shigellosis and escherichia coli diarrhea: relative importance of invasive and toxigenic mechanisms.shigellae and dysentery-like escherichia coli must invade the epithelium of the colon to cause disease which can present as dysentery, diarrhea, or both. this paper addresses the possible role of a shigella dysenteriae-like (shiga-like) toxin in the pathogenesis of shigellosis and e. coli diarrheal diseases. the possibility for such a role is suggested by the following observations: 1) diarrhea, considered to be a result of secretion of water by the small bowel, is frequently observed in shigell ...1979104615
microbial impact of canada geese (branta canadensis) and whistling swans (cygnus columbianus columbianus) on aquatic ecosystems.quantitative and qualitative analyses of the intestinal bacterial flora of canada geese and whistling swans were carried out with the finding that wild birds harbor significantly more fecal coliforms than fecal streptococci. the reverse was typical of captive and fasting birds. neither salmonella spp. nor shigella spp. were isolated from 44 migratory waterfowl that were wintering in the chesapeake bay region. enteropathogenic escherichia coli were detected in seven birds. geese eliminated 10(7) ...1979104659
homology of the gene coding for outer membrane lipoprotein within various gram-negative bacteria.the mrna for a major outer membrane lipoprotein from escherichia coli was found to hybridize specifically with one of the ecori and one of the hindiii restriction endonuclease-generated fragments of total dna from nine bacteria in the family enterobacteriaceae: e. coli, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhimurium, citrobacter freundii, klebsiella aerogenes, enterobacter aerogenes, edwardsiella tarda, serratia marcescens, and erwinia amylovora. however, among the enterobacteriaceae, dna from two ...1979104972
enteric infections in singapore with special reference to typhoid.a review of the epidemiological features of the more important enteric infections in singapore was given. enteric fevers (typhoid and paratyphoid), salmonella gastroenteritis and shigellosis remained endemic at a rather constant level in spite of vast improvement in environmental sanitation, but amoebic dysentery showed marked decline. vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important cause of food poisoning since it was first reported in 1973. el tor cholera is believed to be introduced through regional ...1978107597
cost-effective clinical microbiology. 1979109000
the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in new zealand. 1979109800
[ribosomal dysentery vaccine. iii. an immunochemical and serological study].sh. sonnei rib oscmes, isolated by differential centrifugation, were previously shown to be highly protect ive against experimental keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs. immunochemical study showed that ribosomal preparations were not uniform in their antigenic composition: as a result of immunoelectrophoretic analysis with the use of anti-ribosomal hyperimmune rabbit antisera, these preparations were found to contain up to 4 antigenic components with different migration rate. the anodic componen ...1979110015
a lipopolysaccharide-binding cell-surface protein from salmonella minnesota. isolation, partial characterization and occurrence in different enterobacteriaceae.1. protein extracts obtained from salmonella minnesota re mutant cells by treatment with edta/nac1 solution contain a protein which exhibits high affinity to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. the isolation and partial characterization of this lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is described. 2. the protein was purified from edta extracts by a two-step procedure consisting of ion-exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at ph 9.5. the yield of the tota ...1979111933
very low frequency and small intensity electromagnetic and magnetic fields as an oecological factor.the effect on microorganisms of electromagnetic and magnetic fields (emf, mf), the frequency and intensity of which were similar to natural ones, was studied. they were found to influence the physiology of bacteria. changes in the rate of proliferation of microbes, in their susceptibility to antibiotic the frequency of formation of recombinants and partial diploids during conjugation of colibacterium were observed during cultivation in these fields.1978112178
action of bacterial endotoxin and lipid a on mitochondrial enzyme activities of cells in culture and subcellular fractions.escherichia coli o127:b8 lipopolysaccharide (lps), prepared by the westphal procedure, caused a marked decrease in the activities of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and adenylate kinase in african green monkey kidney (vero) cells and primary cultures of mouse liver cells within 2 h after exposure to 10 micrograms of lps/ml of culture medium. these three enzyme activities leaked into the supernatant fraction, and cytochrome oxidase activity was lost from the mouse liv ...1979114491
lipid a from endotoxin: antigenic activities of purified fractions in liposomes.isolation of lipid a by acid hydrolysis of shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide resulted in a product that consisted of a heterogeneous mixture of bands when visualized by thin layer chromatography. differential extraction with ethyl acetate and chloroform, or extraction with edta, followed by chloroform-methanol-water (bligh-dyer extraction), or a combination of both extraction schemes, resulted in partial purification of immunologically active lipid a. eight fractions were purified further by ...1979115918
salmonella choleraesuis proteins and their relation to proteins from bacteria of heterologous sero-groups.a diversity of proteins was identified in the material isolated from s. choleraesuis with the help of sera prepared in rabbits with this material. the sera displayed, in agar-gel diffusions, numerous superimposed precipitation lines against proteins from: salmonellae, shigellae and e. coli. in contrast to proteins from s. paratyphi c, sharing identical identical 'o' 'factors, the serological activity of the s. choleraesuis proteins was impaired by heating. the immunochemical analysis of the sera ...1979120926
[researches on the production of inhibitory substances by strains of "n. meningitidis" (author's transl)].the possibility to produce some inhibitory substances has been researched in 85 strains of n. meningitidis belonging to different serogroups. by the double layer agar method, 9 of these strains have inhibited the growth of one or more indicator strains. we had the best results at 37 degrees c and 30 degrees c in tests made incubating 3 producer strains in different experiment conditions; the "brain heart infusion agar" and the "heart infusion agar" were the best and fittest culture media, used f ...1979122053
piperacillin, a new penicillin active against many bacteria resistant to other penicillins.the in vitro activity of piperacillin, a new semisynthetic piperazine penicillin derivative, was evaluated against 626 clinical isolates and compared with the activity of other beta-lactam antibiotics. at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml, piperacillin inhibited all streptococci except enterococci. non-beta-lactamase-producing staphylococci were inhibited by 1.6 microgram or less per ml. both beta-lactamase- and non-beta-lactamase-producing haemophilus were inhibited by 0.1 microgram/ml. piper ...1978122519
[endemic dysentery in psychiatric institutions, exemplified by the land hospital, schleswig, for child-and adolescent-psychiatry (author's transl)]. 1975123321
[study of the antibiotic sensitivity of the shigellae, pathogenic escherichia, proteus and staphylococcus isolated from young children in tbilisi with acute intestinal diseases].sensitivity of shigella, pathogenic escherichia, proteus and staphylococcus isolated from children with acute intestinal diseases was studied with respect to antibiotics widely used in medical practice: streptomycin, levomycetin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and neomycin. the antibiotic sensitivity was determined with the method of indicator discs. it was found that sensitivity of shigella was: 44 percent to streptomycin, 69.5 per cent to levomycetin, 18.5 per cent to tetracy ...1975123726
[epidemiological importance of transmitted resistance in strains of sh. sonnei (author's transl)]. 1975124213
[first izolation of enterobacterium a 12 (sachs) in bratislava in the year 1971 (author's transl)]. 1975127664
[characteristics of sonne shigellae circulating in tashkent]. 1975130765
[an outbreak of dysentery caused by sh. flexneri var. x]. 1975130767
[newly detected relationships between antibacterial activity and structure of some chalocones]. 1976130785
[on the problem of atypical dysentery bacilli (author's transl)]. 1976135237
[comparative study on lymphocyte stimulation by pha and bacterial endotoxins, particularly in malignant tumor and allergy patients].in a group of 37 tumor patients with predominantly advanced disease, lps stimulation (lps of sh. sonnei and sh. flexneri) resulted in a significant increase of the transformation rates caused, most probably, by the high proportion of b cells. on the other hand, allergics (drug allergies) did not differ from controls. it seems possible that b cell stimulation by bacterial endotoxins can be used for the assessment of the reactivity of the organism.1976135504
[development of drug resistance and the cross resistance in shigella to certain chemotherapeutic preparations in vitro].a total of 700 shigella cultures isolated in different regions of the ukraine in 1974 and occasionally in 1971-1973 were studied. no cultures resistant to furazolidone or enteroseptol were found. under the experimental conditions resistance to nitrofuran and especially oxycholine preparations in shigella developed slowly when the cultures were passaged in broths with increasing concentrations of the drugs. cross resistance in shigella was observed with respect to (a) various nitrofuran preparati ...1976136923
[epidemiological study of shigella dysenteriae 1 in 2 communities of the guanacaste province, costa rica, 1975]. 1976136972
[occurrence and importance of shigella long term excretion in children (author's transl)]. 1977137779
[several aspects of the epidemiology of dysentery]. 1976139710
[results of a study of the increase in dysentry in 1972]. 1976139711
[modern methods of intraspecies typing of sonne shigellae. ii. spread of sonne shigellae of different biochemical types].the paper presents the results of studying peculiarities of the sh. sonnei of different biochemical types spread established by their typing scheme suggested by the authors earlier according to rhamnose, xylose and maltose. the epidemic process in dysentery both during the years of the rise and of the decline of its incidence at various territories of the countries proved to be maintained on account of circulation of sh. sonnei of various biochemical types. the results of studying their dissocia ...1977140565
[effectiveness of repeated antibiotic or chemotherapeutic treatments on shigella carrier states].a group of 39 former dysentery patients, who continued to excrete shigella bacteria after a first cure of antibiotics when full clinical recovery was obtained, were treated differentially under bacteriological control. the carrier state was still extent in 7% of the cases after three antibiotic or chemotherapeutical cures. no direct relation was found between the sensitivity of shigella to chemotherapeutics and the level of the carrier state. although treated already in the acute stage with adeq ...1977141081
[therapeutic results in an epidemic outbreak of dysentery].the therapeutical results obtained in an epidemical outbreak of dysentery caused by shigella flexneri type 2 a are reported, emphasizing the bacteriological failure of the treatment with furazolidin in 52.1% of the cases and the good results obtained with neomycin (mycerine).1977141082
[survival of enteropathogenic bacteria in littoral seawater]. 1977141396
[a case of bacteremia caused by shigella flexneri]. 1977143707
[comparative characteristics of the epidemiology of intestinal coli infection caused by 2d-category escherichia and of sonne dysentery].the authors present the results of a comparative study of sonne dysentery and of the intestinal coli infection 0124 and 0151; significant differences in their epidemiology shown were chiefly caused by a different degree of pathogenicity of the causative agents of these diseases. a low degree of escherichia pathogenicity, and, in this connection, dependence of the character of the infection manifestation on the dose of the causative agent indicated food factor of the infection spread to be necess ...1977144390
[simplified diagnostic scheme for enterobacteriaceae].after testing 18 experimental variants against 40 reference strains belonging to different enterovacteriaceae groups, the authors chose a multitest medium that permits concomitant testing of mobility, indol, lysinedecarboxylase and phenylalanine deaminase (milp). in this medium, the reactions of 3734 strains belonging to the genera escherichia, shigella. salmonella, citrobacter, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia. proteus and providencia were concordant with the reactions in individual test medi ...1977144994
[role of dysentery transmission factors in relation to the degree of environmental pollution]. 1978146641
[concentration of antibiotics in long term embolized kidneys (author's transl)].in 7 dogs renal arterial embolization was performed using seldinger technique and inflatable swan ganz balloon catheter by injection of methyl methacrylate/butyl 2 cyano acrylat. six months later tissue concentration of cefazolin was measured in the embolized and kontralateral kidneys and in serum two hours after a short infusion of 1 g of cefazolin. the concentrations in serum and homogenized kidney tissue were determined by means of the agar well diffusion method. angiography studies showed no ...1978147821
[effectiveness of an agent of 8-hydroxyquinoline group in treatment of acute dysentery]. 1978148164
streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance mediated by plasmids.resistance to tetracycline (tc), chloramphenicol (cm), streptomycin (sm), and sulfanilamide (sa) was surveyed in clinical isolates of escherichia coli and shigella strains. among the sm sa-resistant strains, the frequency of nonconjugative r (sm sa) plasmids was much higher than that of conjugative r plasmids encoding double resistance. the biochemical mechanism of sm resistance mediated by the conjugative plasmids r(tc cm sm sa) and r(cm sm sa) and about half the numbers of conjugative r(tc sm ...1978150256
[current methods of intraspecies typing of shigella sonnei. 3. bacteriophage typing].data are presented concerning the study of the phage type of sh. sonnei isolated in various regions of the ussr. the strains isolated belonged to 64 phage types corresponding to the hammarström's scheme. a variety of shigella sonnei phage types both in one and in different territories of the country provided future prospects for successful use of phage typing for the purpose of epidemiological supervision and analysis of dysentery morbidity.1978151463
[role of a water factor in seasonal fluctuations of the incidence of acute intestinal infections]. 1978151464
[on a dysentery epidemic (shigella sonnei) in ismaning (author's transl]. 1978151814
[enterotoxins of gramnegative intestinal bacteria (author's transl)]. 1978152163
[use of intraspecific differentiation of sh. sonnei for the purpose of studying patterns in the epidemic process of dysentery].the use of complex typing of sh. sonnei by the colicinogenic and enzymatic properties in epidemiological analysis of dysentery caused by sh. sonnei, apart from establishment of epidemiological connections in the foci, offered a possibility of introducing significant corrections in the determination of the sizes and duration of existence of the epidemic foci, as well as in detection of the sources and factors of transmission of the infection established in epidemiological examination. typing of s ...1978154276
[experimental study of the effectiveness of antibacterial preparations in treating dysentery].it was found that for successful elaboration of effective schemes for the use of antibacterial drugs in treatment of dysentery it was necessary to exploit various experimental models providing consideration of the drug toxicity and effect on the extra- and intracellular growth of the bacteria in addition to the other factors. the administration of enteroceptol for 3 days followed by furazolidon showed the best therapeutic effect in the treatment of guinea pigs with shigella keratoconjunctivitis ...1979156002
[correlations of the level of plasmin system and blood serum hyaluronidase activity with pathology of the large intestine in dysentery]. 1979156400
[activity of the plasmin enzymatic system and of serum hyaluronidase in dysentery]. 1979159382
[characteristics of shigella r-factors according to incompatibility groups]. 1979160169
siderophore synthesis in klebsiella pneumoniae and shigella sonnei during iron deficiency.klebsiella pneumoniae 298/53 and shigella sonnei 43-gg9 exhibited restricted growth and enterochelin synthesis only under iron-deficient conditions. s. sonnei also produced an unidentified secondary hydroxamate siderophore.1979160409
[use of the antibody neutralization test to study water]. 1979160876
[analysis of sonne dysentery in leningrad performed taking into account the results of the enzymatic typing of the causative agents according to 1973-1975 data]. 1978161086
[analysis of sonne dysentery in leningrad performed taking into account the intratypic differentiation of the causative agent according to 1973-1975 data]. 1978161087
classification of enterotoxins on the basis of activity in cell culture.two cell culture systems were used in a study of the biological properties of several bacterial enterotoxins in vitro. by means of one model, in which hela cell monolayers were used, cytotoxic effects, interms of detachment of cells from a glass surface due to cell death, were assayed. by means of the second model, activation of the adenyl cyclase-cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (amp) system, in terms of increased steroidogenesis by y-1 adrenal cells (an effect which we have termed cytoton ...1975162926
inactivation of viruses and bacteria by ozone, with and without sonication.selected organisms with public health significance were placed in a reaction chamber for treatment by ozonation, by ozonation and sonication, by sonication, or by sonication during oxygenation. vesicular stomatitis virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, gdvii virus, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas fluorescens, salmonella typhimurium, enteropathogenic escherichia coli, vibrio cholerae, and shigella flexneri were inactivated by treatment with ozone. when microorganisms were suspended in phosphate-b ...1975163616
travelers' diarrhea and toxigenic escherichia a group of 133 united states students studied for 18 days after arriving in mexico, diarrhea developed in 38 (29 per cent). diarrhea rarely began before the fourth day, and the mean onset was 13 days after arrival. symptoms lasted an average of 3.4 days but persisted in 21 per cent of sick students. heat-labile enterotoxin-producing escheria coli was found in the stools of 72 per cent of sick and 15 per cent of healthy students. none had heat-labile esch. coli when they entered mexico. the in ...1975163964
the structure of the chemical repeating-unit of the o-specific polysaccharide chain of shigella boydii 6 lipopolysaccharide. 1975165891
cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate in cerebrospinal fluid during fever and antipyresis. 1975166164
effect of klebsiella pneumoniae enterotoxin on intestinal transport in the rat.the effects on intestinal transport of either a semipurified preparation of enterotoxin elaborated by klebsiella pneumoniae or similaryly prepared control material were tested by marker perfusion studies in the small intestine of rats. at a concentration of 2 mg/ml, the enterotoxin produced net secretion of water, na, and cl in both jejunal and ileal segments; hco3 transport was not affected. net secretion was evident within 30 min after intorduction of the toxin and was maximal after 90 min. th ...1975169297
recent developments in immunization against diarrheal diseases. 1975169592
effect of shigella enterotoxin on electrolyte transport in rabbit ileum.shigella dysenteriae i is one of several bacteria which produces an enterotoxin capable of stimulating intestinal water and electrolyte secretion. unlike cholera and escherichia coli enterotoxins which have been shown to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in the small intestine, the mechanism by which shigella enterotoxin causes intestinal secretion is not known. to study shigella enterotoxin-stimulated intestinal secretion, rabbit ileal mucosa exposed in vivo to shigel ...1975172398
histopathological effect of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in the rabbit ileum.highly purified enterotoxin from clostridium perfringens was found to have histopathological activity in the rabbit ileum. unlike the action of cholera, escherichia coli, and shigella enterotoxins, epithelium was denuded from the tips of ileal villi at concentrations of the enterotoxin necessary to induce fluid accumulation in the rabbit. whether or not this observed histopathology is essential for the diarrheal syndrome associated with clostridium perfringens food poisoning remains unclear.1975172454
structural studies on d-specific polysaccharide of shigella flexneri serotype 6. 1976173550
[some physicochemical properties of the dysenteric therapeutic--prophylactic newcastle phages h-17 and h-18 (author's transl)].some physico-chemical properties of dysentery therapeutic-prophylactic newcastle-phages h-17 and h-18 were studied. both phages were shown to be resistant to sodium dodecyl sulphate at room temperature. phage h-17 at room temperature was completely inactivated and phage h-18 inactivated by 40% by 1 m sodium hydrochloride. phage h-18 was completely inactivated by 4 m sodium hydrochloride. morphology and sizes of the phages are described. the buoyant density of phage h-17 was found to be 1.497 g/c ...1975174322
studies on the energetic metabolism of shigella flexneri x escherichia coli hybrids devoid of penetration ability. iii. catalase and phosphatase activity.the catalase and phosphatase activity of avirulent by keratoconjunctival test of guinea pigs lac+, kcp- hybrids that have lost their ability of penetrating in the epithelium, received from virulent strains shigella flexneri (sh. flexneri 222 5a and sh. flexneri m42-43) and donor strains escherichia coli (e. coli k-12, p4x and e. coli h) was investigated. it was established that there is no any dependence between the lost of virulence of the hybrids and the level of the catalase activity. during ...1975175614
orphan airlift. enteric pathogens isolated from vietnamese children immigrating to the united states.isolation studies for bacterial and parasitic agents were carried out on stool specimens from vietnamese infants at the time of their mass airlift to the united states. one or more bacterial pathogens were found in 49% of the 367 stool specimens cultured. the isolates included enteropathogenic escherichia coli (161), shigella (16), salmonella (15), but no salmonella typhi or vibrio cholerae. parasites identified in 88 stool specimens included giardia lamblia (10), ascaris lumbricoides (7), and e ...1976176481
pregnancy interrupting effects of some bacterial toxins.embryotoxic properties of shigella dysenteriae and clostridium perfringens toxins, of e. coli endotoxin, v. cholerase and e. coli enterotoxins were compared in mice. e. coli endotoxin has embryotoxic effects at all stages of pregnancy. e. coli enterotoxin v. cholerae enterotoxin and shigella dysenteriae toxin are most effective mainly at earlier stages of pregnancy. clostridium perfringens toxin has no embryotoxic effect.1976178014
motion of spin-labeled fatty acids in murine macrophages. relation to cellular phagocytic activity.macrophage membrane fluidity was investigated with respect to cellular phagocytic activity through the use of fatty acid spin labels. spin-labeled fatty acid derivatives were incorporated into intact mouse peritoneal macrophages by exchange from bovine serum albumin. the electron spin resonance (esr) spectra of the spin-labeled fatty acids in the macrophages showed a pronounced temperature dependence and a decrease in the hyperfine splittings (2 t11) of the spectra as the nitroxide radical was m ...1976178365
activation of intestinal mucosal adenylate cyclase by shigella dysenteriae i enterotoxin.because the mechanism whereby shigella dysenteriae i enterotoxin induces intestinal secretion is unclear, the effect of this toxin on adenylate cyclase activity in rabbit ileal mucosa was studied under various in vitro and in vivo conditions. activation of adenylate cyclase by shigella enterotoxin was observed only when substrate (atp) concentrations above the km of adenylate cyclase were employed. these concentrations of atp are greater than those required to demonstrate activation of adenylate ...1976178569
[health aspects of the study of bdellovibrio bacteriovorus as a natural factor in the self-purification of reservoirs]. 1975179245
laboratory investigation of diarrhea in travelers to mexico: evaluation of methods for detecting enterotoxigenic echerichia coli.a laboratory investigation was conducted on cultures collected from travelers before, during, and after a trip to mexico to characterize the etiology of traveler's diarrhea. four laboratory methods for detecting enterotoxigenicity of escherichia coli were evaluated: the infant mouse assay, the chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell assay, the y1 adrenal cell assay, and the rabbit ileal loop. although a number of common enteric pathogens were identified as a cause of traveler's diarrhea, including six ...1976180047
the humoral immunity status of measles patients. 1975180748
comparative susceptibility of latin american and united states students to enteric pathogens. 1976186708
the ocular anti-inflammatory action of imidazole.imidazole administered intraperitoneally to albino rabbits at a dose of 250 mg. per kilogram inhibited the rise of aqueous humor protein concentration by approximately 50 per cent 30 minutes after paracentesis. systemic imidazole administered daily to albino rabbits injected with intravitreal shigella endotoxin decreased the conjunctival and iris hyperemia and reduced the anterior chamber cell and flare and the haziness of the optical media. systemically administered imidazole had no effect on t ...1977188777
intestinal secretion. 1977190182
cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate in cerebrospinal fluid during thermoregulation and fever.1. samples of cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) have been taken from the cisterna magna of unanaesthetized cats, whilst rectal temperature was recorded, during exposure of the animals to various ambient temperatures and during fever induced by pyrogen. the concentration of adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic amp) in samples of c.s.f. has been assayed. 2. cats exposed to low ambient temperatures (-2 to +2 degrees c) for 3 h maintained body temperature by both behavioural and autonomic heat gain act ...1976190383
microbial agents of the owl monkey (aotus trivirgatus).a survey of the microbial flora in the owl monkey (aotus trivirgatus) has led to the isolation of numerous bacterial, fungal, and viral agents. some of the bacterial and fungal agents, particularly dermatophilus, pasteurella, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, streptococcus, staphylococcus, and candida are known pathogens. viruses belonging to the herpesvirus, adenovirus, paramyxovirus, and papovavirus groups have been isolated from the owl monkey. most of these viruses were recovered as latent age ...1976190470
symposium on diarrhea. 3. investigation of chronic diarrhea.the practical approach to the investigation of diarrhea must be logical and based on anatomic considerations. the site of the underlying disorder may be determined by the clinical picture, and the logic of investigation will be influenced by the history. important specific investigation in a case of colonic diarrhea include a careful rectal examination, stool inspection, sigmoidoscopy, rectal biopsy and barium enema study. colonoscopy has been used, but its role has yet to be defined. in a case ...1977191173
the influence of bacillary dysentery on the efficiency of oral poliovaccine in egypt.the rate of poliovirus excretion was found to be 64.6% in a group of 108 normal children and 11.95% in 184 diarrheal children. diarrhea was due to shigella in 70% of cases. this drew our attention to the presence of an etiologic relationship between the two findings, which may have a direct effect on the low efficiency of oral poliovaccine in our country. effect of shigella infection on the take of oral poliovaccine was investigated in 14 normal and 10 children having acute diarrhea due to shige ...1976192625
isolation of enteric pathogens from asymptomatic students from the united states and latin america. 1977193996
[early stages of the infectious process]. 1977194438
amebiasis. an increasing problem among homosexuals in new york city.during a five-year period at the new york hospital, entamoeba histolytica was identified in the stools of 20 men who had not traveled outside the new york area. all of the patients were found subsequently to homosexual. during this same period amebiasis was diagnosed in 30 men who had traveled; only two were homosexual. of ten patients with e histolytica infection seen during the first year of this study, none were homosexual whereas eight of 11 patients in the fifth year were homosexual, sugges ...1977197276
venereal transmission of enteric pathogens in male homosexuals. two case two cases there was simultaneous or sequential occurrence of amebiasis, shigellosis, and giardiasis in male homosexuals. enteric pathogens may, under the proper conditions, be venereally transmitted. in particular, the sexual practices of male homosexuals, most significantly, oral-anal contact, appear to provide the necesseary link for transmission. evidence suggests that this is a growing problem.1977197277
[rotavirus in children with severe malnutrition].the study comprised 19 children with severe protein-calorie malnutrition admitted to hospital nacional de niños. with one exception, all of the patients complained of diarrhea at the examination. samples of stools were collected for bacteriologic, parasitologic and virologic studies. rotavirus was shown in 4 cases and adenovirus in another 4. enteropathogenic escherichia coli, shigella and salmonella were isolated in 9 different children. it was possible to demonstrate at least one potentially p ...1977199211
new and old agents in diarrhea: a prospective study of an indigenous adult african population.we conducted a prospective study 77 indigenous african adults with acute diarrhea seeking care at the major hospital in nairobi, kenya, to determine the major pathogens responsible for this syndrome in adults. fecal and blood specimens were collected and examined for enteric bacterial pathogens, viruses, and parasites. in 13 (26%) inpatients and 11 (49%) outpatients shigella was found, and heat-labile and heat-stable forms of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli were found in 9 (18%) inpatients and ...1978209697
travelers' diarrhea among united states marines in south korea.a battalion of united states marines traveling to south korea in the spring of 1976 was studied to determine the incidence and etiology of gastroenteritis. during the three weeks they visited south korea, 21% of 694 marines developed diarrhea. stool and serum specimens collected before, during, and after their stay were examined for evidence of infection with salmonella, shigella, and vibrio species, enterotoxigenic and invasive escherichia coli, reovirus-like agent (rvla), and intestinal ova an ...1978210660
enhanced chemotactic and phagocytic activities of leukocytes in psoriasis vulgaris.leukocytes derived from the peripheral blood of psoriatic patients demonstrated an enhanced chemotactic response compared with leukocytes from healthy subjects. no significant difference was detected between the chemotactic response of leukocytes from patients with minimal or no skin involvement and those from patients with extensive lesions. psoriatic leukocytes also had a significantly higher capacity to engulf 125i labeled shigella flexneri than control leukocytes. it is postulated that a dec ...1978211169
prospective study of enteropathogens in children with diarrhea in houston and mexico.during a 22-month period, 595 children with diarrhea and 210 age-matched controls attending clinics in houston (367 children) and mexico (438) were prospectively evaluated for enteric pathogens. enteropathogens associated with disease were shigella (18%), rotavirus (14%), salmonella (9%), toxigenic escherichia coli (6%), and others (12%), including 14 proteus isolates that caused rounding of adrenal cells. enteropathogens were isolated from a greater (p less than 0.001) number of children with d ...1978211215
enteropathogenic organisms. new etiologic agents and concepts of disease. 1978215856
travelers' diarrhea among u.s. army troops in south korea.a prospective study of diarrhea was conducted among 98 u.s. army soldiers during their first six weeks in south korea. diarrhea developed in 54 (55%) of 98 soldiers and had a mean duration of five days. infections with salmonella, shigella, vibrio, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, enteroviruses, and intestinal parasites were uncommon. four (8%) of 50 soldiers with documented diarrhea, two (6%) or 32 with a history of diarrhea, and one (3%) of 29 who denied gastrointestinal symptoms had serologi ...1979220334
etiology of infantile enteritis in south africa.infantile enteritis constitutes a major health problem in developing countries. several investigations into the etiology of this condition among various south african populations have been undertaken during the past few years. recent studies of black urban infants have revealed that salmonellae, shigellae, enterotoxigenic enterobacteriaceae, and rotaviruses play a relatively minor role in infantile enteritis. on the other hand, all studies, including a number performed several years ago, have de ...1979221438
shigella infection of henle intestinal epithelial cells: role of the host cell.the process of henle 407 embryonic intestinal epithelial cell infection by shigella flexneri 2a m42-43 was studied in an in vitro model system. the role of the henle cell was assessed. it was established that entry of s. flexneri into cells was suppressed by reagents which inhibit uptake of particles by phagocytic cells. the compounds tested included cytochalasin b, dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, choleragen (vibrio cholera enterotoxin), iodoacetate, and dinitrophenol. cytochalasin b i ...1979223988
oral rehydration and maintenance of children with rotavirus and bacterial diarrhoeas.the outcome of administering ort (oral rehydration therapy) to 62 infants admitted to a costa rican hospital with acute rotavirus or bacterial diarrheas and with 5-10% dehydration was described. 94% of the infants were successfully treated by administering only ort. there were no significant differences in the success rates for rotavirus diarrhea patients and for various bacterial diarrhea patients. success rates were 92% for rotavirus patients, 93% for escherichia coli patients, 96% for idio ...1979225048
human rotavirus in an adult population with travelers' diarrhea and its relationship to the location of food consumption.the role of human rotavirus in adult diarrhea was evaluated in 164 newly arrived us students attending summer school at an urban mexican university. rotavirus was identified in stool samples by electron microscopy. rotavirus was found in 26 of 109 students with diarrhea (24%) and in 8 of 55 asymptomatic control students (15%). although bacterial pathogens were recovered from virus positive students with diarrhea, viral shedding also occurred independently of other agents. clinical disease in stu ...1979226656
[acute infectious gastroenteritis. etiology and its correlation with clinical manifestations and fecal mucus].343 children with acute diarrhea were studied from january 1976 to september 1977. rotavirus was the agent most frequently isolated (18 per cent) followed by shigella (12 per cent) and salmonella (10 per cent). enterotoxigenic e. coli was identified in 8 per cent and invasive e. coli only in two cases. 80 per cent of isolated rotavirus fell in the neonate group and 25 per cent in the infant group. diarrhea caused by rotavirus had a short duration, fever was negligible and abundant liquid stools ...1979227338
etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children in israel: role of human reoviruslike agent and bacterial pathogens.a study of acute gastroenteritis in children was carried out with the aim of establishing the prevalence of human reoviruslike agent (hrla) and its relation to other enteric pathogens in israel. the stools of 384 children with acute diarrhea referred to a pediatric emergency service were screened for hrla by counterimmunoelectroosmorphoresis (cieop) and for pathogenic bacteria. evidence of hrla infection was found in 65 patients (17%). the highest infection rate prevailed during the cool season ...1979229084
[effect of furazolidone on the cyclic nucleotide level in the blood plasma in acute dysentery]. 1979229573
1-alkyl-2-nitroimidazol-5-yl derivatives. i. 1975235267
natural antibodies in healthy adults.the serum of 100 adults living in budapest was examined for isohaemagglutinin titre with haemaglutination, for staphylococcal-antitoxin titre with haemolysis inhibition and for bacterial antibody titre against 17 different groups of bacteria with passive haemagglutination. antibody levels in males, except for certain bacterial antibodies, were somewhat lower than in females. the antibody titres, especially in men, decreased gradually from 20 to 50 years of age and were usually lower in rh negati ...1975235827
the pathogenesis of shigella diarrhea. v. relationship of shiga enterotoxin, neurotoxin, and cytotoxin.the biological activity of the enterotoxin of shigella dysenteriae 1 was compared with that of a well-studied 20-year-old partially purified preparation of neurotoxin from the same organism. enterotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and cytotoxicity were present to an equivalent extent in both preparations. human convalescent antisera and experimental rabbit antisera had equal toxin-neutralizing antibody to the cytotoxic activity in these toxin preparations. multiple protein bands were present in each toxi ...1975236346
standardisation of the nitroblue-tetrazolium test.optimal conditions for the nbt-reduction test have been sought. increasing heparin concentrations up to 100 units per ml and a delay in performance of the test, especially when blood specimens are kept at room temperature, resulted in higher values for the nbt index, which then sometimes exceeded the upper limit of normal in healthy people and in uninfected patients. the effect of ph, composition of the buffer, and dye concentration was also investigated. phosphate-buffered saline ph 7-2 contain ...1975238038
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