TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
the expression of lipopolysaccharide by strains of shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri and shigella boydii and their cross-reacting strains of escherichia coli.strains of shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri and shigella boydii express lipopolysaccharides, that enable the serotyping of strains based on their antigenic structures. certain strains of s. dysenteriae, s. flexneri and s. boydii are known to share epitopes with strains of escherichia coli; however, the lipopolysaccharide profiles of the cross-reacting organisms have not been compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) lipopolysaccharides profiling. in ...200919222579
[distribution and antibiotic resistance of pathogens isolated from children with infectious diarrhea in guangzhou].to study the distribution and antibiotic resistance of the isolated pathogens from children with infectious diarrhea in guangzhou.200919222945
mucosal adjuvanticity of a shigella invasin complex with dna-based against many infectious diseases may require the induction of cell-mediated and mucosal immunity. immunization with plasmid dna-based vaccines has successfully induced cell-mediated immune responses in small animals but is less potent in humans. therefore, several methods are under investigation to augment dna vaccine immunogenicity. in the current study, a mucosal adjuvant consisting of an invasin protein-lipopolysaccharide complex (invaplex) isolated from shigella spp. was evaluated ...200919225079
utility of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis as a molecular tool for phylogenetic analysis of shigella sonnei.a panel of 916 isolates, including 703 closely related ist1 isolates, were characterized by inter-is1 spacer typing (ist), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (vntr) analysis (mlva) to evaluate the utility of mlva as a molecular tool for the phylogenetic analysis of shigella sonnei. the global phylogenetic patterns determined by ist, pfge, and mlva were concordant. mlva was carried out using 26 vntr loci with a range of degrees of variability. ml ...200919225095
eliminylation: a post-translational modification catalyzed by phosphothreonine lyases.we propose the classification of a protein post-translational modification, eliminylation, based on the recently delineated mechanism of the shigella ospf and salmonella spvc phosphothreonine lyases. these bacterial type-iii secretion-system virulence factors are injected into eukaryotic cells and inhibit signalling by irreversibly inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks). remarkably, they employ an unusual beta-elimination reaction, removing the phosphate from phosphothreonine and ...200919233656
analytical specificity and sensitivity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of bovine mastitis pathogens.intramammary infection (imi), also known as mastitis, is the most frequently occurring and economically the most important infectious disease in dairy cattle. this study provides a validation of the analytical specificity and sensitivity of a real-time pcr-based assay that identifies 11 major pathogen species or species groups responsible for imi, and a gene coding for staphylococcal beta-lactamase production (penicillin resistance). altogether, 643 culture isolates originating from clinical bov ...200919233788
phage-mediated shiga toxin 2 gene transfer in food and water.shiga toxin (stx) transduction in various food matrices has been evaluated with lysogens of stx phages. stx transduction events were observed for many phages under appropriate conditions. transduction did not occur at low ph and low temperatures. a total of 10(3) to 10(4) cfu ml(-1) was the minimal amount of donor and recipient strains necessary to generate transductants.200919168651
short report: high prevalence of serine protease autotransporter cytotoxins among strains of enteroaggregative escherichia coli.enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) pathogenesis is thought to comprise intestinal colonization followed by the release of enterotoxins and cytotoxins. here, we use a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to determine the prevalence of 10 genes encoding serine protease autotransporter toxins (spates) in a collection of clinical eaec isolates. eighty-six percent of eaec strains harbored genes encoding one or more class i cytotoxic spate proteins (pet, sat, espp, or siga). two class ii, non-cytoto ...200919190229
molecular epidemiological characteristics of shigella spp. isolated from river narmada during 2005-2006.shigellosis is an acute gastroenteritis caused by shigella species. forty isolates of shigella spp. were obtained from the river narmada during 2005-2006. twenty-three isolates were identified as s. flexneri, 10 as s. sonnei, and seven as s. dysenteriae on the basis of biochemical tests and serotyping. all the isolates harbored at least one plasmid (range: 1-4) and exhibited 12 distinct plasmid profile patterns. out of 40 isolates, 90% were found to be resistant against more than two antibiotics ...200919192746
crystal structure analysis and in silico pka calculations suggest strong pka shifts of ligands as driving force for high-affinity binding to tgt.a novel ligand series is presented to inhibit trna-guanine transglycosylase (tgt), a protein with a significant role in the pathogenicity mechanism of shigella flexneri, the causative agent of shigellosis. the enzyme exchanges guanine in the wobble position of trna(asn,asp,his,tyr) against a modified base. to prevent the base-exchange reaction, several series of inhibitors have already been designed, synthesized, and tested. one aim of previous studies was to address a hydrophobic pocket with di ...200919199329
streptococcus-, shigella-, and listeria-induced autophagy.autophagy has recently been described as an intrinsic host defense system for recognizing and eliminating intracellular-invading bacterial pathogens. some cytoplasmic-invading bacteria are trapped through the process of autophagy and are ultimately degraded within autolysosomal compartments. however, others exhibit highly evolved maneuvers for circumventing autophagic recognition and are capable of surviving and replicating within the cytoplasm. in this chapter, we describe bacterial infectious ...200919200893
a synthetic carbohydrate-protein conjugate vaccine candidate against shigella flexneri 2a infection.the protective ag of shigella, the gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium causing bacillary dysentery, or shigellosis, is its o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) domain of the lps, the major bacterial surface component. as an alternative to the development of detoxified lps-based conjugate vaccines, recent effort was put into the investigation of neoglycoproteins encompassing synthetic oligosaccharides mimicking the protective ags of the o-sp. we previously reported that when coupled to tetanus tox ...200919201878
development of prophylactic recombinant hpv58-attenuated shigella live vector vaccine and evaluation of its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis develop a prophylactic recombinant hpv58l1-attenuated shigella live vector vaccine and evaluate its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model, the hpv58l1 gene was cloned into vector pucmt, and then subcloned into the suicide vector pcvd442. the recombinant plasmid pcvd442-hpv58l1 was introduced into attenuated shigella (sf301:deltavirg) with the helper plasmid prk2013 by filter mating. the positive colonies were harvested and confirmed by polymerase ...200919204831
functions and pathologies of bip and its interaction partners.the endoplasmic reticulum (er) is involved in a variety of essential and interconnected processes in human cells, including protein biogenesis, signal transduction, and calcium homeostasis. the central player in all these processes is the er-lumenal polypeptide chain binding protein bip that acts as a molecular chaperone. bip belongs to the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) family and crucially depends on a number of interaction partners, including co-chaperones, nucleotide exchange factors, and sig ...200919151922
overexpression, purification, characterization and preliminary crystallographic study of phosphoglycolate phosphatase from shigella flexneri 2a strain 301.phosphoglycolate phosphatase has a salvage function in the metabolism of the 2-phosphoglycolate formed during bacterial dna repair. in order to better understand its dimerization behaviour, the influence of metal ions on its activity and its catalytic mechanism at the molecular level, recombinant phosphoglycolate phosphatase from shigella flexneri was overexpressed, purified, characterized and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 k using polyethylene glycol 3500 as a p ...200919153451
simultaneous detection of multifood-borne pathogenic bacteria based on functionalized quantum dots coupled with immunomagnetic separation in food samples.this paper reports a method that simultaneously detects three food-borne pathogenic bacteria, salmonella typhimurium, shigella flexneri, and escherichia coli o157:h7, via an approach that combines magnetic microparticles for the enrichment and antibody-conjugated semiconductor quantum dots (qds) as fluorescence markers. using the water-in-oil reverse microemulsions method, the gamma-fe(2)o(3) magnetic nanoparticles were coated with silica to empower the particles with high dispersibility and bro ...200919154162
shigella type iii secretion effectors: how, where, when, for what purposes?bacteria of shigella spp., the causative agents of shigellosis in humans, possess a repertoire of approximately 25-30 effectors injected into host cells by a type iii secretion apparatus (t3sa). the t3sa activity is activated upon contact of bacteria with cells and controls expression of some effectors. recent structural and functional studies suggest that two different sets of effectors are involved in inducing actin cytoskeleton reorganization to promote entry of bacteria into epithelial cells ...200919157960
rapid dna amplification using a battery-powered thin-film resistive thermocycler.a prototype handheld, compact, rapid thermocycler was developed for multiplex analysis of nucleic acids in an inexpensive, portable configuration. instead of the commonly used peltier heating/cooling element, electric thin-film resistive heater and a miniature fan enable rapid heating and cooling of glass capillaries leading to a simple, low-cost thin-film resistive thermocycler (tfrt). computer-based pulse width modulation control yields heating rates of 6-7 k/s and cooling rates of 5 k/s. the ...200919159110
organised genome dynamics in the escherichia coli species results in highly diverse adaptive paths.the escherichia coli species represents one of the best-studied model organisms, but also encompasses a variety of commensal and pathogenic strains that diversify by high rates of genetic change. we uniformly (re-) annotated the genomes of 20 commensal and pathogenic e. coli strains and one strain of e. fergusonii (the closest e. coli related species), including seven that we sequenced to completion. within the approximately 18,000 families of orthologous genes, we found approximately 2,000 comm ...200919165319
the ipac carboxyterminal effector domain mediates src-dependent actin polymerization during shigella invasion of epithelial cells.shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades epithelial cells by locally reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. shigella invasion requires actin polymerization dependent on the src tyrosine kinase and a functional bacterial type iii secretion (t3s) apparatus. using dynamic as well as immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that the t3s translocon component ipac allows the recruitment of the src kinase required for actin polymerization at bacterial entry sites during the initial sta ...200919165331
tight junctions as targets of infectious agents.the epithelial barrier is a critical border that segregates luminal material from entering tissues. essential components of this epithelial fence are physical intercellular structures termed tight junctions. these junctions use a variety of transmembrane proteins coupled with cytoplasmic adaptors, and the actin cytoskeleton, to attach adjacent cells together thereby forming intercellular seals. breaching of this barrier has profound effects on human health and disease, as barrier deficiencies ha ...200919059200
seasonal stability of cladophora-associated salmonella in lake michigan watersheds.the bacterial pathogens shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, and shiga toxin-producing e. coli (stec) were recently found to be associated with cladophora growing in southern lake michigan. preliminary results indicated that the salmonella strains associated with cladophora were genetically identical to each other. however, because of the small sample size (n=37 isolates) and a lack of information on spatial-temporal relationships, the nature of the association between cladophora and salmonella ...200919059626
prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the united kingdom.the prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (scp) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the united kingdom over a 2-year period. slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with scp and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. phenotypic resistance to scp was significantly higher in ...200919064898
contribution of the periplasmic chaperone skp to efficient presentation of the autotransporter icsa on the surface of shigella flexneri.icsa is an outer membrane protein in the autotransporter family that is required for shigella flexneri pathogenesis. following its secretion through the sec translocon, icsa is incorporated into the outer membrane in a process that depends on yaet, a component of an outer membrane beta-barrel insertion machinery. we investigated the role of the periplasmic chaperone skp in icsa maturation. skp is required for the presentation of the mature amino terminus (alpha-domain) of icsa on the bacterial s ...200919047350
lactobacilli facilitate maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity during shigella dysenteriae 1 infection in rats.lactobacilli are used in various dairy products and fermented foods for their potential health beneficial effects. recently we reported the protective role of lactobacillus rhamnosus and lactobacillus acidophilus during shigella dysenteriae 1 infection. nevertheless, investigations on the membrane-stabilizing effect of l. rhamnosus and l. acidophilus have not been done. hence, the present study evaluated the effect of l. rhamnosus and l. acidophilus on the maintenance of intestinal membrane inte ...200919036564
selective ccr2-targeted macrophage depletion ameliorates experimental mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.the ccl2/ccr2 chemokine/receptor axis directs the chemotaxis of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and t cells and plays a pivotal role in tissue damage and fibrosis in kidney diseases. the eradication of the activated leucocytes should diminish the production of inflammatory mediators, limit tissue damage and ameliorate disease. a recombinant fusion protein (opl-ccl2-lpm) comprised of the human ccl2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) chemokine fused to a truncated form of the enzymatically ac ...200919040610
antigen-specific b memory cell responses to lipopolysaccharide (lps) and invasion plasmid antigen (ipa) b elicited in volunteers vaccinated with live-attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidates.we evaluated b memory responses in healthy adult volunteers who received one oral dose of live-attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccine. lps-specific b(m) cells increased from a median of 0 at baseline to 20 spot forming cells (sfc)/10(6) expanded cells following vaccination (p=0.008). a strong correlation was found between post-vaccination anti-lps b(m) cell counts and peak serum anti-lps igg titers (rs=0.95, p=0.0003). increases in b(m) specific for ipab approaching significance were also obser ...200919022324
interaction of enteric bacterial pathogens with murine embryonic stem cells.embryonic stem (es) cells are susceptible to genetic manipulation and retain the potential to differentiate into diverse cell types, which are factors that make them potentially attractive cells for studying host-pathogen interactions. murine es cells were found to be susceptible to invasion by salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and shigella flexneri and to the formation of attaching and effacing lesions by enteropathogenic escherichia coli. s. enterica serovar typhimurium and s. flexneri c ...200919029302
ceramide and cerebrosides from the octocoral sarcophyton ehrenbergi.chemical investigation of the octocoral sarcophyton ehrenbergi, collected at the dongsha islands, taiwan, has led to the isolation of a known ceramide (1) and two new cerebrosides, sarcoehrenosides a (2) and b (4), along with three known cerebrosides (3, 5, and 6). the structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. sarcoehrenoside a (2) differs from previously known marine cerebrosides in that it possesses a rare alpha-glucose moiety. compounds 1-6 were e ...200919006372
inferring genomic flux in bacteria.acquisition and loss of genetic material are essential forces in bacterial microevolution. they have been repeatedly linked with adaptation of lineages to new lifestyles, and in particular, pathogenicity. comparative genomics has the potential to elucidate this genetic flux, but there are many methodological challenges involved in inferring evolutionary events from collections of genome sequences. here we describe a model-based method for using whole-genome sequences to infer the patterns of gen ...200919015321
espt triggers formation of lamellipodia and membrane ruffles through activation of rac-1 and cdc42.subversion of the eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton is a virulence strategy employed by many bacterial pathogens. due to the pivotal role of rho gtpases in actin dynamics they are common targets of bacterial effector proteins and toxins. ipgb1, ipgb2 (shigella), sifa, sifb (salmonella) and map and espm (attaching and effacing pathogens) constitute a family of type iii secretion system effectors that subverts small gtpase signalling pathways. in this study we identified and characterized espt from cit ...200919016787
mxic is secreted by and controls the substrate specificity of the shigella flexneri type iii secretion apparatus.many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria use a type iii secretion (t3s) system to interact with cells of their hosts. mechanisms controlling the hierarchical addressing of needle subunits, translocators and effectors to the t3s apparatus (t3sa) are still poorly understood. we investigated the function of mxic, the member of the yopn/inve/sepl family in the shigella flexneri t3s system. inactivation of mxic led specifically to a deregulated secretion of effectors (including ipaa, ipgd, icsb, ipgb2, ...200919017268
shigella flexneri type iii secretion system effectors ospb and ospf target the nucleus to downregulate the host inflammatory response via interactions with retinoblastoma protein.ospf, ospg and ipah(9.8) are type iii secretion system (t3ss) effectors of shigella flexneri that downregulate the host innate immune response. ospf modifies mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and polymorphonuclear leucocyte transepithelial migration associated with shigella invasion. ospf also localizes in the nucleus to mediate chromatin remodelling, resulting in reduced transcription of inflammatory cytokines. we now report that ospb can be added to the set of s. flexneri t3ss effector ...200919017275
extensive antibody cross-reactivity among infectious gram-negative bacteria revealed by proteome microarray analysis.antibodies provide a sensitive indicator of proteins displayed by bacteria during sepsis. because signals produced by infection are naturally amplified during the antibody response, host immunity can be used to identify biomarkers for proteins that are present at levels currently below detectable limits. we developed a microarray comprising approximately 70% of the 4066 proteins contained within the yersinia pestis proteome to identify antibody biomarkers distinguishing plague from infections ca ...200919112181
antimicrobial activity of prulifloxacin tested against a worldwide collection of gastroenteritis-producing pathogens, including those causing traveler's diarrhea.prulifloxacin, the prodrug of ulifloxacin (active component), is a newer fluoroquinolone with broad activity against enteric and nonenteric gram-negative bacilli. ulifloxacin and other oral comparator agents were tested for activity against 582 gastroenteritis strains from global surveillance studies. ulifloxacin was highly active against escherichia coli, salmonella spp., shigella spp., yersinia spp., vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., and plesiomonas spp. (mic(50)s and mic(90)s, <or=0.03 microg/ml a ...200919114678
diagnosis and prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in tehran children's hospitals.acute diarrhea disease is the second cause of death among all infectious diseases in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. the aim of this study was to employ a combination of biochemical, microbiological and molecular diagnostic techniques to investigate the stools of iranian children with acute diarrhea for bacterial enteropathogens.200919117609
bacterial particle endocytosis by epithelial cells is selective and enhanced by tumor necrosis factor receptor ligands.bacterial pathogens use virulence strategies to invade epithelial barriers, but active processes of epithelial cells may also contribute to the endocytosis of microbial particles. to focus on the latter, we studied the uptake of fixed and fluorescently labeled bacterial particles in intestinal and bronchoepithelial cell cultures and found it to be enhanced in caco-2bbe and nci-h292 cells after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha and an agonist antibody against the lymphotoxin beta recepto ...200919129472
genetics and environmental regulation of shigella iron transport systems.shigella spp. have transport systems for both ferric and ferrous iron. the iron can be taken up as free iron or complexed to a variety of carriers. all shigella species have both the feo and sit systems for acquisition of ferrous iron, and all have at least one siderophore-mediated system for transport of ferric iron. several of the transport systems, including sit, iuc/iuta (aerobactin synthesis and transport), fec (ferric di-citrate uptake), and shu (heme transport) are encoded within pathogen ...200919130265
outbreaks of shigella sonnei infections in denmark and australia linked to consumption of imported raw baby corn.we investigated an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in denmark and australia associated with imported baby corn from one packing shed in thailand. we reviewed nationwide surveillance and undertook case finding, food trace-back and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. a recall of baby corn and sugar snaps was based on descriptive epidemiological evidence. in denmark, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in one workplace. in total, 215 cases were labor ...200919134229
frequency of isolation of various subtypes and antimicrobial resistance of shigella from urban slums of karachi, pakistan.shigellosis remains a major public health problem in developing countries. antimicrobial resistance has complicated the empirical treatment. knowledge of serotypes is crucial in vaccine development, as cross-protection between various serotypes is limited. therefore we conducted a prospective study to determine the frequency of isolation of shigella serotypes and antimicrobial resistance.200919135399
safety and immunogenicity of sc599, an oral live attenuated shigella dysenteriae type-1 vaccine in healthy volunteers: results of a phase 2, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.sc599 vaccine is a live shigella dysenteriae 1 strain attenuated by deletion of invasion [icsa], iron chelation [ent, fep] and shiga toxin a subunit [stxa] genes. in a preliminary phase 1 single dose prospective study, we showed that sc599 vaccine was well tolerated, and the maximum tolerable dose was greater than 10(8) cfu [sadorge c, ndiaye a, beveridge n, frazer s, giemza r, jolly n, et al. phase 1 clinical trial of live attenuated shigella dysenteriae type-1 deltaicsa deltaent deltafep delta ...200919135496
trends in antimicrobial resistance of fecal shigella and salmonella isolates in tehran, iran.the resistance of bacteria to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as developed countries. resistance has emerged even to newer, more potent antimicrobial agents. the present study was therefore undertaken to report resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in 2487 stool culture isolates in a tertiary care hospital between 1996 and 2000 and 2001 and 2005.200919136781
fungal and bacterial killing by neutrophils.neutrophils are professional phagocytes of the innate immune system that are essential to control bacterial and fungal infections. these cells engulf and kill invading microbes. additionally, activated neutrophils are able to release neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). these fibers consist of chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins to trap and kill microbes. appropriate quantitative methods are required to understand the nature of interactions of neutrophils with pathogens. here we pr ...200919089391
molecular detection of all 34 distinct o-antigen forms of shigella.shigella is the cause of shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, the occurrence of which is estimated to be 165 million cases per year worldwide, resulting in 1.1 million deaths. rapid and reliable assays for detecting and identifying shigella in food, environmental and clinical samples are therefore necessary. shigella species are traditionally identified by their o antigens. this study developed a dna microarray targeting o-serotype-specific genes to detect all 34 distinct o-antigen forms of shige ...200919074655
international foodborne outbreak of shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.during 22-24 august 2004, an outbreak of shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from hawaii. forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to japan, australia, 22 us states, and american samoa. all flights were served by one caterer. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 s. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served ...200918177516
[shigella strategy for host defense and mucosal infection]. 200921089529
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic escherichia coli and shigella species associated with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran.a study was performed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of shigella species and diarrheagenic escherichia coli isolates cultured from patients with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran. between may 2003 and may 2005, 1120 diarrheal specimens were collected and assayed for bacterial enteropathogens by conventional and molecular methods. etiological agents were isolated from 564 (50.3%) specimens, and included 305 (54%) e coli, 157 (27.8%) shigella species, and 102 (18%) from othe ...200920808457
association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in parts of ibadan city, nigeria.occurrence of diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases in cities of developing countries has been on the increase over the decades largely due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene among human population. this study examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of water-borne diseases vis-a-vis water quality in parts of ibadan city in nigeria. data on 1334 cases of various water-borne diseases was collected from eight public hospitals with catchments covering the study ...200920734698
shigella species and serotypes among clinical isolates in thailand from 2001 to study the species and the serotypes of the clinical isolates of shigella obtained from patients in thailand.200921298848
laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea syndrome; a three years study in two hospitals of infectious diseases.infectious diarrhoea is a syndrome caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. the wide diversity of etiological agents impairs the surveillance and the diagnosis and affects the correct treatment applied to reduce the long-term complications. besides well known enteric pathogens such as salmonella, shigella and yersinia, a high number of emergent and re-emergent aetiologies are now recognised to be ...200920361527
an urban, water-borne outbreak of diarrhoea and shigellosis in a district town in eastern september 2007, the gayeshpur municipality reported a cluster of cases with diarrhoea. we aimed to identify the causative agent and the source of the disease.200920334044
pcr targeting of antibiotic resistant bacteria in public drinking water of lahore metropolitan, investigate the prevalence of kanamycin (kan) and ampicillin (amp) resistant bacteria in public drinking water.200920337218
screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from melghat forest in india.cyperus rotundus, caesalpinia bonducella, tinospora cordifolia, gardenia gummifera, ailanthus excelsa, acacia arabica, embelia ribes and ventilago maderspatana from melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi, shigella flexneri, salmonella paratyphi, salmonella typhimurium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. out of these medicinal pla ...200920448847
sporadic paediatric diarrhoeal illness in urban and rural sites in nyanza province, kenya.investigate differences in the infectious aetiology, health seeking behaviour, and provider practices with regard to diarrhoeal illness among children presenting to urban versus rural clinics in western kenya.200920575313
acute gastrointestinal illness in new zealand: information from a survey of community and hospital describe and quantify laboratory testing of faecal samples for enteric pathogens as a component of the reporting pyramid of acute gastrointestinal illness (agi) in new zealand.200920148044
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in sub-saharan africa: status, uncertainties and necessities.diarrhea is a leading cause of illness and death, particularly in developing countries. enteropathogenic escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec), enteroinvasive e. coli, enterohemorrhaghic e. coli (ehec), enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec) and diffusely adherent e. coli (daec) have been associated with diarrheal disease in different parts of africa, particularly among young children, hiv-positive individuals, and visitors from abroad. each of these e. coli pathotypes uses distinct mechani ...200920061678
diarrhea associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: a 3-year picu experience from nepal. 200920072865
[characteristics of dysentery-causing strains isolated from patients and carriers in republic of south ossetia during period of humanitarian disaster]. 200920095424
prevalence of intestinal parasitic and bacterial pathogens in diarrhoeal and non-diarroeal human stools from vhembe district, south the present study, a cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections in relation to diarrhoea in vhembe district and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial pathogens was conducted. stool samples were collected from 528 patients attending major public hospitals and 295 children attending two public primary schools and were analyzed by standard microbiological and parasitological techniques. entamoeba histolytica/e. dispar (34.2%) and cryptospori ...200920099757
[the effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in blastocystis hominis infection].the aim of this study was to investigate clinical findings and the effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smx) in cases of blastocystosis. a total of 37 cases whose stool specimens were sent to the parasitology laboratory from the outpatient clinics of our hospital for various reasons were included in the study. only five or more blastocystis hominis were found during examination with direct wet mount using the 40x objective. the stool specimens were tested for other agents (salmonella sp ...200920101575
antimicrobial resistance induced by genetic changes.decoding the mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics is essential in fighting a phenomenon, which is amplifying everyday due to the uncontrolled excessive and many times unjustified use of anti-microbial substances. at present it has become a matter of public health, together with the resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis to tuberculostatic or the spreading of the aids virus which not only affects the european countries but the entire globe. this paper presents the genic mutations taking plac ...200920108530
highly sensitive detection of shigella flexneri using fluorescent silica nanoparticles.robust signal amplification tactic is a good solution for improving detection sensitivity. unprocessed fluorophores have many limitations. here we describe an effective strategy for highly sensitive detection of bacteria by using fluorescent conjugated nanoparticles. the nanoparticles were synthesized using silica as matrix. fluorescein isothiocyanate distributed in the matrix. s. flexneri specific antibody was coated on the surface of the nanoparticles. compared to the traditional fluorescent a ...200920128444
[campylobacter spp. as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in selected region of poland].the results of the epidemiological analysis of campylobacteriosis reported by regional laboratory of sanitary epidemiological station in bielsko-biala (psse bielsko-biala), silesia voivodeship in poland are presented. from august 2006 to july 2009, stool samples from diarrhea cases were examined for the presence of campylobacter spp. as well as salmonella, shigella, yersinia, enteropathogenic (epec) and verotoxigenic (vtec) e. coli. the most frequently isolated species of campylobacter spp. was ...200920120952
[prof. kazimierz lachowicz (md)--100th anniversary of birthday].prof. kazimierz lachowicz, md, dipl. medical microbiology, was the founder and the first director of the three regional branches of national institute of hygiene (nih),--in stanisławów (eastern poland) (1937-43), now in ukrainian ivano-frankivsk, maritime in gdynia (1945), now institute of maritime and tropical medicine, and in gdańsk (1945-52). in nih, warsaw, 1953-75 he directed intestinal infection laboratory of bacteriological dept., later founded and directed the national shigella centre as ...200920120962
resistances of antibiotics and heavy metals in enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from gills and intestines of achanthobrama marmid (heckel,1843) from sir dam lake turkey.a total of 94 bacteria, associated with wild achanthobrama marmid (heckel, 1843) in sir dam lake of turkey identified. subsequently selected isolates were characterized and identified to the genus level the 94 members of enterobacteriaceae were isolated in the gills and intestines, and among the isolates, e. coli were represented at a rate of 55%, shigella spp. at a rate of 21%, salmonella spp. at a rate of 9%, citrobacter spp. at a rate of 9%, klebsiella spp. at a rate of 3% and proteus spp., a ...200920112859
[etiological analysis of enteric infectious diseases during beijing olympic games].to understand pathogen patterns of enteric infectious diseases and its impact on this pattern due to aggregation of a great deal of foreign visitors during beijing olympic games.200920137562
escherichia coli as reservoir for macrolide resistance genes.the plasmid-borne mph(a) gene that confers resistance to azithromycin and has recently emerged in shigella sonnei is present in multidrug- and non-multidrug-resistant escherichia coli isolates from 4 continents. further spread of mph(a) to shigella and salmonella spp. may be expected.200919861064
in this issue.shigellosis, dysentery - by whatever name - don't kiss the chimps: pp. 5029-5045with a 10-15% mortality rate when untreated in young children and immunedeficient patients, over one million deaths per year are attributable to this primate/human-only disease. furthermore, the shigella spp. have developed resistance to b-lactam, tetracycline, and aminoglycoside antibiotics very rapidly. a non-primate model of the disease is based on gnotobiotic piglets. aerobically grown bacteria shift to anaerobic ...200919921678
studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of aegle marmelos unripe fruit: validating its traditional usage.aegle marmelos (l.) correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. however, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of a. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea.200919930633
a unified approach to molecular epidemiology investigations: tools and patterns in california as a case study for endemic shigellosis.shigellosis causes diarrheal disease in humans from both developed and developing countries, and multi-drug resistance is an emerging problem. the objective of this study is to present a unified approach that can be used to characterize endemic and outbreak patterns of shigellosis using use a suite of epidemiologic and molecular techniques. the approach is applied to a california case study example of endemic shigellosis at the population level.200919930709
enteroinvasive escherichia coli vs. shigella flexneri: how different patterns of gene expression affect virulence.important features of the enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) phenotype and gene expression likely to confer eiec with a lower ability to cause disease than shigella flexneri were described here for the first time. to confirm the lower pathogenicity of eiec, we have analyzed the keratoconjunctivitis developed in guinea-pigs with eiec or s. flexneri. shigella flexneri induced a more pronounced proinflammatory response, whereas eiec induced a mild form of the disease. eiec showed a significantl ...200919889166
pneumonia caused by shigella sonnei in man returned from india. 200919891897
spatial distribution of diarrhoea and microbial quality of domestic water during an outbreak of diarrhoea in the tshikuwi community in venda, south microbial quality assessment and geographical information system were used for evaluating the quality of water and the spatial distribution of diarrhoea cases in tshikuwi, a rural community in south africa, during an outbreak of diarrhoea. the water-abstraction points included two groundwater storage tanks, namely tank 1 and tank 2 and the khandanama river. indicator microbial counts for total coliforms, faecal coliforms, enterococci, and heterotrophic bacteria exceeded the limit for no ri ...200919902801
prevalence of staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers in sanliurfa, southeastern diseases represent a persistent global health burden, and food handlers play a major role in their transmission. staphylococcus aureus carriage and intestinal parasitism are important risk factors for the contamination of food and water. this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working in sanliurfa, southeastern anatolia.200919823157
secretory iga-mediated neutralization of shigella flexneri prevents intestinal tissue destruction by down-regulating inflammatory circuits.shigella, a gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium responsible for bacillary dysentery, causes the rupture, invasion, and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic mucosa. we explored the mechanisms of protection mediated by shigella lps-specific secretory iga (siga), the major mucosal ab induced upon natural infection. bacteria, siga, or siga-s. flexneri immune complexes were administered into rabbit ligated intestinal loops containing a peyer's patch. after 8 h, localizations of ...200919828639
beneficial role of green plantain [musa paradisiaca] in the management of persistent diarrhea: a prospective randomized evaluate the beneficial effects of green plantain-based diet on stool volume, frequency and weight gain as compared with a traditional yogurt-based diet in children with persistent diarrhea.200919828902
how autophagy regulates the host cell signaling associated with the postpartum bacteria cocoon experienced as a danger signal.shigella, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, invades the host cell, rapidly breaking the phagosome and multiplying in the cytosol. here, we summarize our recent work showing the targeting of the leftover membrane remnants to autophagy together with trapped membrane-associated signaling molecules recruited during the immediate early entry step. we suggest that this mechanism participates in the bacteria-dependent orchestration of the cell response. moreover, we propose that this si ...200919829050
effect of x-ray treatments on inoculated escherichia coli o157: h7, salmonella enterica, shigella flexneri and vibrio parahaemolyticus in ready-to-eat shrimp.this study was conducted to evaluate the inactivation effect of x-ray treatments on escherichia coli o157: h7, salmonella enteric (s. enterica), shigella flexneri (s. flexneri) and vibrio parahaemolyticus (v. parahaemolyticus) artificially inoculated in ready-to-eat (rte) shrimp. a mixed culture of three strains of each tested pathogen was used to inoculate rte shrimp. the shrimp samples were inoculated individually with selected pathogenic bacteria then aseptically placed in sterile plastic cup ...200919835772
the mannitol operon repressor mtlr belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (pts). the mannitol-specific pts catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. the uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. the expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (mtlr) that was first studied in escherichia coli. here we report the first crystal structures of mtlr from vibrio parahemeolyticus (vp-mtlr) and ...200919840941
the immunogenic siga enterotoxin of shigella flexneri 2a binds to hep-2 cells and induces fodrin redistribution in intoxicated epithelial cells.we have previously shown that the enterotoxin siga which resides on the she pathogenicity island (pai) of s. flexneri 2a is an autonomously secreted serine protease capable of degrading casein. we have also demonstrated that siga is cytopathic for hep-2 cells and plays a role in the intestinal fluid accumulation associated with s. flexneri infections.200920011051
trends in antimicrobial resistance in shigella species in karachi, pakistan.shigellosis is a common cause of morbidity, especially in the very young and old, in developing countries. the disease is treated with antibiotics. surveillance of antimicrobial resistance trends is essential owing to the global emergence of antimicrobial resistance.200920009283
bacterial effector binding to ribosomal protein s3 subverts nf-kappab function.enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. ehec also causes a potentially fatal kidney disease (hemolytic uremic syndrome) for which there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis. ehec and other enteric patho ...200920041225
antibacterial and antifungal activities of some mexican medicinal mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. the aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six mexican medicinal plants against fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. methanolic extracts were prepared from the mexican medicinal plants amphypteringium adstrigens, castella tortuosa, coutarea latiflora, ibervillea sonorae, jatropha cuneata, and selaginella lepidophylla. the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the ...200920041800
multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis of shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri is one of the causative agents of shigellosis, a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. multilocus variable-number tandem repeat (vntr) analysis (mlva) is a prominent subtyping method to resolve closely related bacterial isolates for investigation of disease outbreaks and provide information for establishing phylogenetic patterns among isolates. the present study aimed to develop an mlva method for s. flexneri and the vntr loci identified were tested on 242 ...200920042119
enteric pathogens in hiv/aids from a tertiary care hospital.patterns of enteric infections in hiv in developing countries may differ in several important ways from developed countries, the knowledge of which can often guide therapy when resource limitations hamper the exact diagnosis of the etiological agent in hiv-associated diarrhea.200920049303
[overdiagnosis of amebiasis in children with dysentery].there are morphologically identical amebaes, but with differences that can distinguish them; one as pathogenic: entamoeba histolytica, and the other: entamoeba dispar, as inoffensive. that brought the new hypothesis that many of the cases treated as amebiasis, weren't so.200920049395
[development of taqman real-time pcr in detection of aeromonas hydrophila].to develop a taqman real-time pcr for the detection of aeromonas hydrophila.200919954074
[investigation of a norovirus outbreak through contaminated centralized water supply system].to investigate the etiology and source of an infectious diarrhea outbreak and control the epidemic.200919954078
purification, characterization, and gene cloning of glucose-1-phosphatase from citrobacter braakii.citrobacter braakii produced an intracellular acid glucose phosphatase (agpc) which was purified 986 fold to homogeneity with the specific activity of 286 units/mg. agpc hydrolyzed a wide variety of phosphorylated compounds with high activity for glucose-1-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. the optimum ph and temperature for the enzyme activity was ph 5.0 and 45 degrees c, respectively. the km value for glucose-1-phosphate was 5.12 mm with a vmax 27.8 u mg(-1). its molecular weight was 46 kda by ...200919940380
vaccines for enteric diseases: update on recent developments.the 5th international conference on vaccines for enteric diseases (ved) attracted more than 250 delegates, mainly from industrialized countries. a total of 56 papers were presented and 46 posters were displayed to update recent developments in the field of enteric diseases and vaccine development. this 3-day event enabled academic research institutions, pharmaceutical and biotech companies, and international donors to get a sense of what has been going on since the last ved conference in 2007. t ...200919943760
inactivated and subunit vaccines to prevent shigellosis.shigellosis remains a formidable disease globally, with children of the developing world bearing the greatest number of infections. the need for an affordable, safe and efficacious vaccine has persisted for decades. vaccines to prevent shigellosis can be divided into living and nonliving approaches. several nonliving shigella vaccines are currently at different stages of development and show substantial promise. outlined here is an overview of multiple nonliving vaccine technologies, highlightin ...200919943764
a changing picture of shigellosis in southern vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation.shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. the nature of shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. this is demonstrated by variation and fluctuations in serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profile of organisms circulating in differing setting in endemic locations. antimicrobial resistance in the genus shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in asia being resistant to ...200920003464
helicobacter pylori induces mapk phosphorylation and ap-1 activation via a nod1-dependent mechanism.helicobacter pylori rapidly activates mapks and transcription factors, nf-kappab and ap-1, in gastric epithelial cells following host attachment. activation of these signal transducers is largely dependent on the cag pathogenicity island (cagpai)-encoded type iv secretion system. h. pylori was shown to translocate peptidoglycan through the type iv secretion system, which is recognized by the pathogen recognition molecule, nod1, thus resulting in nf-kappab activation. the mechanisms of h. pylori- ...200920007577
etiology of childhood diarrhea in the northeast of brazil: significant emergent diarrheal a study conducted in joão pessoa, northeast of brazil, 2344 escherichia coli isolated from 290 infants with diarrhea and 290 healthy matched controls were analyzed for virulence traits. enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec) was the most prevalent pathogen associated to acute diarrhea. based on the results of colony blot hybridization, serotyping, and hep-2 cell adherence assays, strains were separated in categories as typical enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) (1.7%), atypical epec (a-epec) (9.3%), e ...201018508227
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of shigella spp. with reference to its virulence genes and antibiogram analysis from river narmada.water samples of the river narmada from origin to end were analyzed for the presence of shigellae. analysis of 40 water samples by biotyping, serotyping, and molecular typing were done. out of all 40 isolates, 23 were identified as shigella flexneri, 10 as shigella sonnei, and seven as shigella dysenteriae. serotyping was found to be a better identification method than biotyping since biotyping was not found to be very sharp. in the present investigation, amplified ribosomal dna restriction anal ...201019501495
lactobacilli inhibit shigella dysenteriae 1 induced pro-inflammatory response and cytotoxicity in host cells via impediment of shigella-host interactions.shigella dysenteriae type 1 dysentery is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children from less developed and developing countries. the present study explores the hypothesis that lactobacilli protect the host cell during s. dysenteriae type 1 infection and its mechanism of action.201019535308
survey of bacterial populations present in us-produced linerboard with high recycle survey paperboard products from 17 us mills for bacterial populations and for bacteria potentially harmful to human health.201019645765
differential expression of enteric neuroimmune-network in invasive and acute watery diarrhoea.we aimed to evaluate the changes of nerve morphology and distribution of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the rectum of shigella flexneri-infected patients and in the duodenum of vibrio cholerae o1-infected patients. nerve morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (ngf), neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry. ultrastructural analysis of intestinal biopsy revealed persisting axons degene ...201019650770
biennial hyperepidemic shigellosis in an observant jewish community.we aimed to study patterns of shigellosis in a large observant jewish community in israel and to describe local interventions during outbreaks. surveillance data from the ministry of health were used to calculate incidence rates in 1998-2006, both in the city of bene beraq and the tel aviv district. information on isolates was collected from the bacteriological laboratory of a community hospital. public notices and educational conferences conveyed a message to increase personal hygiene and keep ...201019602299
immunomodulation using genetically engineered bacteria for type iii-mediated delivery of heterologous antigens and cytokines: potential application in vaccine and therapeutical developments.the rational design of new approaches aiming to improve antigen or drug delivery remains a major challenge in numerous vaccine and therapeutical strategies. studies on genetically engineered bacteria have led to significant progress in the delivery of heterologous proteins. yet, the efficiency of such recombinant bacteria relies particularly on their ability to deliver sufficient amount of the drug to intended cell tissues. gram-negative bacteria like salmonella, shigella, yersinia and pseudomon ...201019778176
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