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genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance in shigella dysenteriae and shigella boydii strains isolated from children aged <5 years in egypt.summarydiversity within shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in egypt aged <5 years was investigated. shigella-associated diarrhoea occurred mainly in summer months and in children aged <3 years, it commonly presented with vomiting and fever. serotypes 7 (30%), 2 (28%), and 3 (23%) accounted for most of s. dysenteriae isolates; 50% of s. boydii isolates were serotype 2. s. dysenteriae and s. boydii isolates were often resistant to ampicillin, chlor ...201121470441
new developments in traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. more than 60% of td cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing escherichia coli, shigella, campylobacter, salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and noncholera vibrios. noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility t ...201121475415
behavior of salmonella typhimurium, staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, and shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei during production of pulque, a traditional mexican beverage.pulque is a typical fermented alcoholic beverage of central mexico, produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. production systems are largely artisanal, with inadequate hygiene conditions and exposure to multiple contamination sources. no data exist on pulque microbiological safety and the behavior of pathogenic microorganisms in agave nectar and pulque. an initial trial was done of the behavior of salmonella typhimurium, staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, and shigella flexneri ...201121477472
dissemination of ndm-1 positive bacteria in the new delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.not all patients infected with ndm-1-positive bacteria have a history of hospital admission in india, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases are known to be circulating in the indian community. we therefore measured the prevalence of the ndm-1 gene in drinking water and seepage samples in new delhi.201121478057
corn flake-like morphology of iron nanoparticles and its antibacterial property. 201121478648
an integrated approach for finding overlooked genes in shigella.the completion of numerous genome sequences introduced an era of whole-genome study. however, many genes are missed during genome annotation, including small rnas (srnas) and small open reading frames (sorfs). in order to improve genome annotation, we aimed to identify novel srnas and sorfs in shigella, the principal etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery.201121483688
phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of vernonia ambigua, vernonia blumeoides and vernonia oocephala (asteraceae).some vernonia species (vernonia ambigua, vernonia blumeoides and vernonia oocephala) used in northern nigerian traditional medicine, were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. the antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method as outlined by the nccls was carried out on klebsiella pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, corynbacterium ulcerans, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), salmonella typhi, pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigel ...201121485703
outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in the orthodox jewish community of antwerp, belgium, april to august 2008.in the beginning of april 2008 three cases of shigella sonnei infection were identified among the orthodox jewish community of antwerp, belgium. we conducted a descriptive study and a household cohort study to identify potential risk factors. stool samples were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined. between april and august 2008, 42 cases were registered. all characterised isolates (n=20) shared an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and were indist ...201121492526
zidovudine (azt) has a bactericidal effect on enterobacteria and induces genetic modifications in resistant strains.the spread of multiresistant bacteria increases the need for new antibiotics. the observation that some nucleoside analogues have antibacterial activity led us to further investigate the antimicrobial activity and resistance of zidovudine (azt). we determined the minimum inhibition concentration (mic), studied time-kill curves, induced resistant bacteria and sequenced the gene for thymidine kinase. we demonstrate that azt has a bactericidal effect on some enterobacteria. however, azt could induc ...201121494911
microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.the greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. the traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. fish roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. as a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quali ...201121497664
a unique arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase found within a genomic island associated with the uropathogenicity of escherichia coli cft073.previous studies showed that deletion of genes c3405 to c3410 from pai-metv, a genomic island from escherichia coli cft073, results in a strain that fails to compete with wild-type cft073 after a transurethral cochallenge in mice and is deficient in the ability to independently colonize the mouse kidney. our analysis of c3405 to c3410 suggests that these genes constitute an operon with a role in the internalization and utilization of an unknown carbohydrate. this operon is not found in e. coli k ...201121498648
shigella targets t cells.using a syringe-like device, shigella delivers an array of virulence factors into host cells to facilitate bacterial colonization and disable the host's innate immune defense. in this issue of cell host & microbe, konradt and colleagues (konradt et al., 2011) show that shigella also subverts adaptive immunity by targeting t cells through a mechanism involving pip(2) breakdown.201121501822
the shigella flexneri type three secretion system effector ipgd inhibits t cell migration by manipulating host phosphoinositide metabolism.shigella, the gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium that causes shigellosis, relies on its type iii secretion system (ttss) and injected effectors to modulate host cell functions. however, consequences of the interaction between shigella and lymphocytes have not been investigated. we show that shigella invades activated human cd4(+) t lymphocytes. invasion requires a functional ttss and results in inhibition of chemokine-induced t cell migration, an effect mediated by the ttss effector ipgd, a ...201121501826
enteric virulence associated protein vapc inhibits translation by cleavage of initiator trna.eukaryotic pin (pilt n-terminal) domain proteins are ribonucleases involved in quality control, metabolism and maturation of mrna and rrna. the majority of prokaryotic pin-domain proteins are encoded by the abundant vapbc toxin-antitoxin loci and inhibit translation by an unknown mechanism. here we show that enteric vapcs are site-specific endonucleases that cleave trna(fmet) in the anticodon stem-loop between nucleotides +38 and +39 in vivo and in vitro. consistently, vapc inhibited translation ...201121502523
evaluation of low-copy genetic targets for waterborne bacterial pathogen detection via qpcr.recent developments in water quality research have highlighted difficulties in accurately predicting the incidence of pathogens within freshwater based on the viability, culturability and metabolic activity of indicator organisms. qpcr-driven assays are candidates to replace standard culture-based methods, however, protocols suitable for routine use have yet to be sufficiently validated. the objective of this study was to evaluate five oligonucleotide primers sets (etir, sinv, exot, vs1 and ipah ...201121514618
functional domains and motifs of bacterial type iii effector proteins and their roles in infection.a key feature of the virulence of many bacterial pathogens is the ability to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells via a dedicated type three secretion system (t3ss). many bacterial pathogens, including species of chlamydia, xanthomonas, pseudomonas, ralstonia, shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia, depend on the t3ss to cause disease. t3ss effectors constitute a large and diverse group of virulence proteins that mimic eukaryotic proteins in structure and function. a salient f ...201121517912
a novel vinculin binding site of the ipaa invasin of shigella.internalization of shigella into host epithelial cells, where the bacteria replicates and spreads to neighboring cells, requires a type 3 secretion system (t3ss) effector coined ipaa. ipaa binds directly to and activates the cytoskeletal protein vinculin after injection in the host cell cytosol and heretofore this was thought to be directed by two amphipathic α-helical vinculin binding sites (vbs) found in the c-terminal tail domain of ipaa. here we report a third vbs, ipaa-vbs3, that is located ...201121525010
synthesis, antibacterial activity and quantum-chemical studies of novel 2-arylidenehydrazinyl-4-arylthiazole analogues.a new series of 2-arylidenehydrazinyl-4-arylthiazole derivatives (2a-k) was designed and synthesized through a rapid, simple, and efficient methodology in excellent isolated yield. these compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activities against eight bacteria, e.g. bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, bacillus megaterium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhi, escherichia coli, and three fungi e.g. aspergillus oryzae, candida albicans, a ...201121532194
synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of new compounds incorporating oxindole nucleus.new compounds incorporating with the oxindole nucleus were synthesized via the reaction of substituted isatins [5-methyl-, 5-chloro- and 1-hydroxymethyl isatins] with different nucleophiles. the structures of the newly compounds were elucidated on the basis of ftir, (1)h nmr, (13)cmr spectral data, gc/ms and chemical analysis. investigation of antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was evaluated using broth dilution technique in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) count against ...201121534861
synthesis, characterization and biological studies of sulfonamide schiff's bases and some of their metal derivatives.a new series of schiff base ligands derived from sulfonamide and their metal(ii) complexes [cobalt(ii), copper(ii), nickel(ii) and zinc(ii)] have been synthesized and characterized. the nature of bonding and structure of all the synthesized compounds has been explored by physical, analytical and spectral data of the ligands and their metal(ii) complexes. the authors suggest that all the prepared complexes possess an octahedral geometry. the ligands and metal(ii) complexes have been screened for ...201121534864
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
autophagy in immunity and cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes.autophagy was viewed until very recently primarily as a metabolic and intracellular biomass and organelle quality and quantity control pathway. it has now been recognized that autophagy represents a bona fide immunologic process with a wide array of roles in immunity. the immunologic functions of autophagy, as we understand them now, span both innate and adaptive immunity. they range from unique and sometimes highly specialized immunologic effectors and regulatory functions (referred to here as ...201121349088
function-specific accelerations in rates of sequence evolution suggest predictable epistatic responses to reduced effective population size.changes in effective population size impinge on patterns of molecular evolution. notably, slightly deleterious mutations are more likely to drift to fixation in smaller populations, which should typically also lead to an overall acceleration in the rates of evolution. this prediction has been validated empirically for several endosymbiont and island taxa. here, we first show that rate accelerations are also evident in bacterial pathogens whose recent shifts in virulence make them prime candidate ...201121349981
rapid emergence of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in shigella sp. isolated in andaman and nicobar islands, india.shigellosis is a major cause of diarrheal diseases among children in andaman & nicobar islands, india, which have a population of 350,000 people, including settlers from mainland india and 6 indigenous tribes. from the last one-and-half decade, we have been monitoring the species distribution and emergence of antibiotic resistance among the isolates of shigella. the circulating shigella strains have been found rapidly acquiring resistance to a wide spectrum of antibiotics. the recent data indica ...201121352076
antigen-specific cd8(+) t cells fail to respond to shigella flexneri.cd8(+) t lymphocytes often play a primary role in adaptive immunity to cytosolic microbial pathogens. surprisingly, cd8(+) t cells are not required for protective immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, despite the ability of shigella to actively secrete proteins into the host cytoplasm, a location from which antigenic peptides are processed for presentation to cd8(+) t cells. to determine why cd8(+) t cells fail to play a role in adaptive immunity to s. flexneri, we investigated whe ...201121357720
[enterobacteriaceae infection - diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and prevention].intestinal infections caused by rod-shaped bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae genus are one of the major health hazards in countries where sanitation standards are low. strains of shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia are responsible for diarrhea, severe bacillary dysentery, typhoid, other intestinal diseases, as well as genitourinary tract and blood infections. according to the who there are 4.5 billion cases every year, of which 1.9 million end in death. this makes intestinal infectio ...201121357995
gadd45a activity is the principal effector of shigella mitochondria-dependent epithelial cell death in vitro and ex vivo.modulation of death is a pathogen strategy to establish residence and promote survival in host cells and tissues. shigella spp. are human pathogens that invade colonic mucosa, where they provoke lesions caused by their ability to manipulate the host cell responses. shigella spp. induce various types of cell death in different cell populations. however, they are equally able to protect host cells from death. here, we have investigated on the molecular mechanisms and cell effectors governing the b ...201121368893
synthesis, spectral analysis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of novel ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates and 4,5-dihydro-6-(napthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols.a series of ethyl 4-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-6-arylcyclohex-3-enecarboxylates 8-14 and 4,5-dihydro-6-(naphthalen-2-yl)-4-aryl-2h-indazol-3-ols 15-21 were synthesised and characterised by their spectroscopic data. in vitro microbiological evaluations were carried out for all the newly synthesised compounds 8-21 against clinically isolated bacterial and fungal strains. compounds 9, 12 and 20 against staphylococcus aureus, 10, 12, 20 against ß-haemolytic streptococcus, 11, 17 against bacillus subtil ...201121299432
extended spectrum beta-lactamase production in shigella isolates - a matter of concern. 201121304205
a comparison of disease caused by shigella and campylobacter species: 24 months community based surveillance in 4 slums of karachi, pakistan.despite the efforts of the international community diarrheal diseases still pose a major threat to children in children less than five years of age. bacterial diarrhea has also emerged as a public health concern due to the proliferation of drug resistant species in many parts of the world. there is a paucity of population-based data about the incidence of shigellosis and campylobacter infections in pakistan. we report country specific results for shigella diarrhea that were derived from a multic ...201121338955
multiplex polymerase chain reaction method discriminating escherichia coli and shigella sp.to distinguish between escherichia coli and other bacteria that have similar biochemical characteristics, 3 polymerase chain reaction techniques were combined. the primer sets cyda-f2-a2 and cyda-r2-a2 were designed to amplify 605 base pairs of nucleotide sequence specific for the cyda gene of escherichia coli; primer sets lacz-f-a and lacz-r-a to amplify 1,023 bp of nucleotide sequence specific for the lacz gene of escherichia coli; and primers laca-f2-a2 and laca-r2-a2 to amplify 325 bp of nucle ...201121060994
the crystal structures of the salmonella type iii secretion system tip protein sipd in complex with deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate.the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is a protein injection nanomachinery required for virulence by many human pathogenic bacteria including salmonella and shigella. an essential component of the t3ss is the tip protein and the salmonella sipd and the shigella ipad tip proteins interact with bile salts, which serve as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. sipd and ipad have long central coiled coils and their n-terminal regions form α-helical hairpins and a short helix α3 that pack ...201121031487
structural variability of endotoxins from r-type isogenic mutants of shigella sonnei.the structural variations in the rough-type endotoxins [lipopolysaccharides (lpss)] of shigella sonnei mutant strains (s. sonnei phase ii-4303, r41, 562h and 4350) were investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof-ms) and tandem ms. a series of s. sonnei mutants had previously been the subject of analytical studies on the biosynthesis of heptose components in the core oligosaccharide region of lpss. this study gives a complete overview o ...201121184397
autophagy targeting of listeria monocytogenes and the bacterial countermeasure.autophagy acts as an intrinsic defense system against intracellular bacterial survival. recently, multiple cellular pathways that target intracellular bacterial pathogens to autophagy have been described. these include the atg5/lc3 pathway, which targets shigella, the ubiquitin (ub)-ndp52-lc3 pathway, which targets group a streptococcus (gas) and salmonella typhimurium, the ub-p62-lc3 pathway, which targets mycobacterium tuberculosis, listeria monocytogenes and s. typhimurium, and the diacylglyc ...201121193840
serotypes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase types of clinical isolates of shigella spp. from the zhejiang province of china.to understand the distribution of the serotypes of shigella spp. and to investigate the drug-resistant genes of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls) in shigella in zhejiang province, we have collected clinically isolated shigella isolates from 2 hospitals in zhejiang province during august to december of 2006. there are 11 shigella flexneri and 13 shigella sonnei isolates, respectively. among the 11 s. flexneri, 9 are serotype f4 and the remaining 2 are f1a and f2a. antimicrobial susceptibilit ...201121146721
molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing shigella isolates from humans in south africa, 2003-2009. 201221903820
How We Didn't Clean Up Until We Washed Our Hands: Shigellosis in an Elementary and Middle School in North Texas.Shigella outbreaks often continue for months and are linked frequently to poor hygiene and hand washing. Such outbreaks are found often in day care facilities, but rarely are reported in schools. We present the investigation of an outbreak in autumn 2007 at a building that housed an elementary school and a middle school in separate wings in a small Texas city north of Dallas-Fort Worth.201222189658
antimicrobial activity of ulopterol isolated from toddalia asiatica (l.) lam.: a traditional medicinal plant.aim of the study: the leaves of toddalia asiatica (l.) lam. (rutaceae) are widely used in folk medicine in india to treat various ailments. in our earlier communication we have reported the antimicrobial study on the various extracts of the leaves and the isolation and identification of flindersine, a quinolone alkaloid as the major active principle. in the present study, we report the antibacterial and antifungal activities of ulopterol, a coumarin isolated as another major active antimicrobial ...201222265751
the patient presenting with acute dysentery - a systematic review.objectives: the etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy. methods: we conducted a systematic review of literature published between january 2000 and june 2011 to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen-specific dysentery. results: shigella, salmonella, and campylobacter remain the most frequent bacterial causes of dysenter ...201222266388
the evolution of the escherichia coli phylogeny.escherichia coli are familiar to biologists as a classical model system, ubiquitous in molecular biology laboratories around the world. outside of the laboratory, e. coli strains exist as an almost universal component of the lower-gut flora of humans and animals. although usually a commensal, e. coli has an alter ego as a pathogen, and is associated with diarrhoeal disease and extra-intestinal infections. the study of e. coli diversity predates the availability of molecular data, with strains in ...201222266241
galectin 8 targets damaged vesicles for autophagy to defend cells against bacterial invasion.autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial infection. efficient pathogen engulfment is mediated by cargo-selecting autophagy adaptors that rely on unidentified pattern-recognition or danger receptors to label invading pathogens as autophagy cargo, typically by polyubiquitin coating. here we show in human cells that galectin 8 (also known as lgals8), a cytosolic lectin, is a danger receptor that restricts salmonella proliferation. galectin 8 monitors endosomal and lysosomal integri ...201222246324
[characterisation of a ctx-m-15-producing shigella sonnei in a spanish patient who had not travelled abroad.]one hundred and seven shigella spp. strains were isolated in our laboratory during the years 2000 to 2010. one shigella sonnei harboured the genes that coded the β-lactamases tem-1 and ctx-m-15, identifying the structure, isecp1+bla(ctx-m-15)+orf477, in their genetic environment. the strain also carried a class 2 integron with the gene cassettes dfra1+sat+aada1. a plasmid group inci1 st31 (cc-31) was detected and its mobilization by conjugation was demonstrated. we describe for the first time a ...201222244530
epidemiological, clinical features and susceptibility pattern of shigellosis in the buea health district, cameroon.abstract: background: shigellosis is an acute invasive enteric infection caused by bacteria belonging to the genus shigella; it is clinically manifested by bloody diarrhoea. shigellosis is endemic in many developing countries including cameroon and also occurs in epidemics causing considerable morbidity and mortality. this study evaluated the epidemiological and clinical features of shigella and the resistance pattern of isolates to commonly used antibiotics in the buea health district in camer ...201222264300
evaluation of a quantitative h(2)s mpn test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.the sensitivity and specificity of the h(2)s test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with h(2)s-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or escherichia coli. false-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with h(2)s-negative samples found to contain e. coli. using biochemical and molecular methods an ...201222244995
analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) isolate e24377a.enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) is an important pathogenic variant (pathovar) of e. coli in developing countries from a human health perspective, causing significant morbidity and mortality. previous studies have examined specific regulatory networks in etec, although little is known about the global effects of inter- and intra-kingdom signaling on the expression of virulence and colonization factors in etec. in this study, an e.coli/shigella pan-genome microarray, combined with quantita ...201222215741
characterization and comparative genomic analysis of a novel bacteriophage, sfp10, simultaneously inhibiting both salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7.salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7 are major food-borne pathogens causing serious illness. phage sfp10, which revealed effective infection of both s. enterica and e. coli o157:h7, was isolated and characterized. sfp10 contains a 158-kb double-stranded dna genome belonging to the vi01 phage-like family myoviridae. in vitro adsorption assays showed that the adsorption constant rates to both salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and e. coli o157:h7 were 2.50 × 10(-8) ml/min and 1.91 ...201222020516
approach to the patient with infectious colitis.to provide current recommendations for evaluation and treatment of patients with infectious colitis. infectious colitis is diagnosed in someone with diarrhea and one or more of the following: fever and/or dysentery, stools containing inflammatory markers such as leukocytes, lactoferrin, or calprotectin, or positive stool culture for an invasive or inflammatory bacterial enteropathogen including shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) or clostridium diff ...201222080825
Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay.Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and ...201222075596
Rotavirus in adults requiring hospitalization.To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus among adults admitted to the hospital with diarrhea that have bacterial stool cultures sent.201221939687
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