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laboratory detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of two screening agar plates and two confirmation techniques.the worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing esbl-producing enterobacteriaceae (esbl-e) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. in this study we investigated the performance of two esbl-e screening and two esbl-e confirmation techniques. in accordance with the dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by vitek2, was used to test the performances of two scr ...201021123527
conformational changes in ipad from shigella flexneri upon binding bile salts provide insight into the second step of type iii secretion.shigella flexneri uses its type iii secretion apparatus (ttsa) to inject host-altering proteins into targeted eukaryotic cells. the ttsa is composed of a basal body and an exposed needle with invasion plasmid antigen d (ipad) forming a tip complex that controls secretion. the bile salt deoxycholate (doc) stimulates recruitment of the translocator protein ipab into the maturing ttsa needle tip complex. this process appears to be triggered by a direct interaction between doc and ipad. fluorescence ...201021126091
lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid down-regulated shigella flexneri peptidoglycan-induced inflammation.bacterial peptidoglycans (pgns) are recognized by the host's innate immune system. this process is mediated by the nod/card family of proteins, which induces inflammation by activating nuclear factor (nf)-κb. excessive activation of monocytes by shigella flexneri pgn (flexpgn) leads to serious inflammatory diseases such as intestinal bowel diseases (ibd) and crohn's disease. in this study, we examined whether lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (plta) could attenuate the pro-inflammatory s ...201021129777
comparison of conventional culture methods and fta filtration-nested pcr for the detection of shigella boydii and shigella sonnei on tomato surfaces.detection of shigella boydii ui02 and shigella sonnei ui05 artificially inoculated onto tomatoes was evaluated using enrichment protocols of the u.s. food and drug administration's bacteriological analytical manual (bam) and the american public health association's compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of food (cmmef), enrichment in enterobacteriaceae enrichment (ee) broth supplemented with 1.0 microg/ml novobiocin and incubated at 42 degrees c, and fta filtration-nested pcr. ...200521132967
shigellosis from an interactive fountain: implications for regulation.in july 2003, the authors investigated an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in marion county, oregon. nineteen confirmed and 37 presumptive cases, mostly young children, were identified. a case-control study implicated play in an interactive fountain in a city park (matched odds ratio undefined; p < .002). the association was confirmed by a cohort study among local schoolchildren (rr [relative risk] = 12.6, p < .001) that allowed the authors to estimate that > 500 persons became ill. founta ...201021133311
arginine-dependent acid-resistance pathway in shigella boydii.ability to survive the low ph of the human stomach is considered be an important virulent determinant. it was suggested that the unique acid tolerance of shigella boydii 18 cdph, the strain implicated in a 1998 outbreak, may have played an important role in surviving the acidic food (bean salad). the strain was capable of inducing arginine-dependent acid-resistance (adar) pathway. this pathway was assumed to be absent in shigella sp. here, we have examined occurrence and efficacy of adar pathway ...201021136041
enteric glia protect against shigella flexneri invasion in intestinal epithelial cells: a role for s-nitrosoglutathione.enteric glial cells (egcs) are important regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (ieb) functions. egc-derived s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) has been shown to regulate ieb permeability. whether egcs and gsno protect the ieb during infectious insult by pathogens such as shigella flexneri is not known.201021139062
facile synthesis and antibacterial activity of naturally occurring 5-methoxyfuroflavone.a convenient synthesis of 5-methoxyfuroflavone (6, pongaglabol methyl ether), a constituent of some pongamia or millettia genus, was achieved by starting from 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone via a chalcone precursor, followed by treatment with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (ddq). this five-step reaction (total yield: 21.6%) is more facile with that of previously utilized procedures using each different starting material. antibacterial activities of the above compound and its prec ...201021139271
the shigella t3ss needle transmits a signal for mxic release, which controls secretion of effectors.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are key determinants of virulence in many gram-negative bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens. they inject 'effector' proteins through a 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface directly into eukaryotic cells after assembly of a 'translocator' pore in the host plasma membrane. secretion is a tightly regulated process, which is blocked until physical contact with a host cell takes place. host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle 'tip comple ...201021143311
antimicrobial resistance patterns and prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei isolated in uzbekistan.abstract:201021143880
serotypes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase types of clinical isolates of shigella spp. from the zhejiang province of china.to understand the distribution of the serotypes of shigella spp. and to investigate the drug-resistant genes of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls) in shigella in zhejiang province, we have collected clinically isolated shigella isolates from 2 hospitals in zhejiang province during august to december of 2006. there are 11 shigella flexneri and 13 shigella sonnei isolates, respectively. among the 11 s. flexneri, 9 are serotype f4 and the remaining 2 are f1a and f2a. antimicrobial susceptibilit ...201121146721
molecular structure and vibrational spectra of three substituted 4-thioflavones by density functional theory and ab initio hartree-fock calculations.the vibrational frequencies of three substituted 4-thioflavones in the ground state have been calculated using the hartree-fock and density functional method (b3lyp) with 6-31g* and 6-31+g** basis sets. the structural analysis shows that there exists h-bonding in the selected compounds and the hydrogen bond lengths increase with the augment of the conjugate parameters of the substituent group on the benzene ring. a complete vibrational assignment aided by the theoretical harmonic wavenumber anal ...201021156350
notes from the field: emergence of shigella flexneri 2a resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin --- south carolina, october 2010.on october 20, 2010, the south carolina department of health and environmental control and cdc began investigating a cluster of three diarrheal illnesses caused by multidrug-resistant shigella flexneri 2a. the index case occurred in a girl aged 2 years who experienced the onset of diarrhea on september 25 and was hospitalized the next day because of a seizure and fever. on september 30, her brother, aged 6 years, was hospitalized with vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and hyponatremia. three days later ...201021160457
[study on the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains.]objective: to study the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains. methods: a series of primers were designed based on potential integration site of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains, and pcr were performed for 50 serotype 2b strains to amplify special genes located in host and prophages. pcr products were sequenced to identify integration sites and arrangement of sfii and sfx. results: in all the serotype 2b ...201021162847
emergence of a novel shigella flexneri serotype 4s strain that evolved from a serotype x variant in china.this paper describes the first isolation of a new shigella flexneri serotype, designated 4s, in beijing, china. genotypic and phenotypic profiling suggests that this isolate is a clone of the s. flexneri serotype x variant reference strain. of particular concern is the multidrug resistance exhibited by this isolate.201021177890
reinforcement of epithelial cell adhesion to basement membrane by a bacterial pathogen as a new infectious stratagem.the intestinal epithelium undergoes a rapid turnover in addition to rapid exfoliation in response to bacterial infection, thus acting as an intrinsic defense against microbial intruders. it has long been questioned how mucosal pathogens can circumvent the intestinal defense systems. our recent discovery of a bacterial ploy used by shigella provided us with fresh insight. shigella delivers ospe via the type iii secretion system during multiplication within epithelial cells. this effector protein ...201021178415
mapping the selection mechanisms by bacterial gefs.mimicry of eukaryotic signaling enzymes is a common strategy used by bacterial pathogens to manipulate host cellular signaling. the e. coli type iii effector protein map belongs to a large family of bacterial virulence factors that activate host rho gtpase signaling pathways through an unknown molecular mechanism. our recent structural study, coupled with biochemical and functional assays, establishes that this family protein, including map, ipgb1/2 and sifa/b secreted by e. coli, shigella, and ...201021178423
convergent synthesis of a common pentasaccharide corresponding to the o-antigen of escherichia coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4.a convenient synthetic strategy of the common acidic pentasaccharide repeating unit corresponding to the o-antigen of enterotoxigenic e. coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4 has been successfully developed. a stereoselective [2 + 3] block glycosylation method has been exploited to get the target pentasaccharide derivative. most of the synthetic intermediates were solid and prepared in high yields from commercially available reducing sugars following a series of protection-deprotection react ...201021181263
structural variability of endotoxins from r-type isogenic mutants of shigella sonnei.the structural variations in the rough-type endotoxins [lipopolysaccharides (lpss)] of shigella sonnei mutant strains (s. sonnei phase ii-4303, r41, 562h and 4350) were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof-ms) and tandem ms. a series of s. sonnei mutants had previously been the subject of analytical studies on the biosynthesis of heptose components in the core oligosaccharide region of lpss. this study gives a complete overview o ...201121184397
cutting edge: nlrc5-dependent activation of the inflammasome.the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins, nlrs, are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns. a subgroup of nlrs can form inflammasome complexes, which facilitate the maturation of procaspase 1 to caspase 1, leading to il-1β and il-18 cleavage and secretion. nlrc5 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has not been studied for inflammasome function. rna interference-mediated knockdown of n ...201021191067
autophagy targeting of listeria monocytogenes and the bacterial countermeasure.autophagy acts as an intrinsic defense system against intracellular bacterial survival. recently, multiple cellular pathways that target intracellular bacterial pathogens to autophagy have been described. these include the atg5/lc3 pathway, which targets shigella, the ubiquitin (ub)-ndp52-lc3 pathway, which targets group a streptococcus (gas) and salmonella typhimurium, the ub-p62-lc3 pathway, which targets mycobacterium tuberculosis, listeria monocytogenes and s. typhimurium, and the diacylglyc ...201121193840
imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic cu-zn sod of shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction.shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. hence, in present study an attempt was made to study t ...201021194882
immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. in industrialized country populations, l ...201121198669
dysbiosis of the faecal microbiota in patients with crohn's disease and their unaffected relatives.a general dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been established in patients with crohn's disease (cd), but a systematic characterisation of this dysbiosis is lacking. therefore the composition of the predominant faecal microbiota of patients with cd was studied in comparison with the predominant composition in unaffected controls. whether dysbiosis is present in relatives of patients cd was also examined.201121209126
volatile compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of the needles of pinus densiflora and pinus thunbergii.to investigate the volatile compounds and the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of the essential oils of pinus densiflora needles (epdn) and pinus thunbergii needles (eptn), the volatile compounds of steam-distilled essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. antibacterial activities were analysed by performing disc-agar diffusion assay and determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of the essential oils. antioxidant activities were analysed via radica ...201121213230
synthesis and evaluation of a class of new coumarin triazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.a series of new coumarin-based 1,2,4-triazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities in vitro against four gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, bacillus subtilis and micrococcus luteus), four gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi and shigella dysenteriae) as well as three fungi (candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus fumigatus) by two-fold serial dilution technique. the bio ...201021215620
shigella enterotoxin-2 is a type iii effector that participates in shigella-induced interleukin 8 secretion by epithelial cells.we have previously described a protein termed shigella enterotoxin 2 (shet-2), which induces rises in short-circuit current in rabbit ileum mounted in the ussing chamber. published reports have postulated that shet-2 may be secreted by the shigella type iii secretion system (t3ss). in this study, we show that shet-2 secretion into the extracellular space requires the t3ss in shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t and a shet-2-tem fusion was translocated into epithelial cells in a t3ss-dependent manne ...201121219446
decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among shigella isolates in the united states, 2006 to 2009.we characterized 20 shigella isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. most patients (80%) from whom a travel history was obtained reported travel to south or southeast asia. mutations within the quinolone resistance determining regions of gyra and parc and plasmid-mediated resistance determinants (qnrb, qnrs, and aac(6')-ib-cr) were identified. the rise in antimicrobial resistance among shigella isolates may necessitate the increased use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins or ...201121220535
two promoters and two translation start sites control the expression of the shigella flexneri outer membrane protease icsp.the shigella flexneri outer membrane protease icsp proteolytically cleaves the actin-based motility protein icsa from the bacterial surface. the icsp gene is monocistronic and lies downstream of an unusually large intergenic region on the shigella virulence plasmid. in silico analysis of this region predicts a second transcription start site 84 bp upstream of the first. primer extension analyses and beta-galactosidase assays demonstrate that both transcription start sites are used. both promoter ...201121225241
structural and functional studies indicate that the epec effector, espg, directly binds p21-activated kinase.bacterial pathogens secrete effectors into their hosts that subvert host defenses and redirect host processes. espg is a type three secretion effector with a disputed function that is found in enteropathogenic escherichia coli. here we show that espg is structurally similar to vira, a shigella virulence factor; espg has a large, conserved pocket on its surface; espg binds directly to the amino-terminal inhibitory domain of human p21-activated kinase (pak); and mutations to conserved residues in ...201121235237
core and panmetabolism in escherichia coli.escherichia coli exhibits a wide range of lifestyles encompassing commensalism and various pathogenic behaviors which its highly dynamic genome contributes to develop. how environmental and host factors shape the genetic structure of e. coli strains remains, however, largely unknown. following a previous study of e. coli genomic diversity, we investigated its diversity at the metabolic level by building and analyzing the genome-scale metabolic networks of 29 e. coli strains (8 commensal and 21 p ...201121239590
prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.the prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. the effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. an attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the pla ...201021247040
role of intestinal bacteria in gliadin-induced changes in intestinal mucosa: study in germ-free rats.celiac disease (cd) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that is induced by dietary wheat gluten proteins (gliadins) in genetically predisposed individuals. the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and infections has been suggested to contribute to cd pathogenesis. we aimed to study the effects of gliadin and various intestinal bacterial strains on mucosal barrier integrity, gliadin translocation, and cytokine production.201121249146
genomic characterization of asymptomatic escherichia coli isolated from the neobladder.the replacement of the bladder with a neobladder made from ileal tissue is the prescribed treatment in some cases of bladder cancer or trauma. studies have demonstrated that individuals with an ileal neobladder have recurrent colonization by escherichia coli and other species that are commonly associated with urinary tract infections; however, pyelonephritis and complicated symptomatic infections with ileal neobladders are relatively rare. this study examines the genomic content of two e. coli i ...201121252277
analysis of shigella flexneri-mediated infections in model organism caenorhabditis elegans.shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and generates a significant global disease burden. the aim of this study was to analyze the pathogenesis and host immune response, at both the physiological and molecular level, using the model organism caenorhabditis elegans, in response to s. flexneri. c. elegans is a nematode that responds to infection with a simple innate immune system, key aspects of which have been shown to be conserved.201121254954
shiga toxin and its use in targeted cancer therapy and imaging.shiga and the shiga-like toxins are related protein toxins produced by shigella dysenteriae and certain strains of escherichia coli. these toxins are composed of two non-covalently attached, modular parts: the a moiety (stxa) containing the enzymatically active a1 fragment, and the non-toxic, pentameric binding moiety (stxb). stx binds specifically to the glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (gb3) at the surface of target cells and is then internalized by endocytosis. subsequently, in toxin-s ...201121255370
ceftriaxone resistant shigella flexneri, an emerging problem.shigellosis is a disease of public health importance in developing countries. it may cause self-limited diarrhea to severe dysentery. emergence of multi drug resistant (mdr) strains is a growing concern globally. ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are the drugs of choice for mdr cases. here, we report a case of mdr shigella flexneri from an immunocompromised patient. the strain was resistant to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) ≥ 64 μg/ml], limiting the treatment option. simultaneou ...201021258157
antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of amblyone isolated from amorphophallus campanulatus.to assess the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of amblyone, a triterpenoid isolated from amorphophallus campanulatus (roxb).200821264161
efficient screening of a novel antimicrobial peptide from jatropha curcas by cell membrane affinity chromatography.a novel method named cell membrane affinity chromatography was used to screen antimicrobial peptides from jatropha curcas . a cationic antimicrobial peptide (kvflglk, jcpep7) was successfully isolated and identified. antimicrobial assays indicated that jcpep7 was active against the tested microorganisms ( salmonella typhimurium atcc 50013, shigella dysenteriae atcc 51302, pseudomonas aeruginosa atcc 27553, staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, bacillus subtilis atcc 23631, and streptococcus pneumoni ...201121268582
[type three secretion system and pathogenesis of shigella spp.--a review].the powerful weapon of shigella spp. is type three secretion system, which remains the focus of pathogenic research. the regulation and function of type three secretion system of shigella spp. are summarized in this review.201021268888
development of a dna microarray for detection and identification of legionella pneumophila and ten other pathogens in drinking water.the safety and accessibility of drinking water are major concerns throughout the world. consumption of water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals or radiological hazards represents a significant health risk and is strongly associated with mortality. therefore, we have developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray using the sequences of 16s-23s rdna internal transcribed spacer regions (its) and the gyrase subunit b gene (gyrb) found in the most prevalent and devastating waterborne ...201121276629
strategies to overcome extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (esbls) and ampc ß-lactamases in shigellae.oral cephalosporins and mecillinam are used to treat shigella infections, but are compromised by extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (esbls) and plasmid ampc ß-lactamases. potential solutions include combining an oral or intravenous cephalosporin with a ß-lactamase inhibitor (bli) or using an oral penem. these strategies were examined using escherichia coli transconjugants and clinical isolates with esbls or ampc, as a proxy for shigellae. the clinical and laboratory standards institute agar dilution ...201121276715
bacteriological profile and resistant pattern of clinical isolates from pediatric patients, gondar university teaching hospital, gondar, northwest ethiopia.infectious diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing world antibiotic resistance is increasing. knowledge of pathogens causing infection in pediatrics patients is essential for devising management strategies.201021280431
shigellosis outbreak linked to canteen-food consumption in a public institution: a matched case-control study.summaryon 13 november 2009, the authorities of flemish brabant, belgium, received an alert concerning a potential outbreak of shigella sonnei at a public institution. a study was conducted to assess the extent, discover the source and to implement further measures. we performed a matched case-control study to test an association between shigellosis and canteen-food consumption. water samples and food handlers' faecal samples were tested. the reference laboratory characterized the retrospectively ...201121281549
enteric glial cells: new players in mucosal defence against bacteria? 201121282131
isolation and partial characterisation of a novel lectin from aegle marmelos fruit and its effect on adherence and invasion of shigellae to ht29 cells.lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. we have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of aegle marmelos. the isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. the isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with n-acetylgalactosamine, man ...201121283697
purification and characterization of a ca2+-dependent novel lectin from nymphaea nouchali tuber with antiproliferative activities.a lectin (termed nntl) was purified from the extracts of nymphaea nouchali tuber followed by anion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, hydrophobic chromatography on hitrap phenyl hp and by repeated anion-exchange chromatography on hitrap q ff column. the molecular mass of the purified lectin was 27.0 ± 1.0 kda, as estimated by sds/page both in the presence and in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. nntl was an o-nitrophenyl ß-d-galactopyranoside sugar-specific lectin that agglutinated rat, ...201121291421
seizure and altered mental status in a 12-year-old child with shigella sonnei gastroenteritis.we report a case of shigella-associated altered mental status and seizure in a 12-year-old boy. although seizure is a known complication of shigellosis, it is quite unusual in patients older than 9 years. this case illustrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of shigellosis in any pediatric patient with altered mental status or seizure in the context of gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea.201121293224
fort franklin shigella outbreak.. 198021293611
microbial evaluation and public health implications of urine as alternative therapy in clinical pediatric cases: health implication of urine therapy.cultural means of pediatric treatment during ill health is a mainstay in africa, and though urine has been known to contain enteric pathogens, urine therapy is still culturally applicable in some health conditions and also advocated as alternative therapy. the study therefore, is to evaluate the microbial contents and safety of urine.201021293739
antibacterial activity of thai medicinal plants pikutbenjakul.bacterial infections caused by resistant strains have been increased dramatically. pikutbenjakul, a thai medicinal plant formula containing piper longum, piper sarmentosum, piper interruptum, plumbago indica and zingiber officinale have been widely used in thai traditional medicine.201021298838
shigella species and serotypes among clinical isolates in thailand from 2001 to 2005.to study the species and the serotypes of the clinical isolates of shigella obtained from patients in thailand.200921298848
synthesis, spectral analysis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of novel ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates and 4,5-dihydro-6-(napthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols.a series of ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates 8-14 and 4,5-dihydro-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols 15-21 were synthesised and characterised by their spectroscopic data. in vitro microbiological evaluations were carried out for all the newly synthesised compounds 8-21 against clinically isolated bacterial and fungal strains. compounds 9, 12 and 20 against staphylococcus aureus, 10, 12, 20 against ß-haemolytic streptococcus, 11, 17 against bacillus subtil ...201121299432
extended spectrum beta-lactamase production in shigella isolates - a matter of concern. 201121304205
mixed infections of vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae.mixed infections caused by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, virus, protozoa and helminthes were reported in different literatures. this report also describes the co-infections caused by vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae in a patient. a 36-year-old man was admitted in fatemeh zahra hospital of bushehr iran with fever, vomiting and dysentery. his stool sample was cultured, for identification purposes tcbs, xld and other media were used. v. cholerae and s. dysenteriae wer ...201021313886
virulence of environmental stenotrophomonas maltophilia serologically cross-reacting with shigella-specific antisera.this research involved an environmental strain of stenotrophomonas maltophilia which has been reported to produce serological cross-reactivity with shigella dysenteriae type 8 specific antisera. since clinical diagnosis of shigellosis is largely based on culture and serology, the investigation was aimed at in vivo and in vitro virulence comparison between the culturally similar environmental s. maltophilia isolate and the reference s. dysenteriae strains. the findings of this study revealed the ...201021313916
monitoring shigella flexneri vacuolar escape by flow cytometry.invasive bacterial pathogens such as shigella flexneri force their uptake into non-phagocytic host cells. upon internalization, they rupture the endocytic vacuole and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. recent studies applying fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) based methods to track host-pathogen interactions have provided insights into the process of bacterial infection at the single cell level. we have previously reported that the vacuolar escape of invasive bacteria into the host ...201121317555
the effect of handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands.handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. however it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. in this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. they were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) ...201121318017
proinflammatory fecal mrna and childhood bacterial enteric infections.introduction: assessment of specific mrnas in human samples is useful in characterizing disease. however, mrna in human stool has been understudied. results: compared to controls, infected stools showed increased transcripts of il-1β, il-8 and calprotectin. mrna and protein concentrations correlated for il-8, but not for calprotectin. discussion: stool mrna quantification offers a potentially useful, noninvasive way to assess inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, and may be more sensitive ...201021327027
infectious diarrhea: cellular and molecular mechanisms.diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. an estimated 2-4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. this review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including vibrio cholerae as a classical example of ...201021327112
microbial safety of tropical fruits.there are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. norovirus and salmonella are the leading vi ...201121328109
multidrug resistant salmonella concord is a major cause of salmonellosis in children in ethiopia.s. concord in ethiopia. the objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of febrile and diarrhoeic illness in ethiopian children focussing on salmonella.201121330737
development of a duplex real-time pcr for differentiation between e. coli and shigella spp.the aim of this study was to develop a real-time pcr test for differentiation between shigella spp. and e. coli, in particular enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec).201121332893
crystal structure of the autochaperone region from the shigella flexneri autotransporter icsa.the icsa (intracellular spread gene a) autotransporter from shigella flexneri is a key virulence factor. we identified a stable fragment comprising residues 591 to 758, which corresponds to the autochaperone region of the icsa passenger domain. we showed that thermal unfolding of the autochaperone region is reversible and determined its crystal structure at 2.0-å resolution.201121335457
methods for the preparation and crystallization of fab fragments in complex with peptide antigens derived from n. meningitidis outer membrane proteins.an understanding of the molecular basis for the recognition of outer-membrane proteins (omps) by antibody is an important goal in the development of a more rational approach to vaccine design. x-ray crystallography has been outstandingly successful in delineating the detailed chemical interactions that are responsible for the high affinity and high selectivity of antibody-antigen interactions (1). although a number of x-ray structures of omps have now been reported (e.g., 2), determination of th ...200121336751
testing meningococcal vaccines for mitogenicity and superantigenicity.proteins with intrinsic mitogenic properties are widely represented in prokaryotes, such as in different streptococcus species (1-3), candida albicans (4), and eikenella corrodens (5). specifically, several bacterial porins of escherichia coli, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhimurium, fusobacterium nucleatum, and pathogenic neisseria species have been shown to induce nonspecific proliferation of lymphocytes (6-12).200121336757
studies on the effect of neisserial porins on apoptosis of mammalian cells.microorganisms or microbial products have been shown to induce or protect cells from activation-induced cell death or apoptosis (1-3). induction of apoptosis by some bacterial invaders, like shigella, might aid in spread of the organism (4), whereas inhibition of apoptosis by other microbes might aid in furthering their intracellular survival (2,3). viral products have been shown to inhibit apoptosis by mimicking anti-apoptotic related proteins (e.g., bcl2, flips, etc.) (2,3,5). thus far, most i ...200121337167
a comparison of disease caused by shigella and campylobacter species: 24 months community based surveillance in 4 slums of karachi, pakistan.despite the efforts of the international community diarrheal diseases still pose a major threat to children in children less than five years of age. bacterial diarrhea has also emerged as a public health concern due to the proliferation of drug resistant species in many parts of the world. there is a paucity of population-based data about the incidence of shigellosis and campylobacter infections in pakistan. we report country specific results for shigella diarrhea that were derived from a multic ...201121338955
akara ogbomoso: microbiological examination and identification of hazards and critical control points.akara ogbomoso was examined toward the establishment of hazard analysis and critical control point (haccp). the akara was produced in residential buildings with the attendant consequence of contamination. there was ample growth of aerobes, coliforms, staphylococci, shigella and yeast/mold from the samples, water and cowpea pastes. microbial contaminations occur through the processing, which can be corrected through education by adopting good hygienic and manufacturing practices. the critical con ...201021339157
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
autophagy in immunity and cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes.autophagy was viewed until very recently primarily as a metabolic and intracellular biomass and organelle quality and quantity control pathway. it has now been recognized that autophagy represents a bona fide immunologic process with a wide array of roles in immunity. the immunologic functions of autophagy, as we understand them now, span both innate and adaptive immunity. they range from unique and sometimes highly specialized immunologic effectors and regulatory functions (referred to here as ...201121349088
function-specific accelerations in rates of sequence evolution suggest predictable epistatic responses to reduced effective population size.changes in effective population size impinge on patterns of molecular evolution. notably, slightly deleterious mutations are more likely to drift to fixation in smaller populations, which should typically also lead to an overall acceleration in the rates of evolution. this prediction has been validated empirically for several endosymbiont and island taxa. here, we first show that rate accelerations are also evident in bacterial pathogens whose recent shifts in virulence make them prime candidate ...201121349981
rapid emergence of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in shigella sp. isolated in andaman and nicobar islands, india.shigellosis is a major cause of diarrheal diseases among children in andaman & nicobar islands, india, which have a population of 350,000 people, including settlers from mainland india and 6 indigenous tribes. from the last one-and-half decade, we have been monitoring the species distribution and emergence of antibiotic resistance among the isolates of shigella. the circulating shigella strains have been found rapidly acquiring resistance to a wide spectrum of antibiotics. the recent data indica ...201121352076
antigen-specific cd8(+) t cells fail to respond to shigella flexneri.cd8(+) t lymphocytes often play a primary role in adaptive immunity to cytosolic microbial pathogens. surprisingly, cd8(+) t cells are not required for protective immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, despite the ability of shigella to actively secrete proteins into the host cytoplasm, a location from which antigenic peptides are processed for presentation to cd8(+) t cells. to determine why cd8(+) t cells fail to play a role in adaptive immunity to s. flexneri, we investigated whe ...201121357720
[enterobacteriaceae infection - diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and prevention].intestinal infections caused by rod-shaped bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae genus are one of the major health hazards in countries where sanitation standards are low. strains of shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia are responsible for diarrhea, severe bacillary dysentery, typhoid, other intestinal diseases, as well as genitourinary tract and blood infections. according to the who there are 4.5 billion cases every year, of which 1.9 million end in death. this makes intestinal infectio ...201121357995
travelers' diarrhea in nepal: an update on the pathogens and antibiotic resistance.diarrhea is the most common illness among travelers and expatriates in nepal. published data on the etiology of travelers' diarrhea (td) in nepal are over 13 years old and no prior data exist on antibiotic susceptibility for currently used drugs. we investigated the etiology of diarrhea and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens and compared the results to previous work from the same clinical setting.201021366793
gadd45a activity is the principal effector of shigella mitochondria-dependent epithelial cell death in vitro and ex vivo.modulation of death is a pathogen strategy to establish residence and promote survival in host cells and tissues. shigella spp. are human pathogens that invade colonic mucosa, where they provoke lesions caused by their ability to manipulate the host cell responses. shigella spp. induce various types of cell death in different cell populations. however, they are equally able to protect host cells from death. here, we have investigated on the molecular mechanisms and cell effectors governing the b ...201121368893
enterobacteriaceae associated with eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (testudines:chelonia) in nonpolluted sites of national park of araguaia plains, brazil.fertile eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis were investigated for the presence of enterobacteria, as these two endangered species have the potential for conservation measures that include egg transfer. knowledge of normal microflora associated with turtles and turtle eggs would help effectively manage the transfer of these eggs among institutions. thirty eggs of each species were collected, aseptically transferred, cracked inside plastic bags containing tetrathionate broth, and sp ...201021370647
ribonucleases and bacterial virulence.bacterial stress responses provide them the opportunity to survive hostile environments, proliferate and potentially cause diseases in humans and animals. the way in which pathogenic bacteria interact with host immune cells triggers a complicated series of events that include rapid genetic re-programming in response to the various host conditions encountered. viewed in this light, the bacterial host-cell induced stress response (hcisr) is similar to any other well-characterized environmental str ...201021375713
fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity.using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (ag nps) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. after the reduction process, ag nps formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about ...201121383858
antigen-specific iga b memory cell responses to shigella antigens elicited in volunteers immunized with live attenuated shigella flexneri 2a oral vaccine candidates.we studied the induction of antigen-specific iga memory b cells (b(m)) in volunteers who received live attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccines. subjects ingested a single oral dose of 10(7), 10(8) or 10(9) cfu of s. flexneri 2a with deletions in guaba (cvd 1204) or in guaba, set and sen (cvd 1208). antigen-specific serum and stool antibody responses to lps and ipa b were measured on days 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42. iga b(m) cells specific to lps, ipa b and total iga were assessed on days 0 and 28. we ...201121388888
postinfective bile acid malabsorption: is this a long-term condition?postinfective bile acid malabsorption comprises a group of patients with a history of an episode of acute gastroenteritis triggering chronic diarrhoea. we identified these patients retrospectively from our medical records and assessed their long-term clinical course.201121389860
a candidate approach implicates the secreted salmonella effector protein spvb in p-body disassembly.p-bodies are dynamic aggregates of rna and proteins involved in several post-transcriptional regulation processes. p-bodies have been shown to play important roles in regulating viral infection, whereas their interplay with bacterial pathogens, specifically intracellular bacteria that extensively manipulate host cell pathways, remains unknown. here, we report that salmonella infection induces p-body disassembly in a cell type-specific manner, and independently of previously characterized pathway ...201121390246
structural elucidation of the o-antigen of the shigella flexneri provisional serotype 88-893: structural and serological similarities with s. flexneri provisional serotype y394 (1c).the structure of the repeating unit of the o-antigen polysaccharide from shigella flexneri provisional serotype 88-893 has been determined. (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy as well as 2d nmr experiments were employed to elucidate the structure. the carbohydrate part of the hexasaccharide repeating unit is identical to the previously elucidated structure of the o-polysaccharide from s. flexneri prov. serotype y394. the o-antigen of s. flexneri prov. serotype 88-893 carries 0.7 mol o-acetyl group p ...201121392735
shigella flexneri type iii secreted effector ospf reveals new crosstalks of proinflammatory signaling pathways during bacterial infection.shigella flexneri type iii secreted effector ospf harbors a phosphothreonine lyase activity that irreversibly dephosphorylates map kinases (mapks) p38 and erk in infected epithelial cells and thereby, dampens innate immunity. whereas this activity has been well characterized, the impact of ospf on other host signaling pathways that control inflammation was unknown. here we report that ospf potentiates the activation of the mapk jnk and the transcription factor nf-?b during s. flexneri infection. ...201121402152
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
new insights into vinculin function and regulation.vinculin is a cytoplasmic actin-binding protein enriched in focal adhesions and adherens junctions that is essential for embryonic development. much is now known regarding the role of vinculin in governing cell-matrix adhesion. in the past decade that the crystal structure of vinculin and the molecular details for how vinculin regulates adhesion events have emerged. the recent data suggests a critical function for vinculin in regulating integrin clustering, force generation, and strength of adhe ...201121414589
antibacterial activity of the enniatin b, produced by fusarium tricinctum in liquid culture, and cytotoxic effects on caco-2 cells.the enniatins (ens) are bioactive compounds of hexadepsipeptidic structure produced by several strains of fusarium sp. the en b was purified from extracts of fusarium tricinctum growth on liquid culture of potato dextrose broth (pdb), using a semipreparative liquid chromatography (lc) followed by an analytical lc. the purity and the structure of the isolated compound were confirmed by the determination of the extinction coefficient and with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (esi-ms) stud ...201121417626
synthesis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of novel diethyl 6,6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-aryl-2-oxo-cyclohex-3-enecarboxylates).novel bis cyclohexenone ester derivatives 14-19 were synthesized and characterized by their spectral data. in vitro microbiological evaluations were carried out for all the novel compounds 14-19 against clinically isolated bacterial and fungal strains. compounds 15, 16, 18 against staphylococcus aureus, 14, 15 against ß-haemolytic streptococcus, 15, 19 against micrococcus luteus, 17, 18 against salmonella typhii, 14, 17 against shigella flexneri, 15 against escherichia coli, 16 against pseudomon ...201121417963
evaluation of antidiarrheal and in vitro antiprotozoal activities of extracts of leaves of alocasia indica.alocasia indica schott (araceae) is used in several regions of india, especially in rural communities, by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhea. however, no scientific data are available to justify the traditional potentials of the plant species in gastrointestinal disorders.201121428863
sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in shigella gastroenteritis.the sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in the diagnosis of shigella gastroenteritis in a shigella sonnei prevalent center was investigated. the shigella-proven gastroenteritis cases who were admitted to hacettepe university ihsan doğramaci children's hospital diarrheal diseases unit (jan 2003 - oct 2006) constituted the study group (n=65). age- and sex-matched children admitting to the same center with non-shigella diarrhea constituted the control group (n=65). the sensitivity, speci ...201021434533
the modulation of hela cells secretory patterns by invasive shigella spp. and enteroinvasive e. coli bacterial cells and their soluble components.considering the important role of cytokines in the initiation and evolution of the inflammatory process induced by shigella and eiec strains, the purpose of this study was the characterization of the secretory patterns of hela cells induced by shigella ssp. and eiec strains and to link the obtained results with the invasiveness level of bacterial strains on this cellular line. during this study there were analyzed two eiec strains and 12 strains of the following shigella species: 2 sh. flexneri ...201021434590
interaction of the salmonella typhimurium effector protein sopb with host cell cdc42 is involved in intracellular replication.the phosphoinositide phosphatase sopb/sigd is a type iii secretion system effector that plays multiple roles in salmonella internalization and intracellular survival. we previously reported that sopb complexed with and inhibited the small gtpase cdc42 when expressed in a yeast model system, independently of its phosphatase activity. here we show that human cdc42, but not rac1, interacts with catalytically inactive sopb when coexpressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae. this interaction occurs with bo ...201121435037
multi-drug resistance and characteristic of integrons in shigella spp. isolated from china.to investigate the characteristic of integrons and the relationship between integrons and antimicrobial resistance in shigella spp.201121440840
quantification and evaluation of infectivity of shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages in beef and salad.stx bacteriophages in 68 samples of beef and salad were quantified by real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr). stx phages from the samples were propagated in escherichia coli c600, e. coli o157:h7, and shigella strains and further quantified. fifty percent of the samples carried infectious stx phages that were isolated from plaques generated by lysis.201121441341
antimicrobial susceptibilities of enteric bacterial pathogens isolated in kathmandu, nepal, during 2002-2004.the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial enteropathogens vibrio cholerae, salmonella species and shigella species were investigated.201121444984
[shigellosis--epidemiological situation in montenegro in period 1996-2005].introduction shigellosis is the most common cause of diarrhoea in the world. it is estimated to cause 165 million cases per a year, and two third of all diseases and most of the deaths are among children under 10 years of age. the aim of this descriptive epidemiologic study was to analyze the incidence of shigellosis in montenegro during the period 1996-2005 and to find out which species of shigella were dominant in this region.201021446148
antagonistic bacteria from live corals, tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india.the objective of this study is to isolate and production of secondary metabolites with bioactive substances by coral reef (acropora formosa and favia palida) associated bacteria was carried out from the tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india. the isolated coral associated bacteria were found to have an antagonistic effect against 10 human pathogens. the pathogens were escherichia coli, shigella dysentriae, staphylococcus epidermidis, s. aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aerogenosa ...201121454167
[invasive gastroenteritis, anything new?].invasive gastroenteritis is characterized by fever and inflammatory diarrhea and can be caused by nontyphoideal salmonella serotypes and shigella spp.-enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec), among other pathogens. this review describes emerging monophasic variants of salmonella enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:- and provides an evolutionary consideration of shigella spp.-eiec as a single pathotype. in 1997, a monophasic variant of s. enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:-, phage-type u302, multidrug res ...201121458713
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