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foodborne proportion of gastrointestinal illness: estimates from a canadian expert elicitation survey.the study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of the foodborne attributable proportion for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in canada. it was based on a similar study conducted in the united states and focused on campylobacter, escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal salmonella enterica, shigella spp., vibrio spp., yersinia enterocolitica, cryptosporidium parvum, and norwalk-like virus. for each pathogen, experts were asked to provide ...201020704505
seasonal variation of enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea in western mexico.the present study estimates the prevalence of some enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea. from 2006 to 2007, 5459 consecutive stool samples were evaluated. cryptosporidium parvum was the parasite identified with the higher frequency (5.1%), followed by giardia lamblia (1.2%). campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 858 cases (15.7%) and was the most frequent enteropathogen overall. the rates of c parvum, shigella, and salmonella were higher in the summer. rotavirus had the ...201020706147
csra and cra influence shigella flexneri pathogenesis.shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and disrupts the colonic epithelium. in order to thrive in the host, s. flexneri must adapt to environmental conditions in the gut and within the eukaryotic cytosol, including variability in the available carbon sources and other nutrients. we examined the roles of the carbon consumption regulators csra and cra in a cell culture model of s. flexneri virulence. csra is an activator of glycolysis and a repressor of gluconeogene ...201020713625
the type iii effectors nlee and nleb from enteropathogenic e. coli and ospz from shigella block nuclear translocation of nf-kappab p65.many bacterial pathogens utilize a type iii secretion system to deliver multiple effector proteins into host cells. here we found that the type iii effectors, nlee from enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) and ospz from shigella, blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of the transcription factor, nf-kappab, to the host cell nucleus. nf-kappab inhibition by nlee was associated with decreased il-8 expression in epec-infected intestinal epithelial cells. ectopically expressed nlee also blocked nuclear ...201020485572
[traveler's diarrhea, the most common health problem of travelers].bacteria cause 50 to 80% of travelers' diarrheic diseases. the most important pathogens include enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), campylobacteria, salmonellae and shigella. diarrheic viruses cause 5 to 25% and protozoa less than 10% of travelers' diarrheas. hand and food hygiene constitute the main preventive measures. treatment of traveler's diarrhea is based on rehydration therapy and rest. antimicrobial therapy is required only in cases with exceptionally severe symptoms.201020486490
violations identified from routine swimming pool inspections--selected states and counties, united states, 2008.swimming is the third most popular u.s. sport or exercise activity, with approximately 314 million visits to recreational water venues, including treated venues (e.g., pools), each year. the most frequently reported type of recreational water illness (rwi) outbreak is gastroenteritis, the incidence of which is increasing. during 1997--2006, chlorine- and bromine-susceptible pathogens (e.g., shigella and norovirus) caused 24 (23%) of 104 treated venue--associated rwi outbreaks of gastroenteritis, ...201020489681
battle and balance at mucosal surfaces--the story of shigella and antimicrobial peptides.shigella is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children in many developing countries. emergence of antibiotic-resistance among shigella demands the development of effective medicines. antimicrobial peptides (amps) are expressed in phagocytes and at epithelial surfaces and are important effector molecules of innate immunity. we have found that pathogens are able to turn off the endogenous expression of amps, resulting in serious infections such as shigellosis. a therapeutic rationale to ...201020494122
regulation of high-affinity iron acquisition homologues in the tsetse fly symbiont sodalis glossinidius.sodalis glossinidius is a facultative intracellular bacterium that is a secondary symbiont of the tsetse fly (diptera: glossinidae). since studies with other facultative intracellular bacteria have shown that high-affinity iron acquisition genes are upregulated in vivo, we investigated the regulation of several sodalis genes that encode putative iron acquisition systems. these genes, sg1538 (hemt) and sg1516 (sita), are homologous to genes encoding periplasmic heme and iron/manganese transporter ...201020494987
antiviral and anti-inflammatory diterpenoids from the soft coral sinularia gyrosa.chemical investigation of the soft coral sinularia gyrosa led to the purification of three new diterpenoids, designated as gyrosanols a-c (1-3). the structures of 1-3 were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses. compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antiviral activity against hcmv with ic(50)'s of 2.6 and 3.7 microm, respectively. in addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the levels of the cox-2 protein (19.6 + or - 3.9% and 29.1 + or - 9.6%, res ...201020499851
foodborne illness: is it on the rise?foodborne illness is a serious public health threat. the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) estimates that 76 million foodborne illnesses, including 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths, occur in the united states each year. two recently published foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) reports showed that salmonella, campylobacter, shigella, cryptosporidium, and shiga toxin escherichia coli (stec) o157 continue to be leading causes of both the number and inci ...201020500787
[antibacterial activity of recombinant thanatin expressed by e.coli er2566].to express antibacterial peptide thanatin in the prokaryotic expression system and test its antibacterial activity.201020501392
the 33 carboxyl-terminal residues of spa40 orchestrate the multi-step assembly process of the type iii secretion needle complex in shigella flexneri.the type iii secretion apparatus (t3sa) is a central virulence factor of many gram-negative bacteria. its overall morphology consists of a cytoplasmic region, inner- and outer-membrane sections and an extracellular needle. in shigella, the length of the needle is regulated by spa32. to understand better the role of spa32 we searched for its interacting partners using a two-hybrid screen in yeast. we found that spa32 interacts with the 33 c-terminal residues (cc*) of spa40, a member of the conser ...201020507885
induction of specific cd8 t cells against intracellular bacteria by cd8 t-cell-oriented immunization approaches.for protection against intracellular bacteria such as mycobacterium tuberculosis and listeria monocytogenes, the cellular arm of adaptive immunity is necessary. a variety of immunization methods have been evaluated and are reported to induce specific cd8(+) t cells against intracellular bacterial infection. modified bcg vaccines have been examined to enhance cd8(+) t-cell responses. naked dna vaccination is a promising strategy to induce cd8(+) t cells. in addition to this strategy, live attenua ...201020508818
[analysis on bacillary dysentery surveillance data collected from the national surveillance system in 2007.].to improve the national surveillance plan on bacillary dysentery and to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system on the disease.201020510059
["autophagy and microorganisms": hotspots of a mini-symposium]. 201020510155
establishment of specific pathogen-free macaque colonies in tsukuba primate research center of japan for aids research.cynomolgus monkeys have been maintained in indoor facilities as closed colony monkeys in tsukuba primate research center in japan since 1978. several microorganisms, including bacteria, parasites and viruses, were eliminated from the cynomolgus monkeys in this colony of tprc. various kinds of viruses (b virus, measles virus, simian varicella virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian t cell leukemia virus, simian d type retrovirus, simian cytomegalovirus, simian epstein-barr virus, and simian ...201020510748
isolation of bacteriocin-like substances producing bacteria from finished cattle-manure compost and activity evaluation against some food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.a finished compost sample was examined for bacteriocin-like substance production against five pathogenic bacteria: salmonella typhimurium ef 85-9, escherichia coli o157:h7 atcc 43888, enterococcus faecalis jcm 8726, staphylococcus aureus jcm 2151, and yersinia enterocolitica jcm 7577. at the preliminary detection of bacterial strains exhibiting antimicrobial activity from the compost sample, thirteen strains could be isolated. screening of the inhibitory activity was done using agar-well diffusi ...201020513963
emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in shigella isolated from andaman & nicobar islands, india. 201020516546
crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of corc, a magnesium-ion transporter.corc is a magnesium transporter that is involved in the mg(2+)-efflux function of the cora transporter system, an mg(2+) channel, from shigella flexneri. native corc was purified and crystallized in the native form and in a ligand-free form and diffraction data sets were collected to 2.9 and 3.4 a resolution, respectively. the native corc crystals belonged to space group p2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 64.31, b = 74.44, c = 132.78 a. the ligand-free corc crystals belonged to space g ...201020516599
three-hour molecular detection of campylobacter, salmonella, yersinia, and shigella species in feces with accuracy as high as that of culture.campylobacter jejuni and salmonella, shigella, and yersinia species (along with shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli) are the most common causes of acute bacterial diarrheal disease in the united states. current detection techniques are time-consuming, limiting usefulness for patient care. we developed and validated a panel of rapid pcr assays for the detection and identification of c. jejuni, c. coli, salmonella, and yersinia species and shigella and enteroinvasive e. coli in stool samples. a ...201020519461
emerging trends in the etiology of enteric pathogens as evidenced from an active surveillance of hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in kolkata, india.abstract:201020525383
frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among young children with acute diarrhoea in saudi arabia.the frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among 270 paediatric patients (< 5 years of age) in various hospitals of makkah and jeddah cities of saudi arabia were investigated.201020527643
prevalence of enterotoxins among escherichia coli isolates causing bacteraemia.the most frequent cause of bacteraemia among gram-negative bacteria is escherichia coli. analysis of the genes encoding the shigella enterotoxin 1 (shet-1), shet-2, enteroaggregative heat stable toxin 1 (east-1) toxins and aggr factor in e. coli strains causing bacteraemia revealed that set1 genes were presented significantly more frequently among quinolone-susceptible strains (p<0.0001), in phylogenetic group b2 (p=0.0004) and in biofilm strains (p=0.02). in contrast, sen genes were significant ...201020529132
a novel anti-virulence gene revealed by proteomic analysis in shigella flexneri 2a.abstract:201020540790
immunochemical studies of shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and shigella dysenteriae type 1 o-specific polysaccharide-core fragments and their protein conjugates as vaccine candidates.there is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of shigellosis. our approach to the development of a shigella vaccines is based on inducing serum igg antibodies to the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) domain of their lipopolysaccharides (lps). we have shown that low molecular mass o-sp-core (o-spc) fragments isolated from shigella sonnei lps conjugated to proteins induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice than the full length o-sp conjugates. this finding is now extended to the o-spc ...201020542498
protein refolding is required for assembly of the type three secretion needle.pathogenic gram-negative bacteria use a type three secretion system (ttss) to deliver virulence factors into host cells. although the order in which proteins incorporate into the growing ttss is well described, the underlying assembly mechanisms are still unclear. here we show that the ttss needle protomer refolds spontaneously to extend the needle from the distal end. we developed a functional mutant of the needle protomer from shigella flexneri and salmonella typhimurium to study its assembly ...201020543831
an epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an hiv endemic region.the epidemiology of diarrheal disease in botswana, an hiv endemic region, is largely unknown. our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana. secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.201020543877
the sudden dominance of blactx-m harbouring plasmids in shigella spp. circulating in southern vietnam.plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. the rise of ctx-m class extended spectrum beta lactamases (esbls) has been well documented in industrialized countries. vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges.201020544028
a soluble form of the pilus protein fima targets the vdac-hexokinase complex at mitochondria to suppress host cell apoptosis.inhibition of apoptotic response of host cells during an early phase of infection is a strategy used by many enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens to enhance their survival. here, we report the identification of a soluble form of the pilus protein fima from the culture supernatants of e. coli k1, salmonella, and shigella that can potently inhibit bax-mediated release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria. similar to the infected cells, hct116 cells stably expressing fima display a delay in the ...201020347420
34 kda momp of shigella flexneri promotes tlr2 mediated macrophage activation with the engagement of nf-kappab and p38 map kinase signaling.the 34 kda major outer membrane protein (momp) of shigella flexneri 2a induces combinatorial expression of tlr2 and tlr6 on peritoneal macrophages of balb/c mice. between the two best-characterized tlrs, to date, tlr2 and tlr4, which are chiefly responsible for recognizing majority of bacterial products, tlr2 alone participates in recognition of 34 kda momp. in addition to tlrs, momp enhances the mrna expression of myd88 and traf6 and induces the nuclear translocation of nf-kappab as well as act ...201020347487
long-term downregulation of protease-activated receptor-2 expression in distal colon in rats following bacillary dysentery.the aim of this study was to determine changes of par-2 expression in distal colon and the sensitivity of colonic muscle to sligrl-nh2, the par-2-activating peptide (par-2-ap) following bacillary dysentery. shigella flexneri was administrated intragastrically in healthy male rats to induce bacillary dysentery. the effect of sligrl-nh2 on the motility of colonic muscle strips were examined. the expression of par-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. intragastric administr ...201020347884
antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children.ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and pivmecillinam are the antibiotics currently recommended by the world health organization (who) for the treatment of dysentery in children; yet there have been no reviews of the clinical effectiveness of these antibiotics in recent years.201020348130
global transcriptional response of macrophage-like thp-1 cells to shiga toxin type 1.shiga toxins (stxs) are bacterial cytotoxins produced by the enteric pathogens shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and some serotypes of escherichia coli that cause bacillary dysentery and hemorrhagic colitis, respectively. to date, approaches to studying the capacity of stxs to alter gene expression in intoxicated cells have been limited to individual genes. however, it is known that many of the signaling pathways activated by stxs regulate the expression of multiple genes in mammalian cells. to ex ...201020351145
isolation and selection of coliphages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing e. coli (ehec and stec) in cattle.to isolate, characterize and select phages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (ehec and stec) in cattle.201020353429
molecular architecture of the mn2+-dependent lactonase ulag reveals an rnase-like metallo-beta-lactamase fold and a novel quaternary structure.the ulag gene, located in the ula regulon, is crucial for the catabolism of l-ascorbate under anaerobic conditions and it has been proposed to encode for the putative l-ascorbate-6-p lactonase. the ulag gene is widespread among eubacteria, including human commensal and pathogenic genera such as escherichia, shigella, klebsiella and salmonella. here, we report the three-dimensional structures of the apoenzyme and mn(2+) holoenzyme of ulag from e. coli to 2.6 a resolution, determined using single- ...201020359483
modeling fimbriae mediated parasite-host interactions.type 1 fimbriae are a known virulence factor in a number of pathogenic enterobacteriaceae, including salmonella, shigella and e. coli. yet, they are also expressed by some commensal strains, notably of e. coli. one hypothesis of the role of fimbriae in commensals is that they evoke a small but tolerable host immune response in order to have the host release sialic acid, which is a valuable nutrient. genetic evidence suggests that sialic acid down-regulates fimbriation. this has been believed to ...201020359486
structure of shigella ipgb2 in complex with human rhoa: implications for the mechanism of bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factor mimicry.a common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the manipulation of eukaryotic cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. this is in most cases achieved either by modifying actin, or indirectly via activation of key regulators controlling actin dynamics such as rho-gtpases. a novel group of bacterial virulence factors termed the wxxxe family has emerged as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) for these gtpases. the precise mechanism of nucleotide exchange, however, has remained unclear. here we repo ...201020363740
isolation of bacteria from mouse caecal samples and description of bacteroides sartorii sp. nov.caecal samples from wild-type and tnf(deltaare) mice were cultured on selective media containing bile salts, amino acids or casein macro-peptides. twenty-two strains were isolated and identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing. twenty-one strains showed >98% similarity to known bacteria (blautia spp., clostridium innocuum, enterococcus spp., escherichia coli, lactobacillus murinus, parabacteroides goldsteinii and shigella dysenteriae). one additional isolate, strain a-c2-0, was a new bacterium. the ...201020369227
antibacterial effect of the bioactive compound beauvericin produced by fusarium proliferatum on solid medium of wheat.to obtain the bioactive compound beauvericin (bea), fusarium proliferatum cect 20569 was grown on a solid medium of wheat, utilizing the technique of the solid state fermentation (ssf), being this mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semi-preparative column using as the mobile phase acetonitrile/water in gradient condition. the purity of the bea was verified by analytical hplc and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lc/ms-ms). the p ...201020371252
the effects of a vegetable-derived probiotic lactic acid bacterium on the immune response.the objective of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of the fermented vegetable derived lactic acid bacterium, l. plantarum. l. plantarum 10hk2 showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulating effects on murine macrophage cell lines. raw 264.7 cells stimulated with viable cells of this probiotic strain increased the amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators such as il-1beta, il-6 and tnf-alpha, as well as the anti-inflammatory mediator, il-10. icr mic ...201020377751
use of optical mapping to sort uropathogenic escherichia coli strains into distinct subgroups.optical maps were generated for 33 uropathogenic escherichia coli (upec) isolates. for individual genomes, the ncoi restriction fragments aligned into a unique chromosome map for each individual isolate, which was then compared with the in silico restriction maps of all of the sequenced e. coli and shigella strains. all of the upec isolates clustered separately from the shigella strains as well as the laboratory and enterohaemorrhagic e. coli strains. moreover, the individual strains appeared to ...201020378655
biological potentials and cytotoxicity of various extracts from endemic origanum minutiflorum o. schwarz & p.h. davis.the aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of endemic origanum minutiflorum (o. schwarz & p.h. davis). antioxidant activities of the extracts from o. minutiflorum were evaluated by using dpph radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and metal chelating activity assays. in addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the plant extracts were determined. in the beta-carotene bleaching test, the extracts exhibited in the range of 58.1 ...201020381570
preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2009.the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) of cdc's emerging infections program conducts active, population-based surveillance in 10 u.s. states for all laboratory-confirmed infections with select enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. this report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2009 and trends in incidence since 1996. in 2009, a total of 17,468 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection were identified. in comparison with the first 3 years of surveillanc ...201020395935
nmr characterization of the interaction of the salmonella type iii secretion system protein sipd and bile salts.salmonella and shigella bacteria require the type iii secretion system (t3ss) to inject virulence proteins into their hosts and initiate infections. the tip proteins sipd and ipad are critical components of the salmonella and shigella t3ss, respectively. recently, sipd and ipad have been shown to interact with bile salts, which are enriched in the intestines, and are hypothesized to act as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. bile salts activate the shigella t3ss but repress the sa ...201020397637
innate ifn-gamma production by subsets of natural killer cells, natural killer t cells and gammadelta t cells in response to dying bacterial-infected macrophages.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) activation of macrophages is a crucial step in the early innate defence against bacterial infection. this innate ifn-gamma is thought to be produced mainly by natural killer (nk) cells through activation with interleukin (il)-12p70 secreted by macrophages and dendritic cells (dcs) that have sensed bacterial products. however, a number of reports have shown that bacterial stimuli are unable to induce macrophages and/or dcs to produce sufficient amounts of il-12p70 unl ...201020415785
production and immunogenicity of recombinant ferric enterobactin protein (fepa).ferric siderophore complexes are produced by most bacteria to acquire iron, a vital element. these complexes are transported across the outer membrane by receptor proteins commonly known as fepa (ferric enterobactin protein). in this study we attempted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the membrane protein fepa, aiming at inhibition of iron uptake to protect invasion of the host by the bacterium.201020418143
tracking the secretion of fluorescently labeled type iii effectors from single bacteria in real time.a large number of gram negative pathogens use a specialized needle-like molecular machine known as type iii secretion (t3s) system. this highly sophisticated molecular device consists of a basal body spanning the two bacterial membranes and a protruding needle structure that is connected to a distal translocator complex. the main features of the t3s system are (i) activation after host cellular membrane contact and (ii) the ability to "inject" effectors into host cells through the needle apparat ...201020419414
extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing escherichia coli in patients with travellers' diarrhoea.the identification of patients carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing bacteria is important, since these patients are at risk of receiving inappropriate empirical therapy if they become infected. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of esbl-producing bacteria in patients with travellers' diarrhoea. patients with travellers' diarrhoea (n = 242) having delivered stool samples for the diagnosis of salmonella, shigella, yersinia or campylobacter, were also ...201020121649
campylobacteriosis and other bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in sofia, bulgaria for the period 1987-2008.campylobacter is the most commonly reported enteric bacterial pathogen in humans. we still do not have any systematic data concerning campylobacteriosis in bulgaria. for that reason, we present data of the thermophilic campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in sofia, for the period from 1987 to 2008. the study included patients from 0 to over 65 years-old. a total of 51,607 faecal specimens were screened for campylobacter. c. jejuni and c. coli were d ...201020122383
bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factors sope-like and wxxxe effectors.subversion of rho family small gtpases, which control actin dynamics, is a common infection strategy used by bacterial pathogens. in particular, salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, shigella flexneri, enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec), and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) translocate type iii secretion system (t3ss) effector proteins to modulate the rho gtpases rhoa, cdc42, and rac1, which trigger formation of stress fibers, filopodia, and lamellipodia/ruffles, respectively. ...201020123714
a versatile internal control for use as dna in real-time pcr and as rna in real-time reverse transcription pcr assays.to develop and evaluate a taqman-based internal amplification control (iac) that can be used as dna in real-time pcr (qpcr) or as rna in reverse transcription real-time pcr (qrt-pcr) to identify the presence of assay inhibition and to evaluate its incorporation into existing qpcr and qrt-pcr methods for bacterial detection.201020149084
characterisation of pathogenic bacteria in a uasb-polishing pond system using molecular techniques.molecular techniques have been commonly used to detect and quantify pathogenic bacteria in food, clinical and environmental samples, but in wastewater treatment plants few studies have been carried out. this work applied pcr with a specific set of primers to investigate pathogenic bacteria in a wastewater plant comprised of a uasb reactor followed by polishing ponds. in addition, in-situ hybridisation technique (fish) was used to estimate the abundance of escherichia coli in the system. accordin ...201020150719
food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.the burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. it has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. evidence for such a downward trend is limited. this prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail ...201020153070
development of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli and enteropathogenic escherichia coli strains.a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed for the simultaneous detection of genes encoding intimin (eae) and all variants of shiga toxins 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2) in diagnostic samples. the uida gene encoding a beta-glucuronidase specific for escherichia coli and shigella spp. was included in the multiplex pcr assay as an internal amplification control. the multiplex pcr was tested on 30 e. coli reference strains and 174 diagnostic samples already characterized as harbor ...201020156086
a challenge model for shigella dysenteriae 1 in cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis).shigella dysenteriae type 1 can cause devastating pandemics with high case fatality rates; a vaccine for shigella is unavailable currently. because of the risks associated with performing challenge studies with wild-type s. dysenteriae 1 in human clinical trials to advance vaccine development, an improved nonhuman primate model is needed urgently. in the present study, cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) were challenged with various doses of s. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617 to establish a dose ...201020158950
bacterial enteritis as a risk factor for childhood intussusception: a retrospective cohort study.to assess the relationship between bacterial enteritis and intussusception.201020138300
a repulsive electrostatic mechanism for protein export through the type iii secretion apparatus.many gram-negative bacteria initiate infections by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type iii secretion apparatus, which is comprised of a basal body, a needle, and a tip. the needle channel is formed by the assembly of a single needle protein. to explore the export mechanisms of mxih needle protein through the needle of shigella flexneri, an essential step during needle assembly, we have performed steered molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent. the trajectories ...201020141759
characterisation of multidrug-resistant salmonella typhimurium 4,[5],12:i:- dt193 strains carrying a novel genomic island adjacent to the thrw trna locus.in 2006, monophasic, multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains appeared as a novel serotype in germany, associated with large diffuse outbreaks and increased need for hospitalisation. the emerging 4,[5],12:i:- strains isolated from patients in germany belong mainly to phage type dt193 according to the anderson phage typing scheme for s. typhimurium (stm) and exhibit at least a tetra-drug resistance. the strains have been shown to harbour stm-specific gifs ...201020303825
neutrophil antimicrobial proteins enhance shigella flexneri adhesion and invasion.shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. neutrophils are the first cells of the innate immune system recruited to the site of infection. these cells can attack microbes by phagocytosis, neutrophil extracellular trap (net) formation and degranulation. here, we investigated how neutrophil degranulation affects virulence and show that exposure of shigella to granular proteins enhances infection of epithelial cells. ...201020331641
identification of active site residues in the shigella flexneri glucosyltransferase gtrv.the serotype-specific glucosyltransferase, gtrv, is responsible for glucosylation of the o-antigen repeating unit of shigella flexneri serotype 5a strains. gtrv is an integral inner membrane protein with two essential periplasmic loops: the large loop 2 and the c-terminal loop 10. in this study, the full length of the loop 2 was shown to be necessary for gtrv function. site-directed mutagenesis within this loop revealed that conserved aromatic and charged amino acids have a critical role in the ...201020334579
[preparation of a 96-microwell plate dna diagnostic chip for detection of foodborne bacteria and its application in an incident of food poisoning].to develop a 96-microwell plate dna diagnostic chip for simultaneous detection of 9 major foodborne bacteria.201020335099
metal based biologically active compounds: design, synthesis, and antibacterial/antifungal/cytotoxic properties of triazole-derived schiff bases and their oxovanadium(iv) complexes.a new series of oxovanadium(iv) complexes have been designed and synthesized with a new class of triazole schiff bases derived from the reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetyl pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. physical (magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance), spectral (ir, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, mass and electronic) and analytical data have established the structures of these synthesized schi ...201020338672
emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporin in shigella--a case report.the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in shigella has shifted the attention to cephalosporins. the first occurrence of third generation cephalosporin-resistant shigella flexneri was from france. this article reports the first case of cephalosporin-resistant s. flexneri from india. a 12-month-old child was admitted for a 20-day episode of loose stools, non-fetid, with mucus and blood. the stool sample showed the presence of blood and mucus and s. flexneri which was resistant to ampicillin, na ...201019955258
emergence of a new multidrug-resistant serotype x variant in an epidemic clone of shigella flexneri.shigella spp. are the causative agent of shigellosis with shigella flexneri serotype 2a being the most prevalent in developing countries. epidemiological surveillance in china found that a new serotype of s. flexneri appeared in 2001 and replaced serotype 2a in 2003 as the most prevalent serotype in henan province. the new serotype also became the dominant serotype in 7 of the 10 other provinces under surveillance in china by 2007. the serotype was identified as a variant of serotype x. it diffe ...201019955273
antilisterial activity of a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, enterocin lr/6 from enterococcus faecium lr/6.enterocin lr/6, a purified bacteriocin, exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum both against related as well as some food-borne pathogens such as listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, aeromonas sp., shigella sp., and bacillus licheniformis. in this investigation, we have focused on l. monocytogenes as the target organism, as it is not only an important pathogen but can also survive over a wide range of environmental conditions such as refrigeration temperature, low ph, and high-salt conce ...201019957209
interference of the cadc regulator in the arginine-dependent acid resistance system of shigella and enteroinvasive e. coli.a typical pathoadaptive mutation of shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) is the inactivation of the cad locus which comprises the genes necessary for lysine decarboxylation, an enzyme involved in ph homoeostasis. in e. coli, the cadba operon, encoding lysine decarboxylase (cada) and a lysine cadaverine antiporter (cadb), is submitted to the control of cadc, a positive activator whose gene maps upstream the operon, and is transcribed independently from the same strand. cadc is an i ...201019959396
combined effects of probiotic fermentation and high-pressure extraction on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities of deodeok (codonopsis lanceolata).this study was designed to evaluate the combined effects of probiotic fermentation and high-pressure extraction (hpe) on the functional properties of codonopsis lanceolata. the ground c. lanceolata samples were anaerobically fermented with lactobacillus acidophilus adh, bifidobacterium longum b6, lactobacillus rhamnosus gg, or lactobacillus paracasei at 37 degrees c for 10 days and subjected to 500 mpa at 50 degrees c for 30 min. the extraction yields of c. lanceolata samples were noticeably inc ...201020000575
global analysis of a plasmid-cured shigella flexneri strain: new insights into the interaction between the chromosome and a virulence plasmid.shigella flexneri is an important human pathogen that causes dysentery, and remains a significant threat to public health, particularly in developing countries. the virulence of this pathogen is dependent on an acquired virulence plasmid. to investigate the crosstalk between the bacterial chromosome and the exogenous virulence plasmid, a virulence plasmid-cured strain was constructed using plasmid incompatibility. the global patterns of gene expression of this strain compared with the wild-type ...201020000779
solution nmr structures of proteins vpa0419 from vibrio parahaemolyticus and yiis from shigella flexneri provide structural coverage for protein domain family pfam 04175. 201019927321
identification of antibacterial and antifungal pharmacophore sites for potent bacteria and fungi inhibition: indolenyl sulfonamide derivatives.synthesis of seven new indolenyl sulfonamides, have been prepared by the condensation reaction of indole-3-carboxaldehyde with different sulfonamides such as, sulphanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine. these synthesized compounds have been used as potential ligands for complexation with some selective divalent transition metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel & zinc). structure of the synthesized ligands has been deduced from thei ...201020005022
pivotal advance: bifidobacteria and gram-negative bacteria differentially influence immune responses in the proinflammatory milieu of celiac disease.cd is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that presents in genetically predisposed individuals following gluten consumption. in this study, the effects of bifidobacterium (bifidobacterium bifidum iata-es2 and bifidobacterium longum atcc15707) and gram-negative bacteria (bacteroides fragilis dsm2451, escherichia coli cbl2, and shigella cbd8 isolated from cd patients), alone and in the presence of cd triggers (gliadins and/or ifn-gamma) on surface marker expression and cytokine ...201020007908
a bacterial e3 ubiquitin ligase ipah9.8 targets nemo/ikkgamma to dampen the host nf-kappab-mediated inflammatory response.nf-kappab (nuclear factor kappab) has a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including the inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, its activation is tightly regulated by the ikk (ikappab kinase) complex and by ikappabalpha degradation. when shigella bacteria multiply within epithelial cells they release peptidoglycans, which are recognized by nod1 and stimulate the nf-kappab pathway, thus leading to a severe inflammatory response. here, we show that ipah9.8, a shigella effector pos ...201020010814
characteristics of children with shigella encephalopathy: experience from a large urban diarrhea treatment center in bangladesh.encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication from shigellosis often with fatal outcome but data on simple clinical and sociodemographic predicting factors are limited. we sought to identify those factors in children.201020016394
cem-101, a novel fluoroketolide: antimicrobial activity against a diverse collection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.cem-101 is a novel fluoroketolide with reported high potency against diverse groups of gram-positive (micrococcus spp., viridans group streptococci, corynebacterium spp. listeria monocytogenes, clostridium spp., etc.) and gram-negative bacteria (neisseria gonorrhoeae, campylobacter jejuni, helicobacter pylori, bacteroides fragilis, shigella spp., etc.), including mycoplasma and ureaplasma, as well as bacteria commonly associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections and skin and s ...201020022192
reactive arthritis after enteric infections in the united states: the problem of definition.bacterial enteric infections cause substantial morbidity in the united states both from acute illness and sequelae that follow. reactive arthritis (rea) is a poorly defined term that is used to describe a variety of rheumatologic phenomena that may occur after salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and yersinia infection, as well as other types of infections (eg, chlamydia). this review focuses on clinical and epidemiologic investigations of rea following bacterial enteric infection in the united ...201020025528
transcriptional profile of the shigella flexneri response to an alkaloid: berberine.berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid found in many medicinal herbs, has been shown to be active against a variety of microbial infections. to examine the potential effects of berberine on shigella flexneri, a whole-genome dna microarray was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the cellular responses of s. flexneri when exposed to berberine chloride (bc) was performed. our data revealed that bc upregulated a group of genes involved in dna replication, repair and division. intriguingl ...201020030725
antibodies against recombinant shiga toxin subunit b neutralize shiga toxin toxicity in hela cells.shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli o157:h7 produce shiga toxin 1 (stx) and shiga toxin1 (stx1), respectively and these two toxins are almost identical. e. coli o157:h7 is the major cause of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. stx and stx1 are ab5 type of toxin with a molecular weight of 70 kda, comprising an enzymaticaly-active a subunit (32 kda) and five receptor-binding b subunits (7.7 kda). in this study dna fragment (289 bp, gene bank accn no. ef685161) coding for b ...201020044923
rifaximin-induced alteration of virulence of diarrhoea-producing escherichia coli and shigella sonnei.rifaximin shortens the duration of travellers' diarrhoea without important alteration of colonic flora. this study investigated the expression of virulence factors [heat-stable (st) and heat-labile (lt) enterotoxins, surface adhesion factors (cs2/cs3, cs6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (mmp-9)] as well as the interleukin (il)-8 induction potential of diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli and shigella sonnei strains exposed to rifaximin (8, 32 and 64mg/l) for 4, 8, 18 and 24h. following exposure to ri ...201020045287
increased immunoendocrine cells in intestinal mucosa of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients 3 years after acute shigella infection--an observation in a small case control study.postinfectiously irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) develops in 3-30% of individuals with bacterial gastroenteritis. recent studies demonstrated increases in inflammatory components in gut mucosa of pi-ibs patients even after complete resolution of infection. we aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of pi-ibs subjects after long term period of infection.201020046513
osmoregulated periplasmic glucans synthesis gene family of shigella flexneri.osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (opgs) of food- and water-borne enteropathogen shigella flexneri were characterized. opgs were composed of 100% glucose with 2-linked glucose as the most abundant residue with terminal glucose, 2-linked and 2,6-linked glucose also present in high quantities. most dominant backbone polymer chain length was seven glucose residues. individual genes from the opg gene family comprising of a bicistronic operon opggh, opgb, opgc and opgd were mutagenized to study their ...201020062978
nlrc4/ipaf/clan/card12: more than a flagellin sensor.nlrc4 is a member of the nod-like receptors (nlrs), a family of cytosolic receptors involved in sensing bacterial molecules. nlrs are a group of proteins containing spans of leucine-rich repeats that senses bacterial factors within the eukaryotic cytosol. the recognition of bacterial factors provokes the formation of the inflammasome complex which includes specific nlrs. the inflammasome is responsible for caspase-1 activation which leads to the cleavage and maturation of inflammatory cytokines ...201020067841
tracking the dynamic interplay between bacterial and host factors during pathogen-induced vacuole rupture in real time.escape into the host cell cytosol following invasion of mammalian cells is a common strategy used by invasive pathogens. this requires membrane rupture of the vesicular or vacuolar compartment formed around the bacteria after uptake into the host cell. the mechanism of pathogen-induced disassembly of the vacuolar membrane is poorly understood. we established a novel, robust and sensitive fluorescence microscopy method that tracks the precise time point of vacuole rupture upon uptake of gram-nega ...201020070313
age-related efficacy of shigella o-specific polysaccharide conjugates in 1-4-year-old israeli children.despite its high worldwide morbidity and mortality, there is yet no licensed vaccine for shigellosis. we reported the safety and immunogenicity of shigella o-specific polysaccharide-protein conjugates in adults and young children and efficacy of shigella sonnei conjugate in young adults.201020056180
the structure of the salmonella typhimurium type iii secretion system needle shows divergence from the flagellar system.the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is essential for the infectivity of many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. the t3ss contains proteins that form a channel in the inner and outer bacterial membranes, as well as an extracellular needle that is used for transporting and injecting effector proteins into a host cell. the homology between the t3ss and the bacterial flagellar system has been firmly established, based upon both sequence similarities between respective proteins in the two systems an ...201020060835
new enterovirulent escherichia coli serogroup 64474 showing antigenic and genotypic relationships to shigella boydii 16.studies based on the analysis of housekeeping genes indicate that escherichia coli and all shigella species, except for shigella boydii type 13, belong to a single species. this study analysed the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 23 e. coli strains isolated in different countries from faecal specimens taken from children with diarrhoea. strains were identified using the vitek system and typed with rabbit sera obtained against 186 somatic and 53 flagellar e. coli antigens and against 4 ...201020075111
selective deletion of cd8(+) cells upregulated by caspases-1 via il-18 in mice immunized with major outer membrane protein of shigella dysenteriae 1 following infection.introduction: mucosal lymphoid changes were observed in cryopreserved rectal tissues obtained from balb/c mice infected with shigella dysenteriae 1, immunized with 57-kda major antigenic outer membrane protein, and infection after immunization. discussion: our data suggested that caspase-3 is downregulated in cd4(+) cells of immunized balb/c mice following infection with substantial increased expression of interleukin (il)-2 and interferon (ifn)-gamma, while caspase-1 is upregulated in cd8(+) ce ...201020084439
the extreme c terminus of shigella flexneri ipab is required for regulation of type iii secretion, needle tip composition, and binding.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are widely distributed virulence determinants of gram-negative bacteria. they translocate bacterial proteins into host cells to manipulate them during infection. the shigella t3ss consists of a cytoplasmic bulb, a transmembrane region, and a hollow needle protruding from the bacterial surface. the distal tip of mature, quiescent needles is composed of ipad, which is topped by ipab. physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to assembly of a ...201020086081
chaperonin activity modulates codon adaptation. 201020087337
groel dependency affects codon usage--support for a critical role of misfolding in gene evolution.it has recently been suggested that the use of optimal codons limits mistranslation-induced protein misfolding, yet evidence for this remains largely circumstantial. in contrast, molecular chaperones have long been recognized to play crucial roles in misfolding prevention and remedy. we propose that putative error limitation in cis can be elucidated by examining the interaction between codon usage and chaperoning processes. using escherichia coli as a model system, we find that codon optimality ...201020087338
th17 cells are the dominant t cell subtype primed by shigella flexneri mediating protective immunity.the t cell response to shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, remains poorly understood. using a murine model of infection, we report that shigella flexneri primes predominately il-17a- and il-22-producing th17 cells. shigella-specific th1 cells are only significantly induced on secondary infection, whereas specific th2 and cd8(+) t cells are undetectable. apart from th17 cells that are primed in a mhc class ii- and il-6-dependent, but il12/23p40-independent manner, we identified ...201020089698
antibiotic therapy for shigella dysentery.shigella dysentery is a relatively common illness and occasionally causes death, worldwide. mild symptoms are self-limiting but in more severe cases, antibiotics are recommended for cure and preventing relapse. the antibiotics recommended are diverse, have regional differences in sensitivity, and have side effects.201020091606
structural and functional divergence of the newly identified gtric from its gtr family of conserved shigella flexneri serotype-converting glucosyltransferases.glucosyltransferases (gtrs) and o-acetyltransferase (oac) are integral membrane proteins embedded within the cytoplasmic membrane of shigella flexneri. gtrs and oac are responsible for unidirectional host serotype conversion by altering the epitopic properties of the bacterial surface lipopolysaccharide (lps) o-antigen. in this study, we present the membrane topology of a recently recognized gtr, gtric, which is known to mediate s. flenxeri serotype switching from 1a to 1c. the gtric topology is ...201020095950
a yersinia pestis guaba mutant is attenuated in virulence and provides protection against plague in a mouse model of infection.there is a need to develop effective countermeasures for yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague and a potential bioterrorism agent. salmonella and shigella spp. deleted in the guaba genes involved in guanine biosynthesis have been shown to be attenuated in vivo. in this study, we sought to determine whether deletion of the guaba operon would render y. pestis auxotrophic for guanine and avirulent; such a strain could serve as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. a y. pestis guaba m ...201020096773
antibacterial activity of artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria.the six organic solvent extracts of artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains.201020109237
risk factors for sporadic shigellosis, foodnet 2005.an estimated 450,000 cases of shigellosis occur annually in the united states. outbreaks have been associated with food, water, child daycare centers, and men who have sex with men. however, for sporadic infections, which account for the majority of cases, risk exposures are poorly characterized.201020113209
a novel antisense rna regulates at transcriptional level the virulence gene icsa of shigella flexneri.the virulence gene icsa of shigella flexneri encodes an invasion protein crucial for host colonization by pathogenic bacteria. within the intergenic region vira-icsa, we have discovered a new gene that encodes a non-translated antisense rna (named rnag), transcribed in cis on the complementary strand of icsa. in vitro transcription assays show that rnag promotes premature termination of transcription of icsa mrna. transcriptional inhibition is also observed in vivo by monitoring the expression p ...201020129941
cesarean delivery and risk of intestinal bacterial infection.an individual's intestinal bacterial flora is established soon after birth. delivery by cesarean section (c-section) deprives the newborn of colonization with maternal vaginal bacteria. we determined whether delivery by c-section is associated with an altered risk of infection with intestinal bacterial pathogens.201020132034
bacteriocin production by shigella sonnei isolated from faeces of children with acute diarrhoea.shigella is a common agent of diarrhoea, a worldwide major health problem. the bacterium produces bacteriocins; however, the role of these substances as a virulence factor is completely unknown. with the aim to search for colicin production by shigella sonnei, to evaluate the influence of culture conditions on bacteriocin expression, and to characterize the substance partially, 16 s. sonnei strains isolated from children with diarrhoea were tested for antagonism against members of the intestinal ...201020132176
a quantitative pcr assay for rapid detection of shigella species in fresh produce.a quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay with two primers and a taqman probe targeting conserved regions of the specific ipah gene of shigella species and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) were developed. this qpcr assay was used to identify 206 shigella strains (including four shigella species with all serotypes and two provisional shigella species), 3 eiec strains, and 113 non-shigella strains with 100% accuracy. pure cultures of six shigella reference strains were used to derive standard curves t ...201020132666
innate immune detection of the type iii secretion apparatus through the nlrc4 inflammasome.the mammalian innate immune system uses toll-like receptors (tlrs) and nod-lrrs (nlrs) to detect microbial components during infection. often these molecules work in concert; for example, the tlrs can stimulate the production of the proforms of the cytokines il-1beta and il-18, whereas certain nlrs trigger their subsequent proteolytic processing via caspase 1. gram-negative bacteria use type iii secretion systems (t3ss) to deliver virulence factors to the cytosol of host cells, where they modula ...201020133635
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