PMID(sorted descending)
synthesis, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3, the present study, 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (3a-o) have been synthesized by the condensation of 4-methoxybenzohydrazide (1) with different aromatic acids (2a-o) in presence of phosphoryl chloride. the structural assignment of this compound (3a-o) has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, uv, ir, (1)h nmr and mass spectral data. the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi viz., staphylo ...200820390080
biological potentials and cytotoxicity of various extracts from endemic origanum minutiflorum o. schwarz & p.h. davis.the aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of endemic origanum minutiflorum (o. schwarz & p.h. davis). antioxidant activities of the extracts from o. minutiflorum were evaluated by using dpph radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and metal chelating activity assays. in addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the plant extracts were determined. in the beta-carotene bleaching test, the extracts exhibited in the range of 58.1 ...201020381570
use of optical mapping to sort uropathogenic escherichia coli strains into distinct subgroups.optical maps were generated for 33 uropathogenic escherichia coli (upec) isolates. for individual genomes, the ncoi restriction fragments aligned into a unique chromosome map for each individual isolate, which was then compared with the in silico restriction maps of all of the sequenced e. coli and shigella strains. all of the upec isolates clustered separately from the shigella strains as well as the laboratory and enterohaemorrhagic e. coli strains. moreover, the individual strains appeared to ...201020378655
the effects of a vegetable-derived probiotic lactic acid bacterium on the immune response.the objective of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of the fermented vegetable derived lactic acid bacterium, l. plantarum. l. plantarum 10hk2 showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulating effects on murine macrophage cell lines. raw 264.7 cells stimulated with viable cells of this probiotic strain increased the amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators such as il-1beta, il-6 and tnf-alpha, as well as the anti-inflammatory mediator, il-10. icr mic ...201020377751
antibacterial effect of the bioactive compound beauvericin produced by fusarium proliferatum on solid medium of obtain the bioactive compound beauvericin (bea), fusarium proliferatum cect 20569 was grown on a solid medium of wheat, utilizing the technique of the solid state fermentation (ssf), being this mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semi-preparative column using as the mobile phase acetonitrile/water in gradient condition. the purity of the bea was verified by analytical hplc and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lc/ms-ms). the p ...201020371252
isolation of bacteria from mouse caecal samples and description of bacteroides sartorii sp. nov.caecal samples from wild-type and tnf(deltaare) mice were cultured on selective media containing bile salts, amino acids or casein macro-peptides. twenty-two strains were isolated and identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing. twenty-one strains showed >98% similarity to known bacteria (blautia spp., clostridium innocuum, enterococcus spp., escherichia coli, lactobacillus murinus, parabacteroides goldsteinii and shigella dysenteriae). one additional isolate, strain a-c2-0, was a new bacterium. the ...201020369227
structure of shigella ipgb2 in complex with human rhoa: implications for the mechanism of bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factor mimicry.a common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the manipulation of eukaryotic cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. this is in most cases achieved either by modifying actin, or indirectly via activation of key regulators controlling actin dynamics such as rho-gtpases. a novel group of bacterial virulence factors termed the wxxxe family has emerged as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) for these gtpases. the precise mechanism of nucleotide exchange, however, has remained unclear. here we repo ...201020363740
laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea syndrome; a three years study in two hospitals of infectious diseases.infectious diarrhoea is a syndrome caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. the wide diversity of etiological agents impairs the surveillance and the diagnosis and affects the correct treatment applied to reduce the long-term complications. besides well known enteric pathogens such as salmonella, shigella and yersinia, a high number of emergent and re-emergent aetiologies are now recognised to be ...200920361527
modeling fimbriae mediated parasite-host interactions.type 1 fimbriae are a known virulence factor in a number of pathogenic enterobacteriaceae, including salmonella, shigella and e. coli. yet, they are also expressed by some commensal strains, notably of e. coli. one hypothesis of the role of fimbriae in commensals is that they evoke a small but tolerable host immune response in order to have the host release sialic acid, which is a valuable nutrient. genetic evidence suggests that sialic acid down-regulates fimbriation. this has been believed to ...201020359486
molecular architecture of the mn2+-dependent lactonase ulag reveals an rnase-like metallo-beta-lactamase fold and a novel quaternary structure.the ulag gene, located in the ula regulon, is crucial for the catabolism of l-ascorbate under anaerobic conditions and it has been proposed to encode for the putative l-ascorbate-6-p lactonase. the ulag gene is widespread among eubacteria, including human commensal and pathogenic genera such as escherichia, shigella, klebsiella and salmonella. here, we report the three-dimensional structures of the apoenzyme and mn(2+) holoenzyme of ulag from e. coli to 2.6 a resolution, determined using single- ...201020359483
isolation and selection of coliphages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing e. coli (ehec and stec) in isolate, characterize and select phages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (ehec and stec) in cattle.201020353429
antimicrobial resistence of shigella species isolated during 2004 and 2005 from selected sites in determine the predominant serotype and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of shigella isolates during 2004 and 2005 in zimbabwe.200620353132
global transcriptional response of macrophage-like thp-1 cells to shiga toxin type 1.shiga toxins (stxs) are bacterial cytotoxins produced by the enteric pathogens shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and some serotypes of escherichia coli that cause bacillary dysentery and hemorrhagic colitis, respectively. to date, approaches to studying the capacity of stxs to alter gene expression in intoxicated cells have been limited to individual genes. however, it is known that many of the signaling pathways activated by stxs regulate the expression of multiple genes in mammalian cells. to ex ...201020351145
antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children.ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and pivmecillinam are the antibiotics currently recommended by the world health organization (who) for the treatment of dysentery in children; yet there have been no reviews of the clinical effectiveness of these antibiotics in recent years.201020348130
long-term downregulation of protease-activated receptor-2 expression in distal colon in rats following bacillary dysentery.the aim of this study was to determine changes of par-2 expression in distal colon and the sensitivity of colonic muscle to sligrl-nh2, the par-2-activating peptide (par-2-ap) following bacillary dysentery. shigella flexneri was administrated intragastrically in healthy male rats to induce bacillary dysentery. the effect of sligrl-nh2 on the motility of colonic muscle strips were examined. the expression of par-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. intragastric administr ...201020347884
34 kda momp of shigella flexneri promotes tlr2 mediated macrophage activation with the engagement of nf-kappab and p38 map kinase signaling.the 34 kda major outer membrane protein (momp) of shigella flexneri 2a induces combinatorial expression of tlr2 and tlr6 on peritoneal macrophages of balb/c mice. between the two best-characterized tlrs, to date, tlr2 and tlr4, which are chiefly responsible for recognizing majority of bacterial products, tlr2 alone participates in recognition of 34 kda momp. in addition to tlrs, momp enhances the mrna expression of myd88 and traf6 and induces the nuclear translocation of nf-kappab as well as act ...201020347487
a soluble form of the pilus protein fima targets the vdac-hexokinase complex at mitochondria to suppress host cell apoptosis.inhibition of apoptotic response of host cells during an early phase of infection is a strategy used by many enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens to enhance their survival. here, we report the identification of a soluble form of the pilus protein fima from the culture supernatants of e. coli k1, salmonella, and shigella that can potently inhibit bax-mediated release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria. similar to the infected cells, hct116 cells stably expressing fima display a delay in the ...201020347420
an outbreak of dysentery caused by shigella schmitzi. 194720344558
infection and intoxication of macacus mulatta with shigella dysenteriae (shiga). 194720344285
metal based biologically active compounds: design, synthesis, and antibacterial/antifungal/cytotoxic properties of triazole-derived schiff bases and their oxovanadium(iv) complexes.a new series of oxovanadium(iv) complexes have been designed and synthesized with a new class of triazole schiff bases derived from the reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetyl pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. physical (magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance), spectral (ir, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, mass and electronic) and analytical data have established the structures of these synthesized schi ...201020338672
pcr targeting of antibiotic resistant bacteria in public drinking water of lahore metropolitan, investigate the prevalence of kanamycin (kan) and ampicillin (amp) resistant bacteria in public drinking water.200920337218
[preparation of a 96-microwell plate dna diagnostic chip for detection of foodborne bacteria and its application in an incident of food poisoning].to develop a 96-microwell plate dna diagnostic chip for simultaneous detection of 9 major foodborne bacteria.201020335099
identification of active site residues in the shigella flexneri glucosyltransferase gtrv.the serotype-specific glucosyltransferase, gtrv, is responsible for glucosylation of the o-antigen repeating unit of shigella flexneri serotype 5a strains. gtrv is an integral inner membrane protein with two essential periplasmic loops: the large loop 2 and the c-terminal loop 10. in this study, the full length of the loop 2 was shown to be necessary for gtrv function. site-directed mutagenesis within this loop revealed that conserved aromatic and charged amino acids have a critical role in the ...201020334579
an urban, water-borne outbreak of diarrhoea and shigellosis in a district town in eastern september 2007, the gayeshpur municipality reported a cluster of cases with diarrhoea. we aimed to identify the causative agent and the source of the disease.200920334044
neutrophil antimicrobial proteins enhance shigella flexneri adhesion and invasion.shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. neutrophils are the first cells of the innate immune system recruited to the site of infection. these cells can attack microbes by phagocytosis, neutrophil extracellular trap (net) formation and degranulation. here, we investigated how neutrophil degranulation affects virulence and show that exposure of shigella to granular proteins enhances infection of epithelial cells. ...201020331641
characterisation of multidrug-resistant salmonella typhimurium 4,[5],12:i:- dt193 strains carrying a novel genomic island adjacent to the thrw trna 2006, monophasic, multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains appeared as a novel serotype in germany, associated with large diffuse outbreaks and increased need for hospitalisation. the emerging 4,[5],12:i:- strains isolated from patients in germany belong mainly to phage type dt193 according to the anderson phage typing scheme for s. typhimurium (stm) and exhibit at least a tetra-drug resistance. the strains have been shown to harbour stm-specific gifs ...201020303825
isolation of shigella from the gallbladder of carrier. 194720295393
rapid identification of shigella in a public health laboratory. 194720293024
shigella carriers with special reference to their therapy, including the use of streptomycin. 194720292230
shigella types encountered in the mediterranean area. 194720284965
isolation of shigella gallinarum from turkey eggs. 194720284871
selection of salmonella and shigella cultures for serologic classification. 194720282109
bacteriophage classification of shigella sonnei. 194720281020
the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections caused by the salmonella-shigella group. 194620276810
urea decomposition as a means of differentiating proteus and paracolon cultures from each other and from salmonella and shigella types. 194620274674
the serological relationship between erwinia tracheiphila and species of shigella. 194620274666
studies on the genus shigella. 194720270456
[not available]. 194720268597
non-mannitol-fermenting shigella flexneri, type 103. 194720266374
description of strain c27: a motile organism with the major antigen of shigella sonnei phase i. 194720260769
chronic shigellosis due to shigella sonnei; a case report. 194720259688
[not available]. 194720258532
the effect of temperature on the survival of shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri in faeces. 194620258501
a short procedure for the isolation and preliminary identification of shigellae and salmonellae from stools. 194720256845
the poisson series in the evaluation of media used for the detection of shigellae and salmonellae. 194720255169
the action of pasteurella pestis bacteriophage on pasteurella, salmonella, and shigella. 194720255166
wartime army medical laboratory activities; development of shigella typing by antigenic analysis. 194720252862
experimental infection of mice with shigella dysenteriae and modification of the infection by means of antitoxic and antibacterial sera. 194720251869
the action of pasteurella pestis bacteriophage on strains of pasteutrella, salmonella, and shigella. 194720251259
separation and concentration of a thermolabile precipitinogen from shigella dysenteriae (shiga). 194720247165
observations on the production of hydrogen sulfide by shigella alkalescens. 194720241548
high-throughput screening of the virulence regulator virf: a novel antibacterial target for shigellosis.shigella flexneri is a human enteropathogen that infects about 165 million people and claims more than 1 million lives per year worldwide. although shigellosis has been considered a disease of the "third world," like many other contagious diseases, it does occur in developed countries. the emergence of drug and multidrug-resistant strains of shigella emphasizes the need for novel antibiotic development. virf, an arac-type transcriptional regulator, is responsible for the expression of all downst ...201020237205
[shigella bacteremia dysentery in an adult]. 201020232025
a new paradigm of bacteria-gut interplay brought through the study of shigella.bacteria-gut epithelial interplay and the mucosal immune response are the most critical issues in determining the fate of bacterial infection and the severity of diseases. shigella species (abbreviated here as shigella), the causative agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), are highly adapted human pathogens that are capable of invading and colonizing the intestinal epithelium, which results in severe inflammatory colitis. shigella secrete a large and diverse number (more then 50) of effecto ...201020228623
disease burden of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome in the irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) has been established as a sequel of infectious intestinal disease (iid). the aim of this study was to estimate the burden of pi-ibs caused by the pathogens campylobacter, salmonella and shigella, and to compare this with other outcomes associated with these pathogens. the attributable risk of pi-ibs due to bacterial pathogens was calculated and linked to national data on gastroenteritis incidence and measures for severity and duration of illness ...201020223049
shigella mediated depletion of macrophages in a murine breast cancer model is associated with tumor regression.a tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. in this model tumor-associated macrophages (tams) represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. to evaluate whether shigella-induced removal of macrophages may be sufficient for achieving tumor regression we have developed an attenuated strain of s. ...201020221397
[role of galactose-specific receptor--lectin in bactericidal activity of hemolysin of vibrio cholerae non o1/o139].to study the role lectin galactose-specific receptor of vibrio cholerae hemolysin in receptor mechanisms of bacterial cells lysis.201020218337
autotransporter passenger proteins: virulence factors with common structural themes.autotransporter proteins are virulence factors associated with a wide variety of diseases caused by pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, and they play a variety of roles in pathogenesis including disabling host defences and mediating colonization. pertactin, a key component of the whooping cough vaccine, is an autotransporter protein. a large sub-family of the autotransporters carries a trypsin-like protease domain, but these enzymes have different substrates and functions. the unique export proce ...201020217035
prolonged remission of chronic reactive arthritis treated with three infusions of infliximab.reactive arthritis is generally self-remitting but can be chronic. predictors of chronicity include hla b27 positivity and triggering infections with yersinia, salmonella, shigella, or chlamydia. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and local steroids are the mainstays, with some evidence for disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. limited evidence suggests effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor antagonists. we report the case of reactive arthritis following a chlamydia urinary tract infection pro ...201020216128
identification and characterization of ctx-m-producing shigella isolates in the united states. 201020211893
induction of apoptosis by shiga toxins.shiga toxins comprise a family of structurally and functionally related protein toxins expressed by shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and multiple serotypes of escherichia coli. while the capacity of shiga toxins to inhibit protein synthesis by catalytic inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes has been well described, it is also apparent that shiga toxins trigger apoptosis in many cell types. this review presents evidence that shiga toxins induce apoptosis of epithelial, endothelial, leukocytic, lymp ...201020210553
synthesis, in-vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic studies of novel azetidinone derivatives.developing novel antimicrobial drugs is increasingly important in the modern pharmaceutical industry. a series of novel 3-chloro-4-[4-(2-oxo-2h-chromen-4-ylmethoxy)phenyl]-1-phenylazetidin-2-ones 5a-o have been synthesized from 4-bromomethylcoumarins 1a-e and 4-aryliminomethyl-phenols 3a-c. these compounds were screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against two gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enteroccoccus) and two gram-negative (escherichia coli and shi ...201020205197
[rectal prolapse in a neonate with shigella diarrhea].a case of neonatal rectal prolapse during shigella diarrhea is described. a 10 days neonate exclusively breast fed, whose 2 years old brother has had the same process 2 weeks ago. medical treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone resolved rectal prolapse in 48 hours. stool cultures showed the presence of shigella flexneri ii resistant to amoxicillin; blood and cerebrospinal fluid, cultures were negative. conclusion: rectal prolapse is an uncommon complication seen in infants with shigella diarrhea. ...201020204227
prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinants in shigella flexneri isolates from anhui province, china.quinolones are used extensively to treat shigella flexneri infection, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) determinants were recently reported. a total of 26 s. flexneri isolates collected from anhui province, china, in 2005 were screened for pmqr determinants, bla gene, gyra and parc genes, by pcr and sequencing. pmqr determinants were present in 53.8% (14 of 26) of isolates and qnra(1), qnrs(1), qnrs(2), aac(6')-ib-cr and qepa were present in 30.8, 11.5, 3.8, 19.2 and 11.5% of thos ...201020203702
structure, biological functions and applications of the ab5 toxins.ab(5) toxins are important virulence factors for several major bacterial pathogens, including bordetella pertussis, vibrio cholerae, shigella dysenteriae and at least two distinct pathotypes of escherichia coli. the ab(5) toxins are so named because they comprise a catalytic a-subunit, which is responsible for disruption of essential host functions, and a pentameric b-subunit that binds to specific glycan receptors on the target cell surface. the molecular mechanisms by which the ab(5) toxins ca ...201020202851
mst (molecular serotyping tool): a program for computer-assisted molecular identification of escherichia coli and shigella o antigens.escherichia coli and shigella o antigens can be inferred using the rfb-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) molecular test. we present herein a dynamic programming algorithm-based software to compare the rfb-rflp patterns of clinical isolates with those in a database containing the 171 previously published patterns corresponding to all known e. coli/shigella o antigens.201020200287
specific igg activity against diarrheagenic bacteria in bovine immune milk and effect of ph on its antigen-binding activity upon heating.bovine colostrum and milk antibodies of calving and lactating cows immunized with a multivalent vaccine consisting of whole cells of three different species of pathogenic bacteria including four strains of enterotoxigenic escherischia coli, five strains of enteropathogenic esch. coli, three strains of enteroinvasive esch. coli, two strains of samonella typhi, and one strain each of shigellia dysenteriae, sh. sonnei and sh. flexneri were generated, respectively. a significantly elevated activity ...201020196896
disruption of the rickettsia rickettsii sca2 autotransporter inhibits actin-based motility.rickettsii rickettsii, the etiologic agent of rocky mountain spotted fever, replicates within the cytosol of infected cells and uses actin-based motility to spread inter- and intracellularly. although the ultrastructure of the actin tail and host proteins associated with it are distinct from those of listeria or shigella, comparatively little is known regarding the rickettsial proteins involved in its organization. here, we have used random transposon mutagenesis of r. rickettsii to generate a s ...201020194597
influences of hydraulic loading rate on svoc removal and microbial community structure in drinking water treatment biofilters.six biofilters were used for advanced treatment of yangtze river source water to investigate the effects of hydraulic loading rate (hlr) on pollutant removal and microbial community. hlr was found to exert significant influences on the removal efficiency of the conventional pollutants and 24 detectable semivolatile organic compounds (svocs). more than 85% of chemical oxygen demand and assimilable organic carbon was removed at the optimal hlr of 3.0 m h(-1). with the increase of hlr, svoc removal ...201020189298
the proteome of shigella flexneri 2a 2457t grown at 30 and 37 degrees upgrade the proteome reference map of shigella flexneri 2a 2457t, the protein expression profiles of log phase and stationary phase cells grown at 30 and 37 degrees c were thoroughly analyzed using multiple overlapping narrow ph range (between ph 4.0 and 11.0) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. a total of 723 spots representing 574 protein entries were identified by maldi-tof/tof ms, including the majority of known key virulence factors. 64 hypothetical proteins and six misannotated protein ...201020164057
evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally.we investigated the potency of citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. the antimicrobial activity of "epa-ijebu" in different solvents was also compared. the solvents include palm-wine (a local alcoholic drink tapped from palm trees), seaman's schnapps 40% alcoholi ...200620162090
evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of cylicodiscus gabunensis (mimosaceae).ethyl acetate (ea) extract of the stem bark of cylicodiscus gabunensis (cg) was analysed phytochemically and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against 17 pathogenic species isolated from patient: escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri, morganella morganii, proteus vulgaris, proteus mirabilis, salmonella typhi, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae, enterobacter agglomerans, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus feacalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa ...200620162076
contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in kaduna metropolis with selected pathogenic bacteria.the study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination of powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal retail outlets in different parts of kaduna metropolis. the assessments of the contamination of the herbal products were carried out using standard procedures: total aerobic bacterial plate count, measurement of some physical parameters, isolation and characterization of selected bacterial pathogens etc. the results showed that out of a total of 150, 70 (46.67%) herbal ...200820162044
antimicrobial activity of various extracts of ocimum basilicum l. and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells by use of scanning electron microscopy.the antimicrobial activities of chloroform, acetone and two different concentrations of methanol extracts of ocimum basilicum l. were studied. these extracts were tested in vitro against 10 bacteria and 4 yeasts strains by the disc diffusion method. the results indicated that the methanol extracts of o. basilucum exhibited the antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms. while the chloroform and acetone extracts had no effect, the methanol extracts showed inhibition zones against strain ...200820161958
comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of parkia biglobosa against enterobacteria.hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of parkia biglobosa (jacq) benth. (mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates escherichia coli, salmonella typhi, shigella dysenteriae and enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains e. coli cip 105 182, salmonella enterica cip 105 150, shigella dysenteriae cip 54-51 and enterococcus faecalis cip 103 907. discs of gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls. the results showed that all the ...200820161943
in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plants bryophyllum pinnatum and kalanchoe crenata.extracts from the leaves of bryophyllum pinnatum and kalanchoe crenata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. solvents used included water, methanol, and local solvents such as palmwine, local gin (seaman's schnapps 40% alcoholic drink,) and "omi ekan-ogi" (sour water from 3 days fermented milled maize). leaves were dried and powdered before being soaked in solvents for 3 days. another traditional method of extraction by squeezing raw juice from the leaves was also employed. all extra ...200720161897
a challenge model for shigella dysenteriae 1 in cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis).shigella dysenteriae type 1 can cause devastating pandemics with high case fatality rates; a vaccine for shigella is unavailable currently. because of the risks associated with performing challenge studies with wild-type s. dysenteriae 1 in human clinical trials to advance vaccine development, an improved nonhuman primate model is needed urgently. in the present study, cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) were challenged with various doses of s. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617 to establish a dose ...201020158950
development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli and enteropathogenic escherichia coli strains.a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed for the simultaneous detection of genes encoding intimin (eae) and all variants of shiga toxins 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2) in diagnostic samples. the uida gene encoding a beta-glucuronidase specific for escherichia coli and shigella spp. was included in the multiplex pcr assay as an internal amplification control. the multiplex pcr was tested on 30 e. coli reference strains and 174 diagnostic samples already characterized as harbor ...201020156086
food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.the burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. it has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. evidence for such a downward trend is limited. this prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail ...201020153070
characterisation of pathogenic bacteria in a uasb-polishing pond system using molecular techniques.molecular techniques have been commonly used to detect and quantify pathogenic bacteria in food, clinical and environmental samples, but in wastewater treatment plants few studies have been carried out. this work applied pcr with a specific set of primers to investigate pathogenic bacteria in a wastewater plant comprised of a uasb reactor followed by polishing ponds. in addition, in-situ hybridisation technique (fish) was used to estimate the abundance of escherichia coli in the system. accordin ...201020150719
a versatile internal control for use as dna in real-time pcr and as rna in real-time reverse transcription pcr develop and evaluate a taqman-based internal amplification control (iac) that can be used as dna in real-time pcr (qpcr) or as rna in reverse transcription real-time pcr (qrt-pcr) to identify the presence of assay inhibition and to evaluate its incorporation into existing qpcr and qrt-pcr methods for bacterial detection.201020149084
acute gastrointestinal illness in new zealand: information from a survey of community and hospital describe and quantify laboratory testing of faecal samples for enteric pathogens as a component of the reporting pyramid of acute gastrointestinal illness (agi) in new zealand.200920148044
a repulsive electrostatic mechanism for protein export through the type iii secretion apparatus.many gram-negative bacteria initiate infections by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type iii secretion apparatus, which is comprised of a basal body, a needle, and a tip. the needle channel is formed by the assembly of a single needle protein. to explore the export mechanisms of mxih needle protein through the needle of shigella flexneri, an essential step during needle assembly, we have performed steered molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent. the trajectories ...201020141759
bacterial enteritis as a risk factor for childhood intussusception: a retrospective cohort assess the relationship between bacterial enteritis and intussusception.201020138300
[etiological analysis of enteric infectious diseases during beijing olympic games].to understand pathogen patterns of enteric infectious diseases and its impact on this pattern due to aggregation of a great deal of foreign visitors during beijing olympic games.200920137562
a piglet model of acute gastroenteritis induced by shigella dysenteriae type 1.the lack of a standardized laboratory animal model that mimics key aspects of human shigellosis remains a major obstacle to addressing questions about pathogenesis, screening therapeutics, and evaluation of vaccines.201020136414
crystal structure of the dna-recognition component of the bacterial virus sf6 genome-packaging herpesviruses and many bacterial viruses, genome-packaging is a precisely mediated process fulfilled by a virally encoded molecular machine called terminase that consists of two protein components: a dna-recognition component that defines the specificity for packaged dna, and a catalytic component that provides energy for the packaging reaction by hydrolyzing atp. the terminase docks onto the portal protein complex embedded in a single vertex of a preformed viral protein shell called procapsi ...201020133842
nleh effectors interact with bax inhibitor-1 to block apoptosis during enteropathogenic escherichia coli infection.the human pathogens enteropathogenic (epec) and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli and the related mouse pathogen citrobacter rodentium subvert a variety of host cell signaling pathways via their plethora of type iii secreted effectors, including triggering of an early apoptotic response. epec-infected cells do not develop late apoptotic symptoms, however. in this study we demonstrate that the nleh family effectors, homologs of the shigella effector kinase ospg, blocks apoptosis. during epec inf ...201020133763
innate immune detection of the type iii secretion apparatus through the nlrc4 inflammasome.the mammalian innate immune system uses toll-like receptors (tlrs) and nod-lrrs (nlrs) to detect microbial components during infection. often these molecules work in concert; for example, the tlrs can stimulate the production of the proforms of the cytokines il-1beta and il-18, whereas certain nlrs trigger their subsequent proteolytic processing via caspase 1. gram-negative bacteria use type iii secretion systems (t3ss) to deliver virulence factors to the cytosol of host cells, where they modula ...201020133635
a quantitative pcr assay for rapid detection of shigella species in fresh produce.a quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay with two primers and a taqman probe targeting conserved regions of the specific ipah gene of shigella species and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) were developed. this qpcr assay was used to identify 206 shigella strains (including four shigella species with all serotypes and two provisional shigella species), 3 eiec strains, and 113 non-shigella strains with 100% accuracy. pure cultures of six shigella reference strains were used to derive standard curves t ...201020132666
bacteriocin production by shigella sonnei isolated from faeces of children with acute diarrhoea.shigella is a common agent of diarrhoea, a worldwide major health problem. the bacterium produces bacteriocins; however, the role of these substances as a virulence factor is completely unknown. with the aim to search for colicin production by shigella sonnei, to evaluate the influence of culture conditions on bacteriocin expression, and to characterize the substance partially, 16 s. sonnei strains isolated from children with diarrhoea were tested for antagonism against members of the intestinal ...201020132176
cesarean delivery and risk of intestinal bacterial individual's intestinal bacterial flora is established soon after birth. delivery by cesarean section (c-section) deprives the newborn of colonization with maternal vaginal bacteria. we determined whether delivery by c-section is associated with an altered risk of infection with intestinal bacterial pathogens.201020132034
a novel antisense rna regulates at transcriptional level the virulence gene icsa of shigella flexneri.the virulence gene icsa of shigella flexneri encodes an invasion protein crucial for host colonization by pathogenic bacteria. within the intergenic region vira-icsa, we have discovered a new gene that encodes a non-translated antisense rna (named rnag), transcribed in cis on the complementary strand of icsa. in vitro transcription assays show that rnag promotes premature termination of transcription of icsa mrna. transcriptional inhibition is also observed in vivo by monitoring the expression p ...201020129941
highly sensitive detection of shigella flexneri using fluorescent silica nanoparticles.robust signal amplification tactic is a good solution for improving detection sensitivity. unprocessed fluorophores have many limitations. here we describe an effective strategy for highly sensitive detection of bacteria by using fluorescent conjugated nanoparticles. the nanoparticles were synthesized using silica as matrix. fluorescein isothiocyanate distributed in the matrix. s. flexneri specific antibody was coated on the surface of the nanoparticles. compared to the traditional fluorescent a ...200920128444
bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factors sope-like and wxxxe effectors.subversion of rho family small gtpases, which control actin dynamics, is a common infection strategy used by bacterial pathogens. in particular, salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, shigella flexneri, enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec), and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) translocate type iii secretion system (t3ss) effector proteins to modulate the rho gtpases rhoa, cdc42, and rac1, which trigger formation of stress fibers, filopodia, and lamellipodia/ruffles, respectively. ...201020123714
campylobacteriosis and other bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in sofia, bulgaria for the period 1987-2008.campylobacter is the most commonly reported enteric bacterial pathogen in humans. we still do not have any systematic data concerning campylobacteriosis in bulgaria. for that reason, we present data of the thermophilic campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in sofia, for the period from 1987 to 2008. the study included patients from 0 to over 65 years-old. a total of 51,607 faecal specimens were screened for campylobacter. c. jejuni and c. coli were d ...201020122383
extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing escherichia coli in patients with travellers' diarrhoea.the identification of patients carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing bacteria is important, since these patients are at risk of receiving inappropriate empirical therapy if they become infected. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of esbl-producing bacteria in patients with travellers' diarrhoea. patients with travellers' diarrhoea (n = 242) having delivered stool samples for the diagnosis of salmonella, shigella, yersinia or campylobacter, were also ...201020121649
[prof. kazimierz lachowicz (md)--100th anniversary of birthday].prof. kazimierz lachowicz, md, dipl. medical microbiology, was the founder and the first director of the three regional branches of national institute of hygiene (nih),--in stanisławów (eastern poland) (1937-43), now in ukrainian ivano-frankivsk, maritime in gdynia (1945), now institute of maritime and tropical medicine, and in gdańsk (1945-52). in nih, warsaw, 1953-75 he directed intestinal infection laboratory of bacteriological dept., later founded and directed the national shigella centre as ...200920120962
[campylobacter spp. as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in selected region of poland].the results of the epidemiological analysis of campylobacteriosis reported by regional laboratory of sanitary epidemiological station in bielsko-biala (psse bielsko-biala), silesia voivodeship in poland are presented. from august 2006 to july 2009, stool samples from diarrhea cases were examined for the presence of campylobacter spp. as well as salmonella, shigella, yersinia, enteropathogenic (epec) and verotoxigenic (vtec) e. coli. the most frequently isolated species of campylobacter spp. was ...200920120952
risk factors for sporadic shigellosis, foodnet estimated 450,000 cases of shigellosis occur annually in the united states. outbreaks have been associated with food, water, child daycare centers, and men who have sex with men. however, for sporadic infections, which account for the majority of cases, risk exposures are poorly characterized.201020113209
Displaying items 601 - 700 of 13650