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a unique arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase found within a genomic island associated with the uropathogenicity of escherichia coli cft073.previous studies showed that deletion of genes c3405 to c3410 from pai-metv, a genomic island from escherichia coli cft073, results in a strain that fails to compete with wild-type cft073 after a transurethral cochallenge in mice and is deficient in the ability to independently colonize the mouse kidney. our analysis of c3405 to c3410 suggests that these genes constitute an operon with a role in the internalization and utilization of an unknown carbohydrate. this operon is not found in e. coli k ...201121498648
cutting edge: nlrc5-dependent activation of the inflammasome.the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins, nlrs, are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns. a subgroup of nlrs can form inflammasome complexes, which facilitate the maturation of procaspase 1 to caspase 1, leading to il-1β and il-18 cleavage and secretion. nlrc5 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has not been studied for inflammasome function. rna interference-mediated knockdown of n ...201021191067
emergence of a novel shigella flexneri serotype 4s strain that evolved from a serotype x variant in china.this paper describes the first isolation of a new shigella flexneri serotype, designated 4s, in beijing, china. genotypic and phenotypic profiling suggests that this isolate is a clone of the s. flexneri serotype x variant reference strain. of particular concern is the multidrug resistance exhibited by this isolate.201021177890
[study on the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains.]objective: to study the integration site and arrangement of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains. methods: a series of primers were designed based on potential integration site of sfii and sfx prophages in shigella flexneri serotype 2b strains, and pcr were performed for 50 serotype 2b strains to amplify special genes located in host and prophages. pcr products were sequenced to identify integration sites and arrangement of sfii and sfx. results: in all the serotype 2b ...201021162847
sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in shigella gastroenteritis.the sensitivity and specificity of bloody diarrhea in the diagnosis of shigella gastroenteritis in a shigella sonnei prevalent center was investigated. the shigella-proven gastroenteritis cases who were admitted to hacettepe university ihsan doğramaci children's hospital diarrheal diseases unit (jan 2003 - oct 2006) constituted the study group (n=65). age- and sex-matched children admitting to the same center with non-shigella diarrhea constituted the control group (n=65). the sensitivity, speci ...201021434533
the modulation of hela cells secretory patterns by invasive shigella spp. and enteroinvasive e. coli bacterial cells and their soluble components.considering the important role of cytokines in the initiation and evolution of the inflammatory process induced by shigella and eiec strains, the purpose of this study was the characterization of the secretory patterns of hela cells induced by shigella ssp. and eiec strains and to link the obtained results with the invasiveness level of bacterial strains on this cellular line. during this study there were analyzed two eiec strains and 12 strains of the following shigella species: 2 sh. flexneri ...201021434590
travelers' diarrhea in nepal: an update on the pathogens and antibiotic resistance.diarrhea is the most common illness among travelers and expatriates in nepal. published data on the etiology of travelers' diarrhea (td) in nepal are over 13 years old and no prior data exist on antibiotic susceptibility for currently used drugs. we investigated the etiology of diarrhea and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens and compared the results to previous work from the same clinical setting.201021366793
enterobacteriaceae associated with eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (testudines:chelonia) in nonpolluted sites of national park of araguaia plains, brazil.fertile eggs of podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis were investigated for the presence of enterobacteria, as these two endangered species have the potential for conservation measures that include egg transfer. knowledge of normal microflora associated with turtles and turtle eggs would help effectively manage the transfer of these eggs among institutions. thirty eggs of each species were collected, aseptically transferred, cracked inside plastic bags containing tetrathionate broth, and sp ...201021370647
ribonucleases and bacterial virulence.bacterial stress responses provide them the opportunity to survive hostile environments, proliferate and potentially cause diseases in humans and animals. the way in which pathogenic bacteria interact with host immune cells triggers a complicated series of events that include rapid genetic re-programming in response to the various host conditions encountered. viewed in this light, the bacterial host-cell induced stress response (hcisr) is similar to any other well-characterized environmental str ...201021375713
akara ogbomoso: microbiological examination and identification of hazards and critical control points.akara ogbomoso was examined toward the establishment of hazard analysis and critical control point (haccp). the akara was produced in residential buildings with the attendant consequence of contamination. there was ample growth of aerobes, coliforms, staphylococci, shigella and yeast/mold from the samples, water and cowpea pastes. microbial contaminations occur through the processing, which can be corrected through education by adopting good hygienic and manufacturing practices. the critical con ...201021339157
proinflammatory fecal mrna and childhood bacterial enteric infections.introduction: assessment of specific mrnas in human samples is useful in characterizing disease. however, mrna in human stool has been understudied. results: compared to controls, infected stools showed increased transcripts of il-1β, il-8 and calprotectin. mrna and protein concentrations correlated for il-8, but not for calprotectin. discussion: stool mrna quantification offers a potentially useful, noninvasive way to assess inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, and may be more sensitive ...201021327027
infectious diarrhea: cellular and molecular mechanisms.diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. an estimated 2-4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. this review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including vibrio cholerae as a classical example of ...201021327112
mixed infections of vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae.mixed infections caused by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, virus, protozoa and helminthes were reported in different literatures. this report also describes the co-infections caused by vibrio cholerae o1 ogawa el tor with shigella dysenteriae in a patient. a 36-year-old man was admitted in fatemeh zahra hospital of bushehr iran with fever, vomiting and dysentery. his stool sample was cultured, for identification purposes tcbs, xld and other media were used. v. cholerae and s. dysenteriae wer ...201021313886
virulence of environmental stenotrophomonas maltophilia serologically cross-reacting with shigella-specific antisera.this research involved an environmental strain of stenotrophomonas maltophilia which has been reported to produce serological cross-reactivity with shigella dysenteriae type 8 specific antisera. since clinical diagnosis of shigellosis is largely based on culture and serology, the investigation was aimed at in vivo and in vitro virulence comparison between the culturally similar environmental s. maltophilia isolate and the reference s. dysenteriae strains. the findings of this study revealed the ...201021313916
bacteriological profile and resistant pattern of clinical isolates from pediatric patients, gondar university teaching hospital, gondar, northwest ethiopia.infectious diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing world antibiotic resistance is increasing. knowledge of pathogens causing infection in pediatrics patients is essential for devising management strategies.201021280431
microbial evaluation and public health implications of urine as alternative therapy in clinical pediatric cases: health implication of urine therapy.cultural means of pediatric treatment during ill health is a mainstay in africa, and though urine has been known to contain enteric pathogens, urine therapy is still culturally applicable in some health conditions and also advocated as alternative therapy. the study therefore, is to evaluate the microbial contents and safety of urine.201021293739
antibacterial activity of thai medicinal plants pikutbenjakul.bacterial infections caused by resistant strains have been increased dramatically. pikutbenjakul, a thai medicinal plant formula containing piper longum, piper sarmentosum, piper interruptum, plumbago indica and zingiber officinale have been widely used in thai traditional medicine.201021298838
[type three secretion system and pathogenesis of shigella spp.--a review].the powerful weapon of shigella spp. is type three secretion system, which remains the focus of pathogenic research. the regulation and function of type three secretion system of shigella spp. are summarized in this review.201021268888
synthesis and evaluation of a class of new coumarin triazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.a series of new coumarin-based 1,2,4-triazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities in vitro against four gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, bacillus subtilis and micrococcus luteus), four gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi and shigella dysenteriae) as well as three fungi (candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus fumigatus) by two-fold serial dilution technique. the bio ...201021215620
imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic cu-zn sod of shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction.shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5. bacterial invasion of the colonic epithelium leads to severe inflammation together with bacterial dissemination generates abscesses and ulcerations. periplasmic copper, zinc super oxide dismutase of shigella protects it from exogenous superoxide produced by host, during its invasion. hence, in present study an attempt was made to study t ...201021194882
cytoskeleton-modulating effectors of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli: a case for espb as an intrinsically less-ordered effector.enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic escherichia coli produce various effector proteins that are directly injected into the host-cell cytosol through the type iii secretion system. e. coli secreted protein (esp)b is one such effector protein, and affects host-cell morphology by reorganizing actin networks. unlike most globular proteins that have well-ordered, rigid structures, the structures of type iii secretion system effectors from pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, including espb, are ofte ...201020477867
[rectal prolapse in a neonate with shigella diarrhea].a case of neonatal rectal prolapse during shigella diarrhea is described. a 10 days neonate exclusively breast fed, whose 2 years old brother has had the same process 2 weeks ago. medical treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone resolved rectal prolapse in 48 hours. stool cultures showed the presence of shigella flexneri ii resistant to amoxicillin; blood and cerebrospinal fluid, cultures were negative. conclusion: rectal prolapse is an uncommon complication seen in infants with shigella diarrhea. ...201020204227
shigellosis from an interactive fountain: implications for regulation.in july 2003, the authors investigated an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in marion county, oregon. nineteen confirmed and 37 presumptive cases, mostly young children, were identified. a case-control study implicated play in an interactive fountain in a city park (matched odds ratio undefined; p < .002). the association was confirmed by a cohort study among local schoolchildren (rr [relative risk] = 12.6, p < .001) that allowed the authors to estimate that > 500 persons became ill. founta ...201021133311
arginine-dependent acid-resistance pathway in shigella boydii.ability to survive the low ph of the human stomach is considered be an important virulent determinant. it was suggested that the unique acid tolerance of shigella boydii 18 cdph, the strain implicated in a 1998 outbreak, may have played an important role in surviving the acidic food (bean salad). the strain was capable of inducing arginine-dependent acid-resistance (adar) pathway. this pathway was assumed to be absent in shigella sp. here, we have examined occurrence and efficacy of adar pathway ...201021136041
facile synthesis and antibacterial activity of naturally occurring 5-methoxyfuroflavone.a convenient synthesis of 5-methoxyfuroflavone (6, pongaglabol methyl ether), a constituent of some pongamia or millettia genus, was achieved by starting from 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone via a chalcone precursor, followed by treatment with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (ddq). this five-step reaction (total yield: 21.6%) is more facile with that of previously utilized procedures using each different starting material. antibacterial activities of the above compound and its prec ...201021139271
antimicrobial resistance patterns and prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei isolated in uzbekistan.abstract:201021143880
reinforcement of epithelial cell adhesion to basement membrane by a bacterial pathogen as a new infectious stratagem.the intestinal epithelium undergoes a rapid turnover in addition to rapid exfoliation in response to bacterial infection, thus acting as an intrinsic defense against microbial intruders. it has long been questioned how mucosal pathogens can circumvent the intestinal defense systems. our recent discovery of a bacterial ploy used by shigella provided us with fresh insight. shigella delivers ospe via the type iii secretion system during multiplication within epithelial cells. this effector protein ...201021178415
mapping the selection mechanisms by bacterial gefs.mimicry of eukaryotic signaling enzymes is a common strategy used by bacterial pathogens to manipulate host cellular signaling. the e. coli type iii effector protein map belongs to a large family of bacterial virulence factors that activate host rho gtpase signaling pathways through an unknown molecular mechanism. our recent structural study, coupled with biochemical and functional assays, establishes that this family protein, including map, ipgb1/2 and sifa/b secreted by e. coli, shigella, and ...201021178423
convergent synthesis of a common pentasaccharide corresponding to the o-antigen of escherichia coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4.a convenient synthetic strategy of the common acidic pentasaccharide repeating unit corresponding to the o-antigen of enterotoxigenic e. coli o168 and shigella dysenteriae type 4 has been successfully developed. a stereoselective [2 + 3] block glycosylation method has been exploited to get the target pentasaccharide derivative. most of the synthetic intermediates were solid and prepared in high yields from commercially available reducing sugars following a series of protection-deprotection react ...201021181263
[secondary structure of ssoii-like (cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferases n-terminal region determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy].(cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii (m.ssoii) has a long n-terminal region (1-71 residues) preceding the sequence with conservative motifs, which are characteristic for all dna methyltransferases of such kind. the presence of this region provides m.ssoii capability to act as a transcription regulator in ssoii restriction-modification system. to perform its regulatory function, m.ssoii binds specifically to a 15-mer inverted repeat in the promoter region of ssoii restriction-modification sys ...201021090246
enteropathogenic e. coli non-lee encoded effectors nleh1 and nleh2 attenuate nf-κb activation.enteric bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated strategies to evade host immune defences. some pathogens deliver anti-inflammatory effector molecules into the host cell cytoplasm via a type iii secretion system (t3ss). enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) inhibits inflammation by an undefined, t3ss-dependent mechanism. two proteins encoded outside of the epec locus of enterocyte effacement (lee) pathogenicity island, non-lee-encoded effector h1 (nleh1) and h2 (nleh2), display sequence ...201021091507
development of a quantitative rt-pcr assay to examine the kinetics of ribosome depurination by ribosome inactivating proteins using saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model.ricin produced by the castor bean plant and shiga toxins produced by pathogenic escherichia coli (stec) and shigella dysenteriae are type ii ribosome inactivating proteins (rips), containing an enzymatically active a subunit that inhibits protein synthesis by removing an adenine from the α-sarcin/ricin loop (srl) of the 28s rrna. there are currently no known antidotes to shiga toxin or ricin, and the ability to screen large chemical libraries for inhibitors has been hindered by lack of quantitat ...201021098653
thrombotic microangiopathies: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura / hemolytic uremic syndrome.thrombotic microangiopathies (tmas) are pathological conditions characterized by generalized microvascular occlusion by platelet thrombi, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. two typical phenotypes of tmas are hemolytic- uremic syndrome (hus) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (ttp). other disorders occasionally present with similar manifestations. depending on whether renal or brain lesions prevail, two pathologically indistinguishable but somehow clinically different d ...201021103695
environmental contamination of hokersar wetland waters in kashmir himalayan valley, india.this paper investigates the environmental contamination of himalayan wetland ecosystem (hokersar, kashmir) by analyzing the distribution and loading of bacterial population in waters. seven locations representing heterogeneous spatial habitat zonation of the wetland were studied. site-specific variability in bacterial load was markedly discernible at doodhganga inlet and zainakoot locations, with maximum values in the range of 242-276/100 ml against soziath, an outlet, with minimum value of 157- ...201021114125
predation of human pathogens by the predatory bacteria micavibrio aeruginosavorus and bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.the focus of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the predatory bacteria bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and micavibrio aeruginosavorus to control the pathogens associated with human infection.201021114596
laboratory detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of two screening agar plates and two confirmation techniques.the worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing esbl-producing enterobacteriaceae (esbl-e) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. in this study we investigated the performance of two esbl-e screening and two esbl-e confirmation techniques. in accordance with the dutch national guidelines (www.wip.nl), a collection of 642 highly resistant enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by vitek2, was used to test the performances of two scr ...201021123527
lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid down-regulated shigella flexneri peptidoglycan-induced inflammation.bacterial peptidoglycans (pgns) are recognized by the host's innate immune system. this process is mediated by the nod/card family of proteins, which induces inflammation by activating nuclear factor (nf)-κb. excessive activation of monocytes by shigella flexneri pgn (flexpgn) leads to serious inflammatory diseases such as intestinal bowel diseases (ibd) and crohn's disease. in this study, we examined whether lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (plta) could attenuate the pro-inflammatory s ...201021129777
[antibacterial antibodies in human immunoglobulins and sera: past and present].to measure levels of several types of antibacterial antibodies in preparations of normal human immunoglobulin as well as in samples of donor sera obtained in 1965 and 2009.201021061576
[microsporidium spp. infection in an immunocompromised child diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction].microsporidium spp. may lead to a variety of clinical pictures like sinusitis, keratoconjunctivitis, hepatitis, myositis, peritonitis, nephritis, encephalitis and pneumonia in case of immune deficiencies. in this report, a case of diarrhea due to microsporidium spp. has been presented. a four years old male patient who was followed with the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophia, was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of respiratory distress and fever. due to the history of recurrent infecti ...201021063982
prevalence and characterization of human shigella infections in henan province, china, in 2006.in 2006, 3,531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in henan province, china. a total of 467 (13.2%) shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. seventy-one shigella flexneri strains were characterized by mic determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and detection of genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. most infections were caused by s. flexneri variant x [iv:(7),8] (27.6%), s. sonnei (24.2%), and s. flexneri 2a (20.8%). however, large regional differences ...201021068291
the host outer membrane proteins ompa and ompc are associated with the shigella phage sf6 virion.assembly of dsdna bacteriophage is a precisely programmed process. potential roles of host cell components in phage assembly haven't been well understood. it was previously reported that two unidentified proteins were present in bacteriophage sf6 virion (casjens et al, 2004, j.mol.biol. 339, 379-394, fig. 2a). using tandem mass spectrometry, we have identified the two proteins as outer membrane proteins (omps) ompa and ompc from its host shigella flexneri. the transmission electron cryo-microsco ...201021071053
anaerobic environment of the intestine primes pathogenic shigella for infection.marteyn et al. have investigated the role of oxygen and the regulator fnr in infection by the intracellular enteric pathogen shigella flexneri. fnr is active under anaerobic conditions like those present in the lumen of the distal intestine. fnr causes elongation of a secretion apparatus required for bacterial entry into cells and represses secretion of proteins that trigger entry. higher oxygen levels present at the intestinal cell surface are sufficient to inactivate fnr, thereby derepressing ...201021073287
the structure of the escherichia coli o148 lipopolysaccharide core region and its linkage to the o-specific polysaccharide.recently it was demonstrated that shigella dysenteriae type 1, a cause of severe dysentery epidemics, gained its o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) from escherichia coli o148. the o-sps of these bacteria differ only by a galactose residue in the repeat unit of s. dysenteriae type 1 in place of a glucose residue in e. coli o148. herein, we analyzed the core structure and its linkage to the o-sp in e. coli o148 lps. both were found to be identical to those of s. dysenteriae type 1 structures, furthe ...201021074753
shigella flexneri spa15 crystal structure verified in solution by double electron electron resonance.shigella flexneri spa15 is a chaperone of the type 3 secretion system, which binds a number of effectors to ensure their stabilization prior to secretion. one of these effectors is ipgb1, a mimic of the human ras-like rho guanosine triphosphatase rhog. in this study, spa15 alone and in complex with ipgb1 has been studied by double electron electron resonance, an experiment that gives distance information showing the spacial separation of attached spin labels. this distance is explained by determ ...201021075116
microbiological quality of blue mussels (mytilus edulis) in nunavik, quebec: a pilot study.this pilot study was aimed at documenting the presence of fecal indicators and enteric pathogens in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) from 6 communities in nunavik, quebec. one to four 2 kg samples of mussels were collected at low tide in each community. samples were investigated by enumeration methods for the fecal indicators enterococci, escherichia coli, f-specific coliphages, clostridium perfringens, and by molecular identification for the pathogens norovirus, salmonella spp., campylobacter jeju ...201021076488
defensins play a crucial role in protecting mice against oral shigella flexneri infection.an earlier study revealed that 4-day-old mice, but not older mice, were infected with invasive shigella strains. here we attempted to determine the underlying mechanism that induces inflammation in the intestines of neonate mice after oral shigella infection. wild-type balb/c mice of different ages (7, 14, and 35 days old) were orally administered gfp-expressing shigella flexneri 5a m90t strain (5 x 10⁹ cfu) and analyzed for colonization 6h following infection. we found that shigella localized i ...201020888321
[screening of harmine tolerance/degrading bacteria from camel rumen].peganum harmala, a famous traditional chinese drug, contains a variety of alkaloids and toxic for many animals. camels mainly live in desert or semi-desert areas, with the robust gastrointestine system in digesting various feed including toxic plants without disease symptoms.201020931866
combination of two separate binding domains defines stoichiometry between type iii secretion system chaperone ipgc and translocator protein ipab.type iii secretion systems (ttsss) utilized by enteropathogenic bacteria require the presence of small, acidic virulence-associated chaperones for effective host cell infection. we adopted a combination of biochemical and cellular techniques to define the chaperone binding domains (cbds) in the translocators ipab and ipac associated with the chaperone ipgc from shigella flexneri. we identified a novel cbd in ipab and furthermore precisely mapped the boundaries of the cbds in both translocator pr ...201020937829
enhancement of reactive oxygen species production and chlamydial infection by the mitochondrial nod-like family member nlrx1.chlamydia trachomatis infections cause severe and irreversible damage that can lead to infertility and blindness in both males and females. following infection of epithelial cells, chlamydia induces production of reactive oxygen species (ros). unconventionally, chlamydiae use ros to their advantage by activating caspase-1, which contributes to chlamydial growth. nlrx1, a member of the nod-like receptor family that translocates to the mitochondria, can augment ros production from the mitochondria ...201020959452
decrease in shigellosis-related deaths without shigella spp.-specific interventions, asia.in 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in asia. our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. this estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than ...201021029529
shigella spp. antimicrobial drug resistance, papua new guinea, 2000-2009. 201021029550
effects of backbone substitutions on the conformational behavior of shigella flexneri o-antigens: implications for vaccine strategy.the o-antigen (o-ag), the polysaccharide part of the lipopolysaccharide, is the major target of the serotype-specific protective humoral response elicited upon host infection by shigella flexneri, the main causal agent of the endemic form of bacillary dysentery. the o-ag repeat units (rus) of 12 s. flexneri serotypes share the tetrasaccharide backbone →2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-β-d-glcpnac-(1→, with site-selective glucosylation(s) and/or o-acetylation defining the ser ...201021030536
genetic characterization of atypical shigella flexneri isolated in korea.three types of serotypically atypical shigella flexneri strains were isolated from 2007 to 2008 in patients at the korea national institute of health (nih). these strains were characterized and compared with serologically typical s.flexneri. one type of strain either displayed nonreacting typing or grouping sera, reacting strongly only with polyb antisera, which indicates this strain is s. flexneri (polyb:un). the second type displayed reactions with one of the typing sera (iv) and did not bind ...201021030833
plasmid-encoded multidrug resistance: a case study of salmonella and shigella from enteric diarrhea sources among humans.salmonellosis and shigellosis are significant and persistent causes of diarrheal diseases among humans in developing countries. with that in mind, the current study investigates the occurrence of plasmid-encoded multidrug resistances in salmonella and shigella from diarrheal cases among humans. the isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, transfer experiments and curing. the extended spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) was detected by the double disc diffusion syn ...201021031258
[rapid detection of shigella dysenteriae by pcr assay].based on the invasive plasmid antigen h gene (ipah) of s. dysenteriae, one pair of specific primers was designed for pcr assays in this study. the concentrations of dntp, mg2+ and primer, dosage of taq dna polymerase, annealing temperature and circulating parameter in the pcr amplification system were optimized. in this way, a rapid and stable method of pcr assay for the detection of s. dysenteriae was established. the specificity and sensitivity of pcr were also analyzed. the detection limits o ...201021033439
counting bacteria on a microfluidic chip.this paper reports a lab-on-a-chip device that counts the number of bacteria flowing through a microchannel. the bacteria number counting is realized by a microfluidic differential resistive pulse sensor (rps). by using a single microfluidic channel with two detecting arm channels placed at the two ends of the sensing section, the microfluidic differential rps can achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. this method is applied to detect and count bacteria in aqueous solution. the detected rps signa ...201021035606
case-control study of diarrheal disease etiology in a remote rural area in western thailand.the objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in thailand. stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, giardia, and cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. campylobacter, plesiomonas, salmonella, and ent ...201021036846
[viable non-culturable bacteria].viable but non-culturable cells (vbnc) are defined as live bacteria, but which do not either grow or divide. such bacteria cannot be cultivated on conventional media (they do not form colonies on solid media, they do not change broth appearance), but their existence can be proved using other methods. the switch to the vbnc stage has been described and documented for several bacterial species: vibrio spp. (cholerae, vulnificus and other species), escherichia coli (including ehec), campylobacter j ...201021038700
laboratory based surveillance of travel-related shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri in alberta from 2002 to 2007.abstract: between 2002 and 2007, travel related cases of shigella sonnei and s. flexneri in alberta, canada were acquired from central america, the indian subcontinent and north america. of this group, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was identified in isolates from patients who had travelled to the indian subcontinent. this study provides a canadian perspective to a growing body of literature linking ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance to travel to the indian subcontinent. ...201021040566
safety, dose, immunogenicity, and transmissibility of an oral live attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate (sc602) among healthy adults and school children in matlab, bangladesh.in double-blind trials in bangladesh, 88 adults, and 79 children (8-10 years) were randomized to receive either a single oral dose of 1 × 10(4), 1 × 10(5) or 1 × 10(6)cfu of sc602 (a live, attenuated shigella flexneri 2a strain vaccine) or placebo. in the adult outpatient 1 × 10(6) cfu group, severe joint pain and body aches were reported by one and two vaccinees respectively. in the adult inpatient trial, sc602 was isolated from 3 volunteers, pre-vaccination antibody titers were high, and fourf ...201021040694
evidence of cellular immune response to outer membrane protein of salmonella typhimurium in patients with enthesitis-related arthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.enthesitis-related arthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (jia-era) clinically resembles reactive arthritis (rea). in patients with rea the immune response is targeted at the outer membrane protein (omp) of salmonella typhimurium. we studied the immune response in jia-era to s. typhimurium omp.201021041273
biosensors for efficient diagnosis of leishmaniasis: innovations in bioanalytics for a neglected disease.the need for reliable, fast diagnostics is closely linked to the need for safe, effective treatment of the so-called "neglected" diseases. the list of diseases with no field-adapted diagnostic tools includes leishmaniasis, shigella, typhoid, and bacterial meningitis. leishmaniasis, in particular, is a parasitic disease caused by leishmania spp. transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandfly, which remains a public health concern in developing countries with ca. 12 million people infected and 350 m ...201021043437
prevalence of shigellosis diarrhoea in a paediatrics population: hospital based survey in bangui, central african republic.shigellosis is still a major public health problem in sub-saharan countries, especially among children.201021045359
evaluation of bacterial multiplication in cleaning cloths containing different quantities of organic matter.to determine a proper length of time for cleaning cloth usage, the present work aimed to evaluate bacterial multiplication in artificially contaminated cleaning cloths containing different amounts of organic matter.201021045369
research progress in shigella in the postgenomic era.gram-negative, facultative intracellular anaerobes of the genus shigella, the principal etiologic agents of shigellosis, continue to pose a threat to public health. shigellosis causes 1.1 million deaths with over 164 million annual cases. the shigella spp. can be divided into four serogroups: shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri, shigella boydii and shigella sonnei. the completion of seven shigella genome sequences of representative strains from each of the shigella species has introduced an ...201021046319
detection of representative enteropathogenic bacteria, vibrio spp., pathogenic escherichia coli, salmonella spp., shigella spp., and yersinia enterocolitica, using a virulence factor gene-based oligonucleotide microarray.rapid identification of enteropathogenic bacteria in stool samples is critical for clinical diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy. in this study, we describe the development of an approach that couples multiplex pcr with hybridization to a dna microarray, to allow the simultaneous detection of the 10 pathogens. the microarray was synthesized with 20-mer oligonucleotide probes that were designed to be specific for virulence-factor genes of each strain. the detection limit for genomic dna from a sin ...201021046348
controlled study on enteropathogens in travellers returning from the tropics with and without diarrhoea.clin microbiol infect abstract: diarrhoea is the most frequent health problem among travellers in the tropics. however, data on the spectrum and relevance of enteropathogens in international travellers with and without diarrhoea are limited. stool samples from 114 cases of diarrhoea in travellers returning from the tropics were collected for microbiological examination and pcr for norovirus genogroups i and ii, enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec), and enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) produci ...201021054662
[detection and drug resistance analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing shigella in pediatric patients].to investigate the occurrence and drug resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls)-producing strains of shigella in pediatric patients, so as to provide information for clinical treatment.201021055309
biochemical characterization of udp-gal:glcnac-pyrophosphate-lipid β-1,4-galactosyltransferase wfed, a new enzyme from shigella boydii type 14 that catalyzes the second step in o-antigen repeating-unit synthesis.the o antigen is the outer part of the lipopolysaccharide (lps) in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and contains many repeats of an oligosaccharide unit. it contributes to antigenic variability and is essential to the full function and virulence of bacteria. shigella is a gram-negative human pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. the o antigen of shigella boydii type 14 consists of repeating oligosaccharide units with the structure [→6-d-galpα1→4-d-glcpaβ1→6-d-galpβ1→4-d-galpβ1→4-d ...201021057010
incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens isolated from an integrated aquaculture system.to evaluate an integrated aquaculture system, microbiological analyses of water used in this system were carried out and the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens were determined in the related ecosystem.201021029138
pad4 is essential for antibacterial innate immunity mediated by neutrophil extracellular traps.neutrophils trap and kill bacteria by forming highly decondensed chromatin structures, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). we previously reported that histone hypercitrullination catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (pad4) correlates with chromatin decondensation during net formation. however, the role of pad4 in net-mediated bacterial trapping and killing has not been tested. here, we use pad4 knockout mice to show that pad4 is essential for net-mediated antibacterial function. u ...201020733033
a bacterial e3 ubiquitin ligase ipah9.8 targets nemo/ikkgamma to dampen the host nf-kappab-mediated inflammatory response.nf-kappab (nuclear factor kappab) has a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including the inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, its activation is tightly regulated by the ikk (ikappab kinase) complex and by ikappabalpha degradation. when shigella bacteria multiply within epithelial cells they release peptidoglycans, which are recognized by nod1 and stimulate the nf-kappab pathway, thus leading to a severe inflammatory response. here, we show that ipah9.8, a shigella effector pos ...201020010814
an outbreak of shigellosis due to shigella flexneri serotype 3a in a prison in iran.on june 16 and 17, 2007, the medical clinic of a prison in isfahan, iran received multiple reports of gastrointestinal illness among prisoners. a cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to determine the extent, causative agent and possible source of the outbreak.201020804308
assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs commercialized in spain.spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. conventional production of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. in this study, we have analyzed the microbial quality of 53 samples of spices and dry herbs collected from spanish markets detecting a contamination of samples of s ...201020848208
surveillance of shigellosis by real-time pcr suggests underestimation of shigellosis prevalence by culture-based methods in a population of rural china.shigellosis is a leading public health issue in china, especially in children under 5 years of age. the disease burden of shigellosis is usually underestimated by conventional culture. in this study, real-time pcr was applied to detect shigella infection in parallel with routine culture, to investigate the true burden of disease caused by shigella spp.201020951728
antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from trilepisium madagascariense stem bark.the present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of trilepisium madagascariense in rats.201020871767
subtype prevalence, plasmid profiles and growing fluoroquinolone resistance in shigella from kolkata, india (2001-2007): a hospital-based study.shigellosis is a major public health problem, and increasing antimicrobial resistance has complicated its treatment. we report isolation frequency, plasmid profiles and antimicrobial resistance of shigella subtypes in kolkata, india, from a prospective hospital-based study.201020955371
safety and immunogenicity of a shigella flexneri 2a invaplex 50 intranasal vaccine in adult volunteers.shigellosis is a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide prompting vaccine development. the shigella flexneri invaplex 50 is a macromolecular complex containing ipab, ipac, and lps, formulated from an aqueous extract of virulent shigella delivered via nasal administration. preclinical vaccine testing demonstrated safety, immunogenicity and efficacy. an open-label dose-escalating phase 1 study evaluated a 3-dose (2-week intervals) regimen via nasal pipette delivery. thirty-two subjects were enrolled ...201020619378
frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among young children with acute diarrhoea in saudi arabia.the frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among 270 paediatric patients (< 5 years of age) in various hospitals of makkah and jeddah cities of saudi arabia were investigated.201020527643
shigella deploy multiple countermeasures against host innate immune responses.although the intestinal epithelium is equipped with multiple defense systems that sense bacterial components, transmit alarms to the immune system, clear the bacteria, and renew the injured epithelial lining, mucosal bacterial pathogens are capable of efficiently colonizing the intestinal epithelium, because they have evolved systems that modulate the inflammatory and immune responses of the host and exploit the harmful environments as replicative niches. in this review we highlight current topi ...201020934372
antibiotic therapy for shigella dysentery.shigella dysentery is a relatively common illness and occasionally causes death, worldwide. mild symptoms are self-limiting but in more severe cases, antibiotics are recommended for cure and preventing relapse. the antibiotics recommended are diverse, have regional differences in sensitivity, and have side effects.201020687081
lactoferrin increases both resistance to salmonella typhimurium infection and the production of antibodies in mice.lactoferrin (lf) is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein with antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. the antibacterial influence of orally administered bovine lf (blf) against murine infection caused by salmonella typhimurium (s. typhimurium) has scarcely been explored. in the current study, balb/c mice were treated orally for 7 days with either 5 or 100mg of bovine lactoferrin (blf). on day 7 of treatment, mice were intragastrically infected with a lethal or sublethal dose of col ...201020727369
molecular mechanisms of necroptosis: an ordered cellular explosion.for a long time, apoptosis was considered the sole form of programmed cell death during development, homeostasis and disease, whereas necrosis was regarded as an unregulated and uncontrollable process. evidence now reveals that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. the initiation of programmed necrosis, 'necroptosis', by death receptors (such as tumour necrosis factor receptor 1) requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein 1 (rip1; also known as ripk1) and rip3 (also kn ...201020823910
violations identified from routine swimming pool inspections--selected states and counties, united states, 2008.swimming is the third most popular u.s. sport or exercise activity, with approximately 314 million visits to recreational water venues, including treated venues (e.g., pools), each year. the most frequently reported type of recreational water illness (rwi) outbreak is gastroenteritis, the incidence of which is increasing. during 1997--2006, chlorine- and bromine-susceptible pathogens (e.g., shigella and norovirus) caused 24 (23%) of 104 treated venue--associated rwi outbreaks of gastroenteritis, ...201020489681
comparison of chromogenic biolog rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of shigella spp. from foods.shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. however, it remains a challenge to isolate shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. the main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas (rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of shigella spp. in foods. all four shigella species, s. sonnei, s. flexneri, s. dysenteriae, and s. boydii, were studied. rainbow agar was compare ...201020819355
ikkα contributes to canonical nf-κb activation downstream of nod1-mediated peptidoglycan recognition.during pathogen infection, innate immunity is initiated via the recognition of microbial products by pattern recognition receptors and the subsequent activation of transcription factors that upregulate proinflammatory genes. by controlling the expression of cytokines, chemokines, anti-bacterial peptides and adhesion molecules, the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa b (nf-κb) has a central function in this process. in a typical model of nf-κb activation, the recognition of pathogen associa ...201020976174
comparative in vitro activity of tigecycline and other antimicrobial agents against shigella species from kuwait and the united arab of emirates.shigella species isolated from stool samples of symptomatic patients of all age groups at the mubarak al kabir hospital and infectious diseases hospital, kuwait and tawam hospital, uae during a 2-year period were investigated for their susceptibility to tigecycline and several other antibiotics by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) using the e test method. a total of 100 and 42 strains were collected from uae and kuwait, respectively. the extent of drug resistance in the sh ...201020701889
detection of airborne bacteria in a german turkey house by cultivation-based and molecular methods.today's large-scale poultry production with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms leading to a clear health hazard for employees working in such environments. depending on the expected exposure to microorganisms, work has to be performed under occupational safety conditions. in this study, turkey houses bioaerosols were investigated by cultivation-based and molecular methods in parallel to determine the conce ...201020720091
uncivil engineers: chlamydia, salmonella and shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. like the enteric pathogens salmonella and shigella, chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. numerous salmonella and shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating ...201020722600
prolonged remission of chronic reactive arthritis treated with three infusions of infliximab.reactive arthritis is generally self-remitting but can be chronic. predictors of chronicity include hla b27 positivity and triggering infections with yersinia, salmonella, shigella, or chlamydia. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and local steroids are the mainstays, with some evidence for disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. limited evidence suggests effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor antagonists. we report the case of reactive arthritis following a chlamydia urinary tract infection pro ...201020216128
autotransporter passenger proteins: virulence factors with common structural themes.autotransporter proteins are virulence factors associated with a wide variety of diseases caused by pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, and they play a variety of roles in pathogenesis including disabling host defences and mediating colonization. pertactin, a key component of the whooping cough vaccine, is an autotransporter protein. a large sub-family of the autotransporters carries a trypsin-like protease domain, but these enzymes have different substrates and functions. the unique export proce ...201020217035
medicinal potions used against infectious bowel diseases in mayan traditional medicine.since one of the main health problems of the indigenous population are infectious bowel diseases, we decided to test mayan medicinal potions used to treat these conditions against some of the causal agents.201020728517
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2008].the number as well as incidence rate of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in xxi century are every year lower. only 33 cases were notified in the year 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000 population), while the 64 cases were notified in 2007 (incidence rate 0.17/100 000), but 35 (incidence rate 0.09) were notified in 2006 and median in the 2002-2006 years was 75 cases, incidence rate 0.2/100 000 population. since 2000 no one-death case was notified. several imported cases were noti ...201020731222
high-throughput screening of the virulence regulator virf: a novel antibacterial target for shigellosis.shigella flexneri is a human enteropathogen that infects about 165 million people and claims more than 1 million lives per year worldwide. although shigellosis has been considered a disease of the "third world," like many other contagious diseases, it does occur in developed countries. the emergence of drug and multidrug-resistant strains of shigella emphasizes the need for novel antibiotic development. virf, an arac-type transcriptional regulator, is responsible for the expression of all downst ...201020237205
acid stress response in enteropathogenic gammaproteobacteria: an aptitude for survival.enteric bacteria such as escherichia coli have acquired a wide array of acid stress response systems to counteract the extreme acidity encountered when invading the host's digestive or urinary tracts. these acid stress response systems are both enzyme and chaperone based. the 3 main enzyme-based acid resistance pathways are glutamate-, arginine-, and lysine-decarboxylase pathways. they are under a complex regulatory network allowing the bacteria to fine tune its response to the external environm ...201020453931
antioxidant, antibacterial and antigiardial activities of walsura robusta roxb.walsura robusta roxb. (family: meliaceae) is a well-known multi-purpose medicinal plant, and has been employed for a wide range of disease conditions without documented scientific data. in the current study, four pure isolated compounds, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), turpinionoside a (2), (+)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3) and (-)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of w. robusta. biological evaluation f ...201020461627
an epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an hiv endemic region.the epidemiology of diarrheal disease in botswana, an hiv endemic region, is largely unknown. our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana. secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.201020543877
antibiotic therapy for shigella dysentery.shigella dysentery is a relatively common illness and occasionally causes death, worldwide. mild symptoms are self-limiting but in more severe cases, antibiotics are recommended for cure and preventing relapse. the antibiotics recommended are diverse, have regional differences in sensitivity, and have side effects.201020091606
[the evolution of the etiological structure of shigellosis]. 201020734730
plasmon-induced inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms with ag-agi/al2o3 under visible-light irradiation.the plasmon-induced photocatalytic inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms in water using ag-agi/al(2)o(3) under visible-light irradiation was investigated. the catalyst was found to be highly effective at killing shigella dysenteriae (s. dysenteriae), escherichia coli (e. coli), and human rotavirus type 2 wa (hrv-wa). its bactericidal efficiency was significantly enhanced by hco(3)(-) and so(4)(2-) ions, which are common in water, while phosphate had a slightly positive effect on the ...201020734989
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