin-resistant Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 106.This report describes an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a vascular surgery ward in 2009 caused by a high-level clindamycin-resistant ribotype 106. A case of CDI was defined as a patient with diarrhoea, positive for C. difficile toxin and negative for other enteric pathogens. Cultures were sent to the Scottish Salmonella Shigella and Clostridium difficile Reference Laboratory (SSSCDRL) for PCR ribotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing and PCR detection of ermB. The mean ...201121864938
phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the gut of house flies (musca domestica l.).house flies (musca domestica l.) are cosmopolitan, ubiquitous, synanthropic insects that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for various microorganisms. to fully assess the role of house flies in the epidemiology of human diseases, it is essential to understand the diversity of microbiota harbored by natural fly populations. this study aimed to identify the diversity of house fly gut bacteria by both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. a total of 102 bacterial strains wer ...201122092755
dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.we describe a test for rapid detection of s. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients.201121984895
antimicrobial resistance of shigella spp. isolated in the state of pará, brazil.shigella spp. are gram-negative, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to the family enterobacteriaceae and are responsible for shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality.201121860994
wide dissemination of multidrug-resistant shigella isolates in china.to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and selected antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in shigella isolates recovered in outpatients from 1997 to 2009 in china.201121859815
Sepsis-related myocardial calcification. 201121934087
outbreak of shigella sonnei infection in norway linked to consumption of fresh basil, october 2011.we report a shigella sonnei outbreak of 46 cases that occurred in norway during october 2011. two municipalities were involved. a large cluster (42 cases)was concentrated in north norway, while a smallcluster (4 cases) occurred in the south-east region.epidemiological evidence and trace back investigations have linked the outbreak to the consumption of imported fresh basil. the product has been withdrawn from the market. no further cases have been reported since 25 october.201122085618
prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of shigella species at felege hiwot referral hospital, northwest ethiopia.shigella species infections coupled with increased levels of antimicrobial resistances are major public health problems in developing countries particularly in children.201121991758
foodborne-associated shigella sonnei, india, 2009 and 2010. 201122099103
evolutionary silence of the acid chaperone protein hdeb in enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.the periplasmic chaperones hdea and hdeb are known to be important for cell survival at low ph (ph<3) in escherichia coli and shigella spp. here we investigated the roles of hdea and hdeb in the survival of various enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec) following exposure to ph 2.0. similar to k-12 strains, the acid protections conferred by hdea and hdeb in ehec o145 were significant: loss of hdea and hdeb led to over 100- to 1000-fold reductions in acid survival, depending on the growth condition of ...201122179243
rational design of an artificial genetic switch: co-option of the h-ns-repressed prou operon by the virb virulence master regulator.the h-ns protein represses the transcription of hundreds of genes in gram-negative bacteria. derepression is achieved by a multitude of mechanisms, many of which involve the binding of a protein to dna at the repressed promoter in a manner that compromises the maintenance of the h-ns-dna nucleoprotein repression complex. the principal virulence gene promoters in shigella flexneri, the cause of bacillary dysentery, are repressed by h-ns. virb, a protein that closely resembles members of the parb ...201121873493
Crystal Structure of the VapBC Toxin-Antitoxin Complex from Shigella flexneri Reveals a Hetero-Octameric DNA-Binding Assembly.Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are common in archaea and prokaryotes and allow cells to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions through release of active regulators of metabolism. Many toxins are endonucleases that target cellular mRNA and tRNAs, while the antitoxins tightly wrap around the toxins to inhibit them under normal circumstances. The antitoxins also bind to operators in the promoter regions of the cognate TA operon and thereby regulate transcription. For enteric vapBC TA loci, t ...201122037005
applications of pcr (real-time and masstag) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed u.s. military personnel during exercise balikatan 2009, philippines.laboratory-based surveillance for diarrheal and respiratory illness was conducted at the 2009 republic of the philippines-united states balikatan exercise to determine the presence of specific pathogens endemic in the locations where the military exercises were conducted. ten stool and 6 respiratory specimens were obtained from individuals meeting case definitions for diarrhea or respiratory illness. stool specimens were frozen in dry ice and remotely tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...201122128641
the inhibitory activity of lactobacillus spp. isolated from breast milk on gastrointestinal pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial origin.milk acts as a mean for transporting many essential substances from the mother to the child. in human beings, milk includes several predominant bacteria, such as staphylococci, streptococci, micrococci, lactobacilli, enterococci, lactococci and bifidobacteria. besides, its intake favors the predominance of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the child's intestinal microbiota. the present work explores the isolation and selection of lactobacilli strains with probiotic potential, focusing in their ...201121846506
comparative genomic analysis of bacteriophage ep23 infecting shigella sonnei and escherichia coli.bacteriophage ep23 that infects escherichia coli and shigella sonnei was isolated and characterized. the bacteriophage morphology was similar to members of the family siphoviridae. the 44,077 bp genome was fully sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that ep23 was most closely related to phage so-1, which infects sodalis glossinidius and phage ssl-2009a, which infects engineered e. coli. genomic comparison indicated that ep23 and so-1 were very s ...201122203555
[Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shigella spp. isolated from feces samples in Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital between 1999-2010].The symptoms of infections caused by Shigella spp. are diverse and may change from person to person. The choice of antibiotics as well as the prevention of the loss of fluid and electrolytes are important in the clinical recovery. The local resistance rates to antibiotics should be taken into consideration when planning empirical therapy. The aims of this retrospective study were to detect the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 605 Shigella spp. strains isolated from feces samples of child ...201122090291
site-specific incorporation of photo-cross-linker and bioorthogonal amino acids into enteric bacterial pathogens.enteric bacterial pathogens are known to effectively pass through the extremely acidic mammalian stomachs and cause infections in the small and/or large intestine of human hosts. however, their acid-survival strategy and pathogenesis mechanisms remain elusive, largely due to the lack of tools to directly monitor and manipulate essential components (e.g., defense proteins or invasive toxins) participating in these processes. herein, we have extended the pyrrolysine-based genetic code expansion st ...201122084898
cloning, characterization and evaluation of potent inhibitors of shigella sonnei acetohydroxyacid synthase catalytic subunit.acetohydroxyacid synthase (ahas) is a thiamin diphosphate (thdp)- and flavin adenine dinucleotide (fad)-dependent plant and microbial enzyme that catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine. to identify strong potent inhibitors against shigella sonnei (s. sonnei) ahas, we cloned and characterized the catalytic subunit of s. sonnei ahas and found two potent chemicals (khg20612, khg25240) that inhibit 87-93% s. sonnei ahas act ...201122015678
systematic review: the use of proton pump inhibitors and increased susceptibility to enteric infection.background: the use of proton pump inhibitors (ppis) is increasing worldwide. suppression of gastric acid alters the susceptibility to enteric bacterial pathogens. aim  this systematic review was undertaken to examine the relationship between ppi use and susceptibility to enteric infections by a specific pathogen based on published literature and to discuss the potential mechanisms of ppi enhanced pathogenesis of enteric infections. methods  pubmed, ovid medline databases were searched. search t ...201121999643
liver mass in a young adult. 201121943702
shigella flexneri infection generates the lipid pi5p to alter endocytosis and prevent termination of egfr signaling.the phosphoinositide metabolic pathway, which regulates cellular processes implicated in survival, motility, and trafficking, is often subverted by bacterial pathogens. shigella flexneri, a bacterium that causes dysentery, injects ipgd, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that generates the lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (pi5p), into host cells, thereby activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-akt survival pathway. we show that epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) is required for pi5p-depe ...201121934107
genomic characterization of enteroaggregative escherichia coli from children in mali.background. enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) is a cause of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea, yet its role as an enteric pathogen is not fully understood. methods. we characterized 121 eaec strains isolated in 2008 as part of a case-control study of moderate to severe acute diarrhea among children 0-59 months of age in bamako, mali. we applied multiplex polymerase chain reaction and comparative genome hybridization to identify potential virulence factors among the eaec strains, coupled wit ...201122184729
Molecular mechanism of multi-drug resistance in Shigella isolates from rural China.Diarrhoeal diseases and enteric infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Shigellosis was sixth in the rank of death caused by infectious disease in China. Present study assess the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and mutations in marA genes of Shigella isolates and its association. One hundred isolates of Shigella spp were tested to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and mutation of marA through PCR-SSCP. The antimicrobial resistance prof ...201121991697
Molecular Techniques in Ecohealth Research Toolkit: Facilitating Estimation of Aggregate Gastroenteritis Burden in an Irrigated Periurban Landscape.Assessment of microbial hazards associated with certain environmental matrices, livelihood strategies, and food handling practices are constrained by time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques that lead to health risk assessments of narrow geographic or time scope, often targeting very few pathogens. Health risk assessment based on one or few indicator organisms underestimates true disease burden due a number of coexisting causative pathogens. Here, we employed molecular techniques i ...201122146856
[Protozoal antigen positivity in diarrheal patients admitted to emergency service: a point prevalence study].Intestinal parasites are the important etiological agents of water and food related diarrhea cases which are frequently seen during summer/early autumn seasons in developing countries. This point prevalence study was aimed to determine the protozoal antigen positivity rate in diarrhea cases admitted to the emergency service in one single day. A total of 198 diarrheal patients (90 male, 108 female; age range: 1-82 years, mean age: 29 years) who were admitted to the emergency service of Ankara Tra ...201122090311
interaction of concanavalin a with bacterial lipopolysaccharides in agarose gel.binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin a to a series of molecular species of lipopolysaccharide (lps), purified from pathogenic bacteria, was studied via agarose gel precipitation experiments and the results were compared with available structural data.the lps species could be divided into cona-reactive and non-reactive ones. reactivity resided in the o-specific chain of lps, and binding to the lipid a or core moieties of lps could not be demonstrated by the present methods. ...201121983321
[Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide.201122046776
culture-independent real-time pcr reveals extensive polymicrobial infections in hospitalized diarrhoea cases in kolkata, india.clin microbiol infect abstract: culture-independent identification of diarrhoeal aetiological agents was performed using dna harvested from diarrhoeal stool specimens with sybr-green-based real-time pcr targeting vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, campylobacter spp., shigella spp. and three different pathotypes of diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli. conventional culture-dependent methods detected bacterial enteropathogens in 68 of 122 diarrhoeal stool specimens. of 68 specimens, 59 (86.8%) h ...201122268636
antibacterial effect and cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1, 4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.we studied the antibiotic activity and selective cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.201122260051
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