TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
etiology of acute gastroenteritis in three sentinel general practices, austria 2007.we studied the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in a village with a total population of approximately 6,000. this is the first study in austria that has investigated a broad range of pathogens recovered from an unselected population of patients who had consulted general practitioners because of gastroenteritis.200919148576
comparative study of pathogenicity tests for shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli strains.the purpose of this study was to optimize an in vitro pathogenicity model, as an alternative to sereny test (on guinea pigs). the study was performed on 13 shigella spp. and 3 enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) strains isolated in romania between 2005 and 2007. the investigation implied the comparative evaluation between the sereny test and cravioto's adapted method for the assessment of the adherence and invasion capacity of the studied bacterial strains on hela cells, as well as the pcr de ...200919507627
[norovirus infection in general hospitals for adults].to determine the role of noroviruses in the rise of hospital outbreaks of acute intestinal infections (aii), to study clinical and epidemiological aspects of hospital noroviral infection.200919514424
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular epidemiology of food pathogens.foodborne diseases due to well-recognized pathogens have emerged as an important and growing public health problem with a significant impact on health. molecular methods for subtyping these microorganisms have become a valid adjunct to the traditional techniques employed in most laboratories. one such molecular technique for the detection and identification of food pathogens is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). this method separates large dna molecules by the use of an alternating electri ...200919521867
bacterial type iii effectors inhibit cell lifting by targeting integrin-linked kinase.many pathogenic bacteria are able to surmount exfoliation and colonize the host epithelium efficiently. in a recent article in nature, kim et al. (2009) show that shigella flexneri ospe, a conserved type iii effector, reinforces host cell adherence and prevents detachment of the infected cells by interacting with integrin-linked kinase.200919527878
sarcosaprophagous flies in suez governorate, egypt iv--persistence of human pathogenic bacteria in the developmental stages.the persistence of three species of human pathogenic bacteria (escherichia coli, shigella sonnei and staphylococcus epidermidis) in sterile artificially fed larvae was examined till adult emergence after ingestion by three species of sarcosaprophagous flies (house fly, musca domestica, oriental latrine blow fly, chrysomya megacephala and australian cheep blow fly, lucilia cuprina). the number of bacteria present in mature maggots, pupae and emerging adults declined significantly (p < 0.05). each ...200919530618
bulging fontanelle in febrile infants: is lumbar puncture mandatory?to determine the aetiologies and clinical characteristics of infants with fever and a bulging fontanelle.200919531528
[multiplex pcr assay for dissemination and diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes in shigella isolates].to develop a rapid and simple multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method which discriminates extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) genes in sporadic shigella isolates from 1998 to 2007 in hangzhou city, china.200919534925
genetics and virulence association of the shigella flexneri sit iron transport system.the sit-encoded iron transport system is present within pathogenicity islands in all shigella spp. and some pathogenic escherichia coli strains. the islands contain numerous insertion elements and sequences with homology to bacteriophage genes. the shigella flexneri sit genes can be lost as a result of deletion within the island. the formation of deletions was dependent upon reca and occurred at relatively high frequency. this suggests that the sit region is inherently unstable, yet sit genes ar ...200919289511
acute non-outbreak shigellosis: ten years experience in southern taiwan.we conducted a retrospective study of both the clinical and laboratory characteristics of shigellosis in southern taiwan.200919292940
the changing panorama of bacterial enteric infections.we studied the age-specific population-based incidence of bacterial enteric infections caused by shigella, salmonella and campylobacter, in jerusalem. during 1990-2008, 32,408 cases were reported (incidence rate 232.1/100,000 per annum). the patterns of shigella (47.4% of cases), salmonella (34.4%) and campylobacter (18.2%) infections evolved noticeably. campylobacter rates increased from 15.0 to 110.8/100,000 per annum. salmonella rates increased from 74.2 to 199.6/100,000 in 1995 then decrease ...200919296872
characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant shigella flexneri in hangzhou area of china.the aim of this study was to characterize fluoroquinolone-resistant shigella and determine whether the qnr and aac(6')-ib-cr genes could contribute to sporadic shigellosis at the clinic in the hangzhou area of china.200919297378
serodiversity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of shigella isolates at gondar university teaching hospital, northwest ethiopia.the aims of this study were to determine the distribution of serogroups and serotypes as well as the antimicrobial resistance pattern of shigella isolates from gondar patients with acute diarrhea. a cross-sectional study was conducted from august 2006 to february 2008. stool specimens were received from study subjects and cultured. isolates were confirmed by biochemical and serological tests. the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the disc diffusion method. of the 1,200 sto ...200919305047
green banana reduces clinical severity of childhood shigellosis: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.mature green banana (gb) fruit is rich in amylase-resistant starch that stimulates colonic production of short-chain fatty acids (referred to as fatty acid) and is useful in treating diarrheal diseases. we studied therapeutic effects of gb in childhood shigellosis by determining colonic fatty acid production in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.200919319017
structure and heme binding properties of escherichia coli o157:h7 chux.for many pathogenic microorganisms, iron acquisition from host heme sources stimulates growth, multiplication, ultimately enabling successful survival and colonization. in gram-negative escherichia coli o157:h7, shigella dysenteriae and yersinia enterocolitica the genes encoded within the heme utilization operon enable the effective uptake and utilization of heme as an iron source. while the complement of proteins responsible for heme internalization has been determined in these organisms, the f ...200919319934
surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns among shigella sonnei strains isolated in belgium during the 18-year period 1990 to 2007.this study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella sonnei, the predominant species causing shigellosis in belgium. between 1990 and 2007, a total of 7,307 strains, mainly (98.2%) isolated from stools, were diagnosed by peripheral laboratories before being confirmed as shigella strains by serotyping by the national reference center of salmonella and shigella. a significant increase in resistances to tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethoprim, ...200919321731
antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in central africa: a review of the published literature between 1955 and 2008.a systematic review of the published literature on bacterial resistance in central africa between 1955 and 2008 was performed. eighty-three publications from seven countries were retrieved, the majority presenting data on enteric and other gram-negative pathogens. despite methodological limitations in many studies, alarming resistance rates are noted in nearly all pathogens. of special concern are multidrug resistance in shigella and salmonella spp. and the emergence of meticillin-resistant stap ...200919540725
hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in kolkata.diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. however, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. in this paper we report the prevalence of giardia lamblia, entamoeba histolytica and cryptosporidium sp ...200919545355
effects of reduction products of ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization of azo dyes.the mediated effects of reduction products of some ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization were investigated. the results indicated that the addition of reduction products could effectively accelerate dye decolorization by shigella sp. qrz-1. the best accelerating effect was obtained with the addition of reduction products of acid red 14 (ar14), resulting in an over 3-fold increase in decolorization efficiency of many azo dyes. in sequencing batch reactor experiments, the accele ...200919545943
nitric oxide production in acute gastroenteritis in indian children.this study compared nitric oxide (no) levels in 110 children with, and 110 children without, infectious gastroenteritis. post-infection intestinal function was assessed in a subset. at least one pathogen was identified in 47.2% of cases. the most common diarrhoeal pathogens were rotavirus (22.7%) and norovirus genogroup ii (11.8%). the levels of no measured by median urinary nitrite:creatinine ratio were significantly higher in children with diarrhoea [23.6; interquartile range (iqr) 12.3-46.7] ...200919552932
evaluation of antibacterial activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of thespesia populnea flower extracts.flavonoids which were reported as having many pharmacological activities, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, chemoprevention activities and they possess strong antiproliferative effects related to inhibition of cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction. on the basis of this thespesia populnea (l.) sol. ex correa (family-malvaceae) was selected and it is having the major composition of flavonoids and the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of thespesia populnea flowers was inves ...200919553175
imported fresh sugar peas as suspected source of an outbreak of shigella sonnei in denmark, april-may 2009.we report on an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections involving ten cases notified through the laboratory surveillance system in denmark in april and may. the likely source was consumption of fresh, raw sugar peas (sugar snaps) imported from africa. this conclusion was based on interviews with cases and on the occurrence of a similar outbreak one month later in norway. fresh imported produce may occasionally be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria even when sold as ready-to-eat.200919555602
shigella sonnei infections in norway associated with sugar peas, may-june may 2009, the norwegian institute of public health (niph) identified a possible outbreak of shigella sonnei infection involving four cases. additionally, five suspected cases in two separate households were reported. inspectors from the norwegian food safety authority (nfsa) visited the two households and found an unopened package of sugar peas imported from kenya in one of the households. one sample from the sugar peas was positive for shigella sonnei by two pcr methods. based on this result ...200919555603
the cellular level of o-antigen polymerase wzy determines chain length regulation by wzzb and wzzphs-2 in shigella flexneri 2a.the lipopolysaccharide o antigen of shigella flexneri 2a has two preferred chain lengths, a short (s-oag) composed of an average of 17 repeated units and a very long (vl-oag) of about 90 repeated units. these chain length distributions are controlled by the chromosomally encoded wzzb and the plasmid-encoded wzz(phs-2) proteins, respectively. in this study, genes wzzb, wzz(phs-2) and wzy (encoding the o-antigen polymerase) were cloned under the control of arabinose- and rhamnose-inducible promote ...200919556292
rational design and immunogenicity of liposome-based diepitope constructs: application to synthetic oligosaccharides mimicking the shigella flexneri 2a o-antigen.we have designed chemically defined diepitope constructs consisting of liposomes displaying at their surface synthetic oligosaccharides mimicking the o-antigen of the shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (b-cell epitope) and influenza hemagglutinin peptide ha 307-319 (th epitope). using well controlled and high-yielding covalent bioconjugation reactions, the two structurally independent epitopes were coupled to the lipopeptide pam(3)cag, i.e. a tlr2 ligand known for its adjuvant properties, a ...200919559116
a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of lactobacillus gg in infantile a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 229 infants hospitalized for acute diarrhea in rural india were given a 10-day course of lactobacillus rhammosus gg (minimum dose, 10 degrees bacteria) or placebo. there was no difference in groups in the duration of diarrhea or numbers of stool on days 3, 6, or 10 of treatment.200919559297
comparison of two label-free global quantitation methods, apex and 2d gel electrophoresis, applied to the shigella dysenteriae proteome.the in vitro stationary phase proteome of the human pathogen shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (sd1) was quantitatively analyzed in coomassie blue g250 (cbb)-stained 2d gels. more than four hundred and fifty proteins, of which 271 were associated with distinct gel spots, were identified. in parallel, we employed 2d-lc-ms/ms followed by the label-free computationally modified spectral counting method apex for absolute protein expression measurements. of the 4502 genome-predicted sd1 proteins, 1148 ...200919563668
[a multicentre study of shigella spp in henan province, during 2000-2007]. 200919565889
broad-range pcr, cloning and sequencing of the full 16s rrna gene for detection of bacterial dna in synovial fluid samples of tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis.broad-range rdna pcr provides an alternative, cultivation-independent approach for identifying bacterial dna in reactive and other form of arthritis. the aim of this study was to use broad-range rdna pcr targeting the 16s rrna gene in patients with reactive and other forms of arthritis and to screen for the presence of dna from any given bacterial species in synovial fluid (sf) samples.200919570210
listeria monocytogenes membrane trafficking and lifestyle: the exception or the rule?listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that promotes its internalization within nonprofessional phagocytes by interacting with specific host cell receptors. l. monocytogenes resides transiently in a membrane-bound compartment before escaping into the host cell cytosol where bacterial proliferation takes place. actin-based motility then promotes cell-to-cell pathogen spread. extensive studies on cytoskeleton rearrangements, membrane trafficking, and other events have establ ...200919575658
ptdins5p protects akt from dephosphorylation through pp2a inhibition.phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (ptdins5p), the most recently discovered phosphoinositide, has been proposed to play a role as a lipid mediator of intracellular signaling. we have previously shown that ptdins5p generated by ipgd, an effector of the causative agent of dysentery shigella flexneri, activates the pi 3-kinase/akt pathway. here, we demonstrate that ptdins5p is able to protect akt from dephosphorylation. this effect is not due to inhibition of the phosphoinositide phosphatase regulati ...200919576174
porin of shigella dysenteriae directly promotes toll-like receptor 2-mediated cd4+ t cell survival and effector function.porin of shigella dysenteriae type 1 up-regulated toll-like receptor (tlr)2 on cd3-stimulated cd4(+) t cells but could not induce the expression of other tlrs. tlr2 in association with myeloid differentiating factor 88 (myd88) triggered the downstream signal transduction pathway leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) and nuclear factor kappab (nf-kappab), and degradation of ikappab, the nf-kappab inhibitor. tlr2 co-stimulation by porin resulted in t cell expansion by in ...200919576636
aetiology of acute gastro-enteritis in children at saint camille medical centre, ouagadougou, burkina faso.the present study aims at identifying the infectious agents responsible for child acute gastroenteritis (age) in ouagadougou. from may 5 2006 to june 22 2008, 648 children aged from 2 to 41 months, with at least an average of 3 loose stools per day have been enrolled for coproculture, parasitology and virology test. among them, 34 (5.25%) were hiv seropositive. a single sample of faeces from each child was used to identify enteropathogens. an infectious aetiology was identified in 41.20% of case ...200919579955
influence of long-term consumption of a lactococcus lactis strain on the intestinal immunity and intestinal flora of the senescence-accelerated mouse.the senescence-accelerated mouse develops normally until 5-6 months of age and then displays rapid and irreversible advancement of senescence manifesting as clinical signs and gross lesions. to clarify the effect of lactic acid bacteria on the physiological changes with increasing age, heat-killed lactococcus lactis g50 was administered to 1-month-old senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (samp)6 mice for 11 months, a senescence-accelerated mouse strain that develops senile osteoporosis. mice fed g ...200919586567
characterization of shigella sonnei isolates from travel-associated cases in japan.shigella sonnei infection in industrialized countries is often associated with foreign travel. a total of 195 s. sonnei isolates in japan, isolated from cases associated with foreign travel, were analysed by biotyping and molecular typing using pfge and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (mlva); their antimicrobial susceptibilities were also evaluated. the isolates were from 26 countries, most of which were asian. molecular typing revealed a correlation among the genotypes, biotyp ...200919589900
potential applicability of chymotrypsin-susceptible microcin j25 derivatives to food preservation.microcin j25 (mccj25) is a 21-residue ribosomally synthesized lariat peptide antibiotic. mccj25 is active against such food-borne disease-causing pathogens as salmonella spp., shigella spp., and escherichia coli, including e. coli o157:h7 and non-o157 strains. mccj25 is highly resistant to digestion by proteolytic enzymes present in the stomach and intestinal contents. mccj25 would therefore remain active in the gastrointestinal tract, affecting normal intestinal microbiota, and this limits the ...200919592527
structural mimicry of o-antigen by a peptide revealed in a complex with an antibody raised against shigella flexneri serotype 2a.the use of carbohydrate-mimicking peptides to induce immune responses against surface polysaccharides of pathogenic bacteria offers a novel approach to vaccine development. factors governing antigenic and immunogenic mimicry, however, are complex and poorly understood. we have addressed this question using the anti-lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody f22-4, which was raised against shigella flexneri serotype 2a and shown to protect against homologous infection in a mouse model. in a previous ...200919328810
antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in shigella and salmonella isolates from children under five years of age with diarrhea in rural mozambique.the antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance of 109 shigella and 40 salmonella isolates from children with diarrhea in southern mozambique were assessed. the susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion, and mechanisms of resistance were searched by pcr or colorimetric method. a high proportion of shigella isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol (chl) (52%), ampicillin (amp) (56%), tetracycline (tet) (66%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (sxt) ...200919332670
solar disinfection (sodis) and subsequent dark storage of salmonella typhimurium and shigella flexneri monitored by flow cytometry.pathogenic enteric bacteria are a major cause of drinking water related morbidity and mortality in developing countries. solar disinfection (sodis) is an effective means to fight this problem. in the present study, sodis of two important enteric pathogens, shigella flexneri and salmonella typhimurium, was investigated with a variety of viability indicators including cellular atp levels, efflux pump activity, glucose uptake ability, and polarization and integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. the ...200919332832
[postinfection irritable bowel syndrome].to characterize pathogenesis, clinicolaboratory criteria and treatment of postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (pics).200919334488
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of the tonb-dependent haem outer membrane transporter shua from shigella part of efforts towards understanding the crystallization of membrane proteins and membrane transport across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, the tonb-dependent haem outer membrane transporter shua of shigella dysenteriae bound to heavy atoms was crystallized in several crystallization conditions using detergents. the insertion of a his(6) tag into an extracellular loop of shua, instead of downstream of the escherichia coli peptide signal, allowed efficient targeting to the outer ...200919342792
global etiology of travelers' diarrhea: systematic review from 1973 to the present.fifty-one published studies of travelers' diarrhea (td) were examined to look for regional differences in pathogens identified. enterotoxigenic e. coli was detected in 1,678/5,518 (30.4%) of td cases overall, with rates in latin america/caribbean (l. america), africa, south asia, and southeast asia of 1,109/3,302 (33.6%), 389/1,217 (31.2%), 153/499 (30.6%), and 36/500 (7.2%), respectively (p < 0.001). enteroaggregative e. coli was the second most common agent in l. america, found in 166/689 (24. ...200919346386
synthesis, characterization, and immunogenicity in mice of shigella sonnei o-specific oligosaccharide-core-protein conjugates.shigellosis, an enteric disease, is on the world health organization's priority prevention list. in one study, the shigella sonnei o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp)-protein conjugate showed 72% protection against disease in israeli army recruits exposed to high rates (8-14%) of infection. the protection was related to vaccine-induced igg anti-o-sp levels. synthetic oligosaccharides of shigella dysenteriae type 1, bound by their reducing ends to a carrier protein ("sun"-type configuration), induce ...200919346477
molecular characterisation of the reca locus in clinical isolates of verocytotoxigenic e. coli o157:h7.molecular epidemiology of verocytoxigenic escherichia coli o157:h7 is important to help elucidate reservoirs and modes of transmission, particularly between animals and humans. as the reca gene locus is now beginning to gain application in bacterial genotyping schemes, and as it has not been examined previously in e. coli o157 isolates, this study aims to examine potential polymorphic variation as a possible epidemiological marker for the subspecies characterisation of clinically significant ver ...200919348125
the pic protease of enteroaggregative escherichia coli promotes intestinal colonization and growth in the presence of mucin.enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrheal disease in diverse populations. no small animal model is currently available to study this pathogen. we report here that conventional mice orally inoculated with prototype eaec strain 042 generally became colonized, though the abundance of organisms cultured from their stool varied substantially among individual animals. in contrast, mice whose water contained 5 g/liter streptomycin consistently be ...200919349428
enteric bacterial pathogens in hiv-infected children with acute diarrhea in mulago referral and teaching hospital, kampala, children develop severe bacterial infections. we set out to determine the enteric bacterial pathogens in hiv-infected children and hiv-negative controls with acute diarrhea and their antimicrobial sensitivities.200919357426
preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--10 states, 2008.foodborne diseases remain an important public health problem in the united states. the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) of cdc's emerging infections program collects data from 10 u.s. states on diseases caused by enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. foodnet is an active, population-based surveillance system for these laboratory-confirmed infections. this report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2008 and trends since 1996. in 2008, the estimated i ...200919357633
virb alleviates h-ns repression of the icsp promoter in shigella flexneri from sites more than one kilobase upstream of the transcription start site.the icsp promoter of shigella spp. is repressed by h-ns and derepressed by virb. here, we show that an inverted repeat located between positions -1144 and -1130 relative to the icsp transcription start site is necessary for virb-dependent derepression. the atypical location of this cis-acting site is discussed.200919363111
potent bactericidal action of a flavonoid fraction isolated from the stem bark of butea frondosa.the flavonoid fraction isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction (bf-1) of butea frondosa (l.) stem bark exhibited distinct antimicrobial activity when tested against 129 bacterial strains belonging to 9 different genera of both gram-positive and gram-negative types. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of the fraction bf-1 was determined following nccls guidelines using the agar dilution method. twenty-four out of 36 strains of staphylococcus aureus were inhibited by 50-200 mg/l of the fractio ...200919368121
life on the inside: the intracellular lifestyle of cytosolic bacteria.bacterial pathogens exploit a huge range of niches within their hosts. many pathogens can invade non-phagocytic cells and survive within a membrane-bound compartment. however, only a small number of bacteria, including listeria monocytogenes, shigella flexneri, burkholderia pseudomallei, francisella tularensis and rickettsia spp., can gain access to and proliferate within the host cell cytosol. here, we discuss the mechanisms by which these cytosolic pathogens escape into the cytosol, obtain nut ...200919369949
mechanism of unusual formation of 3-(5-phenyl-3h-[1,2,4]dithiazol-3-yl)chromen-4-ones and 4-oxo-4h-chromene-3-carbothioic acid n-phenylamides and their antimicrobial evaluation.6/6,7-substituted 3-formylchromones (9a-e) react with 2 equivalents of 2-phenyl-4-dimethylamino-1-thia-3-azabuta-1,3-diene (10) or thiobenzamide (11) in refluxing toluene to furnish novel substituted 3-(5-phenyl-3h-[1,2,4]dithiazol-3-yl)chromen-4-ones (12a-e). however, reactions of substituted 2-anilino-3-formylchromones (15a-d) with thiobenzamide (11, 2 equivalents) in refluxing xylene furnish 4-oxo-4h-chromene-3-carbothioic acid n-phenylamide (17a-d) in high yields. a mechanistic rationalizati ...200919375826
intuitionistic fuzzy set vs. fuzzy set application in medical pattern of the toughest challenges in medical diagnosis is uncertainty handling. the detection of intestinal bacteria such as salmonella and shigella which cause typhoid fever and dysentery, respectively, is one such challenging problem for microbiologists. they detect the bacteria by the comparison with predefined classes to find the most similar one. consequently, we observe uncertainty in determining the similarity degrees, and therefore, in the bacteria classification. in this paper, we take an ...200919375899
a new ethanolamine phosphate-containing variant of the o-antigen of shigella flexneri type 4a.the o-specific polysaccharide (o-antigen) structure of a shigella flexneri type 4a strain from the dysentery reference laboratory (london, uk) was elucidated in 1978 and its characteristic feature was found to be alpha-d-glucosylation of glcnac at position 6, which defines o-factor iv. our nmr spectroscopic studies of the o-specific polysaccharides of two other strains belonging to s. flexneri type 4a (g1668 from adelaide, australia, and 1359 from moscow, russia) confirmed the carbohydrate backb ...200919376498
[complete structure of the o-polysaccharide from shigella dysenteriae type 10].the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide from shigella dysenteriae type 10, which has been reported previously in bioorg. khim. (1977, vol. 3, pp. 1219-1225), was refined: [formula: see text].200919377533
activating mutations of n-wasp alter shigella pathogenesis.the pathogenesis of shigella requires binding to the host protein n-wasp. to examine the roles of structural conformation and phospho-regulation of n-wasp during shigella pathogenesis, mutant n-wasp constructs predicted to result in a constitutively open conformation (l229p and l232p) or either a phospho-mimicking (y253e) or phospho-disruptive (y253f) structure were constructed. pyrene actin assays demonstrated that the n-wasp l229p and l232p constructs are constitutively active. despite the inc ...200919379711
unc119 protects from shigella infection by inhibiting the abl family kinases.bacteria engage cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling molecules to enter the cell. unc119 is an adaptor protein, which interacts with receptors and tyrosine kinases. its role in bacterial invasion of cells is unknown.200919381274
role of azithromycin against clinical isolates of family enterobacteriaceae: a comparison of its minimum inhibitory concentration by three different determine the effect of azithromycin, a new azalide antibiotic, on clinical isolates of the family enterobacteriaceae and to determine and compare its minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) by disk diffusion, agar dilution and e-test methods.200919384031
altered expression of inflammatory cytokine receptors in response to lps challenge through interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and lymphocytes of peyer's patch.the intense innate immunological activities occurring at the enteric mucosal surface involve interactions between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. our previous studies have indicated that peyer's patch lymphocytes may modulate intestinal epithelial barrier and ion transport function in homeostasis and host defense via cell-cell contact as well as cytokine signaling. the present study was undertaken using the established co-culture system of caco-2 epithelial cells with lymphocytes o ...200919385035
inactivation of salmonella enteritidis in chicken breast fillets by single-cycle and multiple-cycle high pressure treatments.the effect of single-cycle and multiple-cycle high hydrostatic pressure (hhp) treatments on the survival of three salmonella enteritidis strains in chicken breast fillets was investigated. the surface of fillets was inoculated with a cocktail of three salmonella strains at approximately 10(7) colony-forming units (cfu)/g, and held at 4 degrees c for 20 hours before hhp treatments. reduction of salmonella counts on tryptic soy agar (tsa) by single-cycle treatments at 300 mpa and 12 degrees c rang ...200919388832
three-dimensional reconstruction of the shigella t3ss transmembrane regions reveals 12-fold symmetry and novel features throughout.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) mediate bacterial protein translocation into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for virulence of many gram-negative pathogens. they are composed of a cytoplasmic secretion machinery and a base that bridges both bacterial membranes, into which a hollow, external needle is embedded. when isolated, the latter two parts are termed the 'needle complex'. an incomplete understanding of the structure of the needle complex has hampered studies of t3ss function. to es ...200919396171
ectopic production of vapcs from enterobacteria inhibits translation and trans-activates yoeb mrna interferase.toxin-antitoxin loci have been identified in almost all free-living prokaryotes, often in high copy numbers. the biological function and molecular targets of the abundant vapbc loci are not yet known. here we analyse the vapbc loci of salmonella lt2 and shigella plasmid pmysh6000. both loci encode putative pin (pilt n-terminal) domain toxins, and antitoxins that may regulate vapbc transcription. we show that vapbc(lt2) and vapbc(pmysh) are bona fide ta loci: (i) both vapcs inhibited cell growth ...200919400780
antimicrobial activity of endemic digitalis lamarckii ivan from turkey.antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves and flowers of d. lamarckii ivan, (scophulariaceae), an endemic plant species of turkey, was tested on ten bacterial and four yeast strains. effective antibacterial activity was observed in four bacterial strains. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) was calculated by use of liquid culture tests and in all the four effective bacterial strains, the mic was found to be > or = 199.5 mg/ml. the minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc) of ...200919405389
estimated burden of human salmonella, shigella, and brucella infections in jordan, 2003-2004.there is limited information on the disease burden due to foodborne pathogens in the eastern mediterranean region. this study estimates the burden of disease in jordan for salmonella, shigella, and brucella during 1 year.200919415972
rapidly fatal bacteremia caused by shigella sonnei without preceding gastrointestinal symptoms in an adult patient with lung cancer. 200919416029
synthesis, spectral characterization, in-vitro microbiological evaluation and cytotoxic activities of novel macrocyclic bis hydrazone.a macrocyclic hydrazone schiff base was synthesized by reacting 1,4-dicarbonyl phenyl dihydrazide with 2,6-diformyl-4-methyl phenol and a series of metal complexes with this new schiff base were synthesized by reaction with co(ii), ni(ii) and cu(ii) metal salts. the schiff base and its complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, ir, (1)h nmr, uv-vis, fab mass, esr spectra, fluorescence, thermal, magnetic and molar conductance data. the analytical data reveal that the co(ii), ni(ii) ...200919419802
going round in circles: the structural biology of type iii secretion systems. 200919421157
determination of emitted airborne microorganisms from a bio-pak wastewater treatment plant.results of a study conducted to assess the degree of airborne microbial contamination generated by a wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) with bioreactor "bio-pak" closed treatment system and evaluation of the dispersion of potential pathogens are described. over the year aerosol samples were collected simultaneously with sedimentation and impact methods from several plant sites and the surroundings. external upwind sites were used as control. total colony-forming counts of heterotrophic psychrophi ...200919428042
design of alpha-transglucosidases of controlled specificity for programmed chemoenzymatic synthesis of antigenic oligosaccharides.combined with chemical synthesis, the use of biocatalysts holds great potential to open the way to novel molecular diversity. we report in vitro chemoenzymatic pathways that, for the first time, take advantage of enzyme engineering to produce complex microbial cell-surface oligosaccharides and circumvent the chemical boundaries of glycochemistry. glycoenzymes were designed to act on nonnatural conveniently protected substrates to produce intermediates compatible with a programmed chemical elonga ...200919432472
liposomes recruit ipac to the shigella flexneri type iii secretion apparatus needle as a final step in secretion induction.shigella flexneri contact with enterocytes induces a burst of protein secretion via its type iii secretion apparatus (ttsa) as an initial step in cellular invasion. we have previously reported that ipad is positioned at the ttsa needle tip (m. espina et al., infect. immuno. 74:4391-4400, 2006). from this position, ipad senses small molecules in the environment to control the presentation of ipab to the needle tip. this step occurs without type iii secretion induction or ipac recruitment to the s ...200919433542
the rho gtpase inactivation domain in vibrio cholerae martx toxin has a circularly permuted papain-like thiol protease fold.a rho gtpase inactivation domain (rid) has been discovered in the multifunctional, autoprocessing rtx toxin rtxa from vibrio cholerae. the rid domain causes actin depolymerization and rounding of host cells through inactivation of the small rho gtpases rho, rac, and cdc42. with only a few toxin proteins containing rid domains in the current sequence database, the structure and molecular mechanisms of this domain are unknown. using comparative sequence and structural analyses, we report homology ...200919434753
go4genome: a prokaryotic phylogeny based on genome organization.determining the phylogeny of closely related prokaryotes may fail in an analysis of rrna or a small set of sequences. whole-genome phylogeny utilizes the maximally available sample space. for a precise determination of genome similarity, two aspects have to be considered when developing an algorithm of whole-genome phylogeny: (1) gene order conservation is a more precise signal than gene content; and (2) when using sequence similarity, failures in identifying orthologues or the in situ replaceme ...200919436929
determination of foodborne pathogenic bacteria by multiplex pcr-microchip capillary electrophoresis with genetic algorithm-support vector regression optimization.a rapid and sensitive method based on microchip capillary electrophoresis with condition optimization of genetic algorithm-support vector regression (ga-svr) was developed and applied to simultaneous analysis of multiplex pcr products of four foodborne pathogenic bacteria. four pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to exclusively amplify the targeted gene of vibrio parahemolyticus, salmonella, escherichia coli (e. coli) o157:h7, shigella and the quadruplex pcr parameters were optimized. ...200919446070
the poultry red mite (dermanyssus gallinae): a potential vector of pathogenic agents.the poultry red mite, d. gallinae has been involved in the transmission of many pathogenic agents, responsible for serious diseases both in animals and humans. nowadays, few effective methods are available to control the ectoparasite in poultry farms. consequently, this is an emerging problem which must be taken into account to maintain good health in commercial egg production. this paper addresses the vector capacity of the ectoparasite with special emphasis on salmonellae, pathogenic agents re ...200919205905
pathogen trafficking pathways and host phosphoinositide metabolism.phosphoinositide (pi) glycerolipids are key regulators of eukaryotic signal transduction, cytoskeleton architecture and membrane dynamics. the host cell pi metabolism is targeted by intracellular bacterial pathogens, which evolved intricate strategies to modulate uptake processes and vesicle trafficking pathways. upon entering eukaryotic host cells, pathogenic bacteria replicate in distinct vacuoles or in the host cytoplasm. vacuolar pathogens manipulate pi levels to mimic or modify membranes of ...200919208094
a look back at an ongoing problem: shigella dysenteriae type 1 epidemics in refugee settings in central africa (1993-1995).shigella dysenteriae type 1 (sd1) is a cause of major dysentery outbreaks, particularly among children and displaced populations in tropical countries. although outbreaks continue, the characteristics of such outbreaks have rarely been documented. here, we describe the sd1 outbreaks occurring between 1993 and 1995 in 11 refugee settlements in rwanda, tanzania and democratic republic of the congo (drc). we also explored the links between the different types of the camps and the magnitude of the o ...200919214226
antimicrobial pentacyclic triterpenoids from terminalia superba.antibacterial bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the stem bark of terminalia superba led to the isolation of four new triterpene glucosides (1-4) which were characterized as 2 alpha,3 beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 2 alpha,3 beta, 21 beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2 alpha,3 beta, 29-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3) and 2 alpha,3 beta,23,27-tetrahydroxyolean-12-e ...200919214947
apyrase-based colorimetric test for detection of shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli in stool.for lack of simple inexpensive early detection methods for shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec), bacillary dysentery remains a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity in india and other developing countries. rapid stool testing for apyrase, a specific periplasmic enzyme essential for the pathogen's intracellular spread, may provide a solution. we have developed a whole-cell colorimetric pyrophosphate hydrolysis assay based on cheap, stable, and locally available reag ...200919216937
shigella targets the mitochondrial checkpoint of programmed nonmyeloid cells, shigella hijacks the mitochondrial checkpoint of cell death, thereby inducing a regulated form of necrosis depending on bnip3 and cyclophilin d. carneiro et al. (2009) describe the interplay between this program and a prosurvival response transmitted via the nod1/rip2/nf-kappab/bcl-2 axis, which determines the fate of infected cells.200919218080
shigella induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in nonmyleoid cells.shigella rapidly kills myeloid cells via a caspase-1 inflammasome-dependent cell death mechanism. however, despite a critical role for nonmyeloid cells in the physiopathology of shigella infection, the mechanism by which shigella kills nonmyeloid cells remains uncharacterized. here we demonstrate that, in nonmyeloid cells, shigella infection induces loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, mitochondrial damage, and necrotic cell death through a pathway dependent on bnip3 and cyclophilin d ...200919218084
the 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease (encoded by hp1248) of helicobacter pylori regulates motility and apoptosis-inducing genes.the human gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori has many virulence factors involved in pathogenesis, but the mechanisms regulating these virulence factors are not yet fully understood. in this study, we cloned hp1248, which is similar in sequence to escherichia coli vacb, which was previously shown to be associated with the expression of virulence in shigella and enteroinvasive e. coli. e. coli vacb encodes rnase r. rnase r is involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of mrna stability. by g ...200919218383
the expression of lipopolysaccharide by strains of shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri and shigella boydii and their cross-reacting strains of escherichia coli.strains of shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri and shigella boydii express lipopolysaccharides, that enable the serotyping of strains based on their antigenic structures. certain strains of s. dysenteriae, s. flexneri and s. boydii are known to share epitopes with strains of escherichia coli; however, the lipopolysaccharide profiles of the cross-reacting organisms have not been compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) lipopolysaccharides profiling. in ...200919222579
[distribution and antibiotic resistance of pathogens isolated from children with infectious diarrhea in guangzhou].to study the distribution and antibiotic resistance of the isolated pathogens from children with infectious diarrhea in guangzhou.200919222945
mucosal adjuvanticity of a shigella invasin complex with dna-based against many infectious diseases may require the induction of cell-mediated and mucosal immunity. immunization with plasmid dna-based vaccines has successfully induced cell-mediated immune responses in small animals but is less potent in humans. therefore, several methods are under investigation to augment dna vaccine immunogenicity. in the current study, a mucosal adjuvant consisting of an invasin protein-lipopolysaccharide complex (invaplex) isolated from shigella spp. was evaluated ...200919225079
utility of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis as a molecular tool for phylogenetic analysis of shigella sonnei.a panel of 916 isolates, including 703 closely related ist1 isolates, were characterized by inter-is1 spacer typing (ist), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (vntr) analysis (mlva) to evaluate the utility of mlva as a molecular tool for the phylogenetic analysis of shigella sonnei. the global phylogenetic patterns determined by ist, pfge, and mlva were concordant. mlva was carried out using 26 vntr loci with a range of degrees of variability. ml ...200919225095
eliminylation: a post-translational modification catalyzed by phosphothreonine lyases.we propose the classification of a protein post-translational modification, eliminylation, based on the recently delineated mechanism of the shigella ospf and salmonella spvc phosphothreonine lyases. these bacterial type-iii secretion-system virulence factors are injected into eukaryotic cells and inhibit signalling by irreversibly inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks). remarkably, they employ an unusual beta-elimination reaction, removing the phosphate from phosphothreonine and ...200919233656
analytical specificity and sensitivity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of bovine mastitis pathogens.intramammary infection (imi), also known as mastitis, is the most frequently occurring and economically the most important infectious disease in dairy cattle. this study provides a validation of the analytical specificity and sensitivity of a real-time pcr-based assay that identifies 11 major pathogen species or species groups responsible for imi, and a gene coding for staphylococcal beta-lactamase production (penicillin resistance). altogether, 643 culture isolates originating from clinical bov ...200919233788
the clinical course of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: a five-year follow-up study.irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) is a common disorder seen in general practice. bacterial gastroenteritis has been known to be a risk factor for ibs. we investigated the clinical course, risk factors, and prognosis of postinfectious ibs (pi-ibs) 5 years after shigella infection.200919262407
the mere protein encoded by transposon tn21 is a broad mercury transporter in escherichia order to clarify the physiological role of the mere gene of transposon tn21, a pe4 plasmid that contained the merr gene of plasmid pmr26 from pseudomonas strain k-62, and the mere gene of tn21 from the shigella flexneri plasmid nr1 (r100) was constructed. bacteria with plasmid pe4 (merr-o/p-mere) were more hypersensitive to ch(3)hg(i) and hg(ii), and took up significantly more ch(3)hg(i) and hg(ii), than the isogenic strain. the mere protein encoded by pe4 was localized in the membrane cell f ...200919265693
piscidin 4, a novel member of the piscidin family of antimicrobial peptides.piscidins are linear, amphipathic, antimicrobial peptides (amps) with broad, potent, activity spectrum. piscidins and other members of the piscidin family appear to comprise the most common group of amps in teleost fish. all piscidins and related members of the piscidin family described to date are 18-26 amino acids long.we report here the isolation of a novel 5329.25 da, 44-residue (ffrhlfrgakaifrgarqgxrahkvvsryrnrdvpetdnnqeep) antimicrobial peptide from hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops fem ...200919266617
high-let ion radiolysis of water: oxygen production in is known that molecular oxygen is a product of the radiolysis of water with high-linear energy transfer (let) radiation, a result that is of particular significance in radiobiology and of practical relevance in radiotherapy. in fact, it has been suggested that the radiolytic formation of an oxygenated microenvironment around the tracks of high-let heavy ions is an important factor in their enhanced biological efficiency in the sense that this may be due to an "oxygen effect" by o(2) produced ...200919267566
the effects of the bacterial interaction with visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst on the bactericidal performance.bactericidal activity of traditional titanium dioxide (tio2) photocatalyst is effective only upon irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the potential applications of tio2 for use in our living environments. recently carbon-containing tio2 was found to be photoactive at visible-light illumination that affords the potential to overcome this problem; although, the bactericidal activity of these photocatalysts is relatively lower than conventional disinfectants. evidenced from scanning e ...200919272171
characterisation of early mucosal and neuronal lesions following shigella flexneri infection in human colon.shigella, an enteroinvasive bacteria induces a major inflammatory response responsible for acute rectocolitis in humans. however, early effect of shigella flexneri (s. flexneri) infection upon the human mucosa and its microenvironement, in particular the enteric nervous system, remains currently unknown. therefore, in this study, we sought to characterize ex vivo the early events of shigellosis in a model of human colonic explants. in particular, we aimed at identifying factors produced by s. fl ...200919274103
efficient synthesis of six tri- to hexasaccharide fragments of shigella flexneri serotypes 3a and/or x o-antigen, including a study on acceptors containing n-trichloroacetylglucosamine versus n-acetylglucosamine.six tri- to hexasaccharide fragments of the {2)-[alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)]-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-[ac-->2]-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-beta-d-glcpnac-(1-->}(n) polymer ([(e)ab(ac)cd](n)) were synthesized as their propyl glycosides. all targets share the (e)ab sequence. following a thorough investigation on the use of n-trichloroacetylglucosamine- versus n-acetylglucosamine-containing tri- and tetrasaccharide acceptors, the successful strategy was based on an efficient combination of the ...200919278208
foodborne outbreaks, austria 2007 austria reported a total of 438 foodborne outbreaks affecting 1715 people, including 286 hospitalized patients and one death. salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp. accounted for 95% of all reported outbreaks. forty-eight (11%) of the 438 austrian outbreaks were acquired abroad. of the 390 domestically acquired foodborne outbreaks, bacterial infection caused 376, viruses (norovirus and 1-time hepatitis a virus) caused 11, and intoxications (staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, alkaloid to ...200919280130
a food-borne outbreak of shigella sonnei gastroenteritis, austria, 2008.we report on the first foodborne outbreak of shigella sonnei described in austria. on july 14 2008, ages was informed of a cluster of 22 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with s. sonnei restricted to public health district x in the province of salzburg. all cases had attended a youth-group trip to a small village in the province of tyrol from july 7 to july 9. an outbreak case among the trip participants was a person who (1) attended the trip and (2) fell ill with diarrhea in the period be ...200919280143
tri-county comprehensive assessment of risk factors for sporadic reportable bacterial enteric infection in children.the aim of this study was to determine risk factors for childhood sporadic reportable enteric infection (rei) caused by bacteria, specifically campylobacter, salmonella, escherichia coli o157, or shigella (rei-b).200919281302
application of a multiplex pcr assay for the detection of shigella, escherichia coli and shiga toxin-producing esch. coli in milk.a multiplex pcr (mpcr) assay using previously known genetic markers of shigella, escherichia coli and shiga-toxic esch. coli was standardized. uida gene was targeted for the common detection of esch. coli and shigella, whereas ipah and stx1 genes were used as markers for the detection of shigella and shiga-toxin producing strains, respectively. the standardized assays detected the target organism specifically and selectively. the mpcr developed by combining all the three reactions generated spec ...200919281632
antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract and compounds from morus mesozygia stem bark.this study was aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract (mmb) and compounds isolated from the stem bark of morus mesozygia, namely 3beta-acetoxyurs-12-en-11-one (1), moracin q (2), moracin t (3), artocarpesin (4), cycloartocarpesin (5), moracin r (6), moracin u (8), moracin c (9), and moracin m (10).200919450674
diagnosis and treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea.studies of microbial pathogens and the toxins they produce are important for determining the mechanisms by which they cause disease and spread throughout a population. some bacteria produce secretory enterotoxins (such as cholera toxin or the heat-labile or stable enterotoxins produced by escherichia coli) that invade cells directly. others invade cells or produce cytotoxins (such as those produced by shigella, enteroinvasive e coli, or clostridium difficile) that damage cells or trigger host re ...200919457416
molecular typing methodologies for microbial source tracking and epidemiological investigations of gram-negative bacterial foodborne pathogens.gram-negative bacterial foodborne pathogens are a worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. the ability to carry out epidemiological investigations to determine the primary sources of bacterial contamination is important to improve public health. multiple methods are available for bacterial source tracking and to determine the distribution of pathogens isolated from sick patients. the molecular based typing methods available fall into three general categories: those based on restriction analys ...200919460308
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