PMID(sorted descending)
prevalence of the plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants among clinical isolates of shigella sp. in andaman & nicobar islands, india.aims:  the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of various plasmid mediated quinolone resistant (pmqr) determinants among the quinolone resistant clinical isolates of shigella sp. from pediatric patients in andaman & nicobar islands. methods and results:  a total of 106 quinolone resistant shigella isolates obtained from pediatric patients during hospital based surveillance from january 2003 to june 2010 were screened for the presence of various pmqr determinants. out of 106 isol ...201121615433
a novel compound from the marine bacterium bacillus pumilus s6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in gram-positive and gram-negative species.biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. the aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant gram-positive and gram-negative biofilms. the bacterial extract (50 μg ml(-1)) of s6-01 (bacillus indicus = mtcc 5559) showed 80-90% biofilm inhibition against escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, proteus mirabilis and s6-15 (ba ...201121614700
bacterial load of fresh vegetables and their resistance to the currently used antibiotics in saudi arabia.abstract this study was carried out to describe the bacterial load and the occurrence of some disease-causing enteric bacteria on raw vegetables sold in saudi markets. the study further aimed to analyze antibiotic resistance rates, production of extended-spectrum beta lactamase, and plasmid carriage among bacterial population of raw vegetables. results revealed that none of them contained bacillus cereus, salmonella, and escherichia coli o157:h7. however, staphylococcus aureus and shigella were ...201121612423
identification of small-molecule inhibitors of yersinia pestis type iii secretion system yscn atpase.yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. the pathogen uses a type iii secretion system (t3ss) to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. the system contains a single atpase, yscn, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. in this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscn gene in y. pestis co92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the swiss-webster ...201121611119
dynamic aspects of antibody:oligosaccharide complexes characterized by molecular dynamics simulations and std-nmr.carbohydrates are likely to maintain significant conformational flexibility in antibody:carbohydrate complexes. as demonstrated herein for the protective monoclonal antibody f22-4 recognizing the shigella flexneri 2a o-antigen and numerous synthetic oligosaccharide fragments thereof, the combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nmr saturation transfer difference experiments, supported by physicochemical analysis, allows to determine the binding epitope and its various contributions to a ...201121610193
transient suppression of shigella flexneri type 3 secretion by a protective o-antigen-specific monoclonal iga.abstract mucosal immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri is mediated by secretory iga (s-iga) antibodies directed against the o-antigen (o-ag) side chain of lipopolysaccharide. while secretory antibodies against the o-ag are known to prevent bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. in this study, we report that the binding of a murine monoclonal iga (igac5) to the o-ag of s. flexneri serotype 5a suppresses activity ...201121610121
shigella sonnei vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are as immunogenic as wrss1, a clinically tested vaccine candidate, in a primate model of infection.shigella causes diarrhea and dysentery through contaminated food and water. shigella sonnei live vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are attenuated principally by the loss of virg(icsa) that prevents bacterial spread within the colonic epithelium. in this respect they are similar to the clinically tested vaccine candidate wrss1. however, wrss2 and wrss3 are further attenuated by loss of sena, senb and wrss3 also lacks msbb2. as previously shown in cell culture assays and in small animal models, t ...201121596086
a shigella boydii bacteriophage which resembles salmonella phage vii.abstract: background: lytic bacteriophages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens. sequencing of their genomes is considered as an important preliminary step to ensure their safety prior to food applications. results: the lytic bacteriophage, phisbom-ag3, targets the important foodborne pathogen, shigella. it is morphologically similar to phage vii of salmonella enterica serovar typhi and a series of phages of acinetobacter calcoaceticus and rhizobium ...201121595934
a tecpr1-dependent selective autophagy pathway targets bacterial pathogens.selective autophagy of bacterial pathogens represents a host innate immune mechanism. selective autophagy has been characterized on the basis of distinct cargo receptors but the mechanisms by which different cargo receptors are targeted for autophagic degradation remain unclear. in this study we identified a highly conserved tectonin domain-containing protein, tecpr1, as an atg5 binding partner that colocalized with atg5 at shigella-containing phagophores. tecpr1 activity is necessary for effici ...201121575909
the decoupling between genetic structure and metabolic phenotypes in escherichia coli leads to continuous phenotypic assess the extent of intra-species diversity and the links between phylogeny, lifestyle (habitat and pathogenicity) and phenotype, we assayed the growth yield on 95 carbon sources of 168 escherichia strains. we also correlated the growth capacities of 14 e. coli strains with the presence/absence of enzyme-coding genes. globally, we found that the genetic distance, based on multilocus sequence typing data, was a weak indicator of the metabolic phenotypic distance. besides, lifestyle and phylog ...201121569155
food-specific attribution of selected gastrointestinal illnesses: estimates from a canadian expert elicitation survey.abstract the study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of food-specific attribution for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in canada. it was based on a similar survey conducted in the united states and focused on campylobacter spp., escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal salmonella enterica, shigella spp., vibrio spp., yersinia enterocolitica, cryptosporidium parvum, and norwalk-like virus. a snowball approach was used to identify food ...201121561379
human immunodeficiency virus-associated gastrointestinal disease: common endoscopic biopsy diagnoses.the gastrointestinal (gi) tract is a major site of disease in hiv infection: almost half of hiv-infected patients present with gi symptoms, and almost all patients develop gi complications. gi symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea are frequent and usually nonspecific among these patients. endoscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for most hiv-associated gi diseases, as endoscopic and histopathologic evaluation can render diagnoses in patien ...201121559197
evaluation of the selective and differential et medium for detection of edwardsiella tarda in aquaculture systems.aims:  edwardsiella tarda is an important pathogen in aquaculture where it can cause serious losses. a rapid detection of it is vital to minimize the mortalities caused by this disease, and in this work, the effectiveness of the selective differential edw. tarda medium (et) was evaluated for the diagnosis of edwardsiellosis as well as for its possible use in epidemiological studies. methods and results:  et medium was evaluated in parallel with the commercial salmonella-shigella agar (ss), which ...201121554344
effects of probiotic fermentation on the enhancement of biological and pharmacological activities of codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment.this study was designed to evaluate the enhancement of antioxidant, antimicrobial, enzymatic, cytotoxic, and cognitive activities of codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment followed by probiotic fermentation. dried c. lanceolata samples were subjected to 400mpa for 20min and then fermented with bifidobacterium longum b6 (hpe-blf) and lactobacillus rhamnosus (hpe-lrf) at 37°c for 7days. compared to conventional extraction (ce-nf, 6.69mg gae/g), the phenol amounts of hpe-blf and ...201121543255
development of a new guinea-pig model of shigellosis.shigellosis is a major form of bacillary dysentery caused by shigella spp. to date, there is no suitable animal model to evaluate the protective efficacy of vaccine candidates against this pathogen. here, we describe a successful experimental shigellosis in the guinea-pig model, which has shown the characteristic features of human shigellosis. this model yielded reproducible results without any preparatory treatment besides cecal ligation. in this study, guinea-pigs were discretely infected with ...201121539623
toxic megacolon from sexually transmitted shigella sonnei infection. 201121538050
rapid situation & response assessment of diarrhoea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone aila in india.background & objectives : cyclone aila hit indian states on eastern coast on may 25, 2009. an investigation was conducted to examine if aila was responsible for increased reporting of diarrhoea cases from the district of east-medinipur in west bengal. identifying causative organisms for diarrhoea and assessing their antibiotic susceptibility profile were other objectives. methods: rapid situation and response assessment technique was employed to triangulate primary and secondary data collected t ...201121537092
whole-genome phylogeny of escherichia coli/shigella group by feature frequency profiles (ffps).a whole-genome phylogeny of the escherichia coli/shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (ffp) method. this alignment-free approach uses the frequencies of l-mer features of whole genomes to infer phylogenic distances. we present two phylogenies that accentuate different aspects of e. coli/shigella genomic evolution: (i) one based on the compositions of all possible features of length l = 24 (∼8.4 million features), which are likely to reveal the phenetic grouping a ...201121536867
effect of nacl on the biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens.this study was designed to evaluate the effect of nacl on the biofilm formation of listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, shigella boydii, and salmonella typhimurium. the biofilm cells were cultured in media containing different nacl concentrations (0% to 10%) for 10 d of incubation at 37 °c using a 24-well polystyrene microtiter plate, collected by swabbing methods, and enumerated using plate count method. the attachment and detachment kinetic patterns were estimated according to the mo ...201021535614
lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human colonic mucosal biopsy inhibits the growth and adhesion of enteric and foodborne pathogens.a number of lactobacillus species are used as probiotic strains in order to benefit health. we have isolated l. fermentum from human colonic mucosal biopsy samples that possess antimicrobial activities against entroinvasive and foodborne pathogens such as escherichia coli, salmonella paratyphi a, shigella sonnei, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vibrio sp. in addition to lactic acid, l. fermentum secretes antimicrobial proteinacious com ...201021535608
osmosonication of blackberry juice: impact on selected pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and main quality parameters.osmosonication combines ultrasound with nonthermal concentration. it was applied on tropical highland blackberry (rubus adenotrichus) juice over different periods of time to assess reductions in microorganism and the impact on main quality parameters. this juice had been inoculated with salmonella spp., shigella sp., a lactic acid bacterium, yeasts, and molds. it was then sonicated for 5.9 to 34.1 min at 20 khz and 0.83 w/ml. nonthermal concentration was simulated by mixing the juice with a conc ...201021535558
evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in brassica vegetables.this study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 gram-positive bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) and 7 gram-negative bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella choleaesuis, salmonella enterica, serratia marcescens, shigella sonnei, and vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. benzyl isothiocyanate ...201021535549
synthesis, characterization and biological studies of sulfonamide schiff's bases and some of their metal derivatives.a new series of schiff base ligands derived from sulfonamide and their metal(ii) complexes [cobalt(ii), copper(ii), nickel(ii) and zinc(ii)] have been synthesized and characterized. the nature of bonding and structure of all the synthesized compounds has been explored by physical, analytical and spectral data of the ligands and their metal(ii) complexes. the authors suggest that all the prepared complexes possess an octahedral geometry. the ligands and metal(ii) complexes have been screened for ...201121534864
synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of new compounds incorporating oxindole compounds incorporating with the oxindole nucleus were synthesized via the reaction of substituted isatins [5-methyl-, 5-chloro- and 1-hydroxymethyl isatins] with different nucleophiles. the structures of the newly compounds were elucidated on the basis of ftir, (1)h nmr, (13)cmr spectral data, gc/ms and chemical analysis. investigation of antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was evaluated using broth dilution technique in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) count against ...201121534861
synthesis, antibacterial activity and quantum-chemical studies of novel 2-arylidenehydrazinyl-4-arylthiazole analogues.a new series of 2-arylidenehydrazinyl-4-arylthiazole derivatives (2a-k) was designed and synthesized through a rapid, simple, and efficient methodology in excellent isolated yield. these compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activities against eight bacteria, e.g. bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, bacillus megaterium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhi, escherichia coli, and three fungi e.g. aspergillus oryzae, candida albicans, a ...201121532194
a novel vinculin binding site of the ipaa invasin of shigella.internalization of shigella into host epithelial cells, where the bacteria replicates and spreads to neighboring cells, requires a type 3 secretion system (t3ss) effector coined ipaa. ipaa binds directly to and activates the cytoskeletal protein vinculin after injection in the host cell cytosol and heretofore this was thought to be directed by two amphipathic α-helical vinculin binding sites (vbs) found in the c-terminal tail domain of ipaa. here we report a third vbs, ipaa-vbs3, that is located ...201121525010
functional domains and motifs of bacterial type iii effector proteins and their roles in infection.a key feature of the virulence of many bacterial pathogens is the ability to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells via a dedicated type three secretion system (t3ss). many bacterial pathogens, including species of chlamydia, xanthomonas, pseudomonas, ralstonia, shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia, depend on the t3ss to cause disease. t3ss effectors constitute a large and diverse group of virulence proteins that mimic eukaryotic proteins in structure and function. a salient f ...201121517912
evaluation of low-copy genetic targets for waterborne bacterial pathogen detection via qpcr.recent developments in water quality research have highlighted difficulties in accurately predicting the incidence of pathogens within freshwater based on the viability, culturability and metabolic activity of indicator organisms. qpcr-driven assays are candidates to replace standard culture-based methods, however, protocols suitable for routine use have yet to be sufficiently validated. the objective of this study was to evaluate five oligonucleotide primers sets (etir, sinv, exot, vs1 and ipah ...201121514618
enteric virulence associated protein vapc inhibits translation by cleavage of initiator trna.eukaryotic pin (pilt n-terminal) domain proteins are ribonucleases involved in quality control, metabolism and maturation of mrna and rrna. the majority of prokaryotic pin-domain proteins are encoded by the abundant vapbc toxin-antitoxin loci and inhibit translation by an unknown mechanism. here we show that enteric vapcs are site-specific endonucleases that cleave trna(fmet) in the anticodon stem-loop between nucleotides +38 and +39 in vivo and in vitro. consistently, vapc inhibited translation ...201121502523
the shigella flexneri type three secretion system effector ipgd inhibits t cell migration by manipulating host phosphoinositide metabolism.shigella, the gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium that causes shigellosis, relies on its type iii secretion system (ttss) and injected effectors to modulate host cell functions. however, consequences of the interaction between shigella and lymphocytes have not been investigated. we show that shigella invades activated human cd4(+) t lymphocytes. invasion requires a functional ttss and results in inhibition of chemokine-induced t cell migration, an effect mediated by the ttss effector ipgd, a ...201121501826
shigella targets t cells.using a syringe-like device, shigella delivers an array of virulence factors into host cells to facilitate bacterial colonization and disable the host's innate immune defense. in this issue of cell host & microbe, konradt and colleagues (konradt et al., 2011) show that shigella also subverts adaptive immunity by targeting t cells through a mechanism involving pip(2) breakdown.201121501822
a unique arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase found within a genomic island associated with the uropathogenicity of escherichia coli cft073.previous studies showed that deletion of genes c3405 to c3410 from pai-metv, a genomic island from escherichia coli cft073, results in a strain that fails to compete with wild-type cft073 after a transurethral cochallenge in mice and is deficient in the ability to independently colonize the mouse kidney. our analysis of c3405 to c3410 suggests that these genes constitute an operon with a role in the internalization and utilization of an unknown carbohydrate. this operon is not found in e. coli k ...201121498648
microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.the greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. the traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. fish roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. as a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quali ...201121497664
zidovudine (azt) has a bactericidal effect on enterobacteria and induces genetic modifications in resistant strains.the spread of multiresistant bacteria increases the need for new antibiotics. the observation that some nucleoside analogues have antibacterial activity led us to further investigate the antimicrobial activity and resistance of zidovudine (azt). we determined the minimum inhibition concentration (mic), studied time-kill curves, induced resistant bacteria and sequenced the gene for thymidine kinase. we demonstrate that azt has a bactericidal effect on some enterobacteria. however, azt could induc ...201121494911
outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in the orthodox jewish community of antwerp, belgium, april to august the beginning of april 2008 three cases of shigella sonnei infection were identified among the orthodox jewish community of antwerp, belgium. we conducted a descriptive study and a household cohort study to identify potential risk factors. stool samples were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined. between april and august 2008, 42 cases were registered. all characterised isolates (n=20) shared an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and were indist ...201121492526
phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of vernonia ambigua, vernonia blumeoides and vernonia oocephala (asteraceae).some vernonia species (vernonia ambigua, vernonia blumeoides and vernonia oocephala) used in northern nigerian traditional medicine, were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. the antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method as outlined by the nccls was carried out on klebsiella pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, corynbacterium ulcerans, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), salmonella typhi, pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigel ...201121485703
an integrated approach for finding overlooked genes in shigella.the completion of numerous genome sequences introduced an era of whole-genome study. however, many genes are missed during genome annotation, including small rnas (srnas) and small open reading frames (sorfs). in order to improve genome annotation, we aimed to identify novel srnas and sorfs in shigella, the principal etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery.201121483688
corn flake-like morphology of iron nanoparticles and its antibacterial property. 201121478648
dissemination of ndm-1 positive bacteria in the new delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.not all patients infected with ndm-1-positive bacteria have a history of hospital admission in india, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases are known to be circulating in the indian community. we therefore measured the prevalence of the ndm-1 gene in drinking water and seepage samples in new delhi.201121478057
behavior of salmonella typhimurium, staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, and shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei during production of pulque, a traditional mexican beverage.pulque is a typical fermented alcoholic beverage of central mexico, produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. production systems are largely artisanal, with inadequate hygiene conditions and exposure to multiple contamination sources. no data exist on pulque microbiological safety and the behavior of pathogenic microorganisms in agave nectar and pulque. an initial trial was done of the behavior of salmonella typhimurium, staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, and shigella flexneri ...201121477472
new developments in traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. more than 60% of td cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing escherichia coli, shigella, campylobacter, salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and noncholera vibrios. noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility t ...201121475415
genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance in shigella dysenteriae and shigella boydii strains isolated from children aged <5 years in egypt.summarydiversity within shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in egypt aged <5 years was investigated. shigella-associated diarrhoea occurred mainly in summer months and in children aged <3 years, it commonly presented with vomiting and fever. serotypes 7 (30%), 2 (28%), and 3 (23%) accounted for most of s. dysenteriae isolates; 50% of s. boydii isolates were serotype 2. s. dysenteriae and s. boydii isolates were often resistant to ampicillin, chlor ...201121470441
assessment of the antibacterial activity and the antidiarrheal function of flavonoids from bayberry fruit.chinese bayberry fruits are used as a folk medicine to cure diarrhea. however, the active compounds have not yet been reported. we found that bayberry fruit extract showed significant antibacterial activity against salmonella, listeria, and shigella, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) ranged from 2.07 to 8.28 mg/ml. positive relationships were found between the antibacterial activity and the total polyphenol (r = 0.88) and flavonoid contents (r = 0.92) of samples using different extr ...201121469731
antimicrobial activity against shigella sonnei and probiotic properties of wild lactobacilli from fermented food.four lactobacilli strains (lactobacillus paracasei subp. paracasei m5-l, lactobacillus rhamnosus j10-l, lactobacillus casei q8-l and l. rhamnosus gg (lgg), were systematically assessed for the production of antimicrobial substances active towards shigella sonnei, escherichia coli and salmonella typhimurium. agar-well assay showed that the four lactobacilli strains displayed strong antibacterial activity towards s. sonnei. the nature of antimicrobial substances was also investigated and shown to ...201121466951
autophagy and the cytoskeleton: new links revealed by intracellular pathogens.actin-based motility is used by various pathogens such as listeria and shigella for dissemination within cells: and tissues, yet host factors counteracting this process have not been identified. we have recently discovered that infected host cells can prevent actin-based motility of shigella by compartmentalizing bacteria inside 'septin cages,' revealing a novel mechanism of host defense that restricts dissemination. because bacterial proteins controlling actin-based motility also regulate the a ...201121464614
vinculin activators target integrins from within the cell to increase melanoma sensitivity to chemotherapy.metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin disease for which there are no effective therapies. emerging evidence indicates that melanomas can be sensitized to chemotherapy by increasing integrin function. current integrin therapies work by targeting the extracellular domain, resulting in complete gains or losses of integrin function that lead to mechanism-based toxicities. an attractive alternative approach is to target proteins, such as vinculin, that associate with the integrin cytoplasmic doma ...201121460181
[invasive gastroenteritis, anything new?].invasive gastroenteritis is characterized by fever and inflammatory diarrhea and can be caused by nontyphoideal salmonella serotypes and shigella spp.-enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec), among other pathogens. this review describes emerging monophasic variants of salmonella enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:- and provides an evolutionary consideration of shigella spp.-eiec as a single pathotype. in 1997, a monophasic variant of s. enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:-, phage-type u302, multidrug res ...201121458713
antagonistic bacteria from live corals, tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india.the objective of this study is to isolate and production of secondary metabolites with bioactive substances by coral reef (acropora formosa and favia palida) associated bacteria was carried out from the tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india. the isolated coral associated bacteria were found to have an antagonistic effect against 10 human pathogens. the pathogens were escherichia coli, shigella dysentriae, staphylococcus epidermidis, s. aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aerogenosa ...201121454167
[shigellosis--epidemiological situation in montenegro in period 1996-2005].introduction shigellosis is the most common cause of diarrhoea in the world. it is estimated to cause 165 million cases per a year, and two third of all diseases and most of the deaths are among children under 10 years of age. the aim of this descriptive epidemiologic study was to analyze the incidence of shigellosis in montenegro during the period 1996-2005 and to find out which species of shigella were dominant in this region.201021446148
antimicrobial susceptibilities of enteric bacterial pathogens isolated in kathmandu, nepal, during 2002-2004.the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial enteropathogens vibrio cholerae, salmonella species and shigella species were investigated.201121444984
quantification and evaluation of infectivity of shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages in beef and salad.stx bacteriophages in 68 samples of beef and salad were quantified by real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr). stx phages from the samples were propagated in escherichia coli c600, e. coli o157:h7, and shigella strains and further quantified. fifty percent of the samples carried infectious stx phages that were isolated from plaques generated by lysis.201121441341
multi-drug resistance and characteristic of integrons in shigella spp. isolated from investigate the characteristic of integrons and the relationship between integrons and antimicrobial resistance in shigella spp.201121440840
interaction of the salmonella typhimurium effector protein sopb with host cell cdc42 is involved in intracellular replication.the phosphoinositide phosphatase sopb/sigd is a type iii secretion system effector that plays multiple roles in salmonella internalization and intracellular survival. we previously reported that sopb complexed with and inhibited the small gtpase cdc42 when expressed in a yeast model system, independently of its phosphatase activity. here we show that human cdc42, but not rac1, interacts with catalytically inactive sopb when coexpressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae. this interaction occurs with bo ...201121435037
the modulation of hela cells secretory patterns by invasive shigella spp. and enteroinvasive e. coli bacterial cells and their soluble components.considering the important role of cytokines in the initiation and evolution of the inflammatory process induced by shigella and eiec strains, the purpose of this study was the characterization of the secretory patterns of hela cells induced by shigella ssp. and eiec strains and to link the obtained results with the invasiveness level of bacterial strains on this cellular line. during this study there were analyzed two eiec strains and 12 strains of the following shigella species: 2 sh. flexneri ...201021434590
sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in shigella gastroenteritis.the sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in the diagnosis of shigella gastroenteritis in a shigella sonnei prevalent center was investigated. the shigella-proven gastroenteritis cases who were admitted to hacettepe university ihsan doğramaci children's hospital diarrheal diseases unit (jan 2003 - oct 2006) constituted the study group (n=65). age- and sex-matched children admitting to the same center with non-shigella diarrhea constituted the control group (n=65). the sensitivity, speci ...201021434533
evaluation of antidiarrheal and in vitro antiprotozoal activities of extracts of leaves of alocasia indica.alocasia indica schott (araceae) is used in several regions of india, especially in rural communities, by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhea. however, no scientific data are available to justify the traditional potentials of the plant species in gastrointestinal disorders.201121428863
synthesis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of novel diethyl 6,6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-aryl-2-oxo-cyclohex-3-enecarboxylates).novel bis cyclohexenone ester derivatives 14-19 were synthesized and characterized by their spectral data. in vitro microbiological evaluations were carried out for all the novel compounds 14-19 against clinically isolated bacterial and fungal strains. compounds 15, 16, 18 against staphylococcus aureus, 14, 15 against ß-haemolytic streptococcus, 15, 19 against micrococcus luteus, 17, 18 against salmonella typhii, 14, 17 against shigella flexneri, 15 against escherichia coli, 16 against pseudomon ...201121417963
antibacterial activity of the enniatin b, produced by fusarium tricinctum in liquid culture, and cytotoxic effects on caco-2 cells.the enniatins (ens) are bioactive compounds of hexadepsipeptidic structure produced by several strains of fusarium sp. the en b was purified from extracts of fusarium tricinctum growth on liquid culture of potato dextrose broth (pdb), using a semipreparative liquid chromatography (lc) followed by an analytical lc. the purity and the structure of the isolated compound were confirmed by the determination of the extinction coefficient and with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (esi-ms) stud ...201121417626
new insights into vinculin function and regulation.vinculin is a cytoplasmic actin-binding protein enriched in focal adhesions and adherens junctions that is essential for embryonic development. much is now known regarding the role of vinculin in governing cell-matrix adhesion. in the past decade that the crystal structure of vinculin and the molecular details for how vinculin regulates adhesion events have emerged. the recent data suggests a critical function for vinculin in regulating integrin clustering, force generation, and strength of adhe ...201121414589
medical microbiologybacteria are classified and identified to distinguish one organism from another and to group similar organisms by criteria of interest to microbiologists or other scientists. the most important level of this type of classification is the species level. a species name should mean the same thing to everyone. within one species, strains and subgroups can differ by the disease they produce, their environmental habitat, a ...199621413329
medical microbiologygram-negative, facultative anaerobes of the genus shigella are the principal agents of bacillary dysentery. this disease differs from profuse watery diarrhea, as is commonly seen in choleraic diarrhea or in enterotoxigenic escherichia coli diarrhea, in that the dysenteric stool is scant and contains blood, mucus, and inflammatory cells. in some individuals suffering from shigellosis, however, moderate volume diarrhea is a prodrome or the sole manifestation of the infection. bacillary dysentery c ...199621413292
medical microbiologyescherichia coli is a common member of the normal flora of the large intestine. as long as these bacteria do not acquire genetic elements encoding for virulence factors, they remain benign commensals. strains that acquire bacteriophage or plasmid dna encoding enterotoxins or invasion factors become virulent and can cause either a plain, watery diarrhea or an inflammatory dysentery. these diseases are most familiar to westerners as traveler's diarrhea, but they are also major health problems in e ...199621413261
medical microbiologyrickettsiae are small, gram-negative bacilli that have evolved in such close association with arthropod hosts that they are adapted to survive within the host cells. they represent a rather diverse collection of bacteria, and therefore listing characteristics that apply to the entire group is difficult. the common threads that hold the rickettsiae into a group are their epidemiology, their obligate intracellular life ...199621413251
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
shigella flexneri type iii secreted effector ospf reveals new crosstalks of proinflammatory signaling pathways during bacterial infection.shigella flexneri type iii secreted effector ospf harbors a phosphothreonine lyase activity that irreversibly dephosphorylates map kinases (mapks) p38 and erk in infected epithelial cells and thereby, dampens innate immunity. whereas this activity has been well characterized, the impact of ospf on other host signaling pathways that control inflammation was unknown. here we report that ospf potentiates the activation of the mapk jnk and the transcription factor nf-?b during s. flexneri infection. ...201121402152
structural elucidation of the o-antigen of the shigella flexneri provisional serotype 88-893: structural and serological similarities with s. flexneri provisional serotype y394 (1c).the structure of the repeating unit of the o-antigen polysaccharide from shigella flexneri provisional serotype 88-893 has been determined. (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy as well as 2d nmr experiments were employed to elucidate the structure. the carbohydrate part of the hexasaccharide repeating unit is identical to the previously elucidated structure of the o-polysaccharide from s. flexneri prov. serotype y394. the o-antigen of s. flexneri prov. serotype 88-893 carries 0.7 mol o-acetyl group p ...201121392735
a candidate approach implicates the secreted salmonella effector protein spvb in p-body disassembly.p-bodies are dynamic aggregates of rna and proteins involved in several post-transcriptional regulation processes. p-bodies have been shown to play important roles in regulating viral infection, whereas their interplay with bacterial pathogens, specifically intracellular bacteria that extensively manipulate host cell pathways, remains unknown. here, we report that salmonella infection induces p-body disassembly in a cell type-specific manner, and independently of previously characterized pathway ...201121390246
postinfective bile acid malabsorption: is this a long-term condition?postinfective bile acid malabsorption comprises a group of patients with a history of an episode of acute gastroenteritis triggering chronic diarrhoea. we identified these patients retrospectively from our medical records and assessed their long-term clinical course.201121389860
antigen-specific iga b memory cell responses to shigella antigens elicited in volunteers immunized with live attenuated shigella flexneri 2a oral vaccine candidates.we studied the induction of antigen-specific iga memory b cells (b(m)) in volunteers who received live attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccines. subjects ingested a single oral dose of 10(7), 10(8) or 10(9) cfu of s. flexneri 2a with deletions in guaba (cvd 1204) or in guaba, set and sen (cvd 1208). antigen-specific serum and stool antibody responses to lps and ipa b were measured on days 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42. iga b(m) cells specific to lps, ipa b and total iga were assessed on days 0 and 28. we ...201121388888
fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity.using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (ag nps) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. after the reduction process, ag nps formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about ...201121383858
ribonucleases and bacterial virulence.bacterial stress responses provide them the opportunity to survive hostile environments, proliferate and potentially cause diseases in humans and animals. the way in which pathogenic bacteria interact with host immune cells triggers a complicated series of events that include rapid genetic re-programming in response to the various host conditions encountered. viewed in this light, the bacterial host-cell induced stress response (hcisr) is similar to any other well-characterized environmental str ...201021375713
enterobacteriaceae associated with eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (testudines:chelonia) in nonpolluted sites of national park of araguaia plains, brazil.fertile eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis were investigated for the presence of enterobacteria, as these two endangered species have the potential for conservation measures that include egg transfer. knowledge of normal microflora associated with turtles and turtle eggs would help effectively manage the transfer of these eggs among institutions. thirty eggs of each species were collected, aseptically transferred, cracked inside plastic bags containing tetrathionate broth, and sp ...201021370647
gadd45a activity is the principal effector of shigella mitochondria-dependent epithelial cell death in vitro and ex vivo.modulation of death is a pathogen strategy to establish residence and promote survival in host cells and tissues. shigella spp. are human pathogens that invade colonic mucosa, where they provoke lesions caused by their ability to manipulate the host cell responses. shigella spp. induce various types of cell death in different cell populations. however, they are equally able to protect host cells from death. here, we have investigated on the molecular mechanisms and cell effectors governing the b ...201121368893
travelers' diarrhea in nepal: an update on the pathogens and antibiotic resistance.diarrhea is the most common illness among travelers and expatriates in nepal. published data on the etiology of travelers' diarrhea (td) in nepal are over 13 years old and no prior data exist on antibiotic susceptibility for currently used drugs. we investigated the etiology of diarrhea and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens and compared the results to previous work from the same clinical setting.201021366793
[enterobacteriaceae infection - diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and prevention].intestinal infections caused by rod-shaped bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae genus are one of the major health hazards in countries where sanitation standards are low. strains of shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia are responsible for diarrhea, severe bacillary dysentery, typhoid, other intestinal diseases, as well as genitourinary tract and blood infections. according to the who there are 4.5 billion cases every year, of which 1.9 million end in death. this makes intestinal infectio ...201121357995
antigen-specific cd8(+) t cells fail to respond to shigella flexneri.cd8(+) t lymphocytes often play a primary role in adaptive immunity to cytosolic microbial pathogens. surprisingly, cd8(+) t cells are not required for protective immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, despite the ability of shigella to actively secrete proteins into the host cytoplasm, a location from which antigenic peptides are processed for presentation to cd8(+) t cells. to determine why cd8(+) t cells fail to play a role in adaptive immunity to s. flexneri, we investigated whe ...201121357720
rapid emergence of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in shigella sp. isolated in andaman and nicobar islands, india.shigellosis is a major cause of diarrheal diseases among children in andaman & nicobar islands, india, which have a population of 350,000 people, including settlers from mainland india and 6 indigenous tribes. from the last one-and-half decade, we have been monitoring the species distribution and emergence of antibiotic resistance among the isolates of shigella. the circulating shigella strains have been found rapidly acquiring resistance to a wide spectrum of antibiotics. the recent data indica ...201121352076
function-specific accelerations in rates of sequence evolution suggest predictable epistatic responses to reduced effective population size.changes in effective population size impinge on patterns of molecular evolution. notably, slightly deleterious mutations are more likely to drift to fixation in smaller populations, which should typically also lead to an overall acceleration in the rates of evolution. this prediction has been validated empirically for several endosymbiont and island taxa. here, we first show that rate accelerations are also evident in bacterial pathogens whose recent shifts in virulence make them prime candidate ...201121349981
autophagy in immunity and cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes.autophagy was viewed until very recently primarily as a metabolic and intracellular biomass and organelle quality and quantity control pathway. it has now been recognized that autophagy represents a bona fide immunologic process with a wide array of roles in immunity. the immunologic functions of autophagy, as we understand them now, span both innate and adaptive immunity. they range from unique and sometimes highly specialized immunologic effectors and regulatory functions (referred to here as ...201121349088
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
akara ogbomoso: microbiological examination and identification of hazards and critical control points.akara ogbomoso was examined toward the establishment of hazard analysis and critical control point (haccp). the akara was produced in residential buildings with the attendant consequence of contamination. there was ample growth of aerobes, coliforms, staphylococci, shigella and yeast/mold from the samples, water and cowpea pastes. microbial contaminations occur through the processing, which can be corrected through education by adopting good hygienic and manufacturing practices. the critical con ...201021339157
a comparison of disease caused by shigella and campylobacter species: 24 months community based surveillance in 4 slums of karachi, pakistan.despite the efforts of the international community diarrheal diseases still pose a major threat to children in children less than five years of age. bacterial diarrhea has also emerged as a public health concern due to the proliferation of drug resistant species in many parts of the world. there is a paucity of population-based data about the incidence of shigellosis and campylobacter infections in pakistan. we report country specific results for shigella diarrhea that were derived from a multic ...201121338955
studies on the effect of neisserial porins on apoptosis of mammalian cells.microorganisms or microbial products have been shown to induce or protect cells from activation-induced cell death or apoptosis (1-3). induction of apoptosis by some bacterial invaders, like shigella, might aid in spread of the organism (4), whereas inhibition of apoptosis by other microbes might aid in furthering their intracellular survival (2,3). viral products have been shown to inhibit apoptosis by mimicking anti-apoptotic related proteins (e.g., bcl2, flips, etc.) (2,3,5). thus far, most i ...200121337167
testing meningococcal vaccines for mitogenicity and superantigenicity.proteins with intrinsic mitogenic properties are widely represented in prokaryotes, such as in different streptococcus species (1-3), candida albicans (4), and eikenella corrodens (5). specifically, several bacterial porins of escherichia coli, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhimurium, fusobacterium nucleatum, and pathogenic neisseria species have been shown to induce nonspecific proliferation of lymphocytes (6-12).200121336757
methods for the preparation and crystallization of fab fragments in complex with peptide antigens derived from n. meningitidis outer membrane understanding of the molecular basis for the recognition of outer-membrane proteins (omps) by antibody is an important goal in the development of a more rational approach to vaccine design. x-ray crystallography has been outstandingly successful in delineating the detailed chemical interactions that are responsible for the high affinity and high selectivity of antibody-antigen interactions (1). although a number of x-ray structures of omps have now been reported (e.g., 2), determination of th ...200121336751
crystal structure of the autochaperone region from the shigella flexneri autotransporter icsa.the icsa (intracellular spread gene a) autotransporter from shigella flexneri is a key virulence factor. we identified a stable fragment comprising residues 591 to 758, which corresponds to the autochaperone region of the icsa passenger domain. we showed that thermal unfolding of the autochaperone region is reversible and determined its crystal structure at 2.0-å resolution.201121335457
development of a duplex real-time pcr for differentiation between e. coli and shigella spp.the aim of this study was to develop a real-time pcr test for differentiation between shigella spp. and e. coli, in particular enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec).201121332893
multidrug resistant salmonella concord is a major cause of salmonellosis in children in ethiopia.s. concord in ethiopia. the objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of febrile and diarrhoeic illness in ethiopian children focussing on salmonella.201121330737
microbial safety of tropical fruits.there are approximately 140 million tons of over 3,000 types of tropical fruits produced annually worldwide. tropical fruits, once unfamiliar and rare to the temperate market, are now gaining widespread acceptance. tropical fruits are found in a variety of forms, including whole, fresh cut, dried, juice blends, frozen, pulp, and nectars in markets around the world. documented outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with tropical fruits have occurred. norovirus and salmonella are the leading vi ...201121328109
infectious diarrhea: cellular and molecular mechanisms.diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. an estimated 2-4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. this review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including vibrio cholerae as a classical example of ...201021327112
proinflammatory fecal mrna and childhood bacterial enteric infections.introduction: assessment of specific mrnas in human samples is useful in characterizing disease. however, mrna in human stool has been understudied. results: compared to controls, infected stools showed increased transcripts of il-1β, il-8 and calprotectin. mrna and protein concentrations correlated for il-8, but not for calprotectin. discussion: stool mrna quantification offers a potentially useful, noninvasive way to assess inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, and may be more sensitive ...201021327027
the effect of handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands.handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. however it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. in this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. they were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) ...201121318017
monitoring shigella flexneri vacuolar escape by flow cytometry.invasive bacterial pathogens such as shigella flexneri force their uptake into non-phagocytic host cells. upon internalization, they rupture the endocytic vacuole and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. recent studies applying fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) based methods to track host-pathogen interactions have provided insights into the process of bacterial infection at the single cell level. we have previously reported that the vacuolar escape of invasive bacteria into the host ...201121317555
virulence of environmental stenotrophomonas maltophilia serologically cross-reacting with shigella-specific antisera.this research involved an environmental strain of stenotrophomonas maltophilia which has been reported to produce serological cross-reactivity with shigella dysenteriae type 8 specific antisera. since clinical diagnosis of shigellosis is largely based on culture and serology, the investigation was aimed at in vivo and in vitro virulence comparison between the culturally similar environmental s. maltophilia isolate and the reference s. dysenteriae strains. the findings of this study revealed the ...201021313916
mixed infections of vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae.mixed infections caused by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, virus, protozoa and helminthes were reported in different literatures. this report also describes the co-infections caused by vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae in a patient. a 36-year-old man was admitted in fatemeh zahra hospital of bushehr iran with fever, vomiting and dysentery. his stool sample was cultured, for identification purposes tcbs, xld and other media were used. v. cholerae and s. dysenteriae wer ...201021313886
extended spectrum beta-lactamase production in shigella isolates - a matter of concern. 201121304205
synthesis, spectral analysis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of novel ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates and 4,5-dihydro-6-(napthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols.a series of ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates 8-14 and 4,5-dihydro-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols 15-21 were synthesised and characterised by their spectroscopic data. in vitro microbiological evaluations were carried out for all the newly synthesised compounds 8-21 against clinically isolated bacterial and fungal strains. compounds 9, 12 and 20 against staphylococcus aureus, 10, 12, 20 against ß-haemolytic streptococcus, 11, 17 against bacillus subtil ...201121299432
shigella species and serotypes among clinical isolates in thailand from 2001 to study the species and the serotypes of the clinical isolates of shigella obtained from patients in thailand.200921298848
antibacterial activity of thai medicinal plants pikutbenjakul.bacterial infections caused by resistant strains have been increased dramatically. pikutbenjakul, a thai medicinal plant formula containing piper longum, piper sarmentosum, piper interruptum, plumbago indica and zingiber officinale have been widely used in thai traditional medicine.201021298838
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