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microarray analysis of shigella flexneri-infected epithelial cells identifies host factors important for apoptosis inhibition.shigella flexneri inhibits apoptosis in infected epithelial cells. in order to understand the pro-survival effects induced by the bacteria, we utilized apoptosis-specific microarrays to analyze the changes in eukaryotic gene expression in both infected and uninfected cells in the presence and absence of staurosporine, a chemical inducer of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. the goal of this research was to identify host factors that contribute to apoptosis inhibition in infected cells.201020429941
bacteriological and parasitological assessment of food handlers in the omdurman area of sudan.pathogenic organisms are thought to be widely distributed among food handlers. this study was designed to assess the prevalence of carriers of some pathogenic bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the city of omdurman, sudan.201020434126
a multiplex pcr method to detect 14 escherichia coli serogroups associated with urinary tract infections.urinary tract infections (utis) are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic escherichia coli (upec). e. coli strains belonging to 14 serogroups, including o1, o2, o4, o6, o7, o8, o15, o16, o18, o21, o22, o25, o75 and o83, are the most frequently detected upec strains in a diverse range of clinical urine specimens. in the current study, the o-antigen gene clusters of e. coli serogroups o1, o2, o18 and o75 were characterized. a multiplex pcr method ...201020434495
modulation of shigella virulence in response to available oxygen in vivo.bacteria coordinate expression of virulence determinants in response to localized microenvironments in their hosts. here we show that shigella flexneri, which causes dysentery, encounters varying oxygen concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, which govern activity of its type three secretion system (t3ss). the t3ss is essential for cell invasion and virulence. in anaerobic environments (for example, the gastrointestinal tract lumen), shigella is primed for invasion and expresses extended t ...201020436458
microbial community on healthy and diseased leaves of an invasive plant eupatorium adenophorum in southwest china.invasive plants have caused great economic losses and environmental problems worldwide. eupatorium adenophorum is one of the most invasive weeds in china. to better understand its invasive mechanisms, in the present paper, the microbial communities of healthy and diseased leaves of e. adenophorum were obtained using both culture-independent and -dependent methods and their diversities were compared. the bacteria obtained from culture-independent method belong to proteobacteria (95.8%), actinobac ...201020437143
phenotypic characterization and genomic analysis of the shigella sonnei bacteriophage sp18.a novel bacteriophage that infects shigella sonnei was isolated from the gap river in korea, and its phenotypic and genomic characteristics were investigated. the virus, called sp18, showed morphology characteristic of the family myoviridae, and phylogenetic analysis of major capsid gene (gp23) sequences classified it as a t4-like phage. based on host spectrum analysis, it is lytic to s. sonnei, but not to shigella flexneri, shigella boydii or members of the genera escherichia and salmonella. py ...201020437154
antimicrobial resistance patterns and characterization of integrons of shigella sonnei isolates in seoul, 1999-2008.a total of 66 shigella sonnei isolates from 1999 to 2008 in seoul was analyzed for their antimicrobial resistance, carriage of integron, and the patterns of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). a high level of antimicrobial resistance to streptomycin (100%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (95%), tetracycline (94%), nalidixic acid (65%), and ampicillin (41%) was observed among s. sonnei isolates. fourteen profiles of antimicrobial resistance were identified with the most common resistance prof ...201020437157
antimicrobial resistance trends of shigella serotypes in new york city, 2006-2009.shigellosis is the third most common enteric bacterial infection in the united states. although infection is typically self-limiting, empiric treatment is often prescribed. because of increasing antimicrobial resistance to shigella, empiric treatment options are decreasing. identifying resistance patterns can inform empiric treatment recommendations. the goals of our study were to examine risk factors associated with antimicrobial resistance of shigella and examine issues related to empiric trea ...201020438349
high prevalence of trimethoprim-resistance cassettes in class 1 and 2 integrons in senegalese shigella spp isolates.integrons have a well-established role in the dissemination of resistance among gram-negative pathogens and are thus a useful marker of antibiotic resistance. shigellae are noteworthy for their multiple drug resistance, having gradually acquired resistance to most widely use and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs.201020440057
genome-wide analysis of the h-ns and sfh regulatory networks in salmonella typhimurium identifies a plasmid-encoded transcription silencing mechanism.the conjugative inchi1 plasmid psfr27 from shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t encodes the sfh protein, a paralogue of the global transcriptional repressor h-ns. sfh allows psfr27 to be transmitted to new bacterial hosts with minimal impact on host fitness, providing a 'stealth' function whose molecular mechanism has yet to be determined. the impact of the sfh protein on the salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium transcriptome was assessed and binding sites for sfh in the salmonella typhimurium g ...201020444106
the role of sura factor in outer membrane protein transport and virulence.the escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone and peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (ppiase) sura is a major factor in the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (omps) and as such plays an integral role in cell envelope homeostasis and cell envelope functions. recently, the biological importance of sura was further substantiated by the finding that sura also affects pathogenicity, being required for full virulence of uropathogenic escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella spp. moreover, given the ...201020447864
structure of shigella ipgb2 in complex with human rhoa: implications for the mechanism of bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factor mimicry.a common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the manipulation of eukaryotic cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. this is in most cases achieved either by modifying actin, or indirectly via activation of key regulators controlling actin dynamics such as rho-gtpases. a novel group of bacterial virulence factors termed the wxxxe family has emerged as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) for these gtpases. the precise mechanism of nucleotide exchange, however, has remained unclear. here we repo ...201020363740
isolation of bacteria from mouse caecal samples and description of bacteroides sartorii sp. nov.caecal samples from wild-type and tnf(deltaare) mice were cultured on selective media containing bile salts, amino acids or casein macro-peptides. twenty-two strains were isolated and identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing. twenty-one strains showed >98% similarity to known bacteria (blautia spp., clostridium innocuum, enterococcus spp., escherichia coli, lactobacillus murinus, parabacteroides goldsteinii and shigella dysenteriae). one additional isolate, strain a-c2-0, was a new bacterium. the ...201020369227
antibacterial effect of the bioactive compound beauvericin produced by fusarium proliferatum on solid medium of wheat.to obtain the bioactive compound beauvericin (bea), fusarium proliferatum cect 20569 was grown on a solid medium of wheat, utilizing the technique of the solid state fermentation (ssf), being this mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semi-preparative column using as the mobile phase acetonitrile/water in gradient condition. the purity of the bea was verified by analytical hplc and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lc/ms-ms). the p ...201020371252
the effects of a vegetable-derived probiotic lactic acid bacterium on the immune response.the objective of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of the fermented vegetable derived lactic acid bacterium, l. plantarum. l. plantarum 10hk2 showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulating effects on murine macrophage cell lines. raw 264.7 cells stimulated with viable cells of this probiotic strain increased the amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators such as il-1beta, il-6 and tnf-alpha, as well as the anti-inflammatory mediator, il-10. icr mic ...201020377751
use of optical mapping to sort uropathogenic escherichia coli strains into distinct subgroups.optical maps were generated for 33 uropathogenic escherichia coli (upec) isolates. for individual genomes, the ncoi restriction fragments aligned into a unique chromosome map for each individual isolate, which was then compared with the in silico restriction maps of all of the sequenced e. coli and shigella strains. all of the upec isolates clustered separately from the shigella strains as well as the laboratory and enterohaemorrhagic e. coli strains. moreover, the individual strains appeared to ...201020378655
biological potentials and cytotoxicity of various extracts from endemic origanum minutiflorum o. schwarz & p.h. davis.the aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of endemic origanum minutiflorum (o. schwarz & p.h. davis). antioxidant activities of the extracts from o. minutiflorum were evaluated by using dpph radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and metal chelating activity assays. in addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the plant extracts were determined. in the beta-carotene bleaching test, the extracts exhibited in the range of 58.1 ...201020381570
preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2009.the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) of cdc's emerging infections program conducts active, population-based surveillance in 10 u.s. states for all laboratory-confirmed infections with select enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. this report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2009 and trends in incidence since 1996. in 2009, a total of 17,468 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection were identified. in comparison with the first 3 years of surveillanc ...201020395935
nmr characterization of the interaction of the salmonella type iii secretion system protein sipd and bile salts.salmonella and shigella bacteria require the type iii secretion system (t3ss) to inject virulence proteins into their hosts and initiate infections. the tip proteins sipd and ipad are critical components of the salmonella and shigella t3ss, respectively. recently, sipd and ipad have been shown to interact with bile salts, which are enriched in the intestines, and are hypothesized to act as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. bile salts activate the shigella t3ss but repress the sa ...201020397637
innate ifn-gamma production by subsets of natural killer cells, natural killer t cells and gammadelta t cells in response to dying bacterial-infected macrophages.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) activation of macrophages is a crucial step in the early innate defence against bacterial infection. this innate ifn-gamma is thought to be produced mainly by natural killer (nk) cells through activation with interleukin (il)-12p70 secreted by macrophages and dendritic cells (dcs) that have sensed bacterial products. however, a number of reports have shown that bacterial stimuli are unable to induce macrophages and/or dcs to produce sufficient amounts of il-12p70 unl ...201020415785
production and immunogenicity of recombinant ferric enterobactin protein (fepa).ferric siderophore complexes are produced by most bacteria to acquire iron, a vital element. these complexes are transported across the outer membrane by receptor proteins commonly known as fepa (ferric enterobactin protein). in this study we attempted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the membrane protein fepa, aiming at inhibition of iron uptake to protect invasion of the host by the bacterium.201020418143
tracking the secretion of fluorescently labeled type iii effectors from single bacteria in real time.a large number of gram negative pathogens use a specialized needle-like molecular machine known as type iii secretion (t3s) system. this highly sophisticated molecular device consists of a basal body spanning the two bacterial membranes and a protruding needle structure that is connected to a distal translocator complex. the main features of the t3s system are (i) activation after host cellular membrane contact and (ii) the ability to "inject" effectors into host cells through the needle apparat ...201020419414
isolation and selection of coliphages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing e. coli (ehec and stec) in cattle.to isolate, characterize and select phages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (ehec and stec) in cattle.201020353429
molecular architecture of the mn2+-dependent lactonase ulag reveals an rnase-like metallo-beta-lactamase fold and a novel quaternary structure.the ulag gene, located in the ula regulon, is crucial for the catabolism of l-ascorbate under anaerobic conditions and it has been proposed to encode for the putative l-ascorbate-6-p lactonase. the ulag gene is widespread among eubacteria, including human commensal and pathogenic genera such as escherichia, shigella, klebsiella and salmonella. here, we report the three-dimensional structures of the apoenzyme and mn(2+) holoenzyme of ulag from e. coli to 2.6 a resolution, determined using single- ...201020359483
modeling fimbriae mediated parasite-host interactions.type 1 fimbriae are a known virulence factor in a number of pathogenic enterobacteriaceae, including salmonella, shigella and e. coli. yet, they are also expressed by some commensal strains, notably of e. coli. one hypothesis of the role of fimbriae in commensals is that they evoke a small but tolerable host immune response in order to have the host release sialic acid, which is a valuable nutrient. genetic evidence suggests that sialic acid down-regulates fimbriation. this has been believed to ...201020359486
a soluble form of the pilus protein fima targets the vdac-hexokinase complex at mitochondria to suppress host cell apoptosis.inhibition of apoptotic response of host cells during an early phase of infection is a strategy used by many enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens to enhance their survival. here, we report the identification of a soluble form of the pilus protein fima from the culture supernatants of e. coli k1, salmonella, and shigella that can potently inhibit bax-mediated release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria. similar to the infected cells, hct116 cells stably expressing fima display a delay in the ...201020347420
34 kda momp of shigella flexneri promotes tlr2 mediated macrophage activation with the engagement of nf-kappab and p38 map kinase signaling.the 34 kda major outer membrane protein (momp) of shigella flexneri 2a induces combinatorial expression of tlr2 and tlr6 on peritoneal macrophages of balb/c mice. between the two best-characterized tlrs, to date, tlr2 and tlr4, which are chiefly responsible for recognizing majority of bacterial products, tlr2 alone participates in recognition of 34 kda momp. in addition to tlrs, momp enhances the mrna expression of myd88 and traf6 and induces the nuclear translocation of nf-kappab as well as act ...201020347487
long-term downregulation of protease-activated receptor-2 expression in distal colon in rats following bacillary dysentery.the aim of this study was to determine changes of par-2 expression in distal colon and the sensitivity of colonic muscle to sligrl-nh2, the par-2-activating peptide (par-2-ap) following bacillary dysentery. shigella flexneri was administrated intragastrically in healthy male rats to induce bacillary dysentery. the effect of sligrl-nh2 on the motility of colonic muscle strips were examined. the expression of par-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. intragastric administr ...201020347884
antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children.ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and pivmecillinam are the antibiotics currently recommended by the world health organization (who) for the treatment of dysentery in children; yet there have been no reviews of the clinical effectiveness of these antibiotics in recent years.201020348130
global transcriptional response of macrophage-like thp-1 cells to shiga toxin type 1.shiga toxins (stxs) are bacterial cytotoxins produced by the enteric pathogens shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and some serotypes of escherichia coli that cause bacillary dysentery and hemorrhagic colitis, respectively. to date, approaches to studying the capacity of stxs to alter gene expression in intoxicated cells have been limited to individual genes. however, it is known that many of the signaling pathways activated by stxs regulate the expression of multiple genes in mammalian cells. to ex ...201020351145
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of shigella spp. with reference to its virulence genes and antibiogram analysis from river narmada.water samples of the river narmada from origin to end were analyzed for the presence of shigellae. analysis of 40 water samples by biotyping, serotyping, and molecular typing were done. out of all 40 isolates, 23 were identified as shigella flexneri, 10 as shigella sonnei, and seven as shigella dysenteriae. serotyping was found to be a better identification method than biotyping since biotyping was not found to be very sharp. in the present investigation, amplified ribosomal dna restriction anal ...201019501495
lactobacilli inhibit shigella dysenteriae 1 induced pro-inflammatory response and cytotoxicity in host cells via impediment of shigella-host interactions.shigella dysenteriae type 1 dysentery is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children from less developed and developing countries. the present study explores the hypothesis that lactobacilli protect the host cell during s. dysenteriae type 1 infection and its mechanism of action.201019535308
biennial hyperepidemic shigellosis in an observant jewish community.we aimed to study patterns of shigellosis in a large observant jewish community in israel and to describe local interventions during outbreaks. surveillance data from the ministry of health were used to calculate incidence rates in 1998-2006, both in the city of bene beraq and the tel aviv district. information on isolates was collected from the bacteriological laboratory of a community hospital. public notices and educational conferences conveyed a message to increase personal hygiene and keep ...201019602299
requirement for formin-induced actin polymerization during spread of shigella flexneri.actin polymerization in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane is locally regulated by actin nucleators. several microbial pathogens exploit cellular actin polymerization to spread through tissue. the movement of the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, both within the cell body and from cell to cell, depends on actin polymerization. during intercellular spread, actin polymerization at the bacterial surface generates protrusions of the plasma membrane, which are engulfed by adjacent cells. in the ...201019841078
genetic diversity of o157:h7 and non-o157 verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli from argentina inferred from multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (mlva).although serotype o157:h7 has been implicated in most cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (hus), there is growing concern about non-o157 serotypes of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec). multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (mlva) has been focused on the specific typing of o157:h7 isolates, but recently, a generic mlva assay for e. coli and shigella has been developed. we performed a study of the polymorphism in 7 generic vntr loci both in vtec o157:h7 and non-o157 isolat ...201019850517
pretreatment of epithelial cells with rifaximin alters bacterial attachment and internalization profiles.rifaximin is a poorly absorbed semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifampin licensed for use in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. rifaximin reduces the symptoms of enteric infection, often without pathogen eradication and with limited effects on intestinal flora. epithelial cells (hep-2 [laryngeal], hct-8 [ileocecal], a549 [lung], and hela [cervical]) were pretreated with rifaximin (or control antibiotics) prior to the addition of enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec). eaec adherence ...201019858255
evaluation of new chromogenic substrates for the detection of coliforms.to evaluate a new range of chromogenic substrates for the detection of beta-galactosidase activity in coliforms and to compare their performance in agar media and broths.201019878523
virulence, inflammatory potential, and adaptive immunity induced by shigella flexneri msbb mutants.the ability of genetically detoxified lipopolysaccharide (lps) to stimulate adaptive immune responses is an ongoing area of investigation with significant consequences for the development of safe and effective bacterial vaccines and adjuvants. one approach to genetic detoxification is the deletion of genes whose products modify lps. the msbb1 and msbb2 genes, which encode late acyltransferases, were deleted in the shigella flexneri 2a human challenge strain 2457t to evaluate the virulence, infla ...201019884336
immunomodulation using genetically engineered bacteria for type iii-mediated delivery of heterologous antigens and cytokines: potential application in vaccine and therapeutical developments.the rational design of new approaches aiming to improve antigen or drug delivery remains a major challenge in numerous vaccine and therapeutical strategies. studies on genetically engineered bacteria have led to significant progress in the delivery of heterologous proteins. yet, the efficiency of such recombinant bacteria relies particularly on their ability to deliver sufficient amount of the drug to intended cell tissues. gram-negative bacteria like salmonella, shigella, yersinia and pseudomon ...201019778176
the escherichia coli o149 rfb gene cluster and its use for the detection of porcine e. coli o149 by real-time pcr.pcr or hybridization assays are widely used for the identification and detection of various escherichia coli serogroups and serotypes. this study explored this approach for the detection of e. coli o149 in pigs, a dominant serogroup among those associated with porcine post-weaning diarrhea (pwd) worldwide. for this purpose, we sequenced the o antigen (rfb) gene cluster of a representative enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) o149:h10 strain and identified a 2kbp region specific for the o149 rfb gene c ...201019733452
evaluation of isolation methods for pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content.the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of four isolation methods for the detection of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content.201019735331
structure of the heme/hemoglobin outer membrane receptor shua from shigella dysenteriae: heme binding by an induced fit mechanism.shigella dysentriae and other gram-negative human pathogens are able to use iron from heme bound to hemoglobin for growing. we solved at 2.6 a resolution the 3d structure of the tonb-dependent heme/hemoglobin outer membrane receptor shua from s. dysenteriae. shua binds to hemoglobin and transports heme across the outer membrane. the structure consists of a c-terminal domain that folds into a 22-stranded transmembrane beta-barrel, which is filled by the n-terminal plug domain. one distal histidin ...201019731368
automated use of whonet and satscan to detect outbreaks of shigella spp. using antimicrobial resistance phenotypes.antimicrobial resistance is a priority emerging public health threat, and the ability to detect promptly outbreaks caused by resistant pathogens is critical for resistance containment and disease control efforts. we describe and evaluate the use of an electronic laboratory data system (whonet) and a space-time permutation scan statistic for semi-automated disease outbreak detection. in collaboration with whonet-argentina, the national network for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, we appl ...201019796449
survey of bacterial populations present in us-produced linerboard with high recycle content.to survey paperboard products from 17 us mills for bacterial populations and for bacteria potentially harmful to human health.201019645765
differential expression of enteric neuroimmune-network in invasive and acute watery diarrhoea.we aimed to evaluate the changes of nerve morphology and distribution of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the rectum of shigella flexneri-infected patients and in the duodenum of vibrio cholerae o1-infected patients. nerve morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (ngf), neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry. ultrastructural analysis of intestinal biopsy revealed persisting axons degene ...201019650770
a new multiplex pcr for differential identification of shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei and detection of shigella virulence determinants.most of the multiplex pcr (mpcr) used to identify shigella do not discriminate between shigella species or serotypes. we designed a mpcr to differentiate between s. flexneri and s. sonnei strains based on the detection of markers associated with the she pathogenicity island described in shigella. in addition, specific primers were included to detect the shigella virulence determinants shet-1 and shet-2 enterotoxin genes. the analysis of 304 shigella strains from chile and 79 shigella strains fro ...201019765332
clinical practice. today's understanding of the haemolytic uraemic syndrome.the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus) includes the triad of haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. the classical form [d(+) hus] is caused by infectious agents, and it is a common cause of acute renal failure in children. the enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli-producing shiga toxin (stx) is the most common infectious agent causing hus. other infectious agents are shigella and streptococcus pneumoniae. infections by s. pneumoniae can be particularly severe and has a highe ...201019707787
diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known hiv status in kisumu, kenya.to compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known hiv status.201019664950
etiology of childhood diarrhea in the northeast of brazil: significant emergent diarrheal pathogens.in a study conducted in joão pessoa, northeast of brazil, 2344 escherichia coli isolated from 290 infants with diarrhea and 290 healthy matched controls were analyzed for virulence traits. enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec) was the most prevalent pathogen associated to acute diarrhea. based on the results of colony blot hybridization, serotyping, and hep-2 cell adherence assays, strains were separated in categories as typical enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) (1.7%), atypical epec (a-epec) (9.3%), e ...201018508227
changing species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of shigella over a 29-year period (1980-2008).we studied changes in species distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of shigella during 1980-2008, using the diarrhoeal diseases surveillance system of dhaka hospital of icddr,b. in hospitalized patients shigella prevalence decreased steadily from 8-12% in the 1980s to 3% in 2008. endemic s. flexneri was the most commonly isolated species (54%). epidemic s. dysenteriae type 1 had two peaks in 1984 and 1993, but was not found after 2000, except for one case in 2004. the therapeutic op ...201120478088
development of a pcr protocol for the detection of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella spp. in surface water.escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella are pathogenic microorganisms that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans. these pathogens may be transmitted in a variety of ways, including food and water. the presence of salmonella and e. coli o157:h7 in surface waters constitutes a potential threat to human health when used for either drinking or recreation. as with most waterborne pathogens, salmonella and e. coli o157:h7 are difficult to detect and enumerate with accuracy in surface wat ...201120714926
community perceptions of bloody diarrhoea in an urban slum in south asia: implications for introduction of a shigella vaccine.understanding local perceptions of disease causation could help public health officials improve strategies to prevent bloody diarrhoea. a cross-sectional survey was conducted in dhaka, bangladesh to elicit community beliefs about the causes of and prevention strategies for bloody diarrhoea. between march and june 2003, we interviewed 541 randomly selected respondents. overall, 507 (93%) respondents perceived that a vaccine could prevent bloody diarrhoea. if a vaccine provided lifetime protection ...201120546637
antidiarrheal activity, chemical and toxicity profile of berberis aristata.context: this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antidiarrheal activity, oral acute toxicological profile, and developed a chemical fingerprint of berberis aristata linn. (berberidaceae). materials and methods: the ethanol (by maceration) and aqueous (by soxhlet) extracts of berberis aristata bark were used for the study. the study involved the antimicrobial (minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc) by micro dilution) and antidiarrheal (castor oil ...201120738174
a disposable immunosensor for shigella flexneri based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/sodium alginate composite electrode.a novel shigella flexneri immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibodies to s. flexneri (hrp-anti-s. flexneri) immobilized by physical adsorption on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (mwcnt)/sodium alginate (sa) composite modified screen-printed electrode surface was successfully fabricated. in this strategy, mwcnt/sa biocomposite acted as the matrix to adsorb and immobilize hrp-anti-s. flexneri. the modified electrodes were characterized with an atomic force microscope and cyclic ...201120816661
synthesis and biological evaluation of some thiazolidinones as antimicrobial agents.a novel series of thiazolidinone derivatives namely 4-(4-dimethylamino-6-{4-[5-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl)-4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl]-phenylamino}-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yloxy)-1-methyl-1h-quinolin-2-one have been synthesized from the key intermediate 4-[4-(4-aminophenylamino)-6-dimethylamino-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yloxy]-1-methyl-1h-quinolin-2-one (7). condensation reaction of compound 7 with different aldehyde derivatives were performed to obtain schiff base derivatives, which after cyclization gav ...201122182927
diarrhea associated with shigella in children and susceptibility to antimicrobials.objective: to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility to antimicrobials of shigella isolated from children with acute diarrhea and without diarrhea in teresina, state of piauí, brazil. methods: four hundred children aged up to 60 months were studied. stools were collected from all the patients between january 2004 and august 2007. shigella was identified by conventional methods and antibiogram and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) were performed by agar diffusion. results: shigellosis ...201122089139
an inverse and independent association between helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of shigellosis and other diarrheal diseases.objectives. we examined the association between helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of diarrheal diseases.methods. in a nested case-control study participants were sampled from cohorts of male israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, serving in field units and followed up for diarrheal diseases. case patients (n = 177) were subjects who visited the base clinic because diarrhea and were positive for shigella sonnei (n = 66), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (n = 31) or negative for b ...201122157171
antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from cameroon traditional medicine.infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (etoac) and hexanic fractions of five cameroonian medicinal plants (piptadeniastum africana, cissus aralioides, hileria latifolia, phyllanthus muellerianus and gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and ...201121867554
microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in roadside restaurants of bangladesh.the microbiological status of water from dispensers in different roadside restaurants of dhaka city and savar area was analyzed in this study. seven samples from dhaka and 8 samples of savar were checked. the heterotrophic plate count was in a range of 1.0 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) to 2.0 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) (from new bottles), 1.0 x 10(3) to 1.5 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) (after dispensation), and 1.5 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) to 1.0 x l0(5) cfu ml(-1) (from serving glass). in several of the samples, the heterotrophi ...201121916267
validation of the h2s method to detect bacteria of fecal origin by cultured and molecular methods.using biochemical and molecular methods, this research determined whether or not the h(2)s test did correctly identify sewage-contaminated waters by being the first to use culturing and molecular methods to identify the types and numbers of fecal indicator organisms, pathogens, and other microbes present in sewage samples with positive h(2)s test results. for the culture-based method, samples were analyzed for the presence of fecal bacteria by spread plating the sewage sample onto differential a ...201122038242
antibacterial characteristics and activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by the maillard reaction.the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by maillard reactions against staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, shigella dysenteriae, and salmonella typhimurium was examined. relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. in addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-solu ...201121989311
toxic megacolon.toxic megacolon represents a dreaded complication of mainly inflammatory or infectious conditions of the colon. it is most commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), i.e., ulcerative colitis or ileocolonic crohn's disease. lately, the epidemiology has shifted toward infectious causes, specifically due to an increase of clostridium difficile-associated colitis possibly due to the extensive (ab)use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. other important infectious etiologies include salmone ...201122009735
the effect of the potential phoq histidine kinase inhibitors on shigella flexneri virulence.phoq/phop is an important two-component system that regulates shigella virulence. we explored whether the phoq/phop system is a promising target for new antibiotics against s. flexneri infection. by using a high-throughput screen and enzymatic activity coupled assay, four compounds were found as potential phoq inhibitors. these compounds not only inhibited the activity of sf-phoqc autophosphorylation but also displayed high binding affinities to the sf-phoqc protein in the surface plasmon resona ...201121853073
crosslinking of (cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii and its complexes with specific dna duplexes provides an insight into their structures.(cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii (m.ssoii) functions as a methyltransferase and also as a transcription factor. chemical and photochemical crosslinking was used for exploring the structure of m.ssoii-dna complexes and m.ssoii in the absence of dna. photocrosslinking with 4-(n-maleimido)benzophenone demonstrated that in the m.ssoii complex with dna containing the regulatory site, the m.ssoii region responsible for methylation was bound to dna flanking the regulatory site, which contained ...201121888553
salmonella typhimurium-specific bacteriophage φsh19 and the origins of species specificity in the vi01-like phage family.whole genome sequencing of bacteriophages suitable for biocontrol of pathogens in food products is a pre-requisite to any phage-based intervention procedure. trials involving the biosanitization of salmonella typhimurium in the pig production environment identified one such candidate, φsh19.201122047448
real-time multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, shigella and yersinia species in fecal samples.diarrheal diseases due to notifiable bacterial infections require rapid diagnosis of the causative pathogens. to facilitate detection, a real-time multiplex pcr was developed that identifies common diarrhea-causing bacteria in fecal samples. on the basis of published sequence data, sets of primers and probes were designed that were specific for campylobacter jejuni, salmonella, shigella/enteroinvasive escherichia coli eiec, and yersinia species, suitable for use in a one-tube pcr assay. the assa ...201121855409
global distribution of shigella sonnei clones.to investigate global epidemiology of shigella sonnei, we performed multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 1,672 isolates obtained since 1943 from 50 countries on 5 continents and the pacific region. three major clonal groups were identified; 2 were globally spread. type 18 and its derivatives have circulated worldwide in recent decades.201122000369
intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in gondar teaching hospital, northwest ethiopia.abstract:201122041102
antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional chinese herb pairs, angelica sinensis and sophora flavescens.the purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of angelica sinensis extract (ae), sophora flavescens extract (se), and herb pair a. sinensis and s. flavescens extract (hpe). endotoxin-induced uveitis (eiu) was induced in rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide. the anti-inflammatory potential of ae, se, and hpe in the regulation of nuclear factor kappa b (nf-κb), maleic dialdehyde (mda), polymorphonuclear cells (pmn), interleukin-1β ...201121976127
waterlogsy nmr experiments in conjunction with molecular-dynamics simulations identify immobilized water molecules that bridge peptide mimic mdwnmhaa to anticarbohydrate antibody sya/j6.x-ray crystallographic data of the carbohydrate mimic mdwnmhaa when bound to an anti-shigella flexneri y mab sya/j6 indicate the immobilization of water molecules, that is, the presence of "bound" waters, in the active site. water ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (waterlogsy) was used in conjunction with saturation transfer difference (std)-nmr spectroscopy to probe the existence of immobilized water molecules in the complex of mdwnmhaa 1 bound to mab sya/j6. molecular dynamics simulati ...201121887835
[etiological surveillance and analysis of infectious diarrhea in beijing in year 2010].to explore the pathogenic form, epidemic features and serotype distribution of the pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diarrhea in beijing.201122177306
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria and yeasts in a clinical microbiological laboratory: a review.recently, maldi-tof ms devices designed for use in clinical laboratories have been commercially introduced in various large centres worldwide. all published studies conclude that maldi-tof ms can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria and yeasts in a clinical microbiological laboratory. although all data show that maldi-tof ms correctly identifies the great majority of isolates processed routinely, it cannot yet identify every such isolate. until today, maldi-tof ms is inap ...201121938981
structural segregation of gut microbiota between colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers.despite a long-suspected role in the development of human colorectal cancer (crc), the composition of gut microbiota in crc patients has not been adequately described. in this study, fecal bacterial diversity in crc patients (n=46) and healthy volunteers (n=56) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing of the v3 region of the 16s ribosomal rna gene. both principal component analysis and unifrac analysis showed structural segregation between the two populations. forty-eight operational taxonomic units ...201121850056
Atypical Shigella boydii 13 encodes virulence factors seen in attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a foodborne pathogen that causes watery diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis. In this study, we identified StcE, a secreted zinc metalloprotease that contributes to intimate adherence of EHEC to host cells, in culture supernatants of atypical Shigella boydii 13 (Shigella B13) strains. Further examination of the Shigella B13 strains revealed that this cluster of pathogens does not invade but forms pedestals on HEp-2 cells similar to EHEC and enteropathogenic E. col ...201122126649
social-economic factors and irrational antibiotic use as reasons for antibiotic resistance of bacteria causing common childhood infections in primary healthcare.the most prevalent childhood bacterial infections in primary healthcare are respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital infections. the main aim of this paper was to consider factors (socio-economic factors and irrational antibiotic use) that contribute to the development of bacterial resistance, as well as measures that resulted in a reduction of this problem. computerized search through the medline of published articles on antibiotic resistance from 1996 to 2011 in english or serbian was comp ...201121987082
Reactor performance and bacterial pathogen removal in response to sludge retention time in a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating sewage sludge.The effects of sludge retention time (SRT) on reactor performance and bacterial pathogen removal of sludge mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) were investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The average volatile solids removal remained around 20% and the biogas production rate varied from 100 to 132ml/ld. The MAD process was efficient to remove Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli with removal efficiencies increased with SRT from 11d, 16d to 25d. However, the Shigella sp. removal was ins ...201122197074
analysis of synonymous codon usage in shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 and other shigella and escherichia coli strains.in this study, we analysed synonymous codon usage in shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 (sf301) and performed a comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in sf301 and other strains of shigella and escherichia coli. although there was a significant variety in codon usage bias among different sf301 genes, there was a slight but observable codon usage bias that could primarily be attributable to mutational pressure and translational selection. in addition, the relative abundance of dinuc ...201122112197
Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among men who have sex with men, Canada, 2010.In 2010, we observed isolates with matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from 13 cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Montréal. We report on the emergence of this resistance type and a study of resistance mechanisms. The investigation suggested local transmission among men who have sex with men associated with sex venues.201121888811
characterization of a vii-like phage specific to escherichia coli o157:h7.phage vb_ecom_cba120 (cba120), isolated against escherichia coli o157:h7 from a cattle feedlot, is morphologically very similar to the classic phage vii of salmonella enterica serovar typhi. until recently, little was known genetically or physiologically about the vii-like phages, and none targeting e. coli have been described in the literature. the genome of cba120 has been fully sequenced and is highly similar to those of both vii and the shigella phage ag3. the core set of structural and repl ...201121899740
Further characterization of Shigella sonnei live vaccine candidates WRSs2 and WRSs3-plasmid composition, invasion assays and Sereny reactions. 201121983066
Clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Shigella gastroenteritis in Ankara, Turkey between 2003 and 2009, and comparison with previous reports.The aim of this study was to define the epidemiological, clinical, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Shigella gastroenteritis cases occurring during the years 2003-2009 and to compare results with those of the years 1987-2002.201121982814
convergent synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the o-antigen of shigella boydii type 9.a convenient synthesis of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the o-antigen of shigella boydii type 9 has been achieved in excellent yield using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation strategy. tempo-mediated selective oxidation of the primary alcohol of the tetrasaccharide derivative 8 to the carboxylic group followed by deprotection of the functional groups furnished target tetrasaccharide 1 as its 4-methoxyphenyl glycoside in high yield.201121977201
synthesis of novel quinoxalinone derivatives by conventional and microwave methods and assessing their biological activity.in this study, twenty-one arylaminoquinoxalinone derivatives were synthesized and their antibacterial activities against staphylococci aureus, pseudomonas aureus, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, salmonella typhi, and shigella pneumoniae were evaluated relative to known antibiotics; augmentin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol. the insecticidal activities of the prepared compounds were also investigated against tribolium castaneum using permethrin as a standard insecticide. the derivatives wer ...201122076760
the role of oxyr and soxrs in oxidative stress survival in shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri, a facultative intracellular pathogen, is exposed to a variety of environments inside and outside of the human host. some of these environments may contain significant oxidative stress. s. flexneri mutants were generated with deletions in the major oxidative stress regulators oxyr and/or soxrs to test their importance in shigella biology. strains that contained a deletion of oxyr had reduced growth and survival during aerobic growth, but not microaerobic growth. the mutants wer ...201122015257
live attenuated shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine strains overexpressing shiga toxin b subunit.shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae 1) is unique among the shigella species and serotypes in the expression of shiga toxin which contributes to more severe disease sequelae and the ability to cause explosive outbreaks and pandemics. s. dysenteriae 1 shares characteristics with other shigella species, including the capability of causing clinical illness with a very low inoculum (10 to 100 cfu) and resistance to multiple antibiotics, underscoring the need for efficacious vaccines and t ...201121969003
Comparative evaluation of the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays for measuring mucosal immune responses to Shigella antigens.Accurately assessing mucosal immune responses to candidate vaccines remains a technical challenge. ELISPOT is widely used as a surrogate of mucosal immune response by directly enumerating circulating antibody secreting cells (ASCs), while antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) titers the total amount of antibody secreted by ASC ex vivo using ELISA. ALS is more practical than ELISPOT because the ASC supernatant is frozen for ELISA that can be conducted at any time, with any antigen, and in any ...201121939714
a school outbreak of shigella sonnei infection in china: clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology.objective: to describe the clinical features of infection, and the antibiotic susceptibility of epidemic strains, and investigate plasmid maps and integrons of the isolates from an outbreak of shigella sonnei infection at an elementary school in southwest china. study design: cross-sectional study. setting: an elementary school and five hospitals in chengdu in southwest china. results: there were 1,134 students in the school. 937 (82.6%) students had signs and symptoms. of the 568 (60.6%, 568/93 ...201121992857
Evolutionary and functional insights into Leishmania META1: evidence for lateral gene transfer and a role for META1 in secretion.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Leishmania META1 has for long been a candidate molecule for involvement in virulence: META1 transcript and protein are up-regulated in metacyclic Leishmania. Yet, how META1 contributes to virulence remains unclear. We sought insights into the possible functions of META1 by studying its evolutionary origins. RESULTS: Using multiple criteria including sequence similarity, nucleotide composition, phylogenetic analysis and selection pressure on gene sequence, we present evide ...201122093578
A new piece of the Shigella pathogenicity puzzle: spermidine accumulationby silencing of the speG gene.The genome of Shigella, a gram negative bacterium which is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, shares strong homologies with that of its commensal ancestor, Escherichia coli. The acquisition, by lateral gene transfer, of a large plasmid carrying virulence determinants has been a crucial event in the evolution towards the pathogenic lifestyle and has been paralleled by the occurrence of mutations affecting genes, which negatively interfere with the expression of virulence factors. In this ...201122102881
topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase iv (gtriv) of shigella flexneri.abstract:201122188643
The effects of solid media type on routine identification of bacterial isolates using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.Background: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis is a rapid method for the identification of bacteria based upon the comparison of protein profiles. Factors that may alter profiles include culture conditions and presence of exogenous substances and could hinder identification. Methods: Bacterial isolates identified using conventional methods were cultured on various media and identified using the MALDI Biotyper system (Bruker Dalton ...201122162546
[Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2009].Only 30 cases were notified (incidence rate 0.08/100 000 population) in the year 2009, while the 33 cases were notified in 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000), and median in the 2003-2007 years was 74 cases, incidence rate 0.19/100 000 population. Since 2000 no one-death case was notified. In the period of low frequency of Shigella infections, the external quality assessment control of the quality of bacteriological media, laboratory and prae-laboratory procedures for detection of different Shige ...201121913464
The scope of phage display for membrane proteins.Numerous examples of phage display applied to soluble proteins demonstrate the power of the technique for protein engineering, affinity reagent discovery and structure-function studies. Recent reports have expanded phage display to include membrane proteins (MPs). The scope and limitations of MP display remain undefined. Therefore, we report data from the phage display of representative types of membrane-associated proteins including plasma, nuclear, peripheral, single and multipass. The periphe ...201122037583
reflectron maldi tof and maldi tof/tof mass spectrometry reveal novel structural details of native lipooligosaccharides.lipooligosaccharides (los) are powerful gram-negative glycolipids that evade the immune system and invade host animal and vegetal cells. the structural elucidation of los is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms of infection at the molecular level. the amphiphilic nature of los has been the main obstacle for structural analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (maldi) mass spectrometry (ms). our approach has resolved this important issue and has permitted us to obtain reflectron ...201122124985
Misidentification of a commensal inactive Escherichia coli as Shigella sonnei by an automated system in a critically ill patient.Though automated identification and sensitivity testing has established itself as a standard in many high throughput clinical microbiology laboratories, misidentification by the automated systems can also happen.201122029193
recombinant shiga toxin b subunit elicits protection against shiga toxin via mixed th type immune response in mice.shigella dysenteriae is the causative agent of the third commonest bacterial disease for childhood diarrhoea and responsible for millions of deaths per year. it produces potent toxin termed shiga toxin which is listed in category b biological warfare agent of cdc, usa. earlier we have reported production of recombinant shiga toxin b subunit that produced antibodies which neutralized shiga toxin toxicity in hela cells. in the present study, we have evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of rstx ...201121856355
Acid-bile, antibiotic resistance and inhibitory properties of propionibacteria isolated from Turkish traditional home-made cheeses.In this study, a total of 29 Propionibacterium spp. were isolated from traditional home-made Turkish cheese samples. As a result of the identification, isolates were identified as Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii (15 strains), Propionibacterium jensenii (12), and Propionibacterium thoenii (2). All isolates and 5 reference strains were examined for their abilities to survive at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and in the presence of 0.06, 0.15 and 0.30% bile salts, their influence on t ...201122019987
Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of major foodborne pathogens in imported seafood.Seafood is a leading commodity implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Seafood importation rose dramatically in the past 3 decades and now contributes to more than 80% of the total U.S. seafood supply. However, limited data are available on the microbiological safety of imported seafood. In this study, we obtained a total of 171 salmon, shrimp, and tilapia samples imported from 12 countries in three retail stores in Baton Rouge, LA. The total microbial population and the ...201121902913
a broadly protective shigella vaccine based on type iii secretion apparatus proteins.shigella ssp. are food and water-borne pathogens that cause severe diarrheal and dysenteric disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. individuals most often affected are children under 5 years of age in the developing world. the existence of multiple shigella serotypes and the heterogenic distribution of pathogenic strains as well as emerging antibiotic resistance require the development of a broadly protective vaccine. all shigella ssp. utilize a type iii secretion system (ttss) to ...201122202122
up-regulation of muc2 and il-1β expression in human colonic epithelial cells by shigella and its interaction with mucins.the entire gastrointestinal tract is protected by a mucous layer, which contains complex glycoproteins called mucins. muc2 is one such mucin that protects the colonic mucosa from invading microbes. the initial interaction between microbes and mucins is an important step for microbial pathogenesis. hence, it was of interest to investigate the relationship between host (mucin) and pathogen interaction, including shigella induced expression of muc2 and il-1β during shigellosis.201122073249
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