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antibacterial activity of the enniatin b, produced by fusarium tricinctum in liquid culture, and cytotoxic effects on caco-2 cells.the enniatins (ens) are bioactive compounds of hexadepsipeptidic structure produced by several strains of fusarium sp. the en b was purified from extracts of fusarium tricinctum growth on liquid culture of potato dextrose broth (pdb), using a semipreparative liquid chromatography (lc) followed by an analytical lc. the purity and the structure of the isolated compound were confirmed by the determination of the extinction coefficient and with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (esi-ms) stud ...201121417626
genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance in shigella dysenteriae and shigella boydii strains isolated from children aged <5 years in egypt.summarydiversity within shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in egypt aged <5 years was investigated. shigella-associated diarrhoea occurred mainly in summer months and in children aged <3 years, it commonly presented with vomiting and fever. serotypes 7 (30%), 2 (28%), and 3 (23%) accounted for most of s. dysenteriae isolates; 50% of s. boydii isolates were serotype 2. s. dysenteriae and s. boydii isolates were often resistant to ampicillin, chlor ...201121470441
new developments in traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. more than 60% of td cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing escherichia coli, shigella, campylobacter, salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and noncholera vibrios. noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility t ...201121475415
[invasive gastroenteritis, anything new?].invasive gastroenteritis is characterized by fever and inflammatory diarrhea and can be caused by nontyphoideal salmonella serotypes and shigella spp.-enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec), among other pathogens. this review describes emerging monophasic variants of salmonella enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:- and provides an evolutionary consideration of shigella spp.-eiec as a single pathotype. in 1997, a monophasic variant of s. enterica serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:-, phage-type u302, multidrug res ...201121458713
assessment of the antibacterial activity and the antidiarrheal function of flavonoids from bayberry fruit.chinese bayberry fruits are used as a folk medicine to cure diarrhea. however, the active compounds have not yet been reported. we found that bayberry fruit extract showed significant antibacterial activity against salmonella, listeria, and shigella, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) ranged from 2.07 to 8.28 mg/ml. positive relationships were found between the antibacterial activity and the total polyphenol (r = 0.88) and flavonoid contents (r = 0.92) of samples using different extr ...201121469731
antagonistic bacteria from live corals, tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india.the objective of this study is to isolate and production of secondary metabolites with bioactive substances by coral reef (acropora formosa and favia palida) associated bacteria was carried out from the tuticorin coastal waters, southeastern india. the isolated coral associated bacteria were found to have an antagonistic effect against 10 human pathogens. the pathogens were escherichia coli, shigella dysentriae, staphylococcus epidermidis, s. aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aerogenosa ...201121454167
behavior of salmonella typhimurium, staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, and shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei during production of pulque, a traditional mexican beverage.pulque is a typical fermented alcoholic beverage of central mexico, produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. production systems are largely artisanal, with inadequate hygiene conditions and exposure to multiple contamination sources. no data exist on pulque microbiological safety and the behavior of pathogenic microorganisms in agave nectar and pulque. an initial trial was done of the behavior of salmonella typhimurium, staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, and shigella flexneri ...201121477472
phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of vernonia ambigua, vernonia blumeoides and vernonia oocephala (asteraceae).some vernonia species (vernonia ambigua, vernonia blumeoides and vernonia oocephala) used in northern nigerian traditional medicine, were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. the antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method as outlined by the nccls was carried out on klebsiella pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, corynbacterium ulcerans, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), salmonella typhi, pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigel ...201121485703
outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in the orthodox jewish community of antwerp, belgium, april to august 2008.in the beginning of april 2008 three cases of shigella sonnei infection were identified among the orthodox jewish community of antwerp, belgium. we conducted a descriptive study and a household cohort study to identify potential risk factors. stool samples were cultured and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined. between april and august 2008, 42 cases were registered. all characterised isolates (n=20) shared an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and were indist ...201121492526
zidovudine (azt) has a bactericidal effect on enterobacteria and induces genetic modifications in resistant strains.the spread of multiresistant bacteria increases the need for new antibiotics. the observation that some nucleoside analogues have antibacterial activity led us to further investigate the antimicrobial activity and resistance of zidovudine (azt). we determined the minimum inhibition concentration (mic), studied time-kill curves, induced resistant bacteria and sequenced the gene for thymidine kinase. we demonstrate that azt has a bactericidal effect on some enterobacteria. however, azt could induc ...201121494911
dissemination of ndm-1 positive bacteria in the new delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.not all patients infected with ndm-1-positive bacteria have a history of hospital admission in india, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases are known to be circulating in the indian community. we therefore measured the prevalence of the ndm-1 gene in drinking water and seepage samples in new delhi.201121478057
corn flake-like morphology of iron nanoparticles and its antibacterial property. 201121478648
shigella targets t cells.using a syringe-like device, shigella delivers an array of virulence factors into host cells to facilitate bacterial colonization and disable the host's innate immune defense. in this issue of cell host & microbe, konradt and colleagues (konradt et al., 2011) show that shigella also subverts adaptive immunity by targeting t cells through a mechanism involving pip(2) breakdown.201121501822
the shigella flexneri type three secretion system effector ipgd inhibits t cell migration by manipulating host phosphoinositide metabolism.shigella, the gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium that causes shigellosis, relies on its type iii secretion system (ttss) and injected effectors to modulate host cell functions. however, consequences of the interaction between shigella and lymphocytes have not been investigated. we show that shigella invades activated human cd4(+) t lymphocytes. invasion requires a functional ttss and results in inhibition of chemokine-induced t cell migration, an effect mediated by the ttss effector ipgd, a ...201121501826
enteric virulence associated protein vapc inhibits translation by cleavage of initiator trna.eukaryotic pin (pilt n-terminal) domain proteins are ribonucleases involved in quality control, metabolism and maturation of mrna and rrna. the majority of prokaryotic pin-domain proteins are encoded by the abundant vapbc toxin-antitoxin loci and inhibit translation by an unknown mechanism. here we show that enteric vapcs are site-specific endonucleases that cleave trna(fmet) in the anticodon stem-loop between nucleotides +38 and +39 in vivo and in vitro. consistently, vapc inhibited translation ...201121502523
an integrated approach for finding overlooked genes in shigella.the completion of numerous genome sequences introduced an era of whole-genome study. however, many genes are missed during genome annotation, including small rnas (srnas) and small open reading frames (sorfs). in order to improve genome annotation, we aimed to identify novel srnas and sorfs in shigella, the principal etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery.201121483688
functional domains and motifs of bacterial type iii effector proteins and their roles in infection.a key feature of the virulence of many bacterial pathogens is the ability to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic cells via a dedicated type three secretion system (t3ss). many bacterial pathogens, including species of chlamydia, xanthomonas, pseudomonas, ralstonia, shigella, salmonella, escherichia and yersinia, depend on the t3ss to cause disease. t3ss effectors constitute a large and diverse group of virulence proteins that mimic eukaryotic proteins in structure and function. a salient f ...201121517912
a novel vinculin binding site of the ipaa invasin of shigella.internalization of shigella into host epithelial cells, where the bacteria replicates and spreads to neighboring cells, requires a type 3 secretion system (t3ss) effector coined ipaa. ipaa binds directly to and activates the cytoskeletal protein vinculin after injection in the host cell cytosol and heretofore this was thought to be directed by two amphipathic α-helical vinculin binding sites (vbs) found in the c-terminal tail domain of ipaa. here we report a third vbs, ipaa-vbs3, that is located ...201121525010
microbiological quality of grey-mullet roe.the greek grey-mullet roe is produced from the fully developed gonads of the female mullet (mugil cephalus) couth in lagoons during their reproductive migration. the traditional processing method of the roe includes, air drying, salting, shape formation and covering with multiple layers of natural beeswax for preservation and distribution. fish roe brands have been a staple in local diet and is increasingly becoming popular in the international market. as a ready-to-eat food it's microbial quali ...201121497664
a unique arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase found within a genomic island associated with the uropathogenicity of escherichia coli cft073.previous studies showed that deletion of genes c3405 to c3410 from pai-metv, a genomic island from escherichia coli cft073, results in a strain that fails to compete with wild-type cft073 after a transurethral cochallenge in mice and is deficient in the ability to independently colonize the mouse kidney. our analysis of c3405 to c3410 suggests that these genes constitute an operon with a role in the internalization and utilization of an unknown carbohydrate. this operon is not found in e. coli k ...201121498648
evaluation of low-copy genetic targets for waterborne bacterial pathogen detection via qpcr.recent developments in water quality research have highlighted difficulties in accurately predicting the incidence of pathogens within freshwater based on the viability, culturability and metabolic activity of indicator organisms. qpcr-driven assays are candidates to replace standard culture-based methods, however, protocols suitable for routine use have yet to be sufficiently validated. the objective of this study was to evaluate five oligonucleotide primers sets (etir, sinv, exot, vs1 and ipah ...201121514618
synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of new compounds incorporating oxindole nucleus.new compounds incorporating with the oxindole nucleus were synthesized via the reaction of substituted isatins [5-methyl-, 5-chloro- and 1-hydroxymethyl isatins] with different nucleophiles. the structures of the newly compounds were elucidated on the basis of ftir, (1)h nmr, (13)cmr spectral data, gc/ms and chemical analysis. investigation of antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was evaluated using broth dilution technique in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) count against ...201121534861
synthesis, characterization and biological studies of sulfonamide schiff's bases and some of their metal derivatives.a new series of schiff base ligands derived from sulfonamide and their metal(ii) complexes [cobalt(ii), copper(ii), nickel(ii) and zinc(ii)] have been synthesized and characterized. the nature of bonding and structure of all the synthesized compounds has been explored by physical, analytical and spectral data of the ligands and their metal(ii) complexes. the authors suggest that all the prepared complexes possess an octahedral geometry. the ligands and metal(ii) complexes have been screened for ...201121534864
synthesis, antibacterial activity and quantum-chemical studies of novel 2-arylidenehydrazinyl-4-arylthiazole analogues.a new series of 2-arylidenehydrazinyl-4-arylthiazole derivatives (2a-k) was designed and synthesized through a rapid, simple, and efficient methodology in excellent isolated yield. these compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activities against eight bacteria, e.g. bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, bacillus megaterium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella typhi, escherichia coli, and three fungi e.g. aspergillus oryzae, candida albicans, a ...201121532194
osmosonication of blackberry juice: impact on selected pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and main quality parameters.osmosonication combines ultrasound with nonthermal concentration. it was applied on tropical highland blackberry (rubus adenotrichus) juice over different periods of time to assess reductions in microorganism and the impact on main quality parameters. this juice had been inoculated with salmonella spp., shigella sp., a lactic acid bacterium, yeasts, and molds. it was then sonicated for 5.9 to 34.1 min at 20 khz and 0.83 w/ml. nonthermal concentration was simulated by mixing the juice with a conc ...201021535558
whole-genome phylogeny of escherichia coli/shigella group by feature frequency profiles (ffps).a whole-genome phylogeny of the escherichia coli/shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (ffp) method. this alignment-free approach uses the frequencies of l-mer features of whole genomes to infer phylogenic distances. we present two phylogenies that accentuate different aspects of e. coli/shigella genomic evolution: (i) one based on the compositions of all possible features of length l = 24 (∼8.4 million features), which are likely to reveal the phenetic grouping a ...201121536867
rapid situation & response assessment of diarrhoea outbreak in a coastal district following tropical cyclone aila in india.background & objectives : cyclone aila hit indian states on eastern coast on may 25, 2009. an investigation was conducted to examine if aila was responsible for increased reporting of diarrhoea cases from the district of east-medinipur in west bengal. identifying causative organisms for diarrhoea and assessing their antibiotic susceptibility profile were other objectives. methods: rapid situation and response assessment technique was employed to triangulate primary and secondary data collected t ...201121537092
lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human colonic mucosal biopsy inhibits the growth and adhesion of enteric and foodborne pathogens.a number of lactobacillus species are used as probiotic strains in order to benefit health. we have isolated l. fermentum from human colonic mucosal biopsy samples that possess antimicrobial activities against entroinvasive and foodborne pathogens such as escherichia coli, salmonella paratyphi a, shigella sonnei, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vibrio sp. in addition to lactic acid, l. fermentum secretes antimicrobial proteinacious com ...201021535608
development of a new guinea-pig model of shigellosis.shigellosis is a major form of bacillary dysentery caused by shigella spp. to date, there is no suitable animal model to evaluate the protective efficacy of vaccine candidates against this pathogen. here, we describe a successful experimental shigellosis in the guinea-pig model, which has shown the characteristic features of human shigellosis. this model yielded reproducible results without any preparatory treatment besides cecal ligation. in this study, guinea-pigs were discretely infected with ...201121539623
evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in brassica vegetables.this study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 gram-positive bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) and 7 gram-negative bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella choleaesuis, salmonella enterica, serratia marcescens, shigella sonnei, and vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. benzyl isothiocyanate ...201021535549
effect of nacl on the biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens.this study was designed to evaluate the effect of nacl on the biofilm formation of listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, shigella boydii, and salmonella typhimurium. the biofilm cells were cultured in media containing different nacl concentrations (0% to 10%) for 10 d of incubation at 37 °c using a 24-well polystyrene microtiter plate, collected by swabbing methods, and enumerated using plate count method. the attachment and detachment kinetic patterns were estimated according to the mo ...201021535614
toxic megacolon from sexually transmitted shigella sonnei infection. 201121538050
food-specific attribution of selected gastrointestinal illnesses: estimates from a canadian expert elicitation survey.abstract the study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of food-specific attribution for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in canada. it was based on a similar survey conducted in the united states and focused on campylobacter spp., escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal salmonella enterica, shigella spp., vibrio spp., yersinia enterocolitica, cryptosporidium parvum, and norwalk-like virus. a snowball approach was used to identify food ...201121561379
the decoupling between genetic structure and metabolic phenotypes in escherichia coli leads to continuous phenotypic diversity.to assess the extent of intra-species diversity and the links between phylogeny, lifestyle (habitat and pathogenicity) and phenotype, we assayed the growth yield on 95 carbon sources of 168 escherichia strains. we also correlated the growth capacities of 14 e. coli strains with the presence/absence of enzyme-coding genes. globally, we found that the genetic distance, based on multilocus sequence typing data, was a weak indicator of the metabolic phenotypic distance. besides, lifestyle and phylog ...201121569155
a tecpr1-dependent selective autophagy pathway targets bacterial pathogens.selective autophagy of bacterial pathogens represents a host innate immune mechanism. selective autophagy has been characterized on the basis of distinct cargo receptors but the mechanisms by which different cargo receptors are targeted for autophagic degradation remain unclear. in this study we identified a highly conserved tectonin domain-containing protein, tecpr1, as an atg5 binding partner that colocalized with atg5 at shigella-containing phagophores. tecpr1 activity is necessary for effici ...201121575909
a shigella boydii bacteriophage which resembles salmonella phage vii.abstract: background: lytic bacteriophages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens. sequencing of their genomes is considered as an important preliminary step to ensure their safety prior to food applications. results: the lytic bacteriophage, phisbom-ag3, targets the important foodborne pathogen, shigella. it is morphologically similar to phage vii of salmonella enterica serovar typhi and a series of phages of acinetobacter calcoaceticus and rhizobium ...201121595934
shigella sonnei vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are as immunogenic as wrss1, a clinically tested vaccine candidate, in a primate model of infection.shigella causes diarrhea and dysentery through contaminated food and water. shigella sonnei live vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are attenuated principally by the loss of virg(icsa) that prevents bacterial spread within the colonic epithelium. in this respect they are similar to the clinically tested vaccine candidate wrss1. however, wrss2 and wrss3 are further attenuated by loss of sena, senb and wrss3 also lacks msbb2. as previously shown in cell culture assays and in small animal models, t ...201121596086
transient suppression of shigella flexneri type 3 secretion by a protective o-antigen-specific monoclonal iga.abstract mucosal immunity to the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri is mediated by secretory iga (s-iga) antibodies directed against the o-antigen (o-ag) side chain of lipopolysaccharide. while secretory antibodies against the o-ag are known to prevent bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. in this study, we report that the binding of a murine monoclonal iga (igac5) to the o-ag of s. flexneri serotype 5a suppresses activity ...201121610121
dynamic aspects of antibody:oligosaccharide complexes characterized by molecular dynamics simulations and std-nmr.carbohydrates are likely to maintain significant conformational flexibility in antibody:carbohydrate complexes. as demonstrated herein for the protective monoclonal antibody f22-4 recognizing the shigella flexneri 2a o-antigen and numerous synthetic oligosaccharide fragments thereof, the combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nmr saturation transfer difference experiments, supported by physicochemical analysis, allows to determine the binding epitope and its various contributions to a ...201121610193
identification of small-molecule inhibitors of yersinia pestis type iii secretion system yscn atpase.yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. the pathogen uses a type iii secretion system (t3ss) to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. the system contains a single atpase, yscn, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. in this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscn gene in y. pestis co92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the swiss-webster ...201121611119
bacterial load of fresh vegetables and their resistance to the currently used antibiotics in saudi arabia.abstract this study was carried out to describe the bacterial load and the occurrence of some disease-causing enteric bacteria on raw vegetables sold in saudi markets. the study further aimed to analyze antibiotic resistance rates, production of extended-spectrum beta lactamase, and plasmid carriage among bacterial population of raw vegetables. results revealed that none of them contained bacillus cereus, salmonella, and escherichia coli o157:h7. however, staphylococcus aureus and shigella were ...201121612423
a novel compound from the marine bacterium bacillus pumilus s6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in gram-positive and gram-negative species.biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. the aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant gram-positive and gram-negative biofilms. the bacterial extract (50 μg ml(-1)) of s6-01 (bacillus indicus = mtcc 5559) showed 80-90% biofilm inhibition against escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, proteus mirabilis and s6-15 (ba ...201121614700
prevalence of the plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants among clinical isolates of shigella sp. in andaman & nicobar islands, india.aims:  the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of various plasmid mediated quinolone resistant (pmqr) determinants among the quinolone resistant clinical isolates of shigella sp. from pediatric patients in andaman & nicobar islands. methods and results:  a total of 106 quinolone resistant shigella isolates obtained from pediatric patients during hospital based surveillance from january 2003 to june 2010 were screened for the presence of various pmqr determinants. out of 106 isol ...201121615433
complete (1)h and (13)c nmr chemical shift assignments of mono-, di-, and trisaccharides as basis for nmr chemical shift predictions of polysaccharides using the computer program casper.the computer program casper uses (1)h and (13)c nmr chemical shift data of mono- to trisaccharides for the prediction of chemical shifts of oligo- and polysaccharides. in order to improve the quality of these predictions the (1)h and (13)c, as well as (31)p when applicable, nmr chemical shifts of 30 mono-, di-, and trisaccharides were assigned. the reducing sugars gave two distinct sets of nmr resonances due to the α- and β-anomeric forms. in total 35 (1)h and (13)c nmr chemical shift data sets ...201121621752
effects of probiotic fermentation on the enhancement of biological and pharmacological activities of codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment.this study was designed to evaluate the enhancement of antioxidant, antimicrobial, enzymatic, cytotoxic, and cognitive activities of codonopsis lanceolata extracted by high pressure treatment followed by probiotic fermentation. dried c. lanceolata samples were subjected to 400mpa for 20min and then fermented with bifidobacterium longum b6 (hpe-blf) and lactobacillus rhamnosus (hpe-lrf) at 37°c for 7days. compared to conventional extraction (ce-nf, 6.69mg gae/g), the phenol amounts of hpe-blf and ...201121543255
evaluation of the selective and differential et medium for detection of edwardsiella tarda in aquaculture systems.aims:  edwardsiella tarda is an important pathogen in aquaculture where it can cause serious losses. a rapid detection of it is vital to minimize the mortalities caused by this disease, and in this work, the effectiveness of the selective differential edw. tarda medium (et) was evaluated for the diagnosis of edwardsiellosis as well as for its possible use in epidemiological studies. methods and results:  et medium was evaluated in parallel with the commercial salmonella-shigella agar (ss), which ...201121554344
human immunodeficiency virus-associated gastrointestinal disease: common endoscopic biopsy diagnoses.the gastrointestinal (gi) tract is a major site of disease in hiv infection: almost half of hiv-infected patients present with gi symptoms, and almost all patients develop gi complications. gi symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea are frequent and usually nonspecific among these patients. endoscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for most hiv-associated gi diseases, as endoscopic and histopathologic evaluation can render diagnoses in patien ...201121559197
medical microbiologyrickettsiae are small, gram-negative bacilli that have evolved in such close association with arthropod hosts that they are adapted to survive within the host cells. they represent a rather diverse collection of bacteria, and therefore listing characteristics that apply to the entire group is difficult. the common threads that hold the rickettsiae into a group are their epidemiology, their obligate intracellular life ...199621413251
synthesis, characterization and biological properties of thienyl derived triazole schiff bases and their oxovanadium(iv) complexes.a new series of biologically active thienyl derived triazole schiff bases and their oxovanadium(iv) complexes have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of physical (m.p., magnetic susceptibility and conductivity), spectral (ir, (1)h and (13)c nmr, electronic and mass spectrometry) and microanalytical data. all the schiff base ligands and their oxovanadium(iv) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity against four gram-negative (escherichia coli, shigella flexner ...201121635212
medical microbiologyescherichia coli is a common member of the normal flora of the large intestine. as long as these bacteria do not acquire genetic elements encoding for virulence factors, they remain benign commensals. strains that acquire bacteriophage or plasmid dna encoding enterotoxins or invasion factors become virulent and can cause either a plain, watery diarrhea or an inflammatory dysentery. these diseases are most familiar to westerners as traveler's diarrhea, but they are also major health problems in e ...199621413261
production of bioactive sheep β-defensin-1 in pichia pastoris.previous research has shown that sheep β-defensin-1 (sbd-1), a small cationic peptide with a broad range of antimicrobial activities, could inhibit the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi. in order to increase the yield of current ovine defensin purification methods, mature sbd-1 (msbd-1) was added with a 6-his tag on the c-terminus (msbd-1-t) and expressed in pichia pastoris in the presented work. the msbd-1 and msbd-1-t were expressed in the pichia ...201121643707
p62 and ndp52 target intracytosolic shigella and listeria to different autophagy pathways.autophagy is an important mechanism of innate immune defense. we have recently shown that autophagy components are recruited with septins, a new and increasingly characterized cytoskeleton component, to intracytosolic shigella that have started to polymerize actin. on the other hand, intracytosolic listeria avoids autophagy recognition by expressing acta, a bacterial effector required for actin polymerization. here we exploit shigella and listeria as intracytosolic tools to characterize differen ...201121646350
medical microbiologygram-negative, facultative anaerobes of the genus shigella are the principal agents of bacillary dysentery. this disease differs from profuse watery diarrhea, as is commonly seen in choleraic diarrhea or in enterotoxigenic escherichia coli diarrhea, in that the dysenteric stool is scant and contains blood, mucus, and inflammatory cells. in some individuals suffering from shigellosis, however, moderate volume diarrhea is a prodrome or the sole manifestation of the infection. bacillary dysentery c ...199621413292
development of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification-rflp (mlamp-rflp) to detect salmonella spp. and shigella spp. in milk.a multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification-rflp (mlamp-rflp) was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of salmonella strains and shigella strains in milk. in this system, two sets of lamp primers were designed to specifically target inva of salmonella spp. and ipah of shigella spp. under isothermal conditions at 63 °c, ladder pattern of dna bands could be amplified within 60 min in the presence of genomic dnas of salmonella strains and shigella strains, which could be distin ...201121652102
gisul2, a genomic island carrying the sul2 sulphonamide resistance gene and the small mobile element cr2 found in the enterobacter cloacae subspecies cloacae type strain atcc 13047 from 1890, shigella flexneri atcc 700930 from 1954 and acinetobacter baumannii atcc 17978 from 1951. 201121653606
a 9-year study of shigellosis in northeast malaysia: antimicrobial susceptibility and shifting species dominance.aims: in malaysia, shigella spp. is the third most common bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of shigella spp. isolated from patients admitted to the hospital universiti sains malaysia from january 2001 to december 2009. subjects and methods: a hospital-based retrospective study was used. stool samples from patients were cultured using a standard culture method. shigella spp. isolates ...201121654922
medical microbiologybacteria are classified and identified to distinguish one organism from another and to group similar organisms by criteria of interest to microbiologists or other scientists. the most important level of this type of classification is the species level. a species name should mean the same thing to everyone. within one species, strains and subgroups can differ by the disease they produce, their environmental habitat, a ...199621413329
genetic characteristics and changing antimicrobial resistance among shigella spp isolated from hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in kolkata, india.to study the prevalence pattern and trends in the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of shigellae, we tested 212 isolates isolated from diarrhoeal patients admitted at the infectious diseases hospital, kolkata, india from november 2007 to october 2009. prevalence of shigella spp was more in more than 5 years age group (69%) than the children >5 years age group (31%). serotypes 2a, 3a and untypable isolates of the subtype s. flexneri were frequently detected. increase in the isolation of s. s ...201121659504
vital signs: incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 u.s. sites, 1996-2010.in the united states, contaminated food causes approximately 1,000 reported disease outbreaks and an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000201121659984
structure-guided investigation of lipopolysaccharide o-antigen chain length regulators reveals regions critical for modal length control.the o-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide (lps) represents a population of polysaccharide molecules with a non-random (modal) chain length distribution. the number of the repeat o-units in each individual o-antigen polymer depends on the wzz chain-length regulator, an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide co-polymerase (pcps) family. different wzz proteins confer vastly different ranges of modal lengths (4 to >100 repeat units) despite having remarkably conserved structu ...201121642455
bacteriophage-encoding cytolethal distending toxin type-v gene induced from non-clinical escherichia coli isolates.cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) is produced by a variety of pathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic serotypes of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec). the cdt family comprises five variants (cdt-i to cdt-v) encoded by three genes located within the chromosome, plasmids or, in the case of cdt-i, within bacteriophages. in this study we evaluated the occurrence of cdt in a collection of 140 environmental stec isolates. cdt was detected in 12.1% of strains, of which five strains carried ...201121646456
modulation of connexin signaling by bacterial pathogens and their toxins.inherent to their pivotal tasks in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, gap junctions, connexin hemichannels, and pannexin hemichannels are frequently involved in the dysregulation of this critical balance. the present paper specifically focuses on their roles in bacterial infection and disease. in particular, the reported biological outcome of clinically important bacteria including escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, yersinia enterocolitica, helicobacter pylori, bordetella pertussis, aggr ...201121656255
atp-mediated erk1/2 activation stimulates bacterial capture by filopodia, which precedes shigella invasion of epithelial cells.shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery in-áhumans, invades epithelial cells, using a type iii secretory system (t3ss) to inject bacterial effectors into host cells and remodel the actin cytoskeleton. atp released through connexin hemichanels on the epithelial membrane stimulates shigella invasion and dissemination in epithelial cells. here, we show that prior to contact with the cell body, shigella is captured by nanometer-thin micropodial extensions (nmes) at a distance from the c ...201121669399
shigella gets captured to gain entry.the type iii secretion system-dependent epithelial invasion and dissemination of shigella is stimulated by atp released through hemichannels. romero et al. (2011) show that prior to epithelial contact, shigella is captured by nanometer-thin micropodial extensions at a distance from the cell surface, in a process involving atp and connexin-mediated signaling.201121669393
deaths associated with bacterial pathogens transmitted commonly through food: foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet), 1996-2005.foodborne diseases are typically mild and self-limiting but can cause severe illness and death. we describe the epidemiology of deaths associated with bacterial pathogens using data from the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) in the united states.201121673037
phenylbutyrate counteracts shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (amps) that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. oral treatment of shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (nab) reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (cap-18) in the large intestinal epithelia.201121673991
analysis of distribution and significance of simple sequence repeats in enteric bacteria shigella dysenteriae sd197.we have explored the possible role of ssr density in genome to generate biological information. in our study, we have checked the ssr (simple sequence repeats) status in virulent and non virulent genes of enteric bacteria to see whether the ssrs distribution contributes to virulence. the genome, plasmid and virulent genes sequences in fasta format were downloaded from ncbi genbank and vfdb. the sequences were subjected to ssr analysis using software tool ssr.exe. the resulting data was pasted in ...201121814393
a live noninvasive shigella dysenteriae 1 strain induces homologous protective immunity in a guinea pig colitis model.a noninvasive live transconjugant shigella hybrid (ltsh?stx) strain was constructed from a shiga toxin gene deleted mutant of shigella dysenteriae 1 by introducing a plasmid vector ppr1347 that carried a lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene (rfb and rfc) of salmonella typhimurium. in guinea pigs, four successive oral administrations of ltsh?stx showed complete protection against rectal challenge with wild type s. dysenteriae 1 strain. exponential increase of the serum igg and iga titer against l ...201121806676
the future is cold: cryo-preparation methods for transmission electron microscopy of cells.our knowledge of the organization of the cell is linked, to a great extent, to light and electron microscopy. choosing either photons or electrons for imaging has many consequences on the image obtained, as well as on the experiment required in order to generate the image. one apparent effect on the experimental side is in the sample preparation, which can be quite elaborate for electron microscopy. in recent years, rapid freezing, cryo-preparation and cryo-electron microscopy have been more wid ...201121812762
physical, chemical and microbiological quality of ice used to cool drinks and foods in greece and its public health implications.ice used for direct human consumption or to preserve foods and cool down drinks can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and may potentially become a vehicle for consumer's infection. to evaluate physical, chemical and microbiological quality of commercial ice and ice used for fish and seafood, 100 ice samples collected at 10 different retail points in the region of epirus were studied. the following microbiological parameters were determined: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonel ...201121802520
[waterborne outbreak of shigella sonnei caused by consumption of public supply water.]objective: to investigate a waterborne outbreak in the population of valència d'àneu (lleida, spain). methods: a cohort study of consumption of mains water, bottled water and spring water was carried out. the sample was obtained by telephone contact with all private numbers in the municipality. we surveyed 58.3% of the population census (105/180) for water consumption, number of glasses drunk daily and symptoms. the water supply in the municipal system was sampled, and the presence of enterobact ...201121802793
the role of tecpr1 in selective autophagy as a cargo receptor.bacterial intrusion of host cells can be recognized by the innate immune system, including autophagy, via multiple cellular pathways. we have identified tecpr1 as an atg5-binding partner, and found that tecpr1 interacts with the atg12-atg5-atg16l1 complex via binding to atg5. in shigella infected cells, tecpr1 colocalizes with atg5 and lc3 at shigella-containing phagophores. tecpr1 activity is required for efficient autophagy to target bacteria, but a deficiency of tecpr1 in host cells does not ...201121795850
multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance.clin microbiol infect abstract: many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (mdr), extensively drug-resistant (xdr) and pandrug-resistant (pdr) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. a group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the european centre for disease prevention and control (ecdc) and the centers for disease control and p ...201121793988
synthesis and studies of novel 2-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethylphenyl amino)-4-(quinoline-4-yloxy)-6-(piperazinyl/piperidinyl)-s-triazines as potential antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and anticancer agents.a series of novel s-triazine analogs were synthesized and characterized by ir, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, (19)f nmr spectroscopy and elemental analysis. preliminary screening of target compounds against eight bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella typhi, proteus vulgaris, shigella flexneria), four fungi (aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus clavatus, candida albicans) and mycobacterium tuberculosis ...201121794959
regulating iron storage and metabolism with rna: an overview of posttranscriptional controls of intracellular iron homeostasis.iron (fe) is a double-edged sword for most living organisms. although it is essential for the catalytic activity of a large number of enzymes, ferrous iron (fe(2+) ) becomes cytotoxic in the presence of normal respiratory by-products such as h(2) o(2) . because of this toxicity, intracellular iron concentrations ought to be regulated by elaborated homeostasis systems that, despite decades of extensive studies, have not yet revealed all of their surprising arrays of mechanistic details. within th ...201121793218
use of pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the effects of probiotics and essential oil blends on digestive microflora in broilers under mixed eimeria infection.abstract a protective digestive microflora helps prevent and reduce broiler infection and colonization by enteropathogens. in the current experiment, broilers fed diets supplemented with probiotics and essential oil (eo) blends were infected with a standard mixed eimeria spp. to determine effects of performance enhancers on ileal and cecal microbial communities (mcs). eight treatment groups included four controls (uninfected-unmedicated [uu], unmedicated-infected, the antibiotic bmd plus the ion ...201121793655
the vibrio cholerae vctpdgc system transports catechol siderophores and a siderophore-free iron ligand.vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has an absolute requirement for iron. it transports the catechol siderophores vibriobactin, which it synthesizes and secretes, and enterobactin. these siderophores are transported across the inner membrane by one of two periplasmic binding protein-dependent abc transporters, vctpdgc or viupdgc. we show here that one of these inner membrane transport systems, vctpdgc, also promotes iron acquisition in the absence of siderophores. plasmids carrying ...201121790806
safety, and immunogenicity of an intranasal shigella flexneri 2a invaplex 50 vaccine.background: shigella flexneri 2a invaplex 50 is a nasally delivered subunit vaccine consisting of a macromolecular complex composed of lps, ipab, ipac and ipad. the current study examined vaccine safety and immunogenicity across a dose range and the clinical performance of a new intranasal delivery device. methods: volunteers (n=36) were randomized to receive vaccine via the dolphin™ (valois of america, congers, new york) intranasal spray device at one of three doses (240, 480, and 690µg) on day ...201121787825
pathogenic bacteria prime the induction of toll-like receptor signalling in human colonic cells by the gal/galnac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain of entamoebahistolytica.in mixed intestinal infections with entamoeba histolytica trophozoites and enteropathogenic bacteria, which are wide-spread in areas of endemic amebiasis, interaction between the pathogens could be an important factor in the occurrence of invasive disease. it has been reported that exposure of human colonic cells to enteropathogenic bacteria increased trophozoite adherence to the cells and their subsequent damage. we report here that the carbohydrate recognition domain (crd) of the amebic gal/ga ...201121787776
multi-functional characteristics of the pseudomonas aeruginosa type iii needle-tip protein, pcrv; comparison to orthologs in other gram-negative bacteria.pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses a type iii secretion system (t3ss) to intoxicate host cells and evade innate immunity. this virulence-related machinery consists of a molecular syringe and needle assembled on the bacterial surface, which allows delivery of t3 effector proteins into infected cells. to accomplish a one-step effector translocation, a tip protein is required at the top end of the t3 needle structure. strains lacking expression of the functional tip protein fail to intoxicate host ce ...201121772833
anti-enteric bacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of the seed kernel extract of mangifera indica linnaeus against shigella dysenteriae (shiga, corrig.) castellani and chalmers.to evaluate the phytochemical and anti-bacterial efficacy of the seed kernel extract of mangifera indica (m. indica) against the enteropathogen, shigella dysenteriae (s. dysenteriae), isolated from the diarrhoeal stool specimens.201121771473
rodz regulates the post-transcriptional processing of the shigella sonnei type iii secretion system.the expression of the type iii secretion system-a main determinant of virulence in shigella-is controlled by regulator cascades virf-inve (virb) and cpxar two-component system. a screen for mutants that restore virulence in the cpxa background led to the isolation of a mutant of rodz, a cytoskeletal protein that maintains the rod-shaped morphology of bacilli. inve is normally repressed at 30 °c because of decreased messenger rna (mrna) stability, but rodz mutants markedly increase inve-mrna stab ...201121779005
antimicrobial resistance pattern of shigella species over five years at a tertiary-care teaching hospital in north india. 201121766566
molecular identification of bacteria by total sequence screening: determining the cause of death in ancient human subjects.research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient dna, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern s ...201121765907
rapid concentration and molecular enrichment approach for sensitive detection of escherichia coli/shigella in potable water samples.in this work, we used a rapid, simple, and efficient concentration and recovery procedure combined with a dna enrichment method (dubbed crename), that we coupled to an escherichia coli/shigella-specific real-time pcr (rtpcr) assay targeting the tuf gene, to sensitively detect e. coli/shigella in water. this integrated method was compared to the usepa culture-based method 1604 on mi agar in terms of analytical specificity, ubiquity, detection limit, and rapidity. none of the 179 non-e. coli/shige ...201121764965
burden of rotavirus and other enteropathogens among children with diarrhea in burkina faso.objective: there is limited information available regarding the etiology of gastrointestinal infections in burkina faso. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of enteric pathogens causing gastroenteritis in young children, with a focus on rotavirus, and to investigate the levels of malnutrition and other clinical factors in association with the severity of diarrhea. methods: a prospective study was undertaken from may 2009 to march 2010, covering the rainy and ...201121763172
shiga toxins induce autophagy leading to differential signalling pathways in toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant human cells.the bacterial virulence factors shiga toxins (stxs) are expressed by shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain escherichia coli strains. stxs are protein synthesis inhibitors and induce apoptosis in many cell types. stxs induce apoptosis via prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling to activate both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in human myeloid cells. studies have shown that autophagy, a lysosome-dependent catabolic process, may be associated with activation of pro-survival or deat ...201121722286
shigella are versatile mucosal pathogens that circumvent the host innate immune system.the intestinal mucosa is equipped with multiple innate immune defense systems that sense bacterial infection, transmit alarm signals to the immune system, defeat intruding bacteria, and renew damaged and aging epithelial cells. nevertheless, mucosal bacterial pathogens have versatile pathogenic mechanisms that modulate the host inflammatory and immune responses, manipulate host cell death and survival signal pathways, and renovate the injured epithelium. these properties enable pathogens to adap ...201121763117
structural characterization and membrane localization of exsb from the type iii secretion system (t3ss) of pseudomonas aeruginosa.pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that employs a finely tuned type iii secretion system (t3ss) to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of target cells. exsb is a 15.6-kda protein encoded in a t3ss transcription regulation operon that displays high sequence similarity to yscw, a lipoprotein from yersinia spp. whose genetic neighborhood also involves a transcriptional regulator, and has been shown to play a role in the stabilization of the outer membrane ring of the t3 ...201121839744
the effect of quercus castaneifolia extract on pathogenic enteric bacteria.the family of enterobacteriaceae is a major group of gram negative bacteria, some of these microorganisms are pathogen and could cause disease mainly gastroenteritis. recently, due to drug resistant nature of these bacteria specially in developing countries treatment of the patient considered as important investigate. quercus castaneifolia is a native plant of yasuj province in iran, which the people who living in this area consume the fruit of this plant for treatment of enteric disease. hence, ...201121827865
molecular characterization of fecal microbiota in patients with viral diarrhea.the study provides molecular analyses of fecal microbiota of diarrhea patients infected with four different types of viruses. fecal specimens from 52 patients with viral diarrhea (13 each of adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) and six healthy individuals were collected and etiological viral agent was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay and specific pcr. to assess the changes in microbial diversity in patients with viral diarrhea, dna from stool were extracted and characterized by pcr-d ...201121739252
acquired antibiotic resistance: are we born with it?the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (ar) is a major public health concern. recent findings on the prevalence of foodborne antibiotic resistant (art) commensal bacteria in ready-to-consume food products suggested that daily food consumption likely serves as a major avenue for disseminating art bacteria from the food chain to the human hosts. to properly assess the impact of various factors including the food chain on ar development in hosts, it is important to determine the baseline of a ...201121821748
viral-associated thrombotic microangiopathies.thrombotic microangiopathies encompass a group of disorders characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia associated with hyaline thrombi (comprised primarily of platelet aggregates in the microcirculation), and varying degrees of end-organ failure. many primary (genetic) and secondary etiological predisposing factors have been described-namely pregnancy, autoimmune disorders, cancer, drugs and antineoplastic therapy, bone marrow transplantation/solid organ transplantation ...201121727765
outer membrane protein a (ompa) of shigella flexneri 2a, induces protective immune response in a mouse model.in our earlier studies 34 kda outer membrane protein (omp) of shigella flexneri 2a has been identified as an efficient immunostimulant.201121818362
studies on the activity of cyperus rotundus linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea.to study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of cyperus rotundus linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. effect on adherence of enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) and invasion of enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec) and shigella flexneri to hep-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic e. ...201121713044
epidemiology of food-borne disease outbreaks in the french armed forces: a review of investigations conducted from 1999 to 2009.objective: aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of food-borne disease outbreaks (fbdos) in the french armed forces from 1999 to 2009. methods: fbdos are reported to the military epidemiological surveillance system, which concerns all active military personnel. investigation reports published from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. results: among the 180 fbdos reported, 48.3% occurred overseas. the mean reporting rate was 2.4 outbreaks p.100,000 in france and 26.7 p.100,000 oversea ...201121840337
single nucleotide polymorphism (snp)-based differentiation of shigella isolates by pyrosequencing.analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) is an important genetic tool that provides molecular markers for rapid differentiation of closely related strains. we have applied snp discovery and analysis for distinguishing each of the four shigella serogroups (boydii, dysenteriae, flexneri, and sonnei) and for discriminating individual strains within the same serogroup by using 24 snps selected from nine genes. five snps were identified from sequence analysis of two housekeeping genes (gapa ...201121839856
antimicrobial activity of gynostemma pentaphyllum extracts against fungi producing aflatoxin and fumonisin and bacteria causing diarrheal disease.gynostemma pentaphyllum was investigated to determine its antimicrobial activities against human.and animal pathogens that produce aflatoxin, fumonisin, and diarrheal disease. the fungi were aspergillusflavus, aspergillus parasiticus and fusarium verticillioides. the bacteria were vibrio, salmonella, shigella, escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus. g. pentaphyllum was extracted by five different methods. the obtained extracts were designated extracts a, b, c, d and e. the results of the ant ...201121706950
a new class of 2-(4-cyanophenyl amino)-4-(6-bromo-4-quinolinyloxy)-6-piperazinyl (piperidinyl)-1,3,5-triazine analogues with antimicrobial/antimycobacterial activity.this study presents the synthesis and in vitro pharmacological evaluations of novel 2-(4-cyanophenyl amino)-4-(6-bromo-4-quinolinyloxy)-6-piperazinyl (piperidinyl)-1,3,5-triazines. the title compounds were assayed for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against eight bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella typhi, proteus vulgaris, shigella flexneria) and four fungi (aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, a ...201121740100
recovery and characterization of environmental variants of shigella flexneri from surface water in bangladesh.little is known about the distribution, survival, and transmission of shigella in environmental surface waters. to gain more insight into the environmental biology of shigella we isolated five bacterial strains serotyped as shigella flexneri 2b from a freshwater lake in bangladesh using a modified nutrient broth supplemented with nucleic acid bases. the biochemical properties of the isolates, including inability to ferment lactose and a negative lysine decarboxylase test, indicated common physio ...201121826486
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