[drug resistance of shigella strains isolated in central italy during 1969-1976 (author's transl)].only ninety-three strains of shigella, eightyseven of which have been identified as s. sonnei and six as s. flexneri were collected during 1969-1976 at the pathogen enterobacteria centre of pisa in central italy, as evidence of an epidemiological situation marked by a rare occurrence of syndromes related to these organisms. the collected strains were tested with disks of nine antibacterial drugs in common use: the survey detected sensitivity of all the strains to cephaloridine, ampicillin, carbe ...1979400254
resistance to lyophilization of salmonella typhi, escherichia coli and shigella flexneri strains. 1979400513
[dysentery outbreak caused by shigella sonnei in a children's day care center during the month of november]. 1979400539
shigellae and reiter's syndrome. 1979400766
fosfomycin, antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo.antibacterial activities of fosfomycin were investigated both in vitro and in vivo for the purpose of comparative evaluation on its fundamental properties with other antimicrobial agents. the mic was determined with nutrient agar (difco) inoculated with one loopful of 1,000-fold dilution (about 10(6) cells/ml) of bacterial suspension cultured overnight in nutrient broth. this substance showed antibacterial activity to most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, being strongest to enterobacter ...1977401721
[toxicity of bacterial polysaccharides (a review of the literature)]. 1977402887
stool viruses in babies in glasgow. i. hospital admissions with diarrhoea.stools from 183 babies under 2 years of age admitted to ruchill hospital with diarrhoea were examined by electron microscopy, virus culture, bacterial culture and light microscopy. as far as possible, several stools were examined from each patient and the results showed rotaviruses, astroviruses and other viruses in association with symptoms, as well as the expected bacterial pathogens. examination of several stools from the same patient also showed that in this age group the viral flora of the ...1977403233
[effect of sonne shigella endotoxin on cholinergic regulation of intestinal circulation].a method of extracorporeal autoperfusion and resistography of the intestinal vessels and synchronous multichannal recording the systemic blood circulation were applied to the study of the influence of the sh. sonnei endotoxin on the cholinergic regulation of the cardiovascular system in macacus rhesus. it was shown that development of intoxication was accompanied by the changes in the cholinergic regulation of the intestinal and systemic circulation leading to its disturbance. possibly affection ...1977403979
[diagnosis of bacterial infections of the urinary tract].the aetiopathogenesis of bacterial infections of the urinary ways and the techniques used to isolate and identify the bacteria present in the urine are considered. the following aspects are covered: 1) introduction (clinical microbiology); 2) urine and bacterial multiplication; 3) diagnostic techniques in urinary way infections; 4) urine leucocyte count; 5) urine bacteria count; 6) guidelines for applying bacteriological research; 7) recurrent infections of the urinary ways; 8) diagnosis of the ...1977404596
synergy and rifampicin. 1977405361
bacteriocin typing by leakage of ultraviolet light-absorbing material.a rapid and reproducible method of bacteriocin typing is described based on leakage of ultraviolet light-absorbing material (uvam), detectable in supernatants of bacteriocin-sensitive cultures, by means of a spectrophotometer. the prerequisites for reproducible results, with nonsignificant fluctuations in standard error of the mean, are: a set of standardized bacteriocins, produced under defined conditions and of determined strength. these must interact with the unknown bacterial culture in susp ...1977406200
aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in infancy and early childhood in southern india.the aetiology of acute gastroenteritis was studied in 50 infants and young children. bacterial pathogens were isolated in 33, enteropathogenic e. coli (epec), salmonella, and shigella being the commonest isolates. rotaviruses were detected in the stools of 13 of the cases. all children with gastroenteritis in whom rotavirus was detected were seen during the months july to december. in 30 children who served as controls, epec were isolated in 6, but rotavirus was detected in none. it is concluded ...1977406857
increased prostaglandin synthetase activity in inflamed tissues of the rabbit eye.tissues from normal and inflamed rabbit eyes were examined for prostaglandin synthetase activity using homogenates and microsomal preparation. ocular inflammation was induced with 10 microgram shigella endotoxin injected into the vitreous body. homogenates of iris-ciliary processes of normal and inflamed eyes synthesized 2.3 and 5.6 microgram respectively of prostaglandins per g wet weight of tissues from endogenous substrate. intact tissues from normal and inflamed eyes produced similar amounts ...1977407086
typhoid: clinical picture and response to chloramphenicol. prospective study in bombay (1972).the clinical picture of 78 cases with proven typhoid and 18 cases with proven paratyphoid a fever is presented. the diagnosis was made by isolating the organisms from the blood. the widal test could not be used as a diagnostic criterion. by means of chemotherapy with chloramphenicol (initial dose 30-40 mg/kg body weight) defervescence was achieved within an average of 4.5 days. the course of the disease was generally mild; one patient with typhoid fever died. the average hospital stay was 19 day ...1977407164
[preliminary tests of the influence of wastewaters from sugar-factories upon the numbers of intestinal bacteria in water (author's transl)].this work presents the results of experiments dealing with the influence of wastewaters from 2 sugar factories in the czechoslovakia upon some representatives of intestinal bacteria: e. coli, c. feundii, e. aerogenes, s. anatum, s. schottmuelleri, s. typhi-murium, sh. sonnei and str. faecalis. the experiments were carried out at 30, 20 and 10 degrees c. the experiments have shown that the presterilized waste-water from sugar factory (in bohemia and in slovakia) caused rapid multiplication of the ...1977407746
detection and differentiation of iron-responsive avirulent mutants on congo red agar.agar medium containing congo red dye differentiates virulent and avirulent colonies of shigella, vibrio cholerae, escherichia coli, and neisseria meningitidis. like virulent plague bacilli, wild-type cells of these species absorb the dye and produce red colonies. mutants or colonial variants have been isolated that fail to absorb the dye and produce colorless colonies. these mutants exhibit reduced virulence in the chicken embryo model, but their virulence is enhanced by supplementation with iro ...1977409688
immunization with shigella dysenteriae type 1: evaluation of antitoxic immunity in prevention of experimental disease in rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta).the role of serum antitoxic antibody in protection against the dysentery caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1 (shiga's bacillus) was studied in monkeys fed 10(10) virulent organisms after parenteral immunization with a formalin-inactivated shiga toxoid preparation standardized in mice. two 125-microgram doses of toxoid adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and given 14 days apart provided mice with a 54-fold increase in resistance to parenteral toxin. in rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta), the s ...1977409782
[study of intestinal infections in experiments on monkeys]. 1977410189
effect of some bacterial products on platelet electrophoretic mobility (pem).bacterial lps, used in our experiments, are able to decrease pem at concentration of 100 microgram/ml after incubation with 1 x 10(7) platelets/ml for 30 min at 37 degrees c. such effect is statistically significant for bacteroides fragilis lps, s. enteritidis and s. typhi. e. coli lps 026:b6 w and e. coli 055:b5 w are not effective at all, s. minnesota (incomplete) lps 595 and 345 free of 0-polysaccharide and partially lacking core in their molecule did not influence pem, while s. minnesota lps ...1977410424
amyloidosis in rhesus monkeys with rheumatoid arthritis and enterocolitis.generalized amyloidosis was diagnosed by light and electron microscopy in 4 of 5 monkeys (macaca mulatta) that had a history of chronic arthritis or chronic intermittent diarrhea, or both. clinical signs and lesions of arthritis in the monkeys were compatible with diagnostic criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. shigella sp was cultured from 1 monkey, and 2 other monkeys had colonic lesions characteristic of shigellosis. at necropsy, gross changes attributed to amyloid were seen only in the liver. ...1977411771
oral immunization of monkeys with polyvalent dysentery vaccine.macaca mulatta monkeys were immunized orally with polyvalent boivin extract of shigella flexneri 2a, 3a, 4a, 4b, 6 and shigella sonnei. the total immumizing dose for each component was equivalent to 1.2 x 10(12) cells. after challenge with 7.5 x 10(10) cells of a virulent s. flexneri 2a strain, out of 20 immunized animals 2 developed dysentery and 4 showed mild dyspepsia; all 6 control animals became ill with dysentery. vaccination failed to influence the incidence, duration or the intermittent ...1977412396
[safety and immunologic effectiveness of polyantigen from shigellae for oral immunization of monkeys].clinical, morphological, and immunological study was carried out in monkeys given shigellae antigen in tablets orally. each tablet contained 0.5 mg of the antigens obtained by boiven's method from sh. flexneri 2a, 3, 4a, 4b, 6 and sh. sonnei. daily administration of the preparation for 4 days and then 4 times at the interval of 5 days proved to be harmless for monkeys. a marked immunomorphological reaction in the form of hyperplasia of the lymphoid elements of the wall of the large intestine and ...1977413291
comparative bacteriological survey of imported experimental monkeys. 1977413486
[soluble surface antigens of virulent sh. sonnei].the authors conducted an immunochemical analysis of the surface soluble antigen preparations (ssap) obtained by extraction with physiological saline of the virulent sh. sonnei microbes killed with acetone. immunochemical studies by the immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion methods in agar gel, separation on sepharose 4b and in polyacrylamide gel showed the presence of 3 groups of the antigens in the ssap composition: 1) protein antigens, determining the commonness with the sonne microbes of ...1977414488
[cell penetration by dysentery bacilli (author's transl)]. 1977415159
[aggravation of experimental dysentery in mice and acceleration of the process of multiplication of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria under the effect of yeast rna].simultaneous infection of mice with sh. flexneri subtype 2a, culture, with various doses of rna sodium salt (narna) or administration of the preparation 3 hours prior to or 6, 12, and 18 hours after the infection was accompanied by aggravation of the experimental infection in mice. this was expressed in a greater number of animals which contracted the disease and died, and in increased blood and peritoneal exudate microbiol density. the same processes were noted in mice infected with equal doses ...1978415460
catheter-induced ascites--an unusual complication of parenteral feeding.a nearly fatal complication of parenteral feeding is reported. an emaciated infant with severe shigella dysentery was treated with intravenous feeding through a catheter in the inferior vena cava. after three days severe ascites developed acutely. venocavography revealed effusion into the peritoneal cavity due to the catheter having penetrated the wall of the inferior vena cava.1978418089
depression of prostaglandin synthetase activity in kidney medulla by shigella endotoxin injected intravenously. 1978418782
shigella and salmonella diarrhoeal disease. 1979419565
shigellosis: analysis of 176 isolations.shigellosis, a worldwide epidemiological problem, is caused usually by six serotypes of shigella. man is the principal host, often infected by person-to-person contact. the number of reported cases of shigellosis has progressively increased during the past decade. because of the observation, the authors reviewed all isolations of shigella species in patients at howard university hospital. there were 176 isolations from 53 patients during the 4½ year period of the study. the study emphasizes the ...1979423272
[antibiotic sensitivity and the characteristics of transmissive r plasmids in shigella belonging to various species].sensitivity of 241 shigella strains isolated from patients at various regions of the ussr in 1975--1978 was tested with respect to 14 antibiotics by the method of serial dilutions. 90.5 per cent of the isolates proved to be resistant to the antibacterial drugs and the greater part of 75.9 per cent of them had multiple resistance. the resistance of the shigella was most pronounced and frequent with respect to tetracycline, streptomycin, levomycetin, as well as ampicillin and carbenicillin. gentam ...1979426494
cefatrizine activity compared with that of other cephalosporins.cefatrizine, a new orally administered cephalosporin, was tested against 400 clinical isolates. cefatrizine had excellent activity against gram-positive cocci, inhibiting all except enterococci at minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1 mug/ml. cefatrizine inhibited the majority of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and salmonella at concentrations below 12.5 mug/ml. although cefatrizine was not hydrolyzed by many beta-lactamases, it did not inhibit a number of strains ...1979426514
hr 756, a new cephalosporin active against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.the in vitro activity of hr 756, 7-[2-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-2-(z)-(methoximino)acetamido] cephalosporanic acid, was investigated against 659 isolates. hr 756 inhibited neisseria and haemophilus species at concentrations similar to those needed with ampicillin. it inhibited beta-lactamase-producing n. gonorrhoeae and h. influenzae. hr 756 was the most active compound tested against members of the enterobacteriaceae, inhibiting most isolates of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mira ...1979426518
inhibitory effect of cocoa powder on the growth of a variety of bacteria in different media.the inhibitory effect of cocoa powder on 102 organisms belonging to 13 genera was determined. all organisms tested were inhibited by 5% cocoa. shigella, staphylococcus, micrococcus, and bacillus were the most sensitive. the degree of inhibition depended on the organism, temperature of incubation, and the medium in which the cocoa powder was suspended. of six media tested, lactose broth and nutrient broth were the most inhibitory, while non-fat dry milk was the least inhibitory. supplementing nb ...1979436019
the problem of interaction of shigella with epithelial cells.a review and analysis of data on the investigation of factors concerning the initial events of interaction of shigella with epithelial cells: attachment of penetration are presented. in the experiments with 3h-labeled bacteria it was shown that although common pili confer adhesive properties to bacteria but the penetration of shigella into the cell is not increased. it was stated that lps of shigella o antigen plays an important role not only in interaction with cellular and humoral factors of t ...1979442880
responses of the sympathetically denervated rabbit eye to intravitreal or intravenous injection of shigella endotoxin. 1979446579
relative productivity of five selective plating agars for the recovery of salmonella from selected food types.during a 3-year period, the relative productivity of brilliant green (bg), bismuth sulfite (bs), salmonella-shigella (ss), hektoen enteric (he), and xylose lysine, desoxycholate (xld) agars for recovering salmonella from 9 food types was determined. following pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of food samples in tetrathionate broth followed by streaking to bs agar was the single most productive selective enrichment broth-agar combination for recovery of salmonella in 5 of these food types. a s ...1979447606
[salmonella in free living snakes of northern germany (author's transl)].fourty-nine adders (vipera berus l.) and thirty-one grass-snakes (nitrix natrix l.) from northern germany were investigated by cloacal swabs. the samples were usually taken in the field and preenriched in peptone water and further-on processed in three steps of tetrathionate. after each step of enrichment the material was transfered to salmonella shigella agar and fuchsine lactose agar (acc. to endo). salmonella screening was done by inoculation of lactose positive and lactose negative colonies ...1979452774
recognition mechanisms in infectious disease.recent studies have begun to elucidate the nature of pathogen-host recognition mechanisms. not only is our understanding of the nature of infection thereby growing, but there is promise of an entirely new approach to treatment--by inhibiting or preventing the contact between pathogen and target cell, the first step in the infectious process. models have largely been elucidated for shigella infections and cholera.1979478518
epidemiological and bacteriological profile of an outbreak of shigellosis amongst prisoners in solapur. 1979489087
oxolonic acid (gramurin) in the treatment of shigella infections. 1979494139
experimental embolization in kidneys: tissue concentration of 7 dogs renal arterial embolization was performed using the seldinger technique and an inflatable swan ganz balloon catheter. methyl methacrylate and butyl-2-cyanoacrylate were injected. 6 months later, the tissue concentration of cefazolin was measured in the embolized and contralateral kidneys and in serum 2 h after a short infusion of 1 h cefazolin. the concentrations in serum and homogenized kidney tissue were determined by means of the agar gel diffusion method. angiography showed no vess ...1979494438
evaluation of a pectin agar medium for isolation of yersinia enterocolitica within 48 hours.a modified pectin agar medium was evaluated for the rapid isolation and presumptive identification of yersinia enterocolitica. of 118 isolates of enterobacteriaceae tested, only the 13y. enterocolitica and the three klebsiella oxytoca strains produced colonies that depressed and sank into the agar. yersinia enterocolitica was also easily identified in mixed cultures, even from inocula containing three times as many other enterobacteriaceae organisms as y. enterocolitica. the recovery of y. enter ...1979495561
value of examination for fecal leukocytes in the early diagnosis of shigellosis.fecal specimens from 101 patients with diarrhea were cultured and also examined with methylene blue for leukocytes. thirty-six patients had leukocytes in their stools and 29 had culture-proven shigellosis. the sensitivity of fecal leukocytes in shigellosis was 95% (19/20) when cup specimens were obtained, and 44% (4/9) when swab or diaper specimens were examined. only 45% of the patients with shigellosis who provided cup specimens had grossly bloody dysentery. twelve other patients had fecal leu ...1979507279
mucus-stimulating substances in human body fluids assayed in an invertebrate mucous cell in vitro cell system has been shown to respond differentially to body fluids from normal subjects and from those with disorders of mucus secretion. the urn cell complex of the marine invertebrate sipunculus nudus responds to mucus-stimulating substances (mss) in normal human lacrimal fluids and stool filtrates by producing mucus. the process of mucus secretion can be directly observed, and the amount produced can be measured, in a calibrated light microscope. mss are decreased in lacrimal flu ...1979513427
sensitivity testing of salmonella and shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhoea. 1979514624
acute diarrhoea: campylobacter colitis and the role of rectal biopsy.campylobacter spp. were the organisms isolated most frequently from 29 consecutive patients admitted with acute diarrhoea to an infectious disease unit. rectal biopsies taken from 21 of the patients were abnormal in all but four, and in the patients with campylobacter infection there was a characteristic proctocolitis in each case. the histopathology was similar to that described for salmonella and shigella infections but clearly different from typical ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease. the ...1979521501
[yersinia arthritis (author's transl)].clinical picture and differential diagnosis of yersinia arthritis are shown by means of three own observations. it is an acute oligoarthritis affecting especially knee- and ankle-joints. the involved joints are very painful, swollen and warm. there may be a history of enteritis or suspicion of acute appendicitis because of lower abdominal pain, but this is not obligatory. the laboratory parameters of inflammation (esr, c-reactive protein, white blood count, serumproteinelectrophoresis) are chang ...1979522813
[antimicrobial activity of derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide. viii].the antimicrobial activity of a series of fluoro derivatives of benzothiadiazine and sulfonamides was studied. the compounds tested can be grouped as: a) 3-alkylmercapto derivatives of 6-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide (iii leads to vi); the 3-mercapto precursor (vii) and the related 3-picolinic salt (viii); b) 3-trifluoromethyl derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide and of its benzene substituted derivatives (ix leads to xvi); c) trifluoroacetylaminobenzenesulfonam ...1979527707
[certain biological properties of newcastle shigellas]. 1979530126
[enteric infections in tropical areas. introduction]. 1979537485
[the role of immunization against bacterial enteric infections (author's transl)].the author reviews critically the available vaccines against salmonellosis and shigellosis, the more sophisticated vaccines against these two infections and cholera presently under experimentation and using parenteral or oral dispensing. to contribute to public health planning, with particular reference to developping countries, the authors points on the necessity to evaluate carefully the merits of the different techniques aiming at controling bacterial enteric infections. sanitation seems to b ...1979537492
edwardsiella tarda in freshwater catfish and their environment.edwardsiella tarda was isolated from 47, 88, and 79% of skin, visceral, and dressed-fish samples, respectively. this species was also isolated from 30% of imported dressed fish, 75% of catfish pond water samples, 64% of catfish pond mud samples, and 100% of frogs, turtles, and crayfish from catfish ponds. the incidence of edwardsiella increased during the summer months, as water temperatures increased. of several isolation media evaluated, the most effective was selective enrichment in double-st ...1979539822
synthesis of a selective agar medium for yersinia enterocolitica.a new agar medium for isolation of yersinia enterocolitica was formulated based on growth studies which defined an optimum basal, and the evaluation of selective chemical agents, dyes, and antibiotics. the final formulation, designated cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin(cin) agar, provided quantitative recovery of 40 different strains of y. enterocolitica in 24 h using incubation at 32 degrees c or with 48 h of incubation at 22 degrees c. the medium was highly selective, especially against pseudomona ...1979540256
purification of two different toxins from shigella. 1979541877
morphologic homogeneity of bacteriophage and their lytic activity. 1979546103
[an experiment of the examination on the shigella phage from wells in the epidemic areas (author's transl)]. 1979552976
[antimicrobial effect of derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazin-1,1-dioxide. vii].series of alkyl derivatives of the following have been prepared: 5,7-dichloro- [compounds (ii leads to v)], 6-methyl- [compounds (vi leads to ix)] and 6-methoxy-3-mercapto-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide [compounds (x leads to xiii)]. the products were tested for antimicrobial activity. studies were also made of the corresponding 3-mercapto precursors (xiv, xv, xvi) and the relative 3-picolinium salts (xvii, xviii, xix) and also of the 3-picolinium salts of 6-chloro-, 7-chloro- and 6,7-dichlo ...1979553823
studies on the inhibitory effects of zinc heptanoate on microorganisms.inhibitory effect of zinc heptanoate was observed on different cultures of bacteria and fungi. growth of all the bacteria was inhibited by the compound. greatest inhibition was seen in the case of staphylococcus albus, streptococcus pyogenes, shigella dysenteriae, shigella sonnei, shigella flexneri, salmonella typhi, s. paratyphi a, s. paratyphi b, vibrio cholerae, corynebacterium diphtheriae, and e. coli whereas least inhibition was found in the case of staphylococcus aureus. in triethanolamine ...1979553835
[the effects of intestinal parasites on enteric bacterial flora].intestinal parasites, can cause malabsorption syndromes and shifts in intestinal bacterial flora. in this study 200 cases with parasitic infestations were examined in regard to their intestinal flora. the series included 96 giardiasis. 58 ascariasis, 20 oxyuriasis and 17 h. nana 14 t. trichiura, 8 tenia cases. the stool cultures yielded mainly e. coli, strep. faecalis and other gram negative enteric bacteria, yeasts along with uncommon species as b. subtilis, herellea, shigella at low frequencie ...1979555793
inflammatory effects of endotoxin-like contaminants in commonly used protein preparations.protein preparations from commercial suppliers are contaminated with bacterial endotoxins. the continued use of these preparations indicates that many researchers are unaware of this, and they may attribute all observed effects to the proteins themselves. intravitreous injection of bovine serum albumin has an initial inflammatory effect on the rabbit eye which occurs before an immune reaction to the antigen itself can develop. this direct inflammatory effect can be fully accounted for by endotox ...1977557238
[rearing and management of chimpanzees for experimental infection with hepatitis b virus (author's transl)].for the purpose of experimental infection with human hepatitis b virus, 14 chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) were delivered to the division of animal research, faculty of medicine, university of tokyo, tokyo. these chimps, 11 males and 3 females, born in the west africa, had been reared for two to six months. several days after delivery, they were anesthetized with ketalar in order to make clinical, bacteriological and parasitological examinations; it was found that one of them was in malnutrition, ...1977558103
[epidemiology and clinical aspects of shigella infections in the population of the irpinia region]. 1978570021
yersinia enterocolitica in oneida county, new a 7-month study during and after an outbreak of yersiniosis in oneida, n.y., a total of 963 specimens were examined for yersinia enterocolitica. of the 103 y. enterocolitica isolates recovered, 91 were from oneida county. sixty-two (60.2%) were from humans including 52 from oneida county. the isolates from the outbreak were mainly serotype 0:8, which on biotypnig proved to be niléhn type 2, wauters type 1, knapp and thal type 2. the rest of the isolates were distributed among various biotypes ...1979575321
[activities of the sengalese center for enterobacteria in 1975 (institut pasteur of dakar)]. 1977579336
[shigella isolated in the bach mai hospitial (hanoi) during the 3 years 1974--1976]. 1977581419
effect of enteric micro-organisms on intestinal sugar and fatty acid absorption.the effect of micro-organisms contaminating the upper intestinal contents of malnourished children on intestinal absorption of 3-0 methyl-alpha-d-glucopyranose (3-m.g.) and oleic acid was studied in rats in vivo. oleci acid absorption was unaffected by non-pathogenic e. coli but decreased by e. coli 0111, salmonella paratyphi b., shigella sonnei and candida sp. this effect was probably explained by intestinal secretion diluting the test solution leading to a decreased diffusion gradient for solu ...1977603464
[presence of resistance factors to antibiotics in multiresistant enterobacteria].the present study was carried out with 111 multiresistant pathogenic strains of enterobacterias isolated from different sources with increased resistance to three or more antibiotics. among the identified species are included e. coli, shigella sp., salmonella oranienburg, klebsiella pneumoniae and citrobacter freundii. in general, the minimal inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was above 100 microgram/ml and in some cases it was superior to 1000 microgram/ml. resistance transfer factors were ...1977614652
candida as a cause of diarrhoea in a study of 134 children under 12 years of age suffering from diarrhoea, candida was responsible either directly or indirectly in 23 (17.1%) cases. mixed incidence of candida and shigella were found in 2 (1.7%) cases. candida species were isolated in 78(58.2%) specimens. shigella and salmonella were recovered from 10(7.4%) children suffering from diarrhoea.1977615578
[studies of the diffusion of shigella in the area of naples]. 1977617376
the evaluation of some newer media for enrichment and for isolation of salmonella and shigella from stool samples. 1977617920
[fistulated diffusion chamber and its use in studying microbial associations in vivo].the fistulated diffusion chamber intended for the cultivation of microbial associations in vivo was elaborated. the interralation between the yeast-like candida albicans fungi, staphylococci, shigella sonnei, the influence of each one upon the macroorganism, and its response to their combined action were studied.1978630109
lipid a-induced tolerance and hyperreactivity to hypothermia in mice.mice responded to lipopolysaccharide (lps) with a dose-dependent, monophasic hypothermia reaching a maximum at 2 h postinjection. degraded polysaccharide was not active; free lipid a, however, induced a similar pattern of hypothermia, indicating that the hypothermic principle of lps was embedded within the lipid a component. the hypothermic response of mice to lps was modified by prior exposure of the host to lps. this altered reactivity was manifested by refractory periods (early and late toler ...1978631875
[length of stay in the hospital in shigella and salmonella infections treated with furazolidone and without any antimicrobial chemotherapy].163 patients suffering from shigellosis and salmonellosis were treated in principle of alternating sequence with furazolidon and without drug. without antimicrobial chemotherapy the average period of rest in hospital was five days shorter.1978636501
an economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage easy, rapid and economic two-step procedure is described for the detection of salmonella/shigella. in the first step the susceptibility of suspected colonies for the phage o-1 of felix and callow is tested. positive cultures are serologically confirmed. the test is performed on triple sugar iron agar and lasts 4-6 hrs. phage negative cultures which are lactose- and sucrose negative are tested for lysine decarboxylase and, if shigella is possible (i.e. in human material on primary plates), for ...1978636706
in vitro activity of cefaclor against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.cefaclor (ccl), a new cephalosporin, was tested in vitro against 602 (271 anaerobic and 331 aerobic) clinical isolates in comparison with cephalothin, cefazolin, cephradine, and cefamandole. sixteen micrograms of ccl per ml inhibited 68% of all aerobes tested and 80% of the 211 enteropathogenic organisms (escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella) isolated from cases of infantile diarrhoea. ccl inhibited 88% of gram-positive anaerobic cocci and 72% of bacteroides other than b. fragilis at a con ...1978646343
[bacillary disentery (author's transl)]. 1978652726
[on the present problems associated with shigella and salmonella infections (author's transl)]. 1978657184
l-2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid as a constituent of salmonella lipopolysaccharides (lipid a).l-2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid was recognized as a characteristic, although minor, constituent of the lipid a component of salmonella lipopolysaccharides. the 2-hydroxy fatty acid was present in lipid a as an ester, probably bound to the hydroxyl group of some d-3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid residues. a survey of enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides showed that l-2-hydroxytetradecanoid acid was also present in klebsiella and serratia strains. it was absent, however, from lipopolysaccharides of other ...1978658049
the critical role of iron in host-bacterial interactions.the ability of potential pathogens to acquire iron in a host is an important determinant of both their virulence and the nature of the infection produced. virulent gram-negative bacteria are capable of acquiring sufficient iron from the host because their virulence (for chick embryos) is unaffected by exogenous iron. avirulent mutants which are apparently limited in their ability to acquire iron could be isolated from the virulent strains. the lethality of these mutants was significantly enhance ...1978659605
[bacteriophages isolated from smallpox vaccine].a number of lots of dermal and tissue culture smallpox vaccine was studied for the presence of bacteriophage. the presence of bacteriophage was established in lots of tissue culture vaccine but not in the dermal vaccine. bacteriophage was detected by a modified method for phage isolation. the concentration and activity of the isolated bacteriophage were low. its activity was increased by passages. the bacteriophage was stable and lysed the main serotypes of enteropathogenic e. coli as well as st ...1978664622
[study of a collection of shigella strains of provisional serovars (cultural and biochemical properties)].the author studied 17 standard and local strains of shigellae of provisional serological variants (3873-50, 2000-53, 3341-53, 3615-53, 2710-54, 1621-54). by a number of biochemical signs (alkalization of citrate agar of christiansen and molke's lacmus, the growth on acetate medium, utilization of soluble starch) and resistance to the genus-specific dysentery bacteriophage the cultures of serological variant 2000-53 possessed no properties of shigellae and were escherichia according to the genera ...1978665043
[pathogenicity of the shigella isolated from wild and game animals of the far north of the ussr].experiments were conducted on guinea pigs. a study was made of the pathogenicity of brucellae culture isolated from various wild and game animals of the extreme north of the ussr (wolf, polar fox, ermine, glutton). the majority of the cultures under study proved to be highly pathogenic. observations carried out led to the conclusion that brucella cultures circulating between the wild and domestic reindeers and migrating to other species of animals presented definite danger to the health of man.1978665050
cefaclor: in vitro spectrum of activity and beta-lactamase stability.the in vitro activity of cefaclor against 556 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was compared with that of other cephalosporins. cefaclor had activity similar to that of cephalexin against gram-positive bacteria. it showed greater activity against haemophilus strains than did cephalexin and inhibited beta-lactamase-producing haemophilus isolates. cefaclor was more active than cephalexin or cephalothin against escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella isolates but did ...1978666290
synergism of fosfomycin-ampicillin and fosfomycin-chloramphenicol against salmonella and shigella.ninety strains of salmonella and 50 strains of shigella were tested for susceptibility to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin by the agar dilution method. drug interaction between fosfomycin-ampicillin and fosfomycin-chloramphenicol was studied by the agar dilution method. the fractional inhibitory concentration was calculated. the combination of fosfomycin-ampicillin was synergistic against salmonella in 74 cases, additive in 7, indifferent in 7, antagonistic in none, and nonevaluable i ...1978666297
the rectal biopsy appearances in salmonella colitis.rectal biopsies were examined from 22 patients with salmonella infection of food-poisoning type and from seven patients with inflammatory bowel disease and coincidental salmonella infection. in the former group the changes observed were mucosal oedema with acute inflammation of varying severity but with preservation of the crypt architecture. crypt abscesses were present in a few cases but were usually localized in the crypt and mucus depletion only occurred with severe inflammation. these featu ...1978669591
azlocillin and mezlocillin: new ureido penicillins.the activity of azlocillin and mezlocillin, new semisynthetic ureido penicillins, was investigated and compared with that of other known beta-lactam antibiotics. at a concentration of 25 mug/ml, azlocillin inhibited 74% of enterobacter, 97% of proteus mirabilis, 64% of citrobacter, 91% of pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 82% of bacteroides strains tested. mezlocillin inhibited 86% of shigella, 96% of enterobacter, 80% of indole-positive proteus, 88% of bacteroides, and 63% of pseudomonas strains test ...1978677860
the role of non-biting flies in the transmission of enteric pathogens (salmonella species and shigella species) in beirut, the summer and early autumn of 1974, flies were trapped in the beirut districts of ashraffiyah, burj, burj-hammoud, quarantine, the new slaughter house, ras beirut, american university campus, and the suburbs of chiyah and mreyjieh. musca domestica, muscina stabulans, calliphora vicina, phormia regina, phaenicia sericata, sarcophagidae spp. and fannia canicularis were identified. the rural areas of mreyjieh and chiyah had higher densities of musca domestica while higher densities of calliphor ...1978678345
[identification of 5-hydroxycytosine as an anomalous base of phage h-17]. 1978679802
on the serology of plesiomonas shigelloides.the serology of 87 strains of plesiomonas shigelloides was studied. thirty o antigenic groups and 11 h antigens were defined within the 87 strains, and an antigenic schema consisting of 40 serovars was established. some o antigens of p. shigelloides were identical or closely related to those of some shigella serovars.1978682370
oxolinic acid for the treatment of chronic gastrointestinal shigella carriers.two patients were long-term gastrointestinal carriers of shigella flexneri for 23 mo and 6 mo, respectively. neither patient responded to oral antibiotics, despite in vitro sensitivity of the bacteria to the antibiotics administered. oral oxolinic acid produced immediate cessation of the carrier state in both patients, with resolution of minor but persistent physical complaints.1978686252
cytotoxic activity of aeromonas hydrophila.most strains of aeromonas hydrophila tested demonstrated cytotoxic activity on several tissue-cultured cell lines. the cytotoxin is heat-labile, non-dialyzable, and immunologically distinct from that of shigella dysenteriae and clostridium perfringens. none of the aeromonas isolates was found to be enterotoxigenic by either tissue culture or rabbit ileal loop assays.1978711344
shigella infection in african and indian children with special reference to shigella septicemia. 1978712484
effects of intestinal micro-organisms on fluid and electrolyte transport in the jejunum of the rat.culture filtrates of micro-organisms isolated from the upper intestinal secretions of malnourished children and grown in pure culture were shown to impair the intestinal absorption of water and electrolytes in live rats. decreased net movement out of the intestinal lumen, or actual secretion of water, sodium or potassium into the intestinal lumen, was found with culture filtrates of single isolates of staphylococcus epidermidis, escherichia coli 055, escherichia coli b7a, shigella sonnei, klebsi ...1978722783
giardiasis in american travelers to madeira island, portugal.a high incidence of diarrhea was reported in a group of approximately 1,400 americans who traveled to the portuguese island of madeira in october 1976. a mail questionnaire survey revealed that 39% of the responding 859 travelers experienced diarrhea; in 42% of these diarrhea lasted for longer than 1 week. the most frequent accompanying symptoms were abdominal cramps (75%), abdominal distention (72%), nausea (70%), and weight loss (40%). of all travelers surveyed, 33% developed an illness resemb ...1978727317
[r plasmid-determined variability of bacteria. effect of plasmid replication on bacterial variability]. 1978733674
shigella bacteraemia in africans. 1978734732
[case studies of bacterial species responsible for urinary tract infections and their sensitivity to antibiotic treatment].a microbiological assessment was made of 829 urine specimens to determine the percentage incidence of different bacterial species and their susceptibility to antibiotic treatment. it was found that e. coli was most common, followed by pseudomonas, proteus, staphylococcus, candida, faecal streptococcus, and shigella. the results suggest that the aetiological agent should be systematically ascertained and an antibiogram run before a treatment programme is laid down.1978740260
drug resistant shigellosis in south india. 1978744630
[epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of shigellosis in greece in 1977]. 1978754658
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