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anti-enteric bacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of the seed kernel extract of mangifera indica linnaeus against shigella dysenteriae (shiga, corrig.) castellani and chalmers.to evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial efficacy of the seed kernel extract of mangifera indica (m. indica) against the enteropathogen, shigella dysenteriae (s. dysenteriae), isolated from the diarrhoeal stool specimens.201121771473
serine protease autotransporters from shigella flexneri and pathogenic escherichia coli target a broad range of leukocyte glycoproteins.the serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates) are secreted by pathogenic gram-negative bacteria through the autotransporter pathway. we previously classified spate proteins into two classes: cytotoxic (class 1) and noncytotoxic (class 2). here, we show that pic, a class 2 spate protein produced by shigella flexneri 2a, uropathogenic and enteroaggregative escherichia coli strains, targets a broad range of human leukocyte adhesion proteins. substrate specificity was restricte ...201121768350
antimicrobial resistance pattern of shigella species over five years at a tertiary-care teaching hospital in north india. 201121766566
molecular identification of bacteria by total sequence screening: determining the cause of death in ancient human subjects.research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient dna, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern s ...201121765907
rapid concentration and molecular enrichment approach for sensitive detection of escherichia coli/shigella in potable water samples.in this work, we used a rapid, simple, and efficient concentration and recovery procedure combined with a dna enrichment method (dubbed crename), that we coupled to an escherichia coli/shigella-specific real-time pcr (rtpcr) assay targeting the tuf gene, to sensitively detect e. coli/shigella in water. this integrated method was compared to the usepa culture-based method 1604 on mi agar in terms of analytical specificity, ubiquity, detection limit, and rapidity. none of the 179 non-e. coli/shige ...201121764965
burden of rotavirus and other enteropathogens among children with diarrhea in burkina faso.objective: there is limited information available regarding the etiology of gastrointestinal infections in burkina faso. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of enteric pathogens causing gastroenteritis in young children, with a focus on rotavirus, and to investigate the levels of malnutrition and other clinical factors in association with the severity of diarrhea. methods: a prospective study was undertaken from may 2009 to march 2010, covering the rainy and ...201121763172
shigella are versatile mucosal pathogens that circumvent the host innate immune system.the intestinal mucosa is equipped with multiple innate immune defense systems that sense bacterial infection, transmit alarm signals to the immune system, defeat intruding bacteria, and renew damaged and aging epithelial cells. nevertheless, mucosal bacterial pathogens have versatile pathogenic mechanisms that modulate the host inflammatory and immune responses, manipulate host cell death and survival signal pathways, and renovate the injured epithelium. these properties enable pathogens to adap ...201121763117
lipopolysaccharide core structures and their correlation with genetic groupings of shigella strains; a novel core variant in shigella boydii type 16.bacteria shigella, the cause of shigellosis, evolved from intestinal bacteria escherichia coli. based on structurally diverse o-specific polysaccharide chains of the lipopolysaccharides (o-antigens), three from four shigella species are subdivided into multiple serotypes. the central oligosaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide called core is usually conserved within genus but five core types called r1-r4 and k-12 have been recognized in e. coli. structural data on the shigella core are limited to ...201121752864
shiga toxins induce autophagy leading to differential signalling pathways in toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant human cells.the bacterial virulence factors shiga toxins (stxs) are expressed by shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain escherichia coli strains. stxs are protein synthesis inhibitors and induce apoptosis in many cell types. stxs induce apoptosis via prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling to activate both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in human myeloid cells. studies have shown that autophagy, a lysosome-dependent catabolic process, may be associated with activation of pro-survival or deat ...201121722286
structural characterization and membrane localization of exsb from the type iii secretion system (t3ss) of pseudomonas aeruginosa.pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that employs a finely tuned type iii secretion system (t3ss) to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of target cells. exsb is a 15.6-kda protein encoded in a t3ss transcription regulation operon that displays high sequence similarity to yscw, a lipoprotein from yersinia spp. whose genetic neighborhood also involves a transcriptional regulator, and has been shown to play a role in the stabilization of the outer membrane ring of the t3 ...201121839744
molecular characterization of fecal microbiota in patients with viral diarrhea.the study provides molecular analyses of fecal microbiota of diarrhea patients infected with four different types of viruses. fecal specimens from 52 patients with viral diarrhea (13 each of adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) and six healthy individuals were collected and etiological viral agent was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay and specific pcr. to assess the changes in microbial diversity in patients with viral diarrhea, dna from stool were extracted and characterized by pcr-d ...201121739252
the effect of quercus castaneifolia extract on pathogenic enteric bacteria.the family of enterobacteriaceae is a major group of gram negative bacteria, some of these microorganisms are pathogen and could cause disease mainly gastroenteritis. recently, due to drug resistant nature of these bacteria specially in developing countries treatment of the patient considered as important investigate. quercus castaneifolia is a native plant of yasuj province in iran, which the people who living in this area consume the fruit of this plant for treatment of enteric disease. hence, ...201121827865
viral-associated thrombotic microangiopathies.thrombotic microangiopathies encompass a group of disorders characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia associated with hyaline thrombi (comprised primarily of platelet aggregates in the microcirculation), and varying degrees of end-organ failure. many primary (genetic) and secondary etiological predisposing factors have been described-namely pregnancy, autoimmune disorders, cancer, drugs and antineoplastic therapy, bone marrow transplantation/solid organ transplantation ...201121727765
acquired antibiotic resistance: are we born with it?the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (ar) is a major public health concern. recent findings on the prevalence of foodborne antibiotic resistant (art) commensal bacteria in ready-to-consume food products suggested that daily food consumption likely serves as a major avenue for disseminating art bacteria from the food chain to the human hosts. to properly assess the impact of various factors including the food chain on ar development in hosts, it is important to determine the baseline of a ...201121821748
single nucleotide polymorphism (snp)-based differentiation of shigella isolates by pyrosequencing.analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) is an important genetic tool that provides molecular markers for rapid differentiation of closely related strains. we have applied snp discovery and analysis for distinguishing each of the four shigella serogroups (boydii, dysenteriae, flexneri, and sonnei) and for discriminating individual strains within the same serogroup by using 24 snps selected from nine genes. five snps were identified from sequence analysis of two housekeeping genes (gapa ...201121839856
outer membrane protein a (ompa) of shigella flexneri 2a, induces protective immune response in a mouse model.in our earlier studies 34 kda outer membrane protein (omp) of shigella flexneri 2a has been identified as an efficient immunostimulant.201121818362
studies on the activity of cyperus rotundus linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea.to study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of cyperus rotundus linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. effect on adherence of enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) and invasion of enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec) and shigella flexneri to hep-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic e. ...201121713044
epidemiology of food-borne disease outbreaks in the french armed forces: a review of investigations conducted from 1999 to 2009.objective: aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of food-borne disease outbreaks (fbdos) in the french armed forces from 1999 to 2009. methods: fbdos are reported to the military epidemiological surveillance system, which concerns all active military personnel. investigation reports published from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. results: among the 180 fbdos reported, 48.3% occurred overseas. the mean reporting rate was 2.4 outbreaks p.100,000 in france and 26.7 p.100,000 oversea ...201121840337
recovery and characterization of environmental variants of shigella flexneri from surface water in bangladesh.little is known about the distribution, survival, and transmission of shigella in environmental surface waters. to gain more insight into the environmental biology of shigella we isolated five bacterial strains serotyped as shigella flexneri 2b from a freshwater lake in bangladesh using a modified nutrient broth supplemented with nucleic acid bases. the biochemical properties of the isolates, including inability to ferment lactose and a negative lysine decarboxylase test, indicated common physio ...201121826486
antimicrobial activity of gynostemma pentaphyllum extracts against fungi producing aflatoxin and fumonisin and bacteria causing diarrheal disease.gynostemma pentaphyllum was investigated to determine its antimicrobial activities against human.and animal pathogens that produce aflatoxin, fumonisin, and diarrheal disease. the fungi were aspergillusflavus, aspergillus parasiticus and fusarium verticillioides. the bacteria were vibrio, salmonella, shigella, escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus. g. pentaphyllum was extracted by five different methods. the obtained extracts were designated extracts a, b, c, d and e. the results of the ant ...201121706950
a new class of 2-(4-cyanophenyl amino)-4-(6-bromo-4-quinolinyloxy)-6-piperazinyl (piperidinyl)-1,3,5-triazine analogues with antimicrobial/antimycobacterial activity.this study presents the synthesis and in vitro pharmacological evaluations of novel 2-(4-cyanophenyl amino)-4-(6-bromo-4-quinolinyloxy)-6-piperazinyl (piperidinyl)-1,3,5-triazines. the title compounds were assayed for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against eight bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella typhi, proteus vulgaris, shigella flexneria) and four fungi (aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, a ...201121740100
multi-pathogen waterborne disease outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on lake michigan.summarywe report an outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on lake michigan. this took place on the same day as heavy rainfall, which resulted in 42-à4 billion liters of rainwater and storm runoff containing highly diluted sewage being released into the lake. of 72 cruise participants, 41 (57%) reported gastroenteritis. stool specimens were positive for shigella sonnei (n=3), giardia (n=3), and cryptosporidium (n=2). ice consumption was associated with illness (risk ratio 2-à2, p=0-à011). s. s ...201121676362
structural and functional studies on the n-terminal domain of the shigella type iii secretion protein mxig.mxig is a single-pass membrane protein that oligomerizes within the inner membrane ring of the shigella flexneri type iii secretion system (t3ss). the mxig n-terminal domain (mxig-n) is the predominant cytoplasmic structure; however, its role in t3ss assembly and secretion is largely uncharacterized. we have determined the solution structure of mxig-n residues 6-112 (mxig-n(6-112)), representing the first published structure of this t3ss domain. the structure shows strong structural homology to ...201121733840
physicochemical and microbiological assessment of recreational and drinking waters.the present study was aimed to make an assessment of health risk due to pollution and human pathogenic bacteria associated with the recreational and drinking water sources in twin densely populated holy indian cities ayodhya and faizabad. though physicochemical studies revealed that the water available in the area is under recommended limits for human use, it is unsafe on account of poor microbiological quality of surface and ground water in the region. the most probable number (mpn) test result ...201121713494
a multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in vietnamese children.the bacterial genus shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. there have been significant increases in the proportion of shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. while nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the world health organization. resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. w ...201121829747
a multifactor regulatory circuit involving h-ns, virf and an antisense rna modulates transcription of the virulence gene icsa of shigella flexneri.the icsa gene of shigella encodes a structural protein involved in colonization of the intestinal mucosa by bacteria. this gene is expressed upon invasion of the host and is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit involving the nucleoid protein h-ns, the arac-like transcriptional activator virf, and a 450ôçënt antisense rna (rnag) acting as transcriptional attenuator. we investigated on the interplay of these factors at the molecular level. dnase i footprints reveal that both h-ns and virf bi ...201121724612
the rickettsia surface cell antigen 4 applies mimicry to bind to and activate vinculin.pathogenic rickettsiae species cause high morbidity and mortality, especially r. prowazekii the causative agent of typhus. like many intracellular pathogens, rickettsiae exploit the cytoskeleton to enter and spread within the host cell. here we report that the cell surface antigen sca4 of rickettsiae colocalizes with vinculin in cells at sites of focal adhesions, and that sca4 binds to and activates vinculin through two vinculin binding sites (vbss) that are conserved across all rickettsia. rema ...201121841197
epidemiology and molecular mechanism of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in shigella.integrons are gene capture and expression systems that are characterized by the presence of an integrase gene. this encodes an integrase, a recombined site, and a promoter. they are able to capture gene cassettes from the environment and incorporate them using site-specific recombination. the role of integrons and gene cassettes in the dissemination of multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria is significant. in shigella species, antimicrobial resistance is often associated with the presenc ...201121842348
antibacterial dimeric copper(ii) complexes with chromone-derived compounds.a new series of six chromone-derived compounds and their cu(ii) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data. the ligands and their cu(ii) complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four gram-negative (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhi, shigella flexneri) and two gram-positive (bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains by agar-well diffusion method. the ligands were foun ...201121699463
espg of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic e. coli binds the golgi matrix protein gm130 and disrupts the golgi structure and function.the enteric pathogens enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec), enterohaemorrhagic e. coli (ehec) and shigella flexneri all translocate at least one effector protein of the espg protein family into host cells via a type iii secretion system (t3ss). the espg family comprises espg, espg2 and vira. from a y2h screen, we identified the golgi matrix protein gm130 as a potential binding partner of espg. we confirmed espg:gm130 protein interaction by affinity co-purification. in co-immunoprecipitation ...201121740499
in vivo versus in vitro protein abundance analysis of shigella dysenteriae type 1 reveals changes in the expression of proteins involved in virulence, stress and energy metabolism.shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (sd1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery. quantitative proteome profiling of shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (sd1) in vitro (derived from lb cell cultures) and in vivo (derived from gnotobiotic piglets) was performed by 2d-lc-ms/ms and apex, a label-free computationally modified spectral counting methodology.201121702961
the yersinia enterocolitica type 3 secretion system (t3ss) as toolbox for studying the cell biological effects of bacterial rho gtpase modulating t3ss effector proteins.the bacterial effector proteins ipgb(1) and ipgb(2) of shigella and map of escherichia coli activate the rho gtpases rac1, rhoa and cdc42, respectively, whereas yope and yopt of yersinia inhibit these rho family gtpases. we established a yersinia toolbox which allows to study the cellular effects of these effectors in different combinations in the context of yersinia type 3 secretion system (ysc)-t3ss-mediated injection into hela cells. for this purpose hybrid proteins were constructed by fusion ...201121718421
investigating the global genomic diversity of escherichia coli using a multi-genome dna microarray platform with novel gene prediction strategies.abstract:201121733163
epidemiology and outcome of shigella, salmonella and campylobacter infections in travellers returning from the tropics with fever and diarrhoea.during a study on fever after a stay in the tropics, we aimed at investigating the epidemiology and outcome of invasive bacterial enteritis due to shigella, salmonella or campylobacter spp. in patients diagnosed with febrile traveller's diarrhoea.201121837926
differential response of the human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line hk-2 to shiga toxin types 1 and 2.shiga toxins (stxs) are expressed by the enteric pathogens shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain serotypes of escherichia coli. stx-producing bacteria cause bloody diarrhea with the potential to progress to acute renal failure. stxs are potent protein synthesis inhibitors and are the primary virulence factors responsible for renal damage that may follow diarrheal disease. we explored the use of the immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cell line hk-2 as an in vitro model of stx-ind ...201121708996
atomic structure of bacteriophage sf6 tail needle knob.podoviridae are double-stranded dna bacteriophages that use short, non-contractile tails to adsorb to the host cell surface. within the tail apparatus of p22-like phages, a dedicated fiber known as the "tail needle" likely functions as a cell envelope-penetrating device to promote ejection of viral dna inside the host. in sf6, a p22-like phage that infects shigella flexneri, the tail needle presents a c-terminal globular knob. this knob, absent in phage p22 but shared in other members of the p22 ...201121705802
molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing shigella isolates from humans in south africa, 2003-2009. 201221903820
Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay.Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and ...201222075596
Rotavirus in adults requiring hospitalization.To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus among adults admitted to the hospital with diarrhea that have bacterial stool cultures sent.201221939687
How We Didn't Clean Up Until We Washed Our Hands: Shigellosis in an Elementary and Middle School in North Texas.Shigella outbreaks often continue for months and are linked frequently to poor hygiene and hand washing. Such outbreaks are found often in day care facilities, but rarely are reported in schools. We present the investigation of an outbreak in autumn 2007 at a building that housed an elementary school and a middle school in separate wings in a small Texas city north of Dallas-Fort Worth.201222189658
the patient presenting with acute dysentery - a systematic review.objectives: the etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy. methods: we conducted a systematic review of literature published between january 2000 and june 2011 to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen-specific dysentery. results: shigella, salmonella, and campylobacter remain the most frequent bacterial causes of dysenter ...201222266388
the evolution of the escherichia coli phylogeny.escherichia coli are familiar to biologists as a classical model system, ubiquitous in molecular biology laboratories around the world. outside of the laboratory, e. coli strains exist as an almost universal component of the lower-gut flora of humans and animals. although usually a commensal, e. coli has an alter ego as a pathogen, and is associated with diarrhoeal disease and extra-intestinal infections. the study of e. coli diversity predates the availability of molecular data, with strains in ...201222266241
galectin 8 targets damaged vesicles for autophagy to defend cells against bacterial invasion.autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial infection. efficient pathogen engulfment is mediated by cargo-selecting autophagy adaptors that rely on unidentified pattern-recognition or danger receptors to label invading pathogens as autophagy cargo, typically by polyubiquitin coating. here we show in human cells that galectin 8 (also known as lgals8), a cytosolic lectin, is a danger receptor that restricts salmonella proliferation. galectin 8 monitors endosomal and lysosomal integri ...201222246324
[characterisation of a ctx-m-15-producing shigella sonnei in a spanish patient who had not travelled abroad.]one hundred and seven shigella spp. strains were isolated in our laboratory during the years 2000 to 2010. one shigella sonnei harboured the genes that coded the β-lactamases tem-1 and ctx-m-15, identifying the structure, isecp1+bla(ctx-m-15)+orf477, in their genetic environment. the strain also carried a class 2 integron with the gene cassettes dfra1+sat+aada1. a plasmid group inci1 st31 (cc-31) was detected and its mobilization by conjugation was demonstrated. we describe for the first time a ...201222244530
epidemiological, clinical features and susceptibility pattern of shigellosis in the buea health district, cameroon.abstract: background: shigellosis is an acute invasive enteric infection caused by bacteria belonging to the genus shigella; it is clinically manifested by bloody diarrhoea. shigellosis is endemic in many developing countries including cameroon and also occurs in epidemics causing considerable morbidity and mortality. this study evaluated the epidemiological and clinical features of shigella and the resistance pattern of isolates to commonly used antibiotics in the buea health district in camer ...201222264300
evaluation of a quantitative h(2)s mpn test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.the sensitivity and specificity of the h(2)s test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with h(2)s-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or escherichia coli. false-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with h(2)s-negative samples found to contain e. coli. using biochemical and molecular methods an ...201222244995
analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) isolate e24377a.enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) is an important pathogenic variant (pathovar) of e. coli in developing countries from a human health perspective, causing significant morbidity and mortality. previous studies have examined specific regulatory networks in etec, although little is known about the global effects of inter- and intra-kingdom signaling on the expression of virulence and colonization factors in etec. in this study, an e.coli/shigella pan-genome microarray, combined with quantita ...201222215741
antimicrobial activity of ulopterol isolated from toddalia asiatica (l.) lam.: a traditional medicinal plant.aim of the study: the leaves of toddalia asiatica (l.) lam. (rutaceae) are widely used in folk medicine in india to treat various ailments. in our earlier communication we have reported the antimicrobial study on the various extracts of the leaves and the isolation and identification of flindersine, a quinolone alkaloid as the major active principle. in the present study, we report the antibacterial and antifungal activities of ulopterol, a coumarin isolated as another major active antimicrobial ...201222265751
approach to the patient with infectious colitis.to provide current recommendations for evaluation and treatment of patients with infectious colitis. infectious colitis is diagnosed in someone with diarrhea and one or more of the following: fever and/or dysentery, stools containing inflammatory markers such as leukocytes, lactoferrin, or calprotectin, or positive stool culture for an invasive or inflammatory bacterial enteropathogen including shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) or clostridium diff ...201222080825
characterization and comparative genomic analysis of a novel bacteriophage, sfp10, simultaneously inhibiting both salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7.salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7 are major food-borne pathogens causing serious illness. phage sfp10, which revealed effective infection of both s. enterica and e. coli o157:h7, was isolated and characterized. sfp10 contains a 158-kb double-stranded dna genome belonging to the vi01 phage-like family myoviridae. in vitro adsorption assays showed that the adsorption constant rates to both salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and e. coli o157:h7 were 2.50 × 10(-8) ml/min and 1.91 ...201222020516
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