PMID(sorted ascending)
multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance.clin microbiol infect abstract: many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (mdr), extensively drug-resistant (xdr) and pandrug-resistant (pdr) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. a group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the european centre for disease prevention and control (ecdc) and the centers for disease control and p ...201121793988
synthesis and studies of novel 2-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethylphenyl amino)-4-(quinoline-4-yloxy)-6-(piperazinyl/piperidinyl)-s-triazines as potential antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and anticancer agents.a series of novel s-triazine analogs were synthesized and characterized by ir, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, (19)f nmr spectroscopy and elemental analysis. preliminary screening of target compounds against eight bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella typhi, proteus vulgaris, shigella flexneria), four fungi (aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus clavatus, candida albicans) and mycobacterium tuberculosis ...201121794959
the role of tecpr1 in selective autophagy as a cargo receptor.bacterial intrusion of host cells can be recognized by the innate immune system, including autophagy, via multiple cellular pathways. we have identified tecpr1 as an atg5-binding partner, and found that tecpr1 interacts with the atg12-atg5-atg16l1 complex via binding to atg5. in shigella infected cells, tecpr1 colocalizes with atg5 and lc3 at shigella-containing phagophores. tecpr1 activity is required for efficient autophagy to target bacteria, but a deficiency of tecpr1 in host cells does not ...201121795850
physical, chemical and microbiological quality of ice used to cool drinks and foods in greece and its public health used for direct human consumption or to preserve foods and cool down drinks can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and may potentially become a vehicle for consumer's infection. to evaluate physical, chemical and microbiological quality of commercial ice and ice used for fish and seafood, 100 ice samples collected at 10 different retail points in the region of epirus were studied. the following microbiological parameters were determined: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonel ...201121802520
[waterborne outbreak of shigella sonnei caused by consumption of public supply water.]objective: to investigate a waterborne outbreak in the population of valència d'àneu (lleida, spain). methods: a cohort study of consumption of mains water, bottled water and spring water was carried out. the sample was obtained by telephone contact with all private numbers in the municipality. we surveyed 58.3% of the population census (105/180) for water consumption, number of glasses drunk daily and symptoms. the water supply in the municipal system was sampled, and the presence of enterobact ...201121802793
a live noninvasive shigella dysenteriae 1 strain induces homologous protective immunity in a guinea pig colitis model.a noninvasive live transconjugant shigella hybrid (ltsh?stx) strain was constructed from a shiga toxin gene deleted mutant of shigella dysenteriae 1 by introducing a plasmid vector ppr1347 that carried a lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene (rfb and rfc) of salmonella typhimurium. in guinea pigs, four successive oral administrations of ltsh?stx showed complete protection against rectal challenge with wild type s. dysenteriae 1 strain. exponential increase of the serum igg and iga titer against l ...201121806676
the future is cold: cryo-preparation methods for transmission electron microscopy of cells.our knowledge of the organization of the cell is linked, to a great extent, to light and electron microscopy. choosing either photons or electrons for imaging has many consequences on the image obtained, as well as on the experiment required in order to generate the image. one apparent effect on the experimental side is in the sample preparation, which can be quite elaborate for electron microscopy. in recent years, rapid freezing, cryo-preparation and cryo-electron microscopy have been more wid ...201121812762
analysis of distribution and significance of simple sequence repeats in enteric bacteria shigella dysenteriae sd197.we have explored the possible role of ssr density in genome to generate biological information. in our study, we have checked the ssr (simple sequence repeats) status in virulent and non virulent genes of enteric bacteria to see whether the ssrs distribution contributes to virulence. the genome, plasmid and virulent genes sequences in fasta format were downloaded from ncbi genbank and vfdb. the sequences were subjected to ssr analysis using software tool ssr.exe. the resulting data was pasted in ...201121814393
outer membrane protein a (ompa) of shigella flexneri 2a, induces protective immune response in a mouse our earlier studies 34 kda outer membrane protein (omp) of shigella flexneri 2a has been identified as an efficient immunostimulant.201121818362
acquired antibiotic resistance: are we born with it?the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (ar) is a major public health concern. recent findings on the prevalence of foodborne antibiotic resistant (art) commensal bacteria in ready-to-consume food products suggested that daily food consumption likely serves as a major avenue for disseminating art bacteria from the food chain to the human hosts. to properly assess the impact of various factors including the food chain on ar development in hosts, it is important to determine the baseline of a ...201121821748
recovery and characterization of environmental variants of shigella flexneri from surface water in bangladesh.little is known about the distribution, survival, and transmission of shigella in environmental surface waters. to gain more insight into the environmental biology of shigella we isolated five bacterial strains serotyped as shigella flexneri 2b from a freshwater lake in bangladesh using a modified nutrient broth supplemented with nucleic acid bases. the biochemical properties of the isolates, including inability to ferment lactose and a negative lysine decarboxylase test, indicated common physio ...201121826486
the effect of quercus castaneifolia extract on pathogenic enteric bacteria.the family of enterobacteriaceae is a major group of gram negative bacteria, some of these microorganisms are pathogen and could cause disease mainly gastroenteritis. recently, due to drug resistant nature of these bacteria specially in developing countries treatment of the patient considered as important investigate. quercus castaneifolia is a native plant of yasuj province in iran, which the people who living in this area consume the fruit of this plant for treatment of enteric disease. hence, ...201121827865
a multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in vietnamese children.the bacterial genus shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. there have been significant increases in the proportion of shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. while nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the world health organization. resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. w ...201121829747
epidemiology and outcome of shigella, salmonella and campylobacter infections in travellers returning from the tropics with fever and diarrhoea.during a study on fever after a stay in the tropics, we aimed at investigating the epidemiology and outcome of invasive bacterial enteritis due to shigella, salmonella or campylobacter spp. in patients diagnosed with febrile traveller's diarrhoea.201121837926
structural characterization and membrane localization of exsb from the type iii secretion system (t3ss) of pseudomonas aeruginosa.pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that employs a finely tuned type iii secretion system (t3ss) to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of target cells. exsb is a 15.6-kda protein encoded in a t3ss transcription regulation operon that displays high sequence similarity to yscw, a lipoprotein from yersinia spp. whose genetic neighborhood also involves a transcriptional regulator, and has been shown to play a role in the stabilization of the outer membrane ring of the t3 ...201121839744
single nucleotide polymorphism (snp)-based differentiation of shigella isolates by pyrosequencing.analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) is an important genetic tool that provides molecular markers for rapid differentiation of closely related strains. we have applied snp discovery and analysis for distinguishing each of the four shigella serogroups (boydii, dysenteriae, flexneri, and sonnei) and for discriminating individual strains within the same serogroup by using 24 snps selected from nine genes. five snps were identified from sequence analysis of two housekeeping genes (gapa ...201121839856
epidemiology of food-borne disease outbreaks in the french armed forces: a review of investigations conducted from 1999 to 2009.objective: aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of food-borne disease outbreaks (fbdos) in the french armed forces from 1999 to 2009. methods: fbdos are reported to the military epidemiological surveillance system, which concerns all active military personnel. investigation reports published from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. results: among the 180 fbdos reported, 48.3% occurred overseas. the mean reporting rate was 2.4 outbreaks p.100,000 in france and 26.7 p.100,000 oversea ...201121840337
the rickettsia surface cell antigen 4 applies mimicry to bind to and activate vinculin.pathogenic rickettsiae species cause high morbidity and mortality, especially r. prowazekii the causative agent of typhus. like many intracellular pathogens, rickettsiae exploit the cytoskeleton to enter and spread within the host cell. here we report that the cell surface antigen sca4 of rickettsiae colocalizes with vinculin in cells at sites of focal adhesions, and that sca4 binds to and activates vinculin through two vinculin binding sites (vbss) that are conserved across all rickettsia. rema ...201121841197
epidemiology and molecular mechanism of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in shigella.integrons are gene capture and expression systems that are characterized by the presence of an integrase gene. this encodes an integrase, a recombined site, and a promoter. they are able to capture gene cassettes from the environment and incorporate them using site-specific recombination. the role of integrons and gene cassettes in the dissemination of multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria is significant. in shigella species, antimicrobial resistance is often associated with the presenc ...201121842348
the inhibitory activity of lactobacillus spp. isolated from breast milk on gastrointestinal pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial origin.milk acts as a mean for transporting many essential substances from the mother to the child. in human beings, milk includes several predominant bacteria, such as staphylococci, streptococci, micrococci, lactobacilli, enterococci, lactococci and bifidobacteria. besides, its intake favors the predominance of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the child's intestinal microbiota. the present work explores the isolation and selection of lactobacilli strains with probiotic potential, focusing in their ...201121846506
structural segregation of gut microbiota between colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers.despite a long-suspected role in the development of human colorectal cancer (crc), the composition of gut microbiota in crc patients has not been adequately described. in this study, fecal bacterial diversity in crc patients (n=46) and healthy volunteers (n=56) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing of the v3 region of the 16s ribosomal rna gene. both principal component analysis and unifrac analysis showed structural segregation between the two populations. forty-eight operational taxonomic units ...201121850056
the effect of the potential phoq histidine kinase inhibitors on shigella flexneri virulence.phoq/phop is an important two-component system that regulates shigella virulence. we explored whether the phoq/phop system is a promising target for new antibiotics against s. flexneri infection. by using a high-throughput screen and enzymatic activity coupled assay, four compounds were found as potential phoq inhibitors. these compounds not only inhibited the activity of sf-phoqc autophosphorylation but also displayed high binding affinities to the sf-phoqc protein in the surface plasmon resona ...201121853073
real-time multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, shigella and yersinia species in fecal samples.diarrheal diseases due to notifiable bacterial infections require rapid diagnosis of the causative pathogens. to facilitate detection, a real-time multiplex pcr was developed that identifies common diarrhea-causing bacteria in fecal samples. on the basis of published sequence data, sets of primers and probes were designed that were specific for campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, shigella/enteroinvasive escherichia coli eiec, and yersinia species, suitable for use in a one-tube pcr assay. the assa ...201121855409
recombinant shiga toxin b subunit elicits protection against shiga toxin via mixed th type immune response in mice.shigella dysenteriae is the causative agent of the third commonest bacterial disease for childhood diarrhoea and responsible for millions of deaths per year. it produces potent toxin termed shiga toxin which is listed in category b biological warfare agent of cdc, usa. earlier we have reported production of recombinant shiga toxin b subunit that produced antibodies which neutralized shiga toxin toxicity in hela cells. in the present study, we have evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of rstx ...201121856355
wide dissemination of multidrug-resistant shigella isolates in evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and selected antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in shigella isolates recovered in outpatients from 1997 to 2009 in china.201121859815
The iron-responsive Fur/RyhB regulatory cascade modulates the Shigella outer membrane protease IcsP.Actin-based motility is central to the pathogenicity of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella. Two Shigella outer membrane proteins, IcsA and IcsP, are required for efficient actin-based motility in the host cell cytoplasm, and the genes encoding both proteins are carried on the large virulence plasmid. IcsA triggers actin polymerization on the surface of the bacterium, leading to the formation of an actin tail that allows both intra- and intercellular spread. IcsP, an outer membrane pro ...201121859852
antimicrobial resistance of shigella spp. isolated in the state of pará, brazil.shigella spp. are gram-negative, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to the family enterobacteriaceae and are responsible for shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality.201121860994
chemical and antidiarrheal studies of plinia cauliflora.plinia cauliflora (mart.) kausel, widespread in south america, has edible fruits, and its bark is commonly used against diarrhea and other disorders, on account of its astringency. because diarrhea is still one of the most important causes of illness and death among children in developing countries, where the population turns to traditional medicine for its treatment, the present study determined the composition of fruit and leaf extracts of p. cauliflora, analyzed the activity against diarrhea ...201121861716
Control of an outbreak of diarrhoea in a vascular surgery unit caused by a high-level clindamycin-resistant Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 106.This report describes an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a vascular surgery ward in 2009 caused by a high-level clindamycin-resistant ribotype 106. A case of CDI was defined as a patient with diarrhoea, positive for C. difficile toxin and negative for other enteric pathogens. Cultures were sent to the Scottish Salmonella Shigella and Clostridium difficile Reference Laboratory (SSSCDRL) for PCR ribotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing and PCR detection of ermB. The mean ...201121864938
emergence of a novel shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o serogroup cross-reacting with shigella boydii type 10.this is the first report of the isolation of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains whose o antigens were genetically and serologically identical to those of shigella boydii type 10, from human feces. the novel stec o serogroup may be widespread in japan and associated with diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis.201121865424
antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from cameroon traditional medicine.infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (etoac) and hexanic fractions of five cameroonian medicinal plants (piptadeniastum africana, cissus aralioides, hileria latifolia, phyllanthus muellerianus and gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and ...201121867554
rational design of an artificial genetic switch: co-option of the h-ns-repressed prou operon by the virb virulence master regulator.the h-ns protein represses the transcription of hundreds of genes in gram-negative bacteria. derepression is achieved by a multitude of mechanisms, many of which involve the binding of a protein to dna at the repressed promoter in a manner that compromises the maintenance of the h-ns-dna nucleoprotein repression complex. the principal virulence gene promoters in shigella flexneri, the cause of bacillary dysentery, are repressed by h-ns. virb, a protein that closely resembles members of the parb ...201121873493
Development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting O-antigen modification genes for molecular serotyping of Shigella flexneri.Shigella flexneri is the major Shigella species that causes diarrheal disease in developing countries. It is further subdivided into 15 serotypes based on O-antigen structure. Serotyping of S. flexneri is important for epidemiological purposes. In this study, we developed a multiplex PCR assay targeting the O-antigen synthesis gene wzx and the O-antigen modification genes gtrI, gtrIC, gtrII, oac, gtrIV, gtrV, and gtrX for molecular serotyping of S. flexneri. The multiplex PCR assay contained eig ...201121880974
waterlogsy nmr experiments in conjunction with molecular-dynamics simulations identify immobilized water molecules that bridge peptide mimic mdwnmhaa to anticarbohydrate antibody sya/j6.x-ray crystallographic data of the carbohydrate mimic mdwnmhaa when bound to an anti-shigella flexneri y mab sya/j6 indicate the immobilization of water molecules, that is, the presence of "bound" waters, in the active site. water ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (waterlogsy) was used in conjunction with saturation transfer difference (std)-nmr spectroscopy to probe the existence of immobilized water molecules in the complex of mdwnmhaa 1 bound to mab sya/j6. molecular dynamics simulati ...201121887835
crosslinking of (cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii and its complexes with specific dna duplexes provides an insight into their structures.(cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii (m.ssoii) functions as a methyltransferase and also as a transcription factor. chemical and photochemical crosslinking was used for exploring the structure of m.ssoii-dna complexes and m.ssoii in the absence of dna. photocrosslinking with 4-(n-maleimido)benzophenone demonstrated that in the m.ssoii complex with dna containing the regulatory site, the m.ssoii region responsible for methylation was bound to dna flanking the regulatory site, which contained ...201121888553
Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among men who have sex with men, Canada, 2010.In 2010, we observed isolates with matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from 13 cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Montréal. We report on the emergence of this resistance type and a study of resistance mechanisms. The investigation suggested local transmission among men who have sex with men associated with sex venues.201121888811
A gyrB-targeted PCR for rapid identification of Salmonella.Salmonella causes the majority of infections in humans and homeothermic animals. This article describes a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method developed for a rapid identification of Salmonella. A gyrB-targeted species-specific primer pair, S-P-for (5'-GGT GGT TTC CGT AAA AGT A-3') and S-P-rev (5'-GAA TCG CCT GGT TCT TGC-3'), was successfully designed. PCR with all the Salmonella strains produced a 366- bp DNA fragment that was absent from all the non-Salmonella strains tested. The de ...201121892633
characterization of a vii-like phage specific to escherichia coli o157:h7.phage vb_ecom_cba120 (cba120), isolated against escherichia coli o157:h7 from a cattle feedlot, is morphologically very similar to the classic phage vii of salmonella enterica serovar typhi. until recently, little was known genetically or physiologically about the vii-like phages, and none targeting e. coli have been described in the literature. the genome of cba120 has been fully sequenced and is highly similar to those of both vii and the shigella phage ag3. the core set of structural and repl ...201121899740
Differentiation between Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and noninvasive Escherichia coli.Shigella causes bacillary dysentery and is classified into four species based on their antigen characteristics. This classification does not reflect genetic relatedness; in fact, Shigella species are so related to Escherichia coli , they should be classified as one distinctive species in the genus Escherichia. The differentiation of Shigella and E. coli is even more complicated with the description of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). EIEC are strains that possess some of the biochemical characteri ...201121901636
Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of major foodborne pathogens in imported seafood.Seafood is a leading commodity implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Seafood importation rose dramatically in the past 3 decades and now contributes to more than 80% of the total U.S. seafood supply. However, limited data are available on the microbiological safety of imported seafood. In this study, we obtained a total of 171 salmon, shrimp, and tilapia samples imported from 12 countries in three retail stores in Baton Rouge, LA. The total microbial population and the ...201121902913
molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing shigella isolates from humans in south africa, 2003-2009. 201221903820
Mucosal immunization with Shigella flexneri outer membrane vesicles induced protection in mice.Vaccination appears to be the only rational prophylactic approach to control shigellosis. Unfortunately, there is still no safe and efficacious vaccine available. We investigated the protection conferred by a new vaccine containing outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Shigella flexneri with an adjuvant based on nanoparticles in an experimental model of shigellosis in mice. OMVs were encapsulated in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles prepared by a solvent displacement method with the copolymer PMV/MA. ...201121911022
[Antibacterial activity of nanostructured silver gel].Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of L-cysteine silver gel against various species of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms.201121913399
[Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2009].Only 30 cases were notified (incidence rate 0.08/100 000 population) in the year 2009, while the 33 cases were notified in 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000), and median in the 2003-2007 years was 74 cases, incidence rate 0.19/100 000 population. Since 2000 no one-death case was notified. In the period of low frequency of Shigella infections, the external quality assessment control of the quality of bacteriological media, laboratory and prae-laboratory procedures for detection of different Shige ...201121913464
microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in roadside restaurants of bangladesh.the microbiological status of water from dispensers in different roadside restaurants of dhaka city and savar area was analyzed in this study. seven samples from dhaka and 8 samples of savar were checked. the heterotrophic plate count was in a range of 1.0 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) to 2.0 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) (from new bottles), 1.0 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) (after dispensation), and 1.5 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) to 1.0 x l0(5) cfu ml(-1) (from serving glass). in several of the samples, the heterotrophi ...201121916267
Third-generation cephalosporin resistance in clinical isolate of Shigella sonnei in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India. 201121918310
Sepsis-related myocardial calcification. 201121934087
shigella flexneri infection generates the lipid pi5p to alter endocytosis and prevent termination of egfr signaling.the phosphoinositide metabolic pathway, which regulates cellular processes implicated in survival, motility, and trafficking, is often subverted by bacterial pathogens. shigella flexneri, a bacterium that causes dysentery, injects ipgd, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that generates the lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (pi5p), into host cells, thereby activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-akt survival pathway. we show that epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) is required for pi5p-depe ...201121934107
[Investigation of verotoxigenic escherichia coli O157:H7 incidence in gastroenteritis patients].Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serotype among verotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) strains that cause haemolytic uremic syndrome. Although sporadic VTEC cases originating from Turkey and small outbreaks have been reported from our country, VTEC has not been routinely investigated in most of the diagnostic microbiology laboratories in Turkey and studies related to this topic are limited. In this study, the incidence of E.coli O157:H7 in patients who were admitted to Alanya Research and Applic ...201121935785
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria and yeasts in a clinical microbiological laboratory: a review.recently, maldi-tof ms devices designed for use in clinical laboratories have been commercially introduced in various large centres worldwide. all published studies conclude that maldi-tof ms can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria and yeasts in a clinical microbiological laboratory. although all data show that maldi-tof ms correctly identifies the great majority of isolates processed routinely, it cannot yet identify every such isolate. until today, maldi-tof ms is inap ...201121938981
Rotavirus in adults requiring hospitalization.To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus among adults admitted to the hospital with diarrhea that have bacterial stool cultures sent.201221939687
Comparative evaluation of the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays for measuring mucosal immune responses to Shigella antigens.Accurately assessing mucosal immune responses to candidate vaccines remains a technical challenge. ELISPOT is widely used as a surrogate of mucosal immune response by directly enumerating circulating antibody secreting cells (ASCs), while antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) titers the total amount of antibody secreted by ASC ex vivo using ELISA. ALS is more practical than ELISPOT because the ASC supernatant is frozen for ELISA that can be conducted at any time, with any antigen, and in any ...201121939714
bacteriological assessment of drinking water supply options in coastal areas of bangladesh.this study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of alternative drinking water supply options in southwest coastal areas of bangladesh. a total of 90 water samples were collected during both dry and wet seasons from household based rainwater harvesting systems (rwhss), community based rain water harvesting systems (crwhss), pond-sand filters (psfs) and ponds. the samples were evaluated for faecal coliform, escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate count, as well as vibrio cholerae, ...201121942205
liver mass in a young adult. 201121943702
Investigation of the binding of a carbohydrate-mimetic peptide to its complementary anticarbohydrate antibody by STD-NMR spectroscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations.Saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR spectroscopy was used to probe experimentally the bioactive solution conformation of the carbohydrate mimic MDWNMHAA 1 of the O-polysaccharide of Shigella flexneri Y when bound to its complementary antibody, mAb SYA/J6. Molecular dynamics simulations using the ZymeCAD™ Molecular Dynamics platform were also undertaken to give a more accurate picture of the conformational flexibility and the possibilities for bound ligand conformations. The ligand topology, ...201121953925
Use of a DNA microarray for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens associated with fishery products.We established a microarray for the simultaneous detection and identification of diverse putative pathogens often associated with fishery products by targeting specific genes of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Yersinia enterocolitica and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. The microarray contained 26 sp ...201121965411
live attenuated shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine strains overexpressing shiga toxin b subunit.shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae 1) is unique among the shigella species and serotypes in the expression of shiga toxin which contributes to more severe disease sequelae and the ability to cause explosive outbreaks and pandemics. s. dysenteriae 1 shares characteristics with other shigella species, including the capability of causing clinical illness with a very low inoculum (10 to 100 cfu) and resistance to multiple antibiotics, underscoring the need for efficacious vaccines and t ...201121969003
Genotyping of selected bacterial enteropathogens in Norway.In Norway the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) is the primary facility for nationwide surveillance of foodborne infections, and it is vital that we can perform rapid and high resolution identification of foodborne bacteria at the strain level. During the last decade a rapid introduction of DNA-based methods has been introduced, which show promise in enhancing the speed and discriminatory capability of the typing laboratory. The laboratory responsible for genotyping enteropathogens at ...201121975141
antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional chinese herb pairs, angelica sinensis and sophora flavescens.the purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of angelica sinensis extract (ae), sophora flavescens extract (se), and herb pair a. sinensis and s. flavescens extract (hpe). endotoxin-induced uveitis (eiu) was induced in rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide. the anti-inflammatory potential of ae, se, and hpe in the regulation of nuclear factor kappa b (nf-κb), maleic dialdehyde (mda), polymorphonuclear cells (pmn), interleukin-1β ...201121976127
convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the o-antigen of shigella boydii type 9.a convenient synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the o-antigen of shigella boydii type 9 has been achieved in excellent yield using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation strategy. tempo-mediated selective oxidation of the primary alcohol of the tetrasaccharide derivative 8 to the carboxylic group followed by deprotection of the functional groups furnished target tetrasaccharide 1 as its 4-methoxyphenyl glycoside in high yield.201121977201
a 35 kda antigenic protein from shigella flexneri: in silico structural and functional studies.shigella flexneri serotype 2a is a major public health concern in the developing and under-developed countries which contributes to shigellosis endemic and mortality. thus, there is an urgent need for a rapid diagnostic test for effective therapy and disease management. previous study showed that a ∼35 kda antigenic protein from s. flexneri is a potential biomarker. we therefore modelled the three-dimensional structure of the antigen to probe its functionality which could aid in the development ...201121982766
Clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Shigella gastroenteritis in Ankara, Turkey between 2003 and 2009, and comparison with previous reports.The aim of this study was to define the epidemiological, clinical, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Shigella gastroenteritis cases occurring during the years 2003-2009 and to compare results with those of the years 1987-2002.201121982814
Further characterization of Shigella sonnei live vaccine candidates WRSs2 and WRSs3-plasmid composition, invasion assays and Sereny reactions. 201121983066
interaction of concanavalin a with bacterial lipopolysaccharides in agarose gel.binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin a to a series of molecular species of lipopolysaccharide (lps), purified from pathogenic bacteria, was studied via agarose gel precipitation experiments and the results were compared with available structural data.the lps species could be divided into cona-reactive and non-reactive ones. reactivity resided in the o-specific chain of lps, and binding to the lipid a or core moieties of lps could not be demonstrated by the present methods. ...201121983321
dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.we describe a test for rapid detection of s. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients.201121984895
contribution of the lipopolysaccharide to resistance of shigella flexneri 2a to extreme acidity.shigella flexneri is endemic in most underdeveloped countries, causing diarrheal disease and dysentery among young children. in order to reach its target site, the colon, shigella must overcome the acid environment of the stomach. shigella is able to persist in this stressful environment and, because of this ability it can initiate infection following the ingestion of very small inocula. thus, acid resistance is considered an important virulence trait of this bacterium. it has been reported that ...201121984920
social-economic factors and irrational antibiotic use as reasons for antibiotic resistance of bacteria causing common childhood infections in primary healthcare.the most prevalent childhood bacterial infections in primary healthcare are respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital infections. the main aim of this paper was to consider factors (socio-economic factors and irrational antibiotic use) that contribute to the development of bacterial resistance, as well as measures that resulted in a reduction of this problem. computerized search through the medline of published articles on antibiotic resistance from 1996 to 2011 in english or serbian was comp ...201121987082
antibacterial characteristics and activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by the maillard reaction.the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by maillard reactions against staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, shigella dysenteriae, and salmonella typhimurium was examined. relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. in addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-solu ...201121989311
Molecular mechanism of multi-drug resistance in Shigella isolates from rural China.Diarrhoeal diseases and enteric infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Shigellosis was sixth in the rank of death caused by infectious disease in China. Present study assess the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and mutations in marA genes of Shigella isolates and its association. One hundred isolates of Shigella spp were tested to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and mutation of marA through PCR-SSCP. The antimicrobial resistance prof ...201121991697
prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of shigella species at felege hiwot referral hospital, northwest ethiopia.shigella species infections coupled with increased levels of antimicrobial resistances are major public health problems in developing countries particularly in children.201121991758
a school outbreak of shigella sonnei infection in china: clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology.objective: to describe the clinical features of infection, and the antibiotic susceptibility of epidemic strains, and investigate plasmid maps and integrons of the isolates from an outbreak of shigella sonnei infection at an elementary school in southwest china. study design: cross-sectional study. setting: an elementary school and five hospitals in chengdu in southwest china. results: there were 1,134 students in the school. 937 (82.6%) students had signs and symptoms. of the 568 (60.6%, 568/93 ...201121992857
systematic review: the use of proton pump inhibitors and increased susceptibility to enteric infection.background: the use of proton pump inhibitors (ppis) is increasing worldwide. suppression of gastric acid alters the susceptibility to enteric bacterial pathogens. aim  this systematic review was undertaken to examine the relationship between ppi use and susceptibility to enteric infections by a specific pathogen based on published literature and to discuss the potential mechanisms of ppi enhanced pathogenesis of enteric infections. methods  pubmed, ovid medline databases were searched. search t ...201121999643
global distribution of shigella sonnei investigate global epidemiology of shigella sonnei, we performed multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 1,672 isolates obtained since 1943 from 50 countries on 5 continents and the pacific region. three major clonal groups were identified; 2 were globally spread. type 18 and its derivatives have circulated worldwide in recent decades.201122000369
antisense inhibition of gene expression and growth in gram-negative bacteria by cell-penetrating peptide conjugates of peptide nucleic acids targeted to rpod gene.gram-negative bacteria (gnb) cause common and severe hospital- and community-acquired infections with a high incidence of multidrug resistance (mdr) and mortality. the emergence and spread of mdr-gnb strains limit therapeutic options and highlight the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. in this study, the peptide (rxr)(4)xb- and (kff)(3)k-conjugated peptide nucleic acids (ppnas) were developed to target rpod, which encodes an rna polymerase primary σ(70) that is thought to be essential f ...201122000398
Morning Glory Resin Glycosides as Modulators of Antibiotic Activity in Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.Twenty-six microbiologically inactive (MIC >?512?µg/mL) convolvulaceous resin glycosides ( 1- 26) were tested for resistance modulatory activity IN VITRO against ESCHERICHIA COLI Rosetta-gami and two nosocomial pathogens, SALMONELLA TYPHI and SHIGELLA FLEXNERI. These compounds exerted a potentiation effect of the clinically useful antibiotics tetracycline, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol against the tested gram-negative bacteria by increasing antibiotic susceptibility up to 32-fold at concent ...201122002849
toxic megacolon.toxic megacolon represents a dreaded complication of mainly inflammatory or infectious conditions of the colon. it is most commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), i.e., ulcerative colitis or ileocolonic crohn's disease. lately, the epidemiology has shifted toward infectious causes, specifically due to an increase of clostridium difficile-associated colitis possibly due to the extensive (ab)use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. other important infectious etiologies include salmone ...201122009735
the role of oxyr and soxrs in oxidative stress survival in shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri, a facultative intracellular pathogen, is exposed to a variety of environments inside and outside of the human host. some of these environments may contain significant oxidative stress. s. flexneri mutants were generated with deletions in the major oxidative stress regulators oxyr and/or soxrs to test their importance in shigella biology. strains that contained a deletion of oxyr had reduced growth and survival during aerobic growth, but not microaerobic growth. the mutants wer ...201122015257
cloning, characterization and evaluation of potent inhibitors of shigella sonnei acetohydroxyacid synthase catalytic subunit.acetohydroxyacid synthase (ahas) is a thiamin diphosphate (thdp)- and flavin adenine dinucleotide (fad)-dependent plant and microbial enzyme that catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of essential amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine. to identify strong potent inhibitors against shigella sonnei (s. sonnei) ahas, we cloned and characterized the catalytic subunit of s. sonnei ahas and found two potent chemicals (khg20612, khg25240) that inhibit 87-93% s. sonnei ahas act ...201122015678
Acid-bile, antibiotic resistance and inhibitory properties of propionibacteria isolated from Turkish traditional home-made cheeses.In this study, a total of 29 Propionibacterium spp. were isolated from traditional home-made Turkish cheese samples. As a result of the identification, isolates were identified as Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii (15 strains), Propionibacterium jensenii (12), and Propionibacterium thoenii (2). All isolates and 5 reference strains were examined for their abilities to survive at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and in the presence of 0.06, 0.15 and 0.30% bile salts, their influence on t ...201122019987
characterization and comparative genomic analysis of a novel bacteriophage, sfp10, simultaneously inhibiting both salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7.salmonella enterica and escherichia coli o157:h7 are major food-borne pathogens causing serious illness. phage sfp10, which revealed effective infection of both s. enterica and e. coli o157:h7, was isolated and characterized. sfp10 contains a 158-kb double-stranded dna genome belonging to the vi01 phage-like family myoviridae. in vitro adsorption assays showed that the adsorption constant rates to both salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and e. coli o157:h7 were 2.50 × 10(-8) ml/min and 1.91 ...201222020516
a case of reactive arthritis after salmonella enteritis in in a 12-year-old boy.reactive arthritis comprises a subgroup within infection-associated arthritides in genetically susceptible hosts. researchers and clinicians recognize two clinical forms of reactive arthritis which occurs after genitourinary tract infection and after gastrointestinal tract infection. chlamydia infection has been implicated as the most common agent associated with post-venereal reactive arthritis. studies have proposed shigella infection, salmonella infection, or yersinia infection as the microor ...201122025926
Misidentification of a commensal inactive Escherichia coli as Shigella sonnei by an automated system in a critically ill patient.Though automated identification and sensitivity testing has established itself as a standard in many high throughput clinical microbiology laboratories, misidentification by the automated systems can also happen.201122029193
a proteogenomic analysis of shigella flexneri using 2d lc-maldi tof/ strategies for high-throughput sequencing are constantly appearing, leading to a great increase in the number of completely sequenced genomes. unfortunately, computational genome annotation is out of step with this progress. thus, the accurate annotation of these genomes has become a bottleneck of knowledge acquisition.201122032405
Within-species lateral genetic transfer and the evolution of transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli and Shigella.Changes in transcriptional regulation underlie many of the phenotypic differences observed within and between species of bacteria. Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) can significantly impact the transcription factor (TF) genes which drive these transcriptional changes. Although much emphasis has been placed on LGT of intact genes, the units of transfer and recombination do not necessarily correspond to regions delineated by exact gene boundaries. Here we apply phylogenetic and network-based methods ...201122035052
Crystal Structure of the VapBC Toxin-Antitoxin Complex from Shigella flexneri Reveals a Hetero-Octameric DNA-Binding Assembly.Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are common in archaea and prokaryotes and allow cells to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions through release of active regulators of metabolism. Many toxins are endonucleases that target cellular mRNA and tRNAs, while the antitoxins tightly wrap around the toxins to inhibit them under normal circumstances. The antitoxins also bind to operators in the promoter regions of the cognate TA operon and thereby regulate transcription. For enteric vapBC TA loci, t ...201122037005
The scope of phage display for membrane proteins.Numerous examples of phage display applied to soluble proteins demonstrate the power of the technique for protein engineering, affinity reagent discovery and structure-function studies. Recent reports have expanded phage display to include membrane proteins (MPs). The scope and limitations of MP display remain undefined. Therefore, we report data from the phage display of representative types of membrane-associated proteins including plasma, nuclear, peripheral, single and multipass. The periphe ...201122037583
validation of the h2s method to detect bacteria of fecal origin by cultured and molecular methods.using biochemical and molecular methods, this research determined whether or not the h(2)s test did correctly identify sewage-contaminated waters by being the first to use culturing and molecular methods to identify the types and numbers of fecal indicator organisms, pathogens, and other microbes present in sewage samples with positive h(2)s test results. for the culture-based method, samples were analyzed for the presence of fecal bacteria by spread plating the sewage sample onto differential a ...201122038242
bacterial aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases and antimicrobial resistance in dhaka, bangladesh, 2005-2008.summaryinfectious diarrhoea caused by bacterial pathogens contributes to the high level of mortality in developing countries like bangladesh. following standard bacteriological procedures, a total of 14 428 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 56 132 stool samples and rectal swabs collected from diarrhoeal patients between 2005 and 2008. the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility data were retrospectively analysed for these isolates and among them vibrio spp. (42·9%) were the most ...201122040529
intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in gondar teaching hospital, northwest ethiopia.abstract:201122041102
rates of mutation and host transmission for an escherichia coli clone over 3 years.although over 50 complete escherichia coli/shigella genome sequences are available, it is only for closely related strains, for example the o55:h7 and o157:h7 clones of e. coli, that we can assign differences to individual evolutionary events along specific lineages. here we sequence the genomes of 14 isolates of a uropathogenic e. coli clone that persisted for 3 years within a household, including a dog, causing a urinary tract infection (uti) in the dog after 2 years. the 20 mutations observed ...201122046404
[Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide.201122046776
salmonella typhimurium-specific bacteriophage φsh19 and the origins of species specificity in the vi01-like phage family.whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. trials involving the biosanitization of salmonella typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, φsh19.201122047448
Exploration of in vitro time point quantitative evaluation of newly synthesized benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives as potential antibacterial agents.Present communication deals with the in vitro time point quantitative antibacterial evaluation of newly synthesized 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazoles (3a-p) and 2-substituted benzothiazoles (5a-h) against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli. These compounds were synthesized under mild reaction conditions using Al(2)O(3)-Fe(2)O(3) nanocrystals as heterogeneous catalyst. Bio-evaluation s ...201122047695
microbial aspects of protein recovery from meat industry by-products.a significant reduction in the number of micro-organisms associated with the bovine meat by-products, lung, rumen and blood plasma, was noted after their alkali-extractable proteins had been spun into a fibrous form. most of the effect was found when the protein was coagulated in a 10% acetic acid/10% sodium chloride bath. whereas the approximate shelf-life of raw rumen and lung was three and four days, respectively (at 0°c), proteins isolated from these tissues were relatively stable and could ...197922055264
Detection of diarrhoeal pathogens in human faeces using an automated, robotic platform.Infectious diarrhoeal diseases represent a major socio-economic burden to humans, and are linked to a range of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and protists. The accurate detection of such pathogens is central to control. However, detection often relies on methods that have limited diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Here, we assessed an automated, robotic platform for the simultaneous detection of eight major pathogens associated with infectious diarrhoea. Genomic DNA samples (n = 167 ...201122056326
application of a multiplex pcr for the simultaneous detection of escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella and shigella in raw and ready-to-eat meat products.escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella and shigella might contaminate similar types of meat products and cause deadly diseases in humans. traditional microbiological analyses to detect these pathogens are labor-intensive and time-consuming. the objective of this study was to apply a multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of the pathogenic bacteria in certain raw and ready-to-eat meat matrices. the tested samples had aerobic plate counts ranging from non-detectable, in chicken nuggets and salami, ...200522064243
serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates): biogenesis and function.serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates) constitute a large family of proteases secreted by escherichia coli and shigella. spates exhibit two distinct proteolytic activities. first, a c-terminal catalytic site triggers an intra-molecular cleavage that releases the n-terminal portion of these proteins in the extracellular medium. second, the secreted n-terminal domains of spates are themselves proteases; each contains a canonical serine-protease catalytic site. some of thes ...201022069633
shiga toxin is transported into the nucleoli of intestinal epithelial cells via a carrier-dependent process.shiga toxin (stx) produced by the invasive shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae1) causes gastrointestinal and kidney complications. it has been assumed that stx is released intracellularly after enterocyte invasion by s. dysenteriae1. however, there is little information about stx distribution inside s. dysenteriae1-infected enterocytes. here, we use intestinal epithelial t84 cells to characterize the trafficking of stx delivered into the cytosol, in ways that mimic aspects of s. dyse ...201022069640
shiga toxins: intracellular trafficking to the er leading to activation of host cell stress responses.despite efforts to improve hygenic conditions and regulate food and drinking water safety, the enteric pathogens, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) and shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 remain major public health concerns due to widespread outbreaks and the severity of extra-intestinal diseases they cause, including acute renal failure and central nervous system complications. shiga toxins are the key virulence factors expressed by these pathogens mediating extra-intestinal disease. de ...201022069648
up-regulation of muc2 and il-1β expression in human colonic epithelial cells by shigella and its interaction with mucins.the entire gastrointestinal tract is protected by a mucous layer, which contains complex glycoproteins called mucins. muc2 is one such mucin that protects the colonic mucosa from invading microbes. the initial interaction between microbes and mucins is an important step for microbial pathogenesis. hence, it was of interest to investigate the relationship between host (mucin) and pathogen interaction, including shigella induced expression of muc2 and il-1β during shigellosis.201122073249
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