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risk factors for sporadic shigellosis, foodnet 2005.an estimated 450,000 cases of shigellosis occur annually in the united states. outbreaks have been associated with food, water, child daycare centers, and men who have sex with men. however, for sporadic infections, which account for the majority of cases, risk exposures are poorly characterized.201020113209
bacterial enteritis as a risk factor for childhood intussusception: a retrospective cohort study.to assess the relationship between bacterial enteritis and intussusception.201020138300
a repulsive electrostatic mechanism for protein export through the type iii secretion apparatus.many gram-negative bacteria initiate infections by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type iii secretion apparatus, which is comprised of a basal body, a needle, and a tip. the needle channel is formed by the assembly of a single needle protein. to explore the export mechanisms of mxih needle protein through the needle of shigella flexneri, an essential step during needle assembly, we have performed steered molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent. the trajectories ...201020141759
the proteome of shigella flexneri 2a 2457t grown at 30 and 37 degrees c.to upgrade the proteome reference map of shigella flexneri 2a 2457t, the protein expression profiles of log phase and stationary phase cells grown at 30 and 37 degrees c were thoroughly analyzed using multiple overlapping narrow ph range (between ph 4.0 and 11.0) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. a total of 723 spots representing 574 protein entries were identified by maldi-tof/tof ms, including the majority of known key virulence factors. 64 hypothetical proteins and six misannotated protein ...201020164057
influences of hydraulic loading rate on svoc removal and microbial community structure in drinking water treatment biofilters.six biofilters were used for advanced treatment of yangtze river source water to investigate the effects of hydraulic loading rate (hlr) on pollutant removal and microbial community. hlr was found to exert significant influences on the removal efficiency of the conventional pollutants and 24 detectable semivolatile organic compounds (svocs). more than 85% of chemical oxygen demand and assimilable organic carbon was removed at the optimal hlr of 3.0 m h(-1). with the increase of hlr, svoc removal ...201020189298
disruption of the rickettsia rickettsii sca2 autotransporter inhibits actin-based motility.rickettsii rickettsii, the etiologic agent of rocky mountain spotted fever, replicates within the cytosol of infected cells and uses actin-based motility to spread inter- and intracellularly. although the ultrastructure of the actin tail and host proteins associated with it are distinct from those of listeria or shigella, comparatively little is known regarding the rickettsial proteins involved in its organization. here, we have used random transposon mutagenesis of r. rickettsii to generate a s ...201020194597
specific igg activity against diarrheagenic bacteria in bovine immune milk and effect of ph on its antigen-binding activity upon heating.bovine colostrum and milk antibodies of calving and lactating cows immunized with a multivalent vaccine consisting of whole cells of three different species of pathogenic bacteria including four strains of enterotoxigenic escherischia coli, five strains of enteropathogenic esch. coli, three strains of enteroinvasive esch. coli, two strains of samonella typhi, and one strain each of shigellia dysenteriae, sh. sonnei and sh. flexneri were generated, respectively. a significantly elevated activity ...201020196896
mst (molecular serotyping tool): a program for computer-assisted molecular identification of escherichia coli and shigella o antigens.escherichia coli and shigella o antigens can be inferred using the rfb-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) molecular test. we present herein a dynamic programming algorithm-based software to compare the rfb-rflp patterns of clinical isolates with those in a database containing the 171 previously published patterns corresponding to all known e. coli/shigella o antigens.201020200287
structure, biological functions and applications of the ab5 toxins.ab(5) toxins are important virulence factors for several major bacterial pathogens, including bordetella pertussis, vibrio cholerae, shigella dysenteriae and at least two distinct pathotypes of escherichia coli. the ab(5) toxins are so named because they comprise a catalytic a-subunit, which is responsible for disruption of essential host functions, and a pentameric b-subunit that binds to specific glycan receptors on the target cell surface. the molecular mechanisms by which the ab(5) toxins ca ...201020202851
prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinants in shigella flexneri isolates from anhui province, china.quinolones are used extensively to treat shigella flexneri infection, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) determinants were recently reported. a total of 26 s. flexneri isolates collected from anhui province, china, in 2005 were screened for pmqr determinants, bla gene, gyra and parc genes, by pcr and sequencing. pmqr determinants were present in 53.8% (14 of 26) of isolates and qnra(1), qnrs(1), qnrs(2), aac(6')-ib-cr and qepa were present in 30.8, 11.5, 3.8, 19.2 and 11.5% of thos ...201020203702
[rectal prolapse in a neonate with shigella diarrhea].a case of neonatal rectal prolapse during shigella diarrhea is described. a 10 days neonate exclusively breast fed, whose 2 years old brother has had the same process 2 weeks ago. medical treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone resolved rectal prolapse in 48 hours. stool cultures showed the presence of shigella flexneri ii resistant to amoxicillin; blood and cerebrospinal fluid, cultures were negative. conclusion: rectal prolapse is an uncommon complication seen in infants with shigella diarrhea. ...201020204227
synthesis, in-vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic studies of novel azetidinone derivatives.developing novel antimicrobial drugs is increasingly important in the modern pharmaceutical industry. a series of novel 3-chloro-4-[4-(2-oxo-2h-chromen-4-ylmethoxy)phenyl]-1-phenylazetidin-2-ones 5a-o have been synthesized from 4-bromomethylcoumarins 1a-e and 4-aryliminomethyl-phenols 3a-c. these compounds were screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against two gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enteroccoccus) and two gram-negative (escherichia coli and shi ...201020205197
induction of apoptosis by shiga toxins.shiga toxins comprise a family of structurally and functionally related protein toxins expressed by shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and multiple serotypes of escherichia coli. while the capacity of shiga toxins to inhibit protein synthesis by catalytic inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes has been well described, it is also apparent that shiga toxins trigger apoptosis in many cell types. this review presents evidence that shiga toxins induce apoptosis of epithelial, endothelial, leukocytic, lymp ...201020210553
identification and characterization of ctx-m-producing shigella isolates in the united states. 201020211893
prolonged remission of chronic reactive arthritis treated with three infusions of infliximab.reactive arthritis is generally self-remitting but can be chronic. predictors of chronicity include hla b27 positivity and triggering infections with yersinia, salmonella, shigella, or chlamydia. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and local steroids are the mainstays, with some evidence for disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. limited evidence suggests effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor antagonists. we report the case of reactive arthritis following a chlamydia urinary tract infection pro ...201020216128
autotransporter passenger proteins: virulence factors with common structural themes.autotransporter proteins are virulence factors associated with a wide variety of diseases caused by pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, and they play a variety of roles in pathogenesis including disabling host defences and mediating colonization. pertactin, a key component of the whooping cough vaccine, is an autotransporter protein. a large sub-family of the autotransporters carries a trypsin-like protease domain, but these enzymes have different substrates and functions. the unique export proce ...201020217035
[role of galactose-specific receptor--lectin in bactericidal activity of hemolysin of vibrio cholerae non o1/o139].to study the role lectin galactose-specific receptor of vibrio cholerae hemolysin in receptor mechanisms of bacterial cells lysis.201020218337
shigella mediated depletion of macrophages in a murine breast cancer model is associated with tumor regression.a tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. in this model tumor-associated macrophages (tams) represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. to evaluate whether shigella-induced removal of macrophages may be sufficient for achieving tumor regression we have developed an attenuated strain of s. ...201020221397
disease burden of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome in the netherlands.post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) has been established as a sequel of infectious intestinal disease (iid). the aim of this study was to estimate the burden of pi-ibs caused by the pathogens campylobacter, salmonella and shigella, and to compare this with other outcomes associated with these pathogens. the attributable risk of pi-ibs due to bacterial pathogens was calculated and linked to national data on gastroenteritis incidence and measures for severity and duration of illness ...201020223049
a new paradigm of bacteria-gut interplay brought through the study of shigella.bacteria-gut epithelial interplay and the mucosal immune response are the most critical issues in determining the fate of bacterial infection and the severity of diseases. shigella species (abbreviated here as shigella), the causative agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), are highly adapted human pathogens that are capable of invading and colonizing the intestinal epithelium, which results in severe inflammatory colitis. shigella secrete a large and diverse number (more then 50) of effecto ...201020228623
[shigella bacteremia dysentery in an adult]. 201020232025
high-throughput screening of the virulence regulator virf: a novel antibacterial target for shigellosis.shigella flexneri is a human enteropathogen that infects about 165 million people and claims more than 1 million lives per year worldwide. although shigellosis has been considered a disease of the "third world," like many other contagious diseases, it does occur in developed countries. the emergence of drug and multidrug-resistant strains of shigella emphasizes the need for novel antibiotic development. virf, an arac-type transcriptional regulator, is responsible for the expression of all downst ...201020237205
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of shigella spp. with reference to its virulence genes and antibiogram analysis from river narmada.water samples of the river narmada from origin to end were analyzed for the presence of shigellae. analysis of 40 water samples by biotyping, serotyping, and molecular typing were done. out of all 40 isolates, 23 were identified as shigella flexneri, 10 as shigella sonnei, and seven as shigella dysenteriae. serotyping was found to be a better identification method than biotyping since biotyping was not found to be very sharp. in the present investigation, amplified ribosomal dna restriction anal ...201019501495
biennial hyperepidemic shigellosis in an observant jewish community.we aimed to study patterns of shigellosis in a large observant jewish community in israel and to describe local interventions during outbreaks. surveillance data from the ministry of health were used to calculate incidence rates in 1998-2006, both in the city of bene beraq and the tel aviv district. information on isolates was collected from the bacteriological laboratory of a community hospital. public notices and educational conferences conveyed a message to increase personal hygiene and keep ...201019602299
survey of bacterial populations present in us-produced linerboard with high recycle content.to survey paperboard products from 17 us mills for bacterial populations and for bacteria potentially harmful to human health.201019645765
differential expression of enteric neuroimmune-network in invasive and acute watery diarrhoea.we aimed to evaluate the changes of nerve morphology and distribution of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the rectum of shigella flexneri-infected patients and in the duodenum of vibrio cholerae o1-infected patients. nerve morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (ngf), neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry. ultrastructural analysis of intestinal biopsy revealed persisting axons degene ...201019650770
diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known hiv status in kisumu, kenya.to compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known hiv status.201019664950
clinical practice. today's understanding of the haemolytic uraemic syndrome.the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus) includes the triad of haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. the classical form [d(+) hus] is caused by infectious agents, and it is a common cause of acute renal failure in children. the enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli-producing shiga toxin (stx) is the most common infectious agent causing hus. other infectious agents are shigella and streptococcus pneumoniae. infections by s. pneumoniae can be particularly severe and has a highe ...201019707787
lactobacilli inhibit shigella dysenteriae 1 induced pro-inflammatory response and cytotoxicity in host cells via impediment of shigella-host interactions.shigella dysenteriae type 1 dysentery is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children from less developed and developing countries. the present study explores the hypothesis that lactobacilli protect the host cell during s. dysenteriae type 1 infection and its mechanism of action.201019535308
structure of the heme/hemoglobin outer membrane receptor shua from shigella dysenteriae: heme binding by an induced fit mechanism.shigella dysentriae and other gram-negative human pathogens are able to use iron from heme bound to hemoglobin for growing. we solved at 2.6 a resolution the 3d structure of the tonb-dependent heme/hemoglobin outer membrane receptor shua from s. dysenteriae. shua binds to hemoglobin and transports heme across the outer membrane. the structure consists of a c-terminal domain that folds into a 22-stranded transmembrane beta-barrel, which is filled by the n-terminal plug domain. one distal histidin ...201019731368
the escherichia coli o149 rfb gene cluster and its use for the detection of porcine e. coli o149 by real-time pcr.pcr or hybridization assays are widely used for the identification and detection of various escherichia coli serogroups and serotypes. this study explored this approach for the detection of e. coli o149 in pigs, a dominant serogroup among those associated with porcine post-weaning diarrhea (pwd) worldwide. for this purpose, we sequenced the o antigen (rfb) gene cluster of a representative enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) o149:h10 strain and identified a 2kbp region specific for the o149 rfb gene c ...201019733452
evaluation of isolation methods for pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content.the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of four isolation methods for the detection of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content.201019735331
immunomodulation using genetically engineered bacteria for type iii-mediated delivery of heterologous antigens and cytokines: potential application in vaccine and therapeutical developments.the rational design of new approaches aiming to improve antigen or drug delivery remains a major challenge in numerous vaccine and therapeutical strategies. studies on genetically engineered bacteria have led to significant progress in the delivery of heterologous proteins. yet, the efficiency of such recombinant bacteria relies particularly on their ability to deliver sufficient amount of the drug to intended cell tissues. gram-negative bacteria like salmonella, shigella, yersinia and pseudomon ...201019778176
a new multiplex pcr for differential identification of shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei and detection of shigella virulence determinants.most of the multiplex pcr (mpcr) used to identify shigella do not discriminate between shigella species or serotypes. we designed a mpcr to differentiate between s. flexneri and s. sonnei strains based on the detection of markers associated with the she pathogenicity island described in shigella. in addition, specific primers were included to detect the shigella virulence determinants shet-1 and shet-2 enterotoxin genes. the analysis of 304 shigella strains from chile and 79 shigella strains fro ...201019765332
automated use of whonet and satscan to detect outbreaks of shigella spp. using antimicrobial resistance phenotypes.antimicrobial resistance is a priority emerging public health threat, and the ability to detect promptly outbreaks caused by resistant pathogens is critical for resistance containment and disease control efforts. we describe and evaluate the use of an electronic laboratory data system (whonet) and a space-time permutation scan statistic for semi-automated disease outbreak detection. in collaboration with whonet-argentina, the national network for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, we appl ...201019796449
requirement for formin-induced actin polymerization during spread of shigella flexneri.actin polymerization in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane is locally regulated by actin nucleators. several microbial pathogens exploit cellular actin polymerization to spread through tissue. the movement of the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, both within the cell body and from cell to cell, depends on actin polymerization. during intercellular spread, actin polymerization at the bacterial surface generates protrusions of the plasma membrane, which are engulfed by adjacent cells. in the ...201019841078
genetic diversity of o157:h7 and non-o157 verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli from argentina inferred from multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (mlva).although serotype o157:h7 has been implicated in most cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (hus), there is growing concern about non-o157 serotypes of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec). multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (mlva) has been focused on the specific typing of o157:h7 isolates, but recently, a generic mlva assay for e. coli and shigella has been developed. we performed a study of the polymorphism in 7 generic vntr loci both in vtec o157:h7 and non-o157 isolat ...201019850517
pretreatment of epithelial cells with rifaximin alters bacterial attachment and internalization profiles.rifaximin is a poorly absorbed semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifampin licensed for use in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. rifaximin reduces the symptoms of enteric infection, often without pathogen eradication and with limited effects on intestinal flora. epithelial cells (hep-2 [laryngeal], hct-8 [ileocecal], a549 [lung], and hela [cervical]) were pretreated with rifaximin (or control antibiotics) prior to the addition of enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec). eaec adherence ...201019858255
evaluation of new chromogenic substrates for the detection of coliforms.to evaluate a new range of chromogenic substrates for the detection of beta-galactosidase activity in coliforms and to compare their performance in agar media and broths.201019878523
virulence, inflammatory potential, and adaptive immunity induced by shigella flexneri msbb mutants.the ability of genetically detoxified lipopolysaccharide (lps) to stimulate adaptive immune responses is an ongoing area of investigation with significant consequences for the development of safe and effective bacterial vaccines and adjuvants. one approach to genetic detoxification is the deletion of genes whose products modify lps. the msbb1 and msbb2 genes, which encode late acyltransferases, were deleted in the shigella flexneri 2a human challenge strain 2457t to evaluate the virulence, infla ...201019884336
the australian bush fly (musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries.abstract australian outdoor activities are often accompanied by a barbeque (bbq) with family, friends, and guests, which are often interrupted by uninvited guests in the form of the australian bush fly, musca vetustissima. we investigated the bacterial loading associated with the australian bush in three different environments: on a cattle farm, in a typical urban area (shopping center car park), and at a bbq. the highest bacterial populations per fly were found to occur in a farm environment ( ...201019895260
caspase-8-mediated cleavage of bid and protein phosphatase 2a-mediated activation of bax are necessary for verotoxin-1-induced apoptosis in burkitt's lymphoma cells.verotoxin (vt-1) is a cytotoxin, produced by shigella dysenteriae type 1 or by shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, which binds specifically to globotriaosylceramide (gb3). this glycosphingolipid is a b cell differentiation antigen (gb3/cd77) strongly expressed on burkitt's lymphoma cells. we have previously shown that, in these cells, vt-1 induces apoptosis via a caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway. in this report, we provide new insights into this signal transduction pathway. first, ...201019895884
inactivation of escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on spinach leaves by x-ray.several recent foodborne disease outbreaks associated with leafy green vegetables, including spinach, have been reported. x-ray is a non-thermal technology that has shown promise for reducing pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on spinach leaves. inactivation of inoculated escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on spinach leaves using x-ray at different doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kgy) was studied. the effect of x-ray on col ...201019913687
effects of x-ray radiation on escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce.the main goal of this investigation was to study the efficacy of x-ray doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kgy) on inoculated escherichia coli o157: h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on shredded iceberg lettuce. the second goal was to study the effect of x-ray on the inherent microflora counts and visual color of shredded iceberg lettuce during storage at 4 degrees c for 30 days. treatment with 1.0 kgy x-ray significantly reduced the population o ...201019913700
yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture.tonsil samples from 139 slaughter pigs were examined for the presence of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica by enrichment procedures based on the standard method iso 10273:2003. in addition, samples were tested by direct plating method to evaluate its efficiency compared to the enrichment culture methods and to quantify the level of contamination in porcine tonsils. in total, 52 samples (37.4%) were positive for pathogenic y. enterocolitica, all belonging to bioserotype 4/o:3. fifty out of the 5 ...201019913707
adaptive immune responses during shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection: an in vitro stimulation with 57 kda major antigenic omp in the presence of anti-cd3 antibody.an effort was made to understand the role of the 57 kda major antigenic fraction of shigella outer membrane protein (omp) in the presence of t-cell antigen receptor in activation of adaptive immune responses of the cell mediated immune (cmi) restored patients. the expression of hla-dr/cd4 out of cd3(+) t-cells was significantly dominant over the hla-dr/cd8 and comparable to unstimulated cells of infected or healthy controls. cd4(+) t-cell activation together with hla-dr is associated with the ex ...201019915959
differentiation and identification of shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli in environmental waters by a molecular method and biochemical test.both shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) are important human pathogens that are responsible for the majority of cases of endemic bacillary dysentery. however, they are difficult to identify and differentiate by biochemical tests or molecular methods alone. in this study, we developed a procedure to detect shigella spp. and eiec from environmental water samples using membrane filtration followed by nutrient broth enrichment, isolation using selective culture plates, and ident ...201019917511
characterization of wrss2 and wrss3, new second-generation virg(icsa)-based shigella sonnei vaccine candidates with the potential for reduced reactogenicity.live, attenuated shigella vaccine candidates, such as shigella sonnei strain wrss1, shigella flexneri 2a strain sc602, and shigella dysenteriae 1 strain wrsd1, are attenuated principally by the loss of the virg(icsa) protein. these candidates have proven to be safe and immunogenic in volunteer trials and in one study, efficacious against shigellosis. one drawback of these candidate vaccines has been the reactogenic symptoms of fever and diarrhea experienced by the volunteers, that increased in a ...201019932216
development of a serogroup-specific dna microarray for identification of escherichia coli strains associated with bovine septicemia and diarrhea.escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups o8, o9, o15, o26, o35, o78, o86, o101, o115 and o119 are commonly associated with septicemia or diarrhea in calves and pose a significant threat to the cattle industry worldwide. in this study, a microarray detection system targeting o-antigen-specific genes was developed for the identification of those serogroups. by testing against 186 e. coli and shigella o-serogroup reference strains, 36 e. coli clinical isolates, and 9 representative strains ...201019932572
antimicrobial lipids from the hemolymph of brachyuran crabs.the potential of marine crabs as a source of biologically active products is largely unexplored. in the present study, antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph (plasma) and hemocytes (plasma cells) of six brachyuran crabs was investigated against 16 pathogenic strains. among the 16 strains tested maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in the hemolymph of hyas araneus against shigella flexineri. interestingly staphylococcus aureus and salmonella typhi were susceptible to all the hemolymph and hem ...201019937399
immobilization of bacteriophages on modified silica particles.bacteriophages are selective anti-bacterial agents, which are receiving increasing acceptance by regulatory agencies for use both in the food industry and in clinical settings for biocontrol. while immobilized phage could be particularly useful to create antimicrobial surfaces, current immobilization strategies require chemical bioconjugation to surfaces or more difficult processes involving modification of their head proteins to express specific binding moieties, for example, biotin or cellulos ...201019945158
galectin-3, a marker for vacuole lysis by invasive pathogens.shigella bacteria invade macrophages and epithelial cells and following internalization lyse the phagosome and escape to the cytoplasm. galectin-3, an abundant protein in macrophages and epithelial cells, belongs to a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins, the galectins, with many proposed functions in immune response, development, differentiation, cancer and infection. galectins are synthesized as cytosolic proteins and following non-classical secretion bind extracellular beta-galactoside ...201019951367
emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporin in shigella--a case report.the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in shigella has shifted the attention to cephalosporins. the first occurrence of third generation cephalosporin-resistant shigella flexneri was from france. this article reports the first case of cephalosporin-resistant s. flexneri from india. a 12-month-old child was admitted for a 20-day episode of loose stools, non-fetid, with mucus and blood. the stool sample showed the presence of blood and mucus and s. flexneri which was resistant to ampicillin, na ...201019955258
emergence of a new multidrug-resistant serotype x variant in an epidemic clone of shigella flexneri.shigella spp. are the causative agent of shigellosis with shigella flexneri serotype 2a being the most prevalent in developing countries. epidemiological surveillance in china found that a new serotype of s. flexneri appeared in 2001 and replaced serotype 2a in 2003 as the most prevalent serotype in henan province. the new serotype also became the dominant serotype in 7 of the 10 other provinces under surveillance in china by 2007. the serotype was identified as a variant of serotype x. it diffe ...201019955273
antilisterial activity of a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, enterocin lr/6 from enterococcus faecium lr/6.enterocin lr/6, a purified bacteriocin, exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum both against related as well as some food-borne pathogens such as listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, aeromonas sp., shigella sp., and bacillus licheniformis. in this investigation, we have focused on l. monocytogenes as the target organism, as it is not only an important pathogen but can also survive over a wide range of environmental conditions such as refrigeration temperature, low ph, and high-salt conce ...201019957209
interference of the cadc regulator in the arginine-dependent acid resistance system of shigella and enteroinvasive e. coli.a typical pathoadaptive mutation of shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) is the inactivation of the cad locus which comprises the genes necessary for lysine decarboxylation, an enzyme involved in ph homoeostasis. in e. coli, the cadba operon, encoding lysine decarboxylase (cada) and a lysine cadaverine antiporter (cadb), is submitted to the control of cadc, a positive activator whose gene maps upstream the operon, and is transcribed independently from the same strand. cadc is an i ...201019959396
combined effects of probiotic fermentation and high-pressure extraction on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities of deodeok (codonopsis lanceolata).this study was designed to evaluate the combined effects of probiotic fermentation and high-pressure extraction (hpe) on the functional properties of codonopsis lanceolata. the ground c. lanceolata samples were anaerobically fermented with lactobacillus acidophilus adh, bifidobacterium longum b6, lactobacillus rhamnosus gg, or lactobacillus paracasei at 37 degrees c for 10 days and subjected to 500 mpa at 50 degrees c for 30 min. the extraction yields of c. lanceolata samples were noticeably inc ...201020000575
global analysis of a plasmid-cured shigella flexneri strain: new insights into the interaction between the chromosome and a virulence plasmid.shigella flexneri is an important human pathogen that causes dysentery, and remains a significant threat to public health, particularly in developing countries. the virulence of this pathogen is dependent on an acquired virulence plasmid. to investigate the crosstalk between the bacterial chromosome and the exogenous virulence plasmid, a virulence plasmid-cured strain was constructed using plasmid incompatibility. the global patterns of gene expression of this strain compared with the wild-type ...201020000779
solution nmr structures of proteins vpa0419 from vibrio parahaemolyticus and yiis from shigella flexneri provide structural coverage for protein domain family pfam 04175. 201019927321
identification of antibacterial and antifungal pharmacophore sites for potent bacteria and fungi inhibition: indolenyl sulfonamide derivatives.synthesis of seven new indolenyl sulfonamides, have been prepared by the condensation reaction of indole-3-carboxaldehyde with different sulfonamides such as, sulphanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine. these synthesized compounds have been used as potential ligands for complexation with some selective divalent transition metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel & zinc). structure of the synthesized ligands has been deduced from thei ...201020005022
etiology of childhood diarrhea in the northeast of brazil: significant emergent diarrheal pathogens.in a study conducted in joão pessoa, northeast of brazil, 2344 escherichia coli isolated from 290 infants with diarrhea and 290 healthy matched controls were analyzed for virulence traits. enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec) was the most prevalent pathogen associated to acute diarrhea. based on the results of colony blot hybridization, serotyping, and hep-2 cell adherence assays, strains were separated in categories as typical enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) (1.7%), atypical epec (a-epec) (9.3%), e ...201018508227
evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in brassica vegetables.this study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 gram-positive bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) and 7 gram-negative bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella choleaesuis, salmonella enterica, serratia marcescens, shigella sonnei, and vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. benzyl isothiocyanate ...201021535549
osmosonication of blackberry juice: impact on selected pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and main quality parameters.osmosonication combines ultrasound with nonthermal concentration. it was applied on tropical highland blackberry (rubus adenotrichus) juice over different periods of time to assess reductions in microorganism and the impact on main quality parameters. this juice had been inoculated with salmonella spp., shigella sp., a lactic acid bacterium, yeasts, and molds. it was then sonicated for 5.9 to 34.1 min at 20 khz and 0.83 w/ml. nonthermal concentration was simulated by mixing the juice with a conc ...201021535558
lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human colonic mucosal biopsy inhibits the growth and adhesion of enteric and foodborne pathogens.a number of lactobacillus species are used as probiotic strains in order to benefit health. we have isolated l. fermentum from human colonic mucosal biopsy samples that possess antimicrobial activities against entroinvasive and foodborne pathogens such as escherichia coli, salmonella paratyphi a, shigella sonnei, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vibrio sp. in addition to lactic acid, l. fermentum secretes antimicrobial proteinacious com ...201021535608
effect of nacl on the biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens.this study was designed to evaluate the effect of nacl on the biofilm formation of listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, shigella boydii, and salmonella typhimurium. the biofilm cells were cultured in media containing different nacl concentrations (0% to 10%) for 10 d of incubation at 37 °c using a 24-well polystyrene microtiter plate, collected by swabbing methods, and enumerated using plate count method. the attachment and detachment kinetic patterns were estimated according to the mo ...201021535614
enterobacteriaceae associated with eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (testudines:chelonia) in nonpolluted sites of national park of araguaia plains, brazil.fertile eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis were investigated for the presence of enterobacteria, as these two endangered species have the potential for conservation measures that include egg transfer. knowledge of normal microflora associated with turtles and turtle eggs would help effectively manage the transfer of these eggs among institutions. thirty eggs of each species were collected, aseptically transferred, cracked inside plastic bags containing tetrathionate broth, and sp ...201021370647
ribonucleases and bacterial virulence.bacterial stress responses provide them the opportunity to survive hostile environments, proliferate and potentially cause diseases in humans and animals. the way in which pathogenic bacteria interact with host immune cells triggers a complicated series of events that include rapid genetic re-programming in response to the various host conditions encountered. viewed in this light, the bacterial host-cell induced stress response (hcisr) is similar to any other well-characterized environmental str ...201021375713
akara ogbomoso: microbiological examination and identification of hazards and critical control points.akara ogbomoso was examined toward the establishment of hazard analysis and critical control point (haccp). the akara was produced in residential buildings with the attendant consequence of contamination. there was ample growth of aerobes, coliforms, staphylococci, shigella and yeast/mold from the samples, water and cowpea pastes. microbial contaminations occur through the processing, which can be corrected through education by adopting good hygienic and manufacturing practices. the critical con ...201021339157
travelers' diarrhea in nepal: an update on the pathogens and antibiotic resistance.diarrhea is the most common illness among travelers and expatriates in nepal. published data on the etiology of travelers' diarrhea (td) in nepal are over 13 years old and no prior data exist on antibiotic susceptibility for currently used drugs. we investigated the etiology of diarrhea and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens and compared the results to previous work from the same clinical setting.201021366793
proinflammatory fecal mrna and childhood bacterial enteric infections.introduction: assessment of specific mrnas in human samples is useful in characterizing disease. however, mrna in human stool has been understudied. results: compared to controls, infected stools showed increased transcripts of il-1β, il-8 and calprotectin. mrna and protein concentrations correlated for il-8, but not for calprotectin. discussion: stool mrna quantification offers a potentially useful, noninvasive way to assess inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, and may be more sensitive ...201021327027
infectious diarrhea: cellular and molecular mechanisms.diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. an estimated 2-4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. this review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including vibrio cholerae as a classical example of ...201021327112
mixed infections of vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae.mixed infections caused by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, virus, protozoa and helminthes were reported in different literatures. this report also describes the co-infections caused by vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae in a patient. a 36-year-old man was admitted in fatemeh zahra hospital of bushehr iran with fever, vomiting and dysentery. his stool sample was cultured, for identification purposes tcbs, xld and other media were used. v. cholerae and s. dysenteriae wer ...201021313886
virulence of environmental stenotrophomonas maltophilia serologically cross-reacting with shigella-specific antisera.this research involved an environmental strain of stenotrophomonas maltophilia which has been reported to produce serological cross-reactivity with shigella dysenteriae type 8 specific antisera. since clinical diagnosis of shigellosis is largely based on culture and serology, the investigation was aimed at in vivo and in vitro virulence comparison between the culturally similar environmental s. maltophilia isolate and the reference s. dysenteriae strains. the findings of this study revealed the ...201021313916
bacteriological profile and resistant pattern of clinical isolates from pediatric patients, gondar university teaching hospital, gondar, northwest ethiopia.infectious diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing world antibiotic resistance is increasing. knowledge of pathogens causing infection in pediatrics patients is essential for devising management strategies.201021280431
microbial evaluation and public health implications of urine as alternative therapy in clinical pediatric cases: health implication of urine therapy.cultural means of pediatric treatment during ill health is a mainstay in africa, and though urine has been known to contain enteric pathogens, urine therapy is still culturally applicable in some health conditions and also advocated as alternative therapy. the study therefore, is to evaluate the microbial contents and safety of urine.201021293739
antibacterial activity of thai medicinal plants pikutbenjakul.bacterial infections caused by resistant strains have been increased dramatically. pikutbenjakul, a thai medicinal plant formula containing piper longum, piper sarmentosum, piper interruptum, plumbago indica and zingiber officinale have been widely used in thai traditional medicine.201021298838
[type three secretion system and pathogenesis of shigella spp.--a review].the powerful weapon of shigella spp. is type three secretion system, which remains the focus of pathogenic research. the regulation and function of type three secretion system of shigella spp. are summarized in this review.201021268888
imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic cu-zn sod of shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction.shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. hence, in present study an attempt was made to study t ...201021194882
ceftriaxone resistant shigella flexneri, an emerging problem.shigellosis is a disease of public health importance in developing countries. it may cause self-limited diarrhea to severe dysentery. emergence of multi drug resistant (mdr) strains is a growing concern globally. ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are the drugs of choice for mdr cases. here, we report a case of mdr shigella flexneri from an immunocompromised patient. the strain was resistant to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) ≥ 64 μg/ml], limiting the treatment option. simultaneou ...201021258157
prevalent organisms on ostrich carcasses found in a commercial abattoir.the prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. the effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. an attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the pla ...201021247040
synthesis and evaluation of a class of new coumarin triazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.a series of new coumarin-based 1,2,4-triazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities in vitro against four gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, bacillus subtilis and micrococcus luteus), four gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi and shigella dysenteriae) as well as three fungi (candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus fumigatus) by two-fold serial dilution technique. the bio ...201021215620
cutting edge: nlrc5-dependent activation of the inflammasome.the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins, nlrs, are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns. a subgroup of nlrs can form inflammasome complexes, which facilitate the maturation of procaspase 1 to caspase 1, leading to il-1β and il-18 cleavage and secretion. nlrc5 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has not been studied for inflammasome function. rna interference-mediated knockdown of n ...201021191067
comparison of chromogenic biolog rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of shigella spp. from foods.shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. however, it remains a challenge to isolate shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. the main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas (rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of shigella spp. in foods. all four shigella species, s. sonnei, s. flexneri, s. dysenteriae, and s. boydii, were studied. rainbow agar was compare ...201020819355
shigellosis from an interactive fountain: implications for regulation.in july 2003, the authors investigated an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in marion county, oregon. nineteen confirmed and 37 presumptive cases, mostly young children, were identified. a case-control study implicated play in an interactive fountain in a city park (matched odds ratio undefined; p < .002). the association was confirmed by a cohort study among local schoolchildren (rr [relative risk] = 12.6, p < .001) that allowed the authors to estimate that > 500 persons became ill. founta ...201021133311
arginine-dependent acid-resistance pathway in shigella boydii.ability to survive the low ph of the human stomach is considered be an important virulent determinant. it was suggested that the unique acid tolerance of shigella boydii 18 cdph, the strain implicated in a 1998 outbreak, may have played an important role in surviving the acidic food (bean salad). the strain was capable of inducing arginine-dependent acid-resistance (adar) pathway. this pathway was assumed to be absent in shigella sp. here, we have examined occurrence and efficacy of adar pathway ...201021136041
enteric glia protect against shigella flexneri invasion in intestinal epithelial cells: a role for s-nitrosoglutathione.enteric glial cells (egcs) are important regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (ieb) functions. egc-derived s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) has been shown to regulate ieb permeability. whether egcs and gsno protect the ieb during infectious insult by pathogens such as shigella flexneri is not known.201021139062
facile synthesis and antibacterial activity of naturally occurring 5-methoxyfuroflavone.a convenient synthesis of 5-methoxyfuroflavone (6, pongaglabol methyl ether), a constituent of some pongamia or millettia genus, was achieved by starting from 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone via a chalcone precursor, followed by treatment with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (ddq). this five-step reaction (total yield: 21.6%) is more facile with that of previously utilized procedures using each different starting material. antibacterial activities of the above compound and its prec ...201021139271
the shigella t3ss needle transmits a signal for mxic release, which controls secretion of effectors.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are key determinants of virulence in many gram-negative bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens. they inject 'effector' proteins through a 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface directly into eukaryotic cells after assembly of a 'translocator' pore in the host plasma membrane. secretion is a tightly regulated process, which is blocked until physical contact with a host cell takes place. host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle 'tip comple ...201021143311
antimicrobial resistance patterns and prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei isolated in uzbekistan.abstract:201021143880
molecular structure and vibrational spectra of three substituted 4-thioflavones by density functional theory and ab initio hartree-fock calculations.the vibrational frequencies of three substituted 4-thioflavones in the ground state have been calculated using the hartree-fock and density functional method (b3lyp) with 6-31g* and 6-31+g** basis sets. the structural analysis shows that there exists h-bonding in the selected compounds and the hydrogen bond lengths increase with the augment of the conjugate parameters of the substituent group on the benzene ring. a complete vibrational assignment aided by the theoretical harmonic wavenumber anal ...201021156350
notes from the field: emergence of shigella flexneri 2a resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin --- south carolina, october 2010.on october 20, 2010, the south carolina department of health and environmental control and cdc began investigating a cluster of three diarrheal illnesses caused by multidrug-resistant shigella flexneri 2a. the index case occurred in a girl aged 2 years who experienced the onset of diarrhea on september 25 and was hospitalized the next day because of a seizure and fever. on september 30, her brother, aged 6 years, was hospitalized with vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and hyponatremia. three days later ...201021160457
[study on the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains.]objective: to study the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains. methods: a series of primers were designed based on potential integration site of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains, and pcr were performed for 50 serotype 2b strains to amplify special genes located in host and prophages. pcr products were sequenced to identify integration sites and arrangement of sfii and sfx. results: in all the serotype 2b ...201021162847
emergence of a novel shigella flexneri serotype 4s strain that evolved from a serotype x variant in china.this paper describes the first isolation of a new shigella flexneri serotype, designated 4s, in beijing, china. genotypic and phenotypic profiling suggests that this isolate is a clone of the s. flexneri serotype x variant reference strain. of particular concern is the multidrug resistance exhibited by this isolate.201021177890
reinforcement of epithelial cell adhesion to basement membrane by a bacterial pathogen as a new infectious stratagem.the intestinal epithelium undergoes a rapid turnover in addition to rapid exfoliation in response to bacterial infection, thus acting as an intrinsic defense against microbial intruders. it has long been questioned how mucosal pathogens can circumvent the intestinal defense systems. our recent discovery of a bacterial ploy used by shigella provided us with fresh insight. shigella delivers ospe via the type iii secretion system during multiplication within epithelial cells. this effector protein ...201021178415
mapping the selection mechanisms by bacterial gefs.mimicry of eukaryotic signaling enzymes is a common strategy used by bacterial pathogens to manipulate host cellular signaling. the e. coli type iii effector protein map belongs to a large family of bacterial virulence factors that activate host rho gtpase signaling pathways through an unknown molecular mechanism. our recent structural study, coupled with biochemical and functional assays, establishes that this family protein, including map, ipgb1/2 and sifa/b secreted by e. coli, shigella, and ...201021178423
convergent synthesis of a common pentasaccharide corresponding to the o-antigen of escherichia coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4.a convenient synthetic strategy of the common acidic pentasaccharide repeating unit corresponding to the o-antigen of enterotoxigenic e. coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4 has been successfully developed. a stereoselective [2 + 3] block glycosylation method has been exploited to get the target pentasaccharide derivative. most of the synthetic intermediates were solid and prepared in high yields from commercially available reducing sugars following a series of protection-deprotection react ...201021181263
[antibacterial antibodies in human immunoglobulins and sera: past and present].to measure levels of several types of antibacterial antibodies in preparations of normal human immunoglobulin as well as in samples of donor sera obtained in 1965 and 2009.201021061576
[microsporidium spp. infection in an immunocompromised child diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction].microsporidium spp. may lead to a variety of clinical pictures like sinusitis, keratoconjunctivitis, hepatitis, myositis, peritonitis, nephritis, encephalitis and pneumonia in case of immune deficiencies. in this report, a case of diarrhea due to microsporidium spp. has been presented. a four years old male patient who was followed with the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophia, was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of respiratory distress and fever. due to the history of recurrent infecti ...201021063982
incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens isolated from an integrated aquaculture system.to evaluate an integrated aquaculture system, microbiological analyses of water used in this system were carried out and the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens were determined in the related ecosystem.201021029138
decrease in shigellosis-related deaths without shigella spp.-specific interventions, asia.in 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in asia. our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. this estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than ...201021029529
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