[change in the virulence of flexner shigellae following transmission of several parts of chromosomes related to the synthesis of o-antigen lipopolysaccharide from e coli k-12 and r-mutants of shigellae]. 1976790821
[comparative study of the virulence of an antibiotic-sensitive strain of flexner dysentery and its exconjugants with different r-factors acquired in the experiment]. 1976790825
[transmissive plasmid determining hemolysin production and synthesis of thermolabile k-antigen]. 1976790826
on the metabolic characteristic of hybrids shigella flexneri x escherichia coli devoid of their ability for intracellular multiplication in the epithelial cells. i. glycolysis.the glycolysis (aerobic and in the presence of kcn) of avirulent xyl+ and xyl-str hybrids sh. flexneri x e. coli, devoid of their ability to multiply intracellularly in the epithelial cells, is studied. it is established that their glycolytic activity is considerably higher than the activity of the donor strain e. coli, and deviate significantly compared with shown activity of the virulent recipient strains sh. flexneri. xyl-str hybrids are showing high values of glycolysis in aerobic conditions ...1976790853
on the metabolic characteristic of hybrids shigella flexneri x escherichia coli devoid of their ability for intracellular multiplication in the epithelial cells. ii. catalase and phosphatase activity.the catalase and phosphatase activity of avirulent by keratoconjunctival test of guinea pigs xyl+ and xyl-str (kcp-) hybrids that have lost their ability for intracellular multiplication, received from virulent strains. sh. flexneri (sh. flexneri 222 5 a and sh. flexneri m42-43) and donor strain e. coli ab 313 was investigated. it is established that there is a definite dependence between the changes in the catalase and the phosphatase activities of the hybrid strains and the newly received by t ...1976790854
[comparative studies with the rapid kcn-test for enterobacteriaceae according to cahan, sechter and ohad (author's transl)].581 strains of enterobacteriaceae (184 of salmonella, 100 of shigella, 31 of citrobacter freundii, 61 of escherichia coli, 40 of klebsiella, 165 of proteus) were investigated in comparison with the kcn-test according to møller and with the rapid kcn-test according to cahan, sechter and ohad. there was found that the results obtained with both methods were identical to 99 percent. in both tests there could be observed that inexplicable differences occur only in two strains of proteus mirabilis. t ...1976790855
shigellosis in the united states: ten-year review of nationwide surveillance, the 10 years 1964-1973, 105,832 isolations of shigellae were reported to the center for disease control through a nationwide surveillance system. the number reported increased by approximately 13% annually, from 5852 in 1964, when only 17 centers reported all 4 quarters; to 16,797 in 1973, when 52 centers reported each quarter. the rate of reported isolations varied from 4.6 per 100,000 persons in 1965 to 9.1 per 100,000 in 1973. shigella sonnei accounted for 64% of all these isolates and for ...1976790947
genetic relatedness in the family enterobacteriaceae.five criteria of genetic relatedness are considered. the first, transfer of plasmids between groups, is frequently not a good criterion, because transfer is possible between all genera of the enterobacteriaceae and also to genera in other families. though transfer to closely related groups is most frequent, host restriction and the properties of the plasmid may influence the transfer frequency as much as the relatedness of the donor and recipient. the second criterion is interspecies recombinati ...1976791071
the problem of bacterial diarrhoea.the reported incidence of "pathogenic" bacteria, as judged by serotype, in the stools of children with acute diarrhoea has varied from 4 to 33% over the last twenty years. techniques such as tissue culture provide a means for detecting enterotoxin-producing strains of bacteria, strains which often do not possess "pathogenic" serotypes. "pathogenicity" requires redefinition, and the aetiological importance of bacteria in diarrhoea is probably considerably greater than previous reports have indica ...1976791597
a case of severe bacillary dysentery caused by a gas-producing shigella boydii type 14 (enterobacterium a12 (sachs)). 1976792615
[effect of specific sensitization of the body on the clinical symptoms of dysentery]. 1976793040
[immune response in the mild form of sonne dysentery]. 1976793178
[effect of hyperbaric oxygen on aerobic bacteria].the authors investigated the growth of 8 species of pathogenic aerobic bacteria after treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. within 24 hours the cultures were exposed three times for 2 hours to an absolute pressure of 3 atmospheres of oxygen at 37 degrees c. in the fluid cultures as well as in the controls the inhibitory effect of oxygen was assessed in percent by means of the densitometric method. from these in vivo experiments the authors conclude that hyperbaric treatment of superficial pyogenic e ...1976793215
studies on the energetic metabolism of shigella flexneri x escherichia coli hybrids devoid of penetration ability. iv. growth characteristics in the presence of some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates.the dynamics of avirulant lac+kcp- hybrids sh. flexneri multiplication was investigated in minimal medium in the presence of some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (fumarate, succinate, malate) and pyruvate. it was established that in spite of the loss of virulence in the rate of the multiplication of the hybrid strains, in comparison with that of the virulent recipient strains of sh. flexneri, considerable differences were not observed.1976793258
a rapid glutamic decarboxylase test for identification of bacteria.a simple rapid glutamic decarboxylase test is described. this test was found useful in the identification of escherichia coli, shigella sp., providencia alcalifaciens, clostridium perfringens and bacteroides fragilis.1976793504
[distribution and properties of streptomycin-resistant clones in a population of freshly isolated shigella sonnei strains].it was found that the rate of emergence of streptomycin resistant clones in the populations of fresh isolates of shigella zonne amounted to 10(-6)--10(-4). such streptomycin resistant clones masked streptomycin resistance of the initial shigella population. the main biological properties of the streptomycin resistant clones were identical to those of the initial population.1976793512
[free amino acid content in the blood and urine from the use of monomycin on children with dysentery].the progress of acute dysentery in 73 children at the age of 1 to 14 years treated with monomycin and the levels of free amino acids in the blood and urine in dynamics were studied. it was found that the blood levels of 6 amino acids in the children treated with the antibiotics significantly decreased, while those of 3 amino acids increased as compared to the levels of the same amino acids in the children treated without the antibiotics. it was concluded that the diet of dysentery children treat ...1976793513
[change in the sensitivity of dysentery bacteria to certain antibiotics, furazolidone and antifungal preparations when cultured together with candida albicans].the effect of candida albicans (2 collection cultures and 1 freshly isolated culture) on sensitivity of dysentery bacteria (5 zonne strains, 4 flexner strains and 2 newcastle strains) to antibiotics, furazolidone and their combinations with nystatin or decamine was studied by the method of serial dilutions. a total of 937 tests were performed with the use of 10 concentrations in each test. it was found that sensitivity of the shigella to levomycetin succinate, monomycin and furazolidone decrease ...1976793515
studies on the relationships between the immunogenicity and catabolism of antigens and their binding to the surface of macrophages.the relationship between immunogenicity of shigella paradysenteriae, the branched synthetic polypeptide poly-l (tyr, glu)-polylpro-polyllys [(t, g)-pro--l] and human albumin (hsa) interacting with macrophages and kinetics of antigen degradation and degree of binding to the cell surface was studied. following thioglycollate inoculation into c57bl/6 mice, the peritoneal-stimllated macrophages had higher levels of hydrolases as compared to unstimulated cells. the lysates of the stimulated macrophag ...1976793850
[formation of f'-episomes in flexner shigellae].genetic characteristics of shigella flexneri virulent donor strain 3s, isolated in the laboratory, are studied. the data obtained showed that sh. flexneri 3s 6832 is of f'protype it did not transmit even closely located chromosome markers, except pro+. the transition of pro+ marker was reproduced in reca- strain. f'pro plasmid was eliminated with a frequency similar to that of f'lac factor in the control strain of escherichia coli. the study of virulence by means of keratoconjunktival test revea ...1976793929
phage-dependent changes in shigella flexneri type antigen synthesis.lysogenic conversion of shigella flexneri type antigens was studied with the aid of wild-type and thermosensitive mutant phages. with all wild-type phages, the appearance of glycosylated antigen was accompanied by the appearance of polyprenyl phosphate glucose synthetase activity. with some of the mutant phages, the appearance of glycosylated antigen was not followed by the formation of lipid-linked glucose in the enzyme assay. the reverse has also been observed, i.e., the high rate of formation ...1976793990
isolation of shigella sonnei by fluid media.selenite f broth prepared in the laboratory from single ingredients was found to be significantly more efficient than nutrient broth in the isolation of shigella sonnei from human faeces. it was more efficient than direct plating on deoxycholate citrate agar for diagnosisng sonne dysentery in a local outbreak. the difference was significant. there was, however, no significant advantage for enrichment over direct plating when stools posted from briston to cardiff were examined. laboratory prepare ...1976794405
[comparative susceptibility of animals to sonne and flexner dysentery]. 1976794642
[serological activity of group antigens of human erythrocytes (abo system) and shigella sonnei]. 1976794644
[effect of gram-negative bacterial polysaccharides on various immunity reactions and experimental tumors]. 1976794646
a clinical and epidemiological study of gastro-enteritis.over a 13-year period, 2,903 asian, coloured and white children with gastro-enteritis were admitted to the wilkins infectious diseases hospital, salisbury. during a pilot study of 250 patients conducted over the first 2 years, a definite seasonal variation in the occurrence of gastro-enteritis, with a peak incidence in winter, was noticed, and this led to a more detailed study of 2,653 patients over the next 11 years. bacterial pathogens were recovered from 27% of patients, strains of shigella a ...1976795057
[importance of cellular and humoral immunity factors in dysentery in children]. 1976795153
[intraepithelial shigellae invasion of the intestinal mucosa in patients suffering from acute sonne dysentery].data are presented on detection of intraepithelial localization of shigellae in the biopsy materials of the large and small intestine mucosa of the patients with various forms of acute sonne dysentery, in comparison with the clinico-morphological picture of the disease. biopsy specimens (60 of the large and 7 of the small intestine) were stained with thionine and examined bacterioscopically; an intracellular distribution of the microbes was revealed in 58 cases; in 53 of them a subsequent identi ...1976795227
[interaction with the hep-2 epithelial cells of sh. flexneri r mutants and hybrids differing in o antigen structure].the results of a study of the interaction of the r-mutants of sh. flexneri of various chemotypes and shigellae hybrids with a definite genetic characteristics differing by structure of the o-antigen labeled with 3h-glucose, with the cells of the hep-2 line demonstrated that the presence of the full value lipopolysaccharide structure apparently promoted the fixation of shigellae to the epithelial cells. the rough shigellae strains could retain the capacity to penetrate into the cells and to multi ...1976795229
[changes of various factors of nonspecific humoral immunity in acute dysentery].the level of total enterobacterial enterotoxins of the blood serum, of beta-lysins, lysozyme activity, complement and normal antibodies were studied in 191 patients with acute flexner dysentery and in 285 patients with acute sonne dysentery, depending on the period of the disease, its severity, the treatment applied, and the species of the causative agent. the level of the nonspecific humoral immunity factors increased before the treatment and its normalization depended on the treatment applied.1976795232
[molecular weight and size of the molecules of immunologically separate shigella sonnei colicine types].biologically active electrophoretically homogeneous fractions of sh. sonnei colicines (isolated by gel-chromatographic distribution on sephadex) were characterized within the range of each of the immunologically isolated type by constant values of the molecular weight and the molecule size and also by close specific activity values. immunologically nonhomogeneous types of colicines produced by sh. sonnei differed considerably by their molecular-weight characteristics, the size of the molecules a ...1976795233
[the incidence of frequently occurring sh. sonnei phage types in the gdr].on the basis of literature data (from 1955 to 1970) and own studies (from 1962 to 1974) the authors present information on phage types of sh. sonnei the most frequently encountered in the gdr. it was possible to trace the detection and the incidence of individual phage types at the territory of the republic (by time). in centralized typing there were obtained rather constant and standard results. further improvement of phage typing and also its complex use together with other methods of typing i ...1976795234
[various debatable questions of epidemiology of intestinal infections. ii. interrrelationship between the intensity of enterobacteria accumulation in food and their pathogenic dose].experiments carried out by various methods demonstrated that the intensity of accumulation of various enterobacterial species in food and artificial nutrient medium was different: typhoid bacilli reproduced less intensively, reproduction of e. coli was the most intensive; as to other salmonellae and sh. sonnei--they occupied an intermediate position. it is supposed that the rate of enterobacterial multiplication was an evolutionally justified sign of the species and was to a definite extent prop ...1976795238
[typing of shigella sonnei in the gdr during epidemiological surveillance].a total of 35,503 strains of sh. sonnei were typed during the period from 1962 to 1974 at the institute of experimental epidemiology. the principal method used was bacteriophage typing, and biochemical typing and determination of colicine formation served as auxiliary methods. colicine type, resistogram and in some cases r-factor were determined in some of the strains. such complex typing of sh. sonnei is of value in epidemiological practice.1976795240
[a study of pancrealysates of sh. flexneri 2a and sh. sonnei fractionated by filtration through sephadex g-200 and ultracentrifugation].a high-molecular fraction of the o-antigen of sh. flexneri and sh. sonnei was isolated from the antigen complex by gel-filtration through sephadex g-200 and ultracentrifugation. the high-molecular fraction obtained by ultracentrifugation at 105000 g contained no low-molecular components.1976795248
differentiation of pathogenic, gram-negative, bacterial genera in the presence of beta-2-thienylalanine.described in a fast screening assay for aid in the differentiation of bacterial genera. salmonella is separated from escherichia and shigella, as a generic group on the basis of an inhibition assay incorporating beta-2-thienylalanine, and using a defined medium. the assay is also usable for confirmation of taxonomic differences between genera. the inhibition reaction, readable as an 'all-or-none' phenomenon, follows a dose-response relationship for cultures affected by beta-2-thienylalanine, and ...1976795531
[antimicrobiotics resistance of shigella sonnei. sutdy on 4450 strains isolated in the berlin area from 1963-1973. 2. antimicrobiotics resistance and lysotypes]. 1976795629
passive hemolysis inhibition test for quantitation of serologically active polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in micro improved quantitative micromethod is described for the assay of antigenically active bacterial lipopolysaccharides and their immunodeterminant oligosaccharides. the method which is capable of measuring antigens in nanogram quantities yields the same sensitivity as the microcomplement fixation without the limitations of this method. the use of the method was demonstrated on shigella sonnei phase 1 and phase ii lipopolysaccharide antigens and immunodeterminants.1976796388
studies on the effect of phytagglutinins on some members of enterobacteriaceae.extracts of twenty seeds were tested against twenty six organisms belonging to klebsiella, proteus, salmonella, shigella and cholera species. extracts of eleven seeds showed agglutinating activity against twenty four various organism. s. typhi and kl. aerogenes did not react against any lectin. on the basis of the results it was possible to differentiate various shigella and salmonella organisms by various seed extracts. different isolates of cholera organisms of same serotype and phage type sho ...1976796502
[ultrastructural features of the interaction of salmonellae and shigellae with the cell]. 1976796637
[dysentery in the city of biaƂystok in the years 1961-1974]. 1976796895
[role of colicinogenicity in the mechanism of the antagonistic action of sonne and flexner shigellae]. 1976797188
[ultrastructural changes in mucosa of the distal portion of the large intestine of patients with dysentery].the ultrastructure of the mucosa of the large intestine was studied in 10 patients with acute dysentery. the group of patients included 7 women and 3 men aged 17--50 years. diagnosis was confirmed in all cases bacteriologically (by isolation of sonne shigella in 4 patients and flexner shigella in 6 patients). the electron-microscopy study of bioptats of the mucosa showed that in the inflammatory process all its cells--prismatic, gobletcells, and enterochromaffin -- took part, although not in the ...1976797360
[dysentery in the newborn infant]. 1976798251
r factors derived from shigella flexneri strains.of 2492 shigelle flexneri strains isolated from dysenteric patients in hungary in the years 1972-1974, 767 (30.8%) were resistant to 1-5 antibiotics. resistance was due to r factors in 79.2% of the strains. fertility inhibition experiments with f specific phages showed r factors to be fi+ in 12.9% and fi- and 87.1%. of the antibiotic markers, the chloramphenicol-tetracycline resistance determinant was the most common (46.4%). chloramphenicol resistance determinants were carried out by fi- r fact ...1976798470
restriction and modification of shigella flexneri phages by r factors.out of 420 r factors derived from shigella flexneri strains, 50.8% restricted escherichia coli and s. flexneri phages. phage restriction was produced both by fi- and fi+ r factors. the r factors were divided into nine groups on the basis of the efficiency of plating of s. flexneri phages. changes of phage types were produced by transferring r factors of different restrictive types. the changes offered some information concerning the evolution of phage types. studies on phage modification support ...1976798471
[chemotypes of "shigella flexneri" r mutants and related phage receptors. ii. -- localization of phage receptors (author's transl)].receptor sites for phages fp3, v, p1kcvir, h+, c21, t4, t3, t7 and 6sr have been investigated, by comparing the lytic activity of these phages on r mutants of strain f6 (f6r) and of various serotypes (fh) of shigella flexneri with their inhibition by the lipopolysaccharides isolated from these mutants. the results suggest the following localizations for the receptor sites: phage fp3: lipid a-kdo; phage v: heptose or glucose; phage c21: heptose-glucose; phages h+, p1kcvir, t4 and t3: glucose; pha ...1976798512
[chemotypes of "shigella flexneri" r mutants and related phage receptors. i. -- chemical study of the lipopolysaccharides (author's transl)].the f6r rough mutants isolated from shigella flexneri f6s, serotype 5b, and the fh rough mutants, derived from other serotypes of s. flexneri, were chemotyped according to the chemical analysis of their lipopolysaccharides. further, the following stages of lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis in s. flexneri have been established: --(kdo)3--heptose--heptose--glucose--galactose; the last three stages are: either --glucose--glucosamine--glucose, or --glucosamine--glucose--glucose. the results of th ...1976798513
[substantiation for the kanamycin treatment of certain diseases, taking into account its concentration at the sites of localization of the causative agent (an experimental study)].kanamycin concentration in the inflammatory foci was studied on experimental models of pneumonia, maxillary sinusitis and acute dysentery. the kanamycin levels in the sites of the pathogen localization were lower than those in the same tissues of healthy animals. the antibiotic dose should be chosen with the account of its concentration in the focus of the pathogen localization rather than in the blood serum.1976798542
[experimental study of the effect of a number of chemotherapeutic preparations on the intracellular growth of dysentery bacteria, and their interaction with epithelial cells].the effect of some chemotherapeutics on intercellular growth of sh. sonnei and their capacity for penetration into cells hep-2 and primarily triptinized cells of the monkey kidneys was studied. by the character of their effect the drugs were divided into 3 groups. the drugs of the first group, i.e. furazolidone had no effect on intracellular growth of shigella. the drugs of the second group, i.e. neomycin, monomycin, kanamycin, polymyxin m, ampicillin, negram and 5-nok induced a rapid decrease i ...1976798546
[effect of r-factors on the sensitivity of shigella sonnei to nalidixic acid].bacteriostatic effect of nalidixic acid was studied by the method of serial dilutions in nutrient agar using 36 antibiotic sensitive strains of shigella sonnei and their conjugated substrains carrying separately the following r-factors: r1(tccmsm) fi-, r2(tccm) fi+, r3(cmsm) fi-. the above r-factors were isolated from clinical strains of shigella sonnei and transferred to the strains studied by means of an intermediate donor of e. coli mf-nr. the bactericidal effect of nalidixic acid was studied ...1976798548
[relationship between the epithelium and the stroma of the small-intestinal mucosa during antigenic stimulation].the state of cells and intercellular structures, as well as the pattern of interaction between the epithelium and the stroma of the small intestine mucosa following their exposure to microbic toxins were studied in experiments on rabbits using histological, histochemical and immunofluorescent methods. it was established that the immuno-barrier function of the intestine was implemented by the brush border, epithelial cells, their basal membrane, fibres and cells of lamina propia of the mucosa. da ...1976798566
[mechanism of increasing vascular permeability under the influence of dysentery endotoxin]. 1976799293
[antibodies to enteropathogenic bacteria in the saliva of patients with different forms of acute intestinal diseases and healthy subjects]. 1976799368
[copro- and serum antibodies to enteropathogenic bacteria in patients with sonne dysentery and other acute intestinal diseases]. 1976799369
[production and characteristics of glycerin mutants of s. typhimurium].s. typhimurium glycerine mutants-gly 90 and gly 87 were obtained under the action of ethylmethanesulfonate. the mutants obtained were characterized by the site of block in the course of glycerine utilization:gly 90 mutant bore the mutation in the glp k-gene, this leading to the defect by glycerokinase-the enzyme of the first stage of glycerine metabolism; gly 87 mutant had derangements in the other stage of glycerine utilization. both mutants lost their capacity to induce keratoconjunctivitis in ...1976799451
[distribution of lysotypes and study of antibiotic sensitivity of shigella flexneri 2 isolated in iran].152 strains of shigella flexneri 2 isolated from the stools of patients having sporadic bacillary dysenteria have been studied for their phage types as well as for the presence of transferable resistance factor. the distribution of the phage types has shown a high predominance of lysotype 12 (67%). proportion of shigella flexneri 2 strains resistant to one or several antibiotics has been highest in the years 1968 and 1973. the most frequent transferable resistance pattern was found to be (tc, cm ...1976799541
transfer of colicinogenic and antibiotic resistance factors of shigella sonnei. 1976799726
generalized transduction of shigella flexneri by converting phage pe5.phage pe5, responsible for the conversion of type v antigen in shigella flexneri, has the ability to produce generalized transduction. the correlation between phage multiplicity and the number of transductants, the specific inhibitory activity of anti-pe5 serum, and the lack of transduction in pe5 resistant recipients, indicate the role of phage pe5 in generalized transduction. transduction of the r100-1 factor resulted in a non-transmissible tetracycline resistance segragation. the characterist ...1976799898
immunity of the guinea pig's eye after vaccination with shigella sonnei phase i antigen.a total of 8 doses, each containing 10(9) live or heated cells of pure phase i antigen of shigella sonnei and plesiomonas shigelloides, was administered into the conjunctival sac of guinea pigs during a 3-week period. the eyes were challenged with virulent s. sonnei. the vaccines protected the eyes in 50-80% to the minimum infecting dose andin 20-50% to 3 mid. the peak of immunity began to decrease after the 26th day and on the 56th day it was practically nil. vaccination caused histological cha ...1976799899
resistance to antibiotics of shigella strains isolated in somalia.the resistance to antibiotics of 240 shigella strains isolated in somalia from 1973 to 1976 was studied. many strains, particularly those of shigella dysenteriae type 1, were found to be resistant to more than one drug. in view of their resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides, it is suggested that polymyxin b or m sulfate - which have proved to be effective in vivo - should be used for the treatment of clinically typical cases of bacillary dysenter ...1976799953
[chemical structure and biological activities of lipopolysaccharides (author's transl)]. 1976800274
[researches on antibiotic-resistance in "shigella sonnei" and "flexneri" and in "salmonella typhimurium" (author's transl)].ampicillin (a), streptomycin (s), aminosidin (k), chloramphenical (c) and tetracycline (t) resistance was investigated in 130 s. typhi murium, 18 shigella flexneri and 13 shigella sonnei strains, recovered from enteritis cases in 1970-1973. all salmonella and 70% shigella strains (without any appreciable differences between sh. sonnei and flexneri) were found resistant and most multiresistant. a-s-k-c-t resistance was frequently found: in 48% of the salmonella and 12% of the shigella strains. as ...1976800942
gastro-enteritis in egypt, certain epidemiological aspects. 1976801623
scanning electron microscopic studies on the microstructure of s and r type colonies of salmonella and shigella groups. 1976802350
[microbiological analysis of vindolinina (an alkaloid isolated from catharanthus roseus) and some of its structural changes].bacteriostatic properties of vindolinina (an alkaloid isolated from catharanthus roseus that has an ester group within its molecule) as well as of its alkaline-hydrolysis product (vindolininic acid) crystallized as chlorhydrate, and of the product of its reduction with lithium and aluminum hydrides (vindolininol) are compared. several strains of bacteria pathogenic to man (proteus, escherichia, shigella, staphylococcus, and pseudomonas) cultured in nutritive-agar dishes containing disks and incu ...1976802793
demonstration of cell division by septation in a variety of gram-negative rods.through use of an initial fixative employing a combination of crotonaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, septa were preserved in thin sections of dividing cells of strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhimurium, shigella sonnei, and escherichia coli when grown at 30 c in a dilute basal medium. the same procedures, however, revealed only a constrictive division process in proteus vulgaris and erwinia sp. this adds to the evidence that septation, although difficult to demonstrate, is the proces ...1975803487
the effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. iii. bacteriolysis induced by extracts of different leukocyte populations and the inhibition of lysis by macromolecular substances.the lysis of 14c-labeled bacteria by hydrolases of human and rabbit leukocytes was studied in vitro. while staphylococcus albus, streptococcus faecalis, and streptococcus mutans were highly susceptible to lysis, staphylococcus auresus was intermediate in its susecptibility to lysis by the leukocyte enzymes. group a streptococcus, listeria monocytogenes, shigella flexneri, escherichia coli, and mycobacterium smegmatis were very resistant to degradation by these enzymes. the lytic activity of leuk ...1975804017
the destruction of tumor cells by alloimmune peritoneal cells: mechanism of action of activated macrophages in vitro. 1975804549
[vibriolysis in cholera and nag-vibrios].the causative agent of classic cholera, vibrios of the el-tor biotype and nag-vibrios produced on agar plates a substance which lysed killed indicator strains of the vibrios and the gram negative bacilli, but was indifferent against the gram positive bacilli. the action of the vibriolysins varied extending from the causative agent of classic cholera in the direction of saprophytes.1975804789
behaviour and indicator value of some microorganisms under conditions of soil contamination by pesticides.the comparative effect of two organophosphorus pesticides (chlorophos and metaphos) on escherichia coli, an enterococcus and shigella organisms present in chernozem, podzolic, and loamy soils was investigated. a considerable level of resistance of the test organisms to the insecticides was established. this was expressed by their behaviour only changing on contamination of the soil samples with the insecticides in amounts considerably exceeding those used in natural conditions. escherichia coli ...1975805171
in-vitro effect of edta-tris-lysozyme solutions on selected pathogenic bacteria.the in-vitro effect of edta-tris-lysozyme solution on 16 pathogenic bacteria of medical or veterinary importance was determined. marked decreases in bacterial count occurred with pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, moraxella osloensis and campylobacter fetus, and smaller decreses with salmonella typhimurium, shigella boydii, aeromonas hydrophila, proteus mirabilis, listeria monocytogenes and erysipelothrix insidiosa. the test solution had no effect on klebsiella ozaenae, brucella canis, co ...1975805241
comparison of the germicidal activity of prepodyne and betadine surgical scrub solutions.two iodophoric surgical scrubs soaps, prepodyne and betadine, were evaluated for bacteriocidal activity in a modified phenol coefficient test. a standard inoculum of each of 18 species of microorganisms was mixed with a 1:8 dilution of each iodophor and subcultured after one, three, and five minutes of exposure. complete cidal activty was exhibited by both prepodyne and betadine. twenty-five subjects were tested in hand washing experiments using betadine and prepodyne surgical scrub solutions. q ...1975805538
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections, including enteric fever and typhoid carriers.forty-three patients suffering from typhoid fever, 11 from paratyphoid fever, six from bacillary dysentery caused by shigella flexneri, and nine carriers of salmonella typhi or s. paratyphi b, have been treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compound. fifty-one of the 54 patients who had typhoid fever or paratyphoid fever responded satisfactorily to treatment. two patients with typhoid fever failed to respond and one died. in the patients with bacillary dysentery acute symptoms subsided rapi ...1975805647
microbial development of drug resistance: mechanisms and clinical significance.bacteria have demonstrated a disconcerting ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents nearly as quickly as new compounds become available. during the past two decades the molecular bases of several types of resistance have been elucidated. mechanisms of resistance include the transference of genetic material either through conjugation (involving direct contact between microorganisms), or indirectly through transduction (involving bacteriophages). in addition to this "infectious" drug ...1975806419
conditions critical for optimal visualization of bacteriophage adsorbed to bacterial surfaces by scanning electron microscopy.the potential of scanning electron microscopy as a tool for the detection of viruses on cell surfaces has been studied using bacteriophage p1 adsorbed to shigella dysenteriae as a model system. viral particles were readily detectable by scanning electron microscopy on the surface of infected cells which were fixed with glutaraldehyde followed by postfixation in oso4 and prepared by critical point drying. the virus-studded surface of the infected cells differed markedly from the relatively smooth ...1975806704
substituted 1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones.a series of 1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones has been prepared. a new synthesis of 4-alkyl-1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones involving the oxidative ring closure of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde 2-(2-hydroxyethylalkyl)semicarbazones is described. the in vitro testing of the compounds against a variety of bacteria is reported.1975807733
divalent cation stimulation of the cell infectivity of shigella flexneri 2a. 1975807763
nation-wide survey of antibiotic resistance by means of a computer. analysis of 200.000 strains of problem bacteria isolated in 1973.based on a pilot study performed in 5 district public health laboratories (phl) in the slovakia in 1972 (1), the computer system for elaborating the informations concerning the resistance of "problem bacteria" to antibiotics has completely been introduced in 18 phls for all-year studies on the resistance to antibiotics in 1973. the results obtained in each phl and also in total of about 200.000 bacterial strains belonging to 8 of the clinically most important bacterial species were passed on to ...1975808050
the influence of some cations on bacterial endotoxins: the course of its isolation and purification, bacterial endotoxin may be contaminated by some inorganic cations. the present study was concerned with cu-2+ contamination of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (lps) extracted from shigella dysenteriae 1 s and r strains. the cu-2+ contamination level of lps prepared by raynaud's method and partly purified through sephadex g200 and sepharose 4b was in the range of 1-5 mug cu-2+/mg lps. crude raynauds extract, similarly as lps prepared by west ...1975808051
arylamidase activity of salmonella species.arylamidase activity in cell extracts of sonically cell treated suspensions of 23 salmonella strains, including 12 strains of s. typhimurium, was investigated. all cultures hydrolyzed five of nine different neutral and basic substrates. activity against aspartyl-, cystyl- histidinyl-, and isoleucyl-beta-naphylamide was negligible. alanyl-beta-naphthylamide was the preferred substrate for the salmonella species; however, specific activities ranged widely. of several gram-negative organisms survey ...1975808165
chemistry of cephalosporin antibiotics. 28. preparation and biological activity of 3-(substituted)vinyl cephalosporins.3-(substituted)vinylcephem nuclei have been prepared by the reaction of 3-formylcephem derivatives with stabilized phosphoranes. appropriate synthetic steps allowed preparation of a series of 3-ethoxycarbonylvinyl- and 3-carboxyvinylcephem derivatives bearing a variety of 7-acylamino functions. the phenoxyacetyl and thiopheneacetyl derivatives of the 3-cyanovinylcephem nucleus were also prepared. although general gram-positive activity was comparable to cephalothin in many cases, against penicil ...1975808607
transmissible drug resistance in shigella and salmonella isolated from pet monkeys and their owners.during two dysentery outbreaks in primate pet owners, shigella and salmonella strains were isolated from the enteric flora. in both outbreaks the source of infection was traced to asymptomatic spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). the spider monkeys and their owners shed multiply drug-resistant shigella and salmonella serotypes. six of the nine bacterial strains isolated from the animals were multiply drug-resistant and capable of transferring antibiotic resistance patterns.1975808621
animal model of human disease. bacillary dysentery, shigellosis, shigella dysentery. animal model: monkey shigellosis or dysentery. 1975810032
disinfectant effect of performic acid.1. performic acid applied at short exposures to various kinds of microorganisms known for their resistance shows a strong bactericidal and sporicidal effect. 2. in addition to disinfection of hands and other parts of the body, the preparation could be used for the disinfection of various surfaces and objects.1975810511
[the antibiotic effect of the madder root (rubia tinctorium)]. 1975810813
bacteriophage typing of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria. 1975811424
nationwide survey of antibiotic resistance by means of a computer. an introduction into the analysis of multiple antibiotic surveillance of single and multiple antibiotic resistance of 8 species of so-called "problem bacteria" by computer analysis of data obtained from 18 public health laboratories in slovakia in 1973 enables to establish the most frequently occuring spectra of multiple drug resistance which would point to the spread of typical r plasmids among the problem bacteria investigated. as an introduction, we surveyed the mode of testing of problem bacteria in individual phls against antibiotics - d ...1975812292
enterobacterial chelators of iron: their occurrence, detection, and relation to or on agar media, low-density seedings of enterobacteria fail to grow in the presence of certain concentrations of ethylene diamine-di-orthohydroxyphenyl acetic acid (edda); on the other hand, high-density seedings not only grow but secrete iron chelators which release the iron bound by the edda in the medium and stimulate the growth of low-density seedings. plates of media containing edda with low-density seedings of indicator organisms were used to survey iron-chelator production in seven e ...1975812996
[antibacterial activity of a lysozyme-like enzyme from staphylococci].a lysozyme-like enzyme isolated from the culture broth of staph. aureus 712 presented in its native state a lipoproteid complex. the lytic and antibacterial spectrum of the enzyme was similar to that of the egg albumin enzyme. however, the lipoproteid complex was somewhat superior to the egg albumin complex in its activity against micrococcus lysodeikticus, a number of gramnegative bacteria and staphylococci. out of the organisms studied microccus lysodeikticus, sarcina and bac. subtilis proved ...1975813563
[dynamics of multiplication and changes in the virulence of various pathogenic microorganisms in milk and milk products]. 1975814792
[respect for biological balance in the treatment of liquid waste with a new disinfectant]. 1975815893
extracellular deoxyribonuclease activity of pseudomonas aeruginosa.pseudomonas aeruginosa cultured on deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) media containing nissan's heart extract or chicken heart extract could produce extracellular deoxyribonuclease, while on other dna media with heart extracts from cow, pig and mouse could not. variation in the kind of peptones in the dna media did not make significant difference in this activity, although some peptones caused cloudiness of the media. p. aeruginosa did not need cation activators of chloride compounds to produce extrace ...1975816619
[drug resistance and distribution of r factors among shigella strains]. 1976816981
cell-wall lipopolysaccharide of the 'shigella-like' escherichia coli 0124. structure of the polysaccharide chain.from escherichia coli 0124 two lipopolysaccharide preparations were obtained with phenol/water extraction and cetavlon precipitation. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate and chemical analysis showed that the two preparations from e. coli 0124 and the corresponding preparations from shigella dysenteriae type 3 reacted alike. the o-specific polysaccharide moiety was characterized with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, optical rotation and paper electro ...1976819266
an outbreak of shigellosis in laboratory marmosets and tamarins (family: callithricidae).an outbreak of shigellosis due to shigella sonnei, is reported in laboratory maintained marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and tamarins (saguinus nigricollis). the clinical signs and pathological lesions are described and the microbiological findings discussed. control of the disease was based upon hygiene and antibiotic therapy and the consequences of this approach are described in detail.1976819574
[a microbiological survey of stool samples from normal and diarrheic persons in 2 districts of ankara]. 1975820946
the enterobacteriaceae of south african baboons.the results of routine rectal swab examinations, carried out on 776 baboons on the day of arrival at the colony and also on 394 animals which subsequently developed diarrhoea, are described. a dramatic increase was observed in the incidence of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms during the diarrhoeic phase. the significance of bacterial species which are not pathogenic under normal circumstances as the possible cause of disease in animals subjected to stress is discussed.1976821157
[antibacterial activity of a carbenicillin-cephaloridin combination].the effectiveness of the combination of carbenicilline and cephaloridine in the ratio of 4:1 was studied. the antibacterial activity of the association whether in vitro or in vivo is sinergic, that is, superior to the simply addition by the individual components. the hematic levels of the combination remain high up to 5 hours after the administration and are greater than those obtained with carbenicilline alone. levels in the urine are high, therefore the species judged to be resistent in vitro ...1975821404
fluid and electrolyte transport in rhesus monkeys challenged intracecally with shigella flexneri 2a.shigella flexneri 2a is an invasive enteric pathogen that may produce diarrhea when ingested by human beings and subhuman primates. we have previously shown that shigella diarrhea correlates with water and electrolyte transport abnormalities in the jejunum and colon. dysentery alone is associated only with colonic transport abnormalities. to define the relationship between invasion and inflammation of the colon and the occurrence of jejunal transport abnormalities, we studied water and electroly ...1976823110
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