shigella flexneri infection generates the lipid pi5p to alter endocytosis and prevent termination of egfr signaling.the phosphoinositide metabolic pathway, which regulates cellular processes implicated in survival, motility, and trafficking, is often subverted by bacterial pathogens. shigella flexneri, a bacterium that causes dysentery, injects ipgd, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that generates the lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (pi5p), into host cells, thereby activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-akt survival pathway. we show that epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) is required for pi5p-depe ...201121934107
genomic characterization of enteroaggregative escherichia coli from children in mali.background. enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) is a cause of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea, yet its role as an enteric pathogen is not fully understood. methods. we characterized 121 eaec strains isolated in 2008 as part of a case-control study of moderate to severe acute diarrhea among children 0-59 months of age in bamako, mali. we applied multiplex polymerase chain reaction and comparative genome hybridization to identify potential virulence factors among the eaec strains, coupled wit ...201122184729
approach to the patient with infectious provide current recommendations for evaluation and treatment of patients with infectious colitis. infectious colitis is diagnosed in someone with diarrhea and one or more of the following: fever and/or dysentery, stools containing inflammatory markers such as leukocytes, lactoferrin, or calprotectin, or positive stool culture for an invasive or inflammatory bacterial enteropathogen including shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) or clostridium diff ...201222080825
liver mass in a young adult. 201121943702
Molecular Techniques in Ecohealth Research Toolkit: Facilitating Estimation of Aggregate Gastroenteritis Burden in an Irrigated Periurban Landscape.Assessment of microbial hazards associated with certain environmental matrices, livelihood strategies, and food handling practices are constrained by time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques that lead to health risk assessments of narrow geographic or time scope, often targeting very few pathogens. Health risk assessment based on one or few indicator organisms underestimates true disease burden due a number of coexisting causative pathogens. Here, we employed molecular techniques i ...201122146856
serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates): biogenesis and function.serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates) constitute a large family of proteases secreted by escherichia coli and shigella. spates exhibit two distinct proteolytic activities. first, a c-terminal catalytic site triggers an intra-molecular cleavage that releases the n-terminal portion of these proteins in the extracellular medium. second, the secreted n-terminal domains of spates are themselves proteases; each contains a canonical serine-protease catalytic site. some of thes ...201022069633
Morning Glory Resin Glycosides as Modulators of Antibiotic Activity in Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.Twenty-six microbiologically inactive (MIC >?512?µg/mL) convolvulaceous resin glycosides ( 1- 26) were tested for resistance modulatory activity IN VITRO against ESCHERICHIA COLI Rosetta-gami and two nosocomial pathogens, SALMONELLA TYPHI and SHIGELLA FLEXNERI. These compounds exerted a potentiation effect of the clinically useful antibiotics tetracycline, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol against the tested gram-negative bacteria by increasing antibiotic susceptibility up to 32-fold at concent ...201122002849
[Protozoal antigen positivity in diarrheal patients admitted to emergency service: a point prevalence study].Intestinal parasites are the important etiological agents of water and food related diarrhea cases which are frequently seen during summer/early autumn seasons in developing countries. This point prevalence study was aimed to determine the protozoal antigen positivity rate in diarrhea cases admitted to the emergency service in one single day. A total of 198 diarrheal patients (90 male, 108 female; age range: 1-82 years, mean age: 29 years) who were admitted to the emergency service of Ankara Tra ...201122090311
a case of reactive arthritis after salmonella enteritis in in a 12-year-old boy.reactive arthritis comprises a subgroup within infection-associated arthritides in genetically susceptible hosts. researchers and clinicians recognize two clinical forms of reactive arthritis which occurs after genitourinary tract infection and after gastrointestinal tract infection. chlamydia infection has been implicated as the most common agent associated with post-venereal reactive arthritis. studies have proposed shigella infection, salmonella infection, or yersinia infection as the microor ...201122025926
interaction of concanavalin a with bacterial lipopolysaccharides in agarose gel.binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin a to a series of molecular species of lipopolysaccharide (lps), purified from pathogenic bacteria, was studied via agarose gel precipitation experiments and the results were compared with available structural data.the lps species could be divided into cona-reactive and non-reactive ones. reactivity resided in the o-specific chain of lps, and binding to the lipid a or core moieties of lps could not be demonstrated by the present methods. ...201121983321
[Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide.201122046776
Development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting O-antigen modification genes for molecular serotyping of Shigella flexneri.Shigella flexneri is the major Shigella species that causes diarrheal disease in developing countries. It is further subdivided into 15 serotypes based on O-antigen structure. Serotyping of S. flexneri is important for epidemiological purposes. In this study, we developed a multiplex PCR assay targeting the O-antigen synthesis gene wzx and the O-antigen modification genes gtrI, gtrIC, gtrII, oac, gtrIV, gtrV, and gtrX for molecular serotyping of S. flexneri. The multiplex PCR assay contained eig ...201121880974
The iron-responsive Fur/RyhB regulatory cascade modulates the Shigella outer membrane protease IcsP.Actin-based motility is central to the pathogenicity of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella. Two Shigella outer membrane proteins, IcsA and IcsP, are required for efficient actin-based motility in the host cell cytoplasm, and the genes encoding both proteins are carried on the large virulence plasmid. IcsA triggers actin polymerization on the surface of the bacterium, leading to the formation of an actin tail that allows both intra- and intercellular spread. IcsP, an outer membrane pro ...201121859852
Use of a DNA microarray for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens associated with fishery products.We established a microarray for the simultaneous detection and identification of diverse putative pathogens often associated with fishery products by targeting specific genes of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersinia enterocolitica and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. The microarray contained 26 sp ...201121965411
structuring the bacterial genome: y1-transposases associated with rep-bime sequences{dagger}reps are highly repeated intergenic palindromic sequences often clustered into structures called bimes including two individual reps separated by short linker of variable length. they play a variety of key roles in the cell. reps also resemble the sub-terminal hairpins of the atypical is200/605 family of insertion sequences which encode y1 transposases (tnpa(is200/is605)). these belong to the huh endonuclease family, carry a single catalytic tyrosine (y) and promote single strand transposition. ...201122199259
long-term trends in the epidemiology and resistance of childhood bacterial enteropathogens in this study, we investigated the long-term trends in the epidemiology and susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens among children in a well-defined area of adequate health standards. the study included all children younger than 14 years of age treated for enteritis at heraklion university general hospital on the island of crete during the 18-year period from january 1993 to december 2010. stool specimens were tested for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, enteropathogenic escherichia coli ...201122207394
rates of mutation and host transmission for an escherichia coli clone over 3 years.although over 50 complete escherichia coli/shigella genome sequences are available, it is only for closely related strains, for example the o55:h7 and o157:h7 clones of e. coli, that we can assign differences to individual evolutionary events along specific lineages. here we sequence the genomes of 14 isolates of a uropathogenic e. coli clone that persisted for 3 years within a household, including a dog, causing a urinary tract infection (uti) in the dog after 2 years. the 20 mutations observed ...201122046404
polyclonal antibody against conserved sequences of mce1a protein blocks mtb infection in macrophages.the pathogenesis of mycobacterium tuberculosis is largely due to its ability to enter and survive within human macrophages. it is suggested that a specific protein namely mammalian cell entry protein is involved in the pathogenesis and the specific gene for this protein mce1a has been identified in several pathogenic organisms such as rickettsia, shigella, escherichia coli, helicobacter, streptomyces, klebsiella, vibrio, neisseria, rhodococcus, nocardioides, saccharopolyspora erthyrae, and pseud ...201122159737
a 35 kda antigenic protein from shigella flexneri: in silico structural and functional studies.shigella flexneri serotype 2a is a major public health concern in the developing and under-developed countries which contributes to shigellosis endemic and mortality. thus, there is an urgent need for a rapid diagnostic test for effective therapy and disease management. previous study showed that a ∼35 kda antigenic protein from s. flexneri is a potential biomarker. we therefore modelled the three-dimensional structure of the antigen to probe its functionality which could aid in the development ...201121982766
A gyrB-targeted PCR for rapid identification of Salmonella.Salmonella causes the majority of infections in humans and homeothermic animals. This article describes a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method developed for a rapid identification of Salmonella. A gyrB-targeted species-specific primer pair, S-P-for (5'-GGT GGT TTC CGT AAA AGT A-3') and S-P-rev (5'-GAA TCG CCT GGT TCT TGC-3'), was successfully designed. PCR with all the Salmonella strains produced a 366- bp DNA fragment that was absent from all the non-Salmonella strains tested. The de ...201121892633
Autophagy as an innate immunity paradigm: expanding the scope and repertoire of pattern recognition receptors.Autophagy is rapidly developing into a new immunological paradigm. The latest links now include overlaps between autophagy and innate immune signaling via TBK-1 and IKKa/ß, and the role of autophagy in inflammation directed by the inflammasome. Autophagy's innate immunity connections include responses to pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns including alarmins such as HMGB1 and IL-1ß, Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors including NLRC4, NLRP3 and NLRP4, and RIG-I-like receptors. ...201122118953
Antibiotics shaping bacterial genome: deletion of an IS91 flanked virulence determinant upon exposure to subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations.The nucleoid-associated proteins Hha and YdgT repress the expression of the toxin a-hemolysin. An Escherichia coli mutant lacking these proteins overexpresses the toxin a-hemolysin encoded in the multicopy recombinant plasmid pANN202-312R. Unexpectedly, we could observe that this mutant generated clones that no further produced hemolysin (Hly(-)). Generation of Hly(-) clones was dependent upon the presence in the culture medium of the antibiotic kanamycin (km), a marker of the hha allele (hha::T ...201122096603
emergence of ceftriaxone resistant shigella.shigellosis is endemic in many resource-poor countries due to feco-oral transmission, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. there is rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant (mdr) shigella spp. resulting in poor reliability of first line antibiotics like quinolones, co-trimoxazole and ampicillin. ceftriaxone has been used as a reserved antibiotic for treatment of mdr shigella spp. the authors report a case of ceftriaxone resistant shigella flexneri successfully managed with meropenem ...201122205379
Two Cases of Hemorrhagic Diarrhea Caused by Cronobacter sakazakii in Hospitalized Nursing Infants Associated with the Consumption of Powdered Infant Formula.Two cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in 5-month-old infants hospitalized in a mother-and-child hospital in Queretaro, Mexico, on 24 January 2010. C. sakazakii was recovered from the powdered infant formula (PIF), rehydrated PIF (R-PIF) fed to infants, and their fecal samples. The microorganism was present at levels of 0.33 most probable number (MPN)/g and 24 MPN/ml in PIF and R-PIF, respectively. The total ingested dose for the day before the onset of the diarrheic syndrome ranged betwee ...201122186061
emergence of a novel shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o serogroup cross-reacting with shigella boydii type 10.this is the first report of the isolation of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains whose o antigens were genetically and serologically identical to those of shigella boydii type 10, from human feces. the novel stec o serogroup may be widespread in japan and associated with diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis.201121865424
Exploration of in vitro time point quantitative evaluation of newly synthesized benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives as potential antibacterial agents.Present communication deals with the in vitro time point quantitative antibacterial evaluation of newly synthesized 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles (3a-p) and 2-substituted benzothiazoles (5a-h) against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli. These compounds were synthesized under mild reaction conditions using Al(2)O(3)-Fe(2)O(3) nanocrystals as heterogeneous catalyst. Bio-evaluation s ...201122047695
a proteogenomic analysis of shigella flexneri using 2d lc-maldi tof/ strategies for high-throughput sequencing are constantly appearing, leading to a great increase in the number of completely sequenced genomes. unfortunately, computational genome annotation is out of step with this progress. thus, the accurate annotation of these genomes has become a bottleneck of knowledge acquisition.201122032405
contribution of the lipopolysaccharide to resistance of shigella flexneri 2a to extreme acidity.shigella flexneri is endemic in most underdeveloped countries, causing diarrheal disease and dysentery among young children. in order to reach its target site, the colon, shigella must overcome the acid environment of the stomach. shigella is able to persist in this stressful environment and, because of this ability it can initiate infection following the ingestion of very small inocula. thus, acid resistance is considered an important virulence trait of this bacterium. it has been reported that ...201121984920
Control of an outbreak of diarrhoea in a vascular surgery unit caused by a high-level clindamycin-resistant Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 106.This report describes an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a vascular surgery ward in 2009 caused by a high-level clindamycin-resistant ribotype 106. A case of CDI was defined as a patient with diarrhoea, positive for C. difficile toxin and negative for other enteric pathogens. Cultures were sent to the Scottish Salmonella Shigella and Clostridium difficile Reference Laboratory (SSSCDRL) for PCR ribotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing and PCR detection of ermB. The mean ...201121864938
bacterial aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases and antimicrobial resistance in dhaka, bangladesh, 2005-2008.summaryinfectious diarrhoea caused by bacterial pathogens contributes to the high level of mortality in developing countries like bangladesh. following standard bacteriological procedures, a total of 14 428 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 56 132 stool samples and rectal swabs collected from diarrhoeal patients between 2005 and 2008. the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility data were retrospectively analysed for these isolates and among them vibrio spp. (42·9%) were the most ...201122040529
Investigation of the binding of a carbohydrate-mimetic peptide to its complementary anticarbohydrate antibody by STD-NMR spectroscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations.Saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR spectroscopy was used to probe experimentally the bioactive solution conformation of the carbohydrate mimic MDWNMHAA 1 of the O-polysaccharide of Shigella flexneri Y when bound to its complementary antibody, mAb SYA/J6. Molecular dynamics simulations using the ZymeCAD™ Molecular Dynamics platform were also undertaken to give a more accurate picture of the conformational flexibility and the possibilities for bound ligand conformations. The ligand topology, ...201121953925
[Antibacterial activity of nanostructured silver gel].Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of L-cysteine silver gel against various species of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.201121913399
phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the gut of house flies (musca domestica l.).house flies (musca domestica l.) are cosmopolitan, ubiquitous, synanthropic insects that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for various microorganisms. to fully assess the role of house flies in the epidemiology of human diseases, it is essential to understand the diversity of microbiota harbored by natural fly populations. this study aimed to identify the diversity of house fly gut bacteria by both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. a total of 102 bacterial strains wer ...201122092755
dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.we describe a test for rapid detection of s. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients.201121984895
characterization and comparative genomic analysis of a novel bacteriophage, sfp10, simultaneously inhibiting both salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7.salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7 are major food-borne pathogens causing serious illness. phage sfp10, which revealed effective infection of both s. enterica and e. coli o157:h7, was isolated and characterized. sfp10 contains a 158-kb double-stranded dna genome belonging to the vi01 phage-like family myoviridae. in vitro adsorption assays showed that the adsorption constant rates to both salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and e. coli o157:h7 were 2.50 × 10(-8) ml/min and 1.91 ...201222020516
wide dissemination of multidrug-resistant shigella isolates in evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and selected antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in shigella isolates recovered in outpatients from 1997 to 2009 in china.201121859815
Sepsis-related myocardial calcification. 201121934087
antimicrobial resistance of shigella spp. isolated in the state of pará, brazil.shigella spp. are gram-negative, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to the family enterobacteriaceae and are responsible for shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality.201121860994
Molecular mechanism of multi-drug resistance in Shigella isolates from rural China.Diarrhoeal diseases and enteric infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Shigellosis was sixth in the rank of death caused by infectious disease in China. Present study assess the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and mutations in marA genes of Shigella isolates and its association. One hundred isolates of Shigella spp were tested to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and mutation of marA through PCR-SSCP. The antimicrobial resistance prof ...201121991697
evaluation of a quantitative h(2)s mpn test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.the sensitivity and specificity of the h(2)s test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with h(2)s-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or escherichia coli. false-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with h(2)s-negative samples found to contain e. coli. using biochemical and molecular methods an ...201222244995
analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) isolate e24377a.enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) is an important pathogenic variant (pathovar) of e. coli in developing countries from a human health perspective, causing significant morbidity and mortality. previous studies have examined specific regulatory networks in etec, although little is known about the global effects of inter- and intra-kingdom signaling on the expression of virulence and colonization factors in etec. in this study, an e.coli/shigella pan-genome microarray, combined with quantita ...201222215741
[characterisation of a ctx-m-15-producing shigella sonnei in a spanish patient who had not travelled abroad.]one hundred and seven shigella spp. strains were isolated in our laboratory during the years 2000 to 2010. one shigella sonnei harboured the genes that coded the β-lactamases tem-1 and ctx-m-15, identifying the structure, isecp1+bla(ctx-m-15)+orf477, in their genetic environment. the strain also carried a class 2 integron with the gene cassettes dfra1+sat+aada1. a plasmid group inci1 st31 (cc-31) was detected and its mobilization by conjugation was demonstrated. we describe for the first time a ...201222244530
antimicrobial activity of ulopterol isolated from toddalia asiatica (l.) lam.: a traditional medicinal plant.aim of the study: the leaves of toddalia asiatica (l.) lam. (rutaceae) are widely used in folk medicine in india to treat various ailments. in our earlier communication we have reported the antimicrobial study on the various extracts of the leaves and the isolation and identification of flindersine, a quinolone alkaloid as the major active principle. in the present study, we report the antibacterial and antifungal activities of ulopterol, a coumarin isolated as another major active antimicrobial ...201222265751
application of a multiplex pcr for the simultaneous detection of escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella and shigella in raw and ready-to-eat meat products.escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella and shigella might contaminate similar types of meat products and cause deadly diseases in humans. traditional microbiological analyses to detect these pathogens are labor-intensive and time-consuming. the objective of this study was to apply a multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of the pathogenic bacteria in certain raw and ready-to-eat meat matrices. the tested samples had aerobic plate counts ranging from non-detectable, in chicken nuggets and salami, ...200522064243
antibacterial effect and cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1, 4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.we studied the antibiotic activity and selective cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from endophytic bacillus subtilis swb8.201122260051
culture-independent real-time pcr reveals extensive polymicrobial infections in hospitalized diarrhoea cases in kolkata, india.clin microbiol infect abstract: culture-independent identification of diarrhoeal aetiological agents was performed using dna harvested from diarrhoeal stool specimens with sybr-green-based real-time pcr targeting vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, campylobacter spp., shigella spp. and three different pathotypes of diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli. conventional culture-dependent methods detected bacterial enteropathogens in 68 of 122 diarrhoeal stool specimens. of 68 specimens, 59 (86.8%) h ...201122268636
galectin 8 targets damaged vesicles for autophagy to defend cells against bacterial invasion.autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial infection. efficient pathogen engulfment is mediated by cargo-selecting autophagy adaptors that rely on unidentified pattern-recognition or danger receptors to label invading pathogens as autophagy cargo, typically by polyubiquitin coating. here we show in human cells that galectin 8 (also known as lgals8), a cytosolic lectin, is a danger receptor that restricts salmonella proliferation. galectin 8 monitors endosomal and lysosomal integri ...201222246324
epidemiological, clinical features and susceptibility pattern of shigellosis in the buea health district, cameroon.abstract: background: shigellosis is an acute invasive enteric infection caused by bacteria belonging to the genus shigella; it is clinically manifested by bloody diarrhoea. shigellosis is endemic in many developing countries including cameroon and also occurs in epidemics causing considerable morbidity and mortality. this study evaluated the epidemiological and clinical features of shigella and the resistance pattern of isolates to commonly used antibiotics in the buea health district in camer ...201222264300
the evolution of the escherichia coli phylogeny.escherichia coli are familiar to biologists as a classical model system, ubiquitous in molecular biology laboratories around the world. outside of the laboratory, e. coli strains exist as an almost universal component of the lower-gut flora of humans and animals. although usually a commensal, e. coli has an alter ego as a pathogen, and is associated with diarrhoeal disease and extra-intestinal infections. the study of e. coli diversity predates the availability of molecular data, with strains in ...201222266241
the patient presenting with acute dysentery - a systematic review.objectives: the etiologies, clinical presentations and diagnosis of acute pathogen-specific dysentery in children and adults in industrialized and developing regions is described to help develop recommendations for therapy. methods: we conducted a systematic review of literature published between january 2000 and june 2011 to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen-specific dysentery. results: shigella, salmonella, and campylobacter remain the most frequent bacterial causes of dysenter ...201222266388
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