TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among young children with acute diarrhoea in saudi arabia.the frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among 270 paediatric patients (< 5 years of age) in various hospitals of makkah and jeddah cities of saudi arabia were investigated.201020527643
prevalence of enterotoxins among escherichia coli isolates causing bacteraemia.the most frequent cause of bacteraemia among gram-negative bacteria is escherichia coli. analysis of the genes encoding the shigella enterotoxin 1 (shet-1), shet-2, enteroaggregative heat stable toxin 1 (east-1) toxins and aggr factor in e. coli strains causing bacteraemia revealed that set1 genes were presented significantly more frequently among quinolone-susceptible strains (p<0.0001), in phylogenetic group b2 (p=0.0004) and in biofilm strains (p=0.02). in contrast, sen genes were significant ...201020529132
a novel anti-virulence gene revealed by proteomic analysis in shigella flexneri 2a.abstract:201020540790
immunochemical studies of shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and shigella dysenteriae type 1 o-specific polysaccharide-core fragments and their protein conjugates as vaccine candidates.there is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of shigellosis. our approach to the development of a shigella vaccines is based on inducing serum igg antibodies to the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) domain of their lipopolysaccharides (lps). we have shown that low molecular mass o-sp-core (o-spc) fragments isolated from shigella sonnei lps conjugated to proteins induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice than the full length o-sp conjugates. this finding is now extended to the o-spc ...201020542498
protein refolding is required for assembly of the type three secretion needle.pathogenic gram-negative bacteria use a type three secretion system (ttss) to deliver virulence factors into host cells. although the order in which proteins incorporate into the growing ttss is well described, the underlying assembly mechanisms are still unclear. here we show that the ttss needle protomer refolds spontaneously to extend the needle from the distal end. we developed a functional mutant of the needle protomer from shigella flexneri and salmonella typhimurium to study its assembly ...201020543831
an epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an hiv endemic region.the epidemiology of diarrheal disease in botswana, an hiv endemic region, is largely unknown. our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana. secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.201020543877
the sudden dominance of blactx-m harbouring plasmids in shigella spp. circulating in southern vietnam.plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. the rise of ctx-m class extended spectrum beta lactamases (esbls) has been well documented in industrialized countries. vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges.201020544028
[the evolution of the etiological structure of shigellosis]. 201020734730
plasmon-induced inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms with ag-agi/al2o3 under visible-light irradiation.the plasmon-induced photocatalytic inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms in water using ag-agi/al(2)o(3) under visible-light irradiation was investigated. the catalyst was found to be highly effective at killing shigella dysenteriae (s. dysenteriae), escherichia coli (e. coli), and human rotavirus type 2 wa (hrv-wa). its bactericidal efficiency was significantly enhanced by hco(3)(-) and so(4)(2-) ions, which are common in water, while phosphate had a slightly positive effect on the ...201020734989
cytoskeleton-modulating effectors of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli: a case for espb as an intrinsically less-ordered effector.enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic escherichia coli produce various effector proteins that are directly injected into the host-cell cytosol through the type iii secretion system. e. coli secreted protein (esp)b is one such effector protein, and affects host-cell morphology by reorganizing actin networks. unlike most globular proteins that have well-ordered, rigid structures, the structures of type iii secretion system effectors from pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, including espb, are ofte ...201020477867
sensitization of microcin j25-resistant strains by a membrane-permeabilizing peptide.microcin j25 (mccj25) is a plasmid-encoded, 21-amino-acid, antibacterial peptide produced by escherichia coli. mccj25 inhibits rna polymerase and the membrane respiratory chain. mccj25 uptake into e. coli-sensitive strains is mediated by the outer membrane receptor fhua and the inner membrane proteins tonb, exbb, exbd, and sbma. this peptide is active on some e. coli, salmonella, and shigella species strains, while other gram-negative bacteria, such as clinical isolates of enterobacter cloacae, ...201020802073
an outbreak of shigellosis due to shigella flexneri serotype 3a in a prison in iran.on june 16 and 17, 2007, the medical clinic of a prison in isfahan, iran received multiple reports of gastrointestinal illness among prisoners. a cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to determine the extent, causative agent and possible source of the outbreak.201020804308
structures of the o-antigens of escherichia coli o13, o129, and o135 related to the o-antigens of shigella flexneri.o-polysaccharides (o-antigens) were isolated from escherichia coli o13, o129, and o135 and studied by chemical analyses along with 2d (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. they were found to possess a common -->2)-l-rha-(alpha1-->2)-l-rha-(alpha1-->3)-l-rha-(alpha1-->3)-d-glcnac-(beta1--> backbone, which is a characteristic structural motif of the o-polysaccharides of shigella flexneri types 1-5. in both the bacterial species, the backbone is decorated with lateral glucose residues or/and o-acetyl gr ...201020546712
agap2 regulates retrograde transport between early endosomes and the tgn.the retrograde transport route links early endosomes and the tgn. several endogenous and exogenous cargo proteins use this pathway, one of which is the well-explored bacterial shiga toxin. adp-ribosylation factors (arfs) are approximately 20 kda gtp-binding proteins that are required for protein traffic at the level of the golgi complex and early endosomes. in this study, we expressed mutants and protein fragments that bind to arf-gtp to show that arf1, but not arf6 is required for transport of ...201020551179
host factors required for modulation of phagosome biogenesis and proliferation of francisella tularensis within the cytosol.francisella tularensis is a highly infectious facultative intracellular bacterium that can be transmitted between mammals by arthropod vectors. similar to many other intracellular bacteria that replicate within the cytosol, such as listeria, shigella, burkholderia, and rickettsia, the virulence of f. tularensis depends on its ability to modulate biogenesis of its phagosome and to escape into the host cell cytosol where it proliferates. recent studies have identified the f. tularensis genes requi ...201020552012
generation of chitin-derived oligosaccharides toxic to pathogenic bacteria using chia74, an endochitinase native to bacillus demonstrate that an endochitinase (chia74) native to bacillus thuringiensis can be used to generate chitin-derived oligosaccharides (ogs) with antibacterial activity against a number of aetiological agents of disease, including bacteria that cause diarrhoeal and emetic syndromes in humans.201020557451
development of a serogroup-specific multiplex pcr assay to detect a set of escherichia coli serogroups based on the identification of their o-antigen gene clusters.the escherichia coli serogroups o115, o126, o137, o158, o165, and o173 are pathogenic strains associated with diarrhea. molecular approaches such as pcr have been proven to be rapid, inexpensive, and accurate. the sequences of the o-antigen-processing genes wzx and wzy are specific for different o antigens and are generally used as the target genes for the detection and identification of e. coli strains belonging to different o serogroups. in this report, the o-antigen gene clusters of these 6 o ...201020561581
frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella species isolated in children medical center hospital, tehran, iran, 2001-2006.appropriate antimicrobial treatment of shigellosis depends on identifying its changing resistance pattern over time. we evaluated 15,255 stool culture submitted from july 2001 to june 2006 to the laboratory of children medical center hospital. specimen culture, bacterial identification, and disk diffusion susceptibility testing were performed according to national committee for clinical laboratory standards guidelines. from 15,255 stool samples, 682 (4.5%) were positive for shigella species. the ...201020563441
detection of airborne bacteria in a german turkey house by cultivation-based and molecular's large-scale poultry production with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms leading to a clear health hazard for employees working in such environments. depending on the expected exposure to microorganisms, work has to be performed under occupational safety conditions. in this study, turkey houses bioaerosols were investigated by cultivation-based and molecular methods in parallel to determine the conce ...201020720091
uncivil engineers: chlamydia, salmonella and shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. like the enteric pathogens salmonella and shigella, chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. numerous salmonella and shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating ...201020722600
serum neopterin is elevated in patients infected with shigella.abstract:201020727206
lactoferrin increases both resistance to salmonella typhimurium infection and the production of antibodies in mice.lactoferrin (lf) is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein with antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. the antibacterial influence of orally administered bovine lf (blf) against murine infection caused by salmonella typhimurium (s. typhimurium) has scarcely been explored. in the current study, balb/c mice were treated orally for 7 days with either 5 or 100mg of bovine lactoferrin (blf). on day 7 of treatment, mice were intragastrically infected with a lethal or sublethal dose of col ...201020727369
medicinal potions used against infectious bowel diseases in mayan traditional medicine.since one of the main health problems of the indigenous population are infectious bowel diseases, we decided to test mayan medicinal potions used to treat these conditions against some of the causal agents.201020728517
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2008].the number as well as incidence rate of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in xxi century are every year lower. only 33 cases were notified in the year 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000 population), while the 64 cases were notified in 2007 (incidence rate 0.17/100 000), but 35 (incidence rate 0.09) were notified in 2006 and median in the 2002-2006 years was 75 cases, incidence rate 0.2/100 000 population. since 2000 no one-death case was notified. several imported cases were noti ...201020731222
pad4 is essential for antibacterial innate immunity mediated by neutrophil extracellular traps.neutrophils trap and kill bacteria by forming highly decondensed chromatin structures, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). we previously reported that histone hypercitrullination catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (pad4) correlates with chromatin decondensation during net formation. however, the role of pad4 in net-mediated bacterial trapping and killing has not been tested. here, we use pad4 knockout mice to show that pad4 is essential for net-mediated antibacterial function. u ...201020733033
comparison of chromogenic biolog rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of shigella spp. from foods.shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. however, it remains a challenge to isolate shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. the main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas (rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of shigella spp. in foods. all four shigella species, s. sonnei, s. flexneri, s. dysenteriae, and s. boydii, were studied. rainbow agar was compare ...201020819355
enhancement of reactive oxygen species production and chlamydial infection by the mitochondrial nod-like family member nlrx1.chlamydia trachomatis infections cause severe and irreversible damage that can lead to infertility and blindness in both males and females. following infection of epithelial cells, chlamydia induces production of reactive oxygen species (ros). unconventionally, chlamydiae use ros to their advantage by activating caspase-1, which contributes to chlamydial growth. nlrx1, a member of the nod-like receptor family that translocates to the mitochondria, can augment ros production from the mitochondria ...201020959452
prominent human health impacts from several marine microbes: history, ecology, and public health implications.this paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. these examples include three types of dinoflagellates (gambierdiscus spp., karenia brevis, and alexandrium fundyense), bmaa-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. the dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have pl ...201020976073
ikkα contributes to canonical nf-κb activation downstream of nod1-mediated peptidoglycan recognition.during pathogen infection, innate immunity is initiated via the recognition of microbial products by pattern recognition receptors and the subsequent activation of transcription factors that upregulate proinflammatory genes. by controlling the expression of cytokines, chemokines, anti-bacterial peptides and adhesion molecules, the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa b (nf-κb) has a central function in this process. in a typical model of nf-κb activation, the recognition of pathogen associa ...201020976174
atypical class 1 integron coexists with class 1 and class 2 integrons in multi-drug resistant shigella flexneri isolates from china.the antimicrobial resistance and the character of integrons were determined in 58 shigella flexneri strains isolated from china. all isolates were multi-drug resistant and found to carry integrons of class 1 (94.8%), class 2 (100%), or both (94.8%). no inti3 was detected. the typical class 1 integrons were found in conjugative plasmids and could be transferred to the recipient e. coli dh5α. the gene cassettes of typical class 1 integrons dfra17-aada5 and dfra12-orff-aada2 were detected in 54 str ...201020976456
[susceptibility surveillance of clinical isolates to fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents from 2003 to 2008: post-marketing study of prulifloxacin].yearly changes in the susceptibility of clinical isolates to ulifloxacin (ufx) and other fluoroquinolones were examined through surveys over 3 periods. in the first survey, 534 strains derived from 19 species were collected from clinical specimens during 6 months from december 2003 to may 2004. in the same way, 805 strains were collected from december 2005 to may 2006 in the second survey, and 863 strains were from december 2007 to may 2008 in the third survey. over these 3 study periods, the su ...201020976880
near-atomic resolution analysis of bipd, a component of the type iii secretion system of burkholderia pseudomallei.burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, possesses a type iii protein secretion apparatus that is similar to those found in salmonella and shigella. a major function of these secretion systems is to inject virulence-associated proteins into target cells of the host organism. the bipd gene of b. pseudomallei encodes a secreted virulence factor that is similar in sequence and is most likely to be functionally analogous to ipad from shigella and sipd from salmonella. proteins ...201020823511
molecular mechanisms of necroptosis: an ordered cellular explosion.for a long time, apoptosis was considered the sole form of programmed cell death during development, homeostasis and disease, whereas necrosis was regarded as an unregulated and uncontrollable process. evidence now reveals that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. the initiation of programmed necrosis, 'necroptosis', by death receptors (such as tumour necrosis factor receptor 1) requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein 1 (rip1; also known as ripk1) and rip3 (also kn ...201020823910
development of a multiplex real-time pcr assay with internal amplification control for the detection of shigella species and enteroinvasive escherichia coli.shigella species, particularly s. sonnei and s. flexneri, remain some of the leading bacterial etiological agents of gastrointestinal diseases in the united states and globally. the isolation and detection of these foodborne pathogens are critical for preventing the spread of disease and facilitating epidemiological investigations aimed at determining the source of a shigella infection outbreak. a multiplex real-time pcr-based assay was developed that targets all four species of shigella plus en ...201020828467
a disulfide driven domain swap switches off the activity of shigella ipah9.8 e3 ligase.we show that the monomeric form of shigella ipah9.8 e3 ligase catalyses the ubiquitination of human u2af35 in vitro, providing a molecular mechanism for the observed in vivo effect. we further discover that under non-reducing conditions ipah9.8 undergoes a domain swap driven by the formation of a disulfide bridge involving the catalytic cysteine and that this dimer is unable to catalyse the ubiquitination of u2af35. the crystal structure of the domain-swapped dimer is presented. the redox inacti ...201020831869
the effects of x-ray radiation on escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri inoculated on whole roma the last two decades several foodborne disease outbreaks associated with produce were reported. tomatoes, in particular, have been associated with several multi-state salmonella outbreaks. inactivation of inoculated escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on whole roma tomato surfaces by x-ray at 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5 kgy was studied. the main purpose of this study was to achieve a 5 log reduction in consistent with the recommendation ...201020832685
transmembrane bax inhibitor motif containing (tmbim) family proteins perturbs a trans-golgi network enzyme, gb3 synthase, and reduces gb3 biosynthesis.globotriaosylceramide (gb3) is a well known receptor for shiga toxin (stx), produced by enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli and shigella dysenteriae. the expression of gb3 also affects several diseases, including cancer metastasis and fabry disease, which prompted us to look for factors involved in its metabolism. in the present study, we isolated two cdnas that conferred resistance to stx-induced cell death in hela cells by expression cloning: ganglioside gm3 synthase and the cooh terminus regio ...201020837469
normal aerobic bacterial conjunctival flora in the crab-eating raccoon (procyon cancrivorus) and coati (nasua nasua) housed in captivity in pernambuco and paraiba (northeast, brazil).to determine the normal aerobic bacterial conjunctival population of the coatis and the crab-eating raccoons housed in captivity in the pernambuco and paraiba states of brazil.201020840103
mass spectrometry biotyper system identifies enteric bacterial pathogens directly from colonies grown on selective stool culture media.we evaluated the performance and cost-effectiveness of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based biotyper system for the routine identification of common enteric bacterial pathogens seen in middle tennessee from suspicious colonies grown on selective stool culture media. a total of 304 suspicious colonies were selected and further identified from 605 stool specimens. the suspicious colonies were analyzed by the biotyper system, and the results were comp ...201020844226
formulation and immunogenicity studies of type iii secretion system needle antigens as vaccine candidates.bacterial infections caused by shigella flexneri, salmonella typhimurium, and burkholderia pseudomallei are currently difficult to prevent due to the lack of a licensed vaccine. here we present formulation and immunogenicity studies for the three type iii secretion system (ttss) needle proteins mxih(δ5), prgi(δ5), and bsal(δ5) (each truncated by five residues at its c terminus) as potential candidates for vaccine development. these antigens are found to be thermally stabilized by the presence of ...201020845448
formulation and immunogenicity of a potential multivalent type iii secretion system-based protein vaccine.the virulence of many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria is dependent upon their type iii secretion (tts) systems. here, we discuss initial formulation studies of five tts needle tip proteins ipad (shigella flexneri), bipd (burkholderia pseudomallei), sipd (salmonella spp.), lcrv (yersinia spp.), and pcrv (pseudomonas aeruginosa) as targets for subunit vaccines. excipient screening and subsequent assays lead to the selection of 10% sucrose and 5% dextrose as an optimal stabilizer combination for ...201020845449
assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs commercialized in spain.spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. conventional production of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. in this study, we have analyzed the microbial quality of 53 samples of spices and dry herbs collected from spanish markets detecting a contamination of samples of s ...201020848208
dysbiosis of fecal microbiota in crohn's disease patients as revealed by a custom phylogenetic microarray.a custom phylogenetic microarray composed of small subunit ribosomal rna probes, representing ≈500 bacterial species from the human and animal gut, was developed and evaluated for analysis of gut microbial diversity using fecal samples from healthy subjects and crohn's disease (cd) patients.201020848492
predacious bacteria, bdellovibrio with potential for biocontrol.bacteria of the genus of bdellovibrio are highly motile gram-negative predators of other gram-negative bacteria causing lysis of their prey. here we report results of studies on the interactions of bdellovibrio with species of alcaligenes, campylobacter, erwinia, escherichia, helicobacter, pseudomonas, legionella, and shigella in agar lower, liquid media and cells attached to a surface. helicobacter pylori was studied employing both actively growing and viable but nonculturable (vbnc) cells. the ...201020850380
infectious colitis.purpose of review: the incidence of gastrointestinal infections continues to increase and infectious colitis contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. the purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in knowledge of pathogens causing infectious colitis. we describe the various pathogens and specifically focus on enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and entamoeba histolytica infections, and their impact on long-t ...201020856114
prevalence of bacteria and parasites in white ibis in egypt.a field survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections among free-living white ibis (nipponia nippon) in which 92 bacterial isolates were recovered from 193 different internal organs of 55 apparently healthy ibis. escherichia coli and salmonella spp. were isolated at rates of 43.6% and 14.5%, respectively. the other bacterial pathogens isolated were shigella spp. (34.5%), enterobacter spp. (21.8%) citrobacter spp. (18.1%), klebsiella pneumonia (16.3), staphylococcus aure ...201020857378
improved detection of five major gastrointestinal pathogens by use of a molecular screening approach.the detection of bacterial and parasitic gastrointestinal pathogens through culture and microscopy is laborious and time-consuming. we evaluated a molecular screening approach (msa) for the detection of five major enteric pathogens: salmonella enterica, campylobacter jejuni, giardia lamblia, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec), and shigella spp./enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), for use in the daily practice of a clinical microbiology laboratory. the msa consists of prescreening of stool ...201020861334
antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from trilepisium madagascariense stem bark.the present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of trilepisium madagascariense in rats.201020871767
defensins play a crucial role in protecting mice against oral shigella flexneri earlier study revealed that 4-day-old mice, but not older mice, were infected with invasive shigella strains. here we attempted to determine the underlying mechanism that induces inflammation in the intestines of neonate mice after oral shigella infection. wild-type balb/c mice of different ages (7, 14, and 35 days old) were orally administered gfp-expressing shigella flexneri 5a m90t strain (5 x 10⁹ cfu) and analyzed for colonization 6h following infection. we found that shigella localized i ...201020888321
improved fructosylated chondroitin production by kfoc overexpression in e. coli k4.escherichia coli k4 is one of the bacteria expressing a surface polysaccharide, indicated as capsular polysaccharide (k-antigen), showing a chemical structure that resembles that of metabolites commonly used in pharmaceutical applications. in this study we provide evidence that homologous overexpression of the chondroitin polymerase, encoded by the kfoc gene, acts on a potential bottleneck for production of capsular polysaccharide, and increases productivity by 100%. however, we also demonstrate ...201020888875
pediatric diarrhea in southern ghana: etiology and association with intestinal inflammation and malnutrition.diarrhea is a major public health problem that affects the development of children. anthropometric data were collected from 274 children with (n = 170) and without (n = 104) diarrhea. stool specimens were analyzed by conventional culture, polymerase chain reaction for enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec), shigella, cryptosporidium, entamoeba, and giardia species, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for fecal lactoferrin levels. about 50% of the study population was mildly to severely m ...201020889896
selective testing of ß-galactosidase activity in the laboratory identification of salmonella and shigella species.salmonella and shigella species are pathogens of great medical and public health importance. however, laboratory identification of these organisms is time consuming. using current standard laboratory algorithms, the vast majority of organisms submitted for serological typing with salmonella-specific and shigella-specific antisera are not clinically significant.201020924038
bacterial enteropathogens and risk factors associated with childhood investigate the etiology of bacterial enteropathogens causing diarrhea among children; to elucidate the risk factors, sign and symptoms involved in developing of infection; and to identify the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.201020924718
[screening of harmine tolerance/degrading bacteria from camel rumen].peganum harmala, a famous traditional chinese drug, contains a variety of alkaloids and toxic for many animals. camels mainly live in desert or semi-desert areas, with the robust gastrointestine system in digesting various feed including toxic plants without disease symptoms.201020931866
viable but nonculturable state of foodborne pathogens in grapefruit juice: a study of laboratory.several foodborne human pathogens, when exposed to harsh conditions, enter viable but nonculturable (vbnc) state; however, still open is the question whether vbnc pathogens could be a risk for public health, because, potentially, they can resuscitate. moreover, cultural methods for food safety control were not able to detect vbnc forms of foodborne bacteria. particularly, it has not been established whether food chemophysical characteristics can induce vbnc state in contaminating pathogen bacter ...201020932087
shigella deploy multiple countermeasures against host innate immune responses.although the intestinal epithelium is equipped with multiple defense systems that sense bacterial components, transmit alarms to the immune system, clear the bacteria, and renew the injured epithelial lining, mucosal bacterial pathogens are capable of efficiently colonizing the intestinal epithelium, because they have evolved systems that modulate the inflammatory and immune responses of the host and exploit the harmful environments as replicative niches. in this review we highlight current topi ...201020934372
domains of the shigella flexneri type iii secretion system ipab protein involved in secretion regulation.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are key determinants of virulence in many gram-negative bacterial pathogens. upon cell contact, they inject effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells through a needle protruding from the bacterial surface. host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle "tip complex," but how this occurs is not understood. the tip complex of quiescent needles is composed of ipad, which is topped by ipab. physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to ...201020937761
combination of two separate binding domains defines stoichiometry between type iii secretion system chaperone ipgc and translocator protein ipab.type iii secretion systems (ttsss) utilized by enteropathogenic bacteria require the presence of small, acidic virulence-associated chaperones for effective host cell infection. we adopted a combination of biochemical and cellular techniques to define the chaperone binding domains (cbds) in the translocators ipab and ipac associated with the chaperone ipgc from shigella flexneri. we identified a novel cbd in ipab and furthermore precisely mapped the boundaries of the cbds in both translocator pr ...201020937829
characterization and antimicrobial activity of 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide; a novel bioactive compound from moringa oleifera seed extract.antimicrobial activity of crude seed extract of moringa oleifera was investigated by thin layer chromatography bioassay against escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, cladosporium cladosporioides, and penicillium sclerotigenum; most of them were prominently inhibited by an isolate with r(f) 0.92-0.96. characterization and identification of the extract revealed the occurrence of three bioactive compounds: 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, methyl n-4-(α-l-r ...201020941575
expression of bacterial virulence factors and cytokines during in vitro macrophage infection by enteroinvasive escherichia coli and shigella flexneri: a comparative study.enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) and shigella spp cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading and multiplying within epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. although eiec and shigella share many genetic and biochemical similarities, the illness caused by shigella is more severe. thus, genomic and structure-function molecular studies on the biological interactions of these invasive enterobacteria with eukaryotic cells have focused on shigella rather than eiec. here we comparatively stud ...201020944993
an fda bioinformatics tool for microbial genomics research on molecular characterization of bacterial foodborne pathogens using microarrays.advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. the food and drug administration (fda) has developed a genomics tool, arraytrack™, which provides extensive functionalities to manage, analyze, and interpret genomic data for mammalian species. arraytrack™ has been widely adopted by the research community and used for pharmacogenomics data review in the fda's voluntary genomics data submissio ...201020946615
integron types, gene cassettes, antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids of shigella sonnei isolates from outbreaks and sporadic cases in taiwan.this study analysed the presence, location and transferability of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in 103 shigella sonnei outbreak isolates and in 32 sporadic isolates from taiwan. multiple antimicrobial resistance was common in both outbreak (95 %) and sporadic (97 %) isolates. class 1 integrons were present in 34 outbreak isolates (33 %) and in six sporadic isolates (19 %). this study is the first, to our knowledge, to identify an atypical sul3-associated class 1 integron carrying the ...201020947666
rapid multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis of shigella spp. using multicolour capillary electrophoresis.the multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (mlva) method for genotyping has proven to be a fast and reliable typing tool in several bacterial species. mlva is in our laboratory the routine typing method for salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium, escherichia coli (two assays), listeria monocytogenes and yersinia enterocolitica. the gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium shigella is the most common cause of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) worldwide, a ...201020951171
surveillance of shigellosis by real-time pcr suggests underestimation of shigellosis prevalence by culture-based methods in a population of rural china.shigellosis is a leading public health issue in china, especially in children under 5 years of age. the disease burden of shigellosis is usually underestimated by conventional culture. in this study, real-time pcr was applied to detect shigella infection in parallel with routine culture, to investigate the true burden of disease caused by shigella spp.201020951728
subtype prevalence, plasmid profiles and growing fluoroquinolone resistance in shigella from kolkata, india (2001-2007): a hospital-based study.shigellosis is a major public health problem, and increasing antimicrobial resistance has complicated its treatment. we report isolation frequency, plasmid profiles and antimicrobial resistance of shigella subtypes in kolkata, india, from a prospective hospital-based study.201020955371
[secondary structure of ssoii-like (cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferases n-terminal region determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy].(cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii (m.ssoii) has a long n-terminal region (1-71 residues) preceding the sequence with conservative motifs, which are characteristic for all dna methyltransferases of such kind. the presence of this region provides m.ssoii capability to act as a transcription regulator in ssoii restriction-modification system. to perform its regulatory function, m.ssoii binds specifically to a 15-mer inverted repeat in the promoter region of ssoii restriction-modification sys ...201021090246
enteropathogenic e. coli non-lee encoded effectors nleh1 and nleh2 attenuate nf-κb activation.enteric bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated strategies to evade host immune defences. some pathogens deliver anti-inflammatory effector molecules into the host cell cytoplasm via a type iii secretion system (t3ss). enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) inhibits inflammation by an undefined, t3ss-dependent mechanism. two proteins encoded outside of the epec locus of enterocyte effacement (lee) pathogenicity island, non-lee-encoded effector h1 (nleh1) and h2 (nleh2), display sequence ...201021091507
cell-cell propagation of nf-κb transcription factor and map kinase activation amplifies innate immunity against bacterial infection.the enteroinvasive bacterium shigella flexneri uses multiple secreted effector proteins to downregulate interleukin-8 (il-8) expression in infected epithelial cells. yet, massive il-8 secretion is observed in shigellosis. here we report a host mechanism of cell-cell communication that circumvents the effector proteins and strongly amplifies il-8 expression during bacterial infection. by monitoring proinflammatory signals at the single-cell level, we found that the activation of the transcription ...201021093316
isolation and characterization of shigella flexneri g3, capable of effective cellulosic saccharification under mesophilic conditions.a novel shigella strain (shigella flexneri g3) showing high cellulolytic activity under mesophilic, anaerobic conditions was isolated and characterized. the bacterium is gram negative, short rod shaped, and nonmotile and displays effective production of glucose, cellobiose, and other oligosaccharides from cellulose (avicel ph-101) under optimal conditions (40°c and ph 6.5). approximately 75% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed in modified atcc 1191 medium containing 0.3% cellulose, and the oligosacc ...201021097577
development of a quantitative rt-pcr assay to examine the kinetics of ribosome depurination by ribosome inactivating proteins using saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model.ricin produced by the castor bean plant and shiga toxins produced by pathogenic escherichia coli (stec) and shigella dysenteriae are type ii ribosome inactivating proteins (rips), containing an enzymatically active a subunit that inhibits protein synthesis by removing an adenine from the α-sarcin/ricin loop (srl) of the 28s rrna. there are currently no known antidotes to shiga toxin or ricin, and the ability to screen large chemical libraries for inhibitors has been hindered by lack of quantitat ...201021098653
thrombotic microangiopathies: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura / hemolytic uremic syndrome.thrombotic microangiopathies (tmas) are pathological conditions characterized by generalized microvascular occlusion by platelet thrombi, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. two typical phenotypes of tmas are hemolytic- uremic syndrome (hus) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (ttp). other disorders occasionally present with similar manifestations. depending on whether renal or brain lesions prevail, two pathologically indistinguishable but somehow clinically different d ...201021103695
environmental contamination of hokersar wetland waters in kashmir himalayan valley, india.this paper investigates the environmental contamination of himalayan wetland ecosystem (hokersar, kashmir) by analyzing the distribution and loading of bacterial population in waters. seven locations representing heterogeneous spatial habitat zonation of the wetland were studied. site-specific variability in bacterial load was markedly discernible at doodhganga inlet and zainakoot locations, with maximum values in the range of 242-276/100 ml against soziath, an outlet, with minimum value of 157- ...201021114125
predation of human pathogens by the predatory bacteria micavibrio aeruginosavorus and bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.the focus of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the predatory bacteria bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and micavibrio aeruginosavorus to control the pathogens associated with human infection.201021114596
laboratory detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae: evaluation of two screening agar plates and two confirmation techniques.the worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing esbl-producing enterobacteriaceae (esbl-e) is increasing, making the need for optimized detection techniques more urgent. in this study we investigated the performance of two esbl-e screening and two esbl-e confirmation techniques. in accordance with the dutch national guidelines (, a collection of 642 highly resistant enterobacteriaceae strains, as identified by vitek2, was used to test the performances of two scr ...201021123527
conformational changes in ipad from shigella flexneri upon binding bile salts provide insight into the second step of type iii secretion.shigella flexneri uses its type iii secretion apparatus (ttsa) to inject host-altering proteins into targeted eukaryotic cells. the ttsa is composed of a basal body and an exposed needle with invasion plasmid antigen d (ipad) forming a tip complex that controls secretion. the bile salt deoxycholate (doc) stimulates recruitment of the translocator protein ipab into the maturing ttsa needle tip complex. this process appears to be triggered by a direct interaction between doc and ipad. fluorescence ...201021126091
lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid down-regulated shigella flexneri peptidoglycan-induced inflammation.bacterial peptidoglycans (pgns) are recognized by the host's innate immune system. this process is mediated by the nod/card family of proteins, which induces inflammation by activating nuclear factor (nf)-κb. excessive activation of monocytes by shigella flexneri pgn (flexpgn) leads to serious inflammatory diseases such as intestinal bowel diseases (ibd) and crohn's disease. in this study, we examined whether lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (plta) could attenuate the pro-inflammatory s ...201021129777
shigellosis from an interactive fountain: implications for july 2003, the authors investigated an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in marion county, oregon. nineteen confirmed and 37 presumptive cases, mostly young children, were identified. a case-control study implicated play in an interactive fountain in a city park (matched odds ratio undefined; p < .002). the association was confirmed by a cohort study among local schoolchildren (rr [relative risk] = 12.6, p < .001) that allowed the authors to estimate that > 500 persons became ill. founta ...201021133311
arginine-dependent acid-resistance pathway in shigella boydii.ability to survive the low ph of the human stomach is considered be an important virulent determinant. it was suggested that the unique acid tolerance of shigella boydii 18 cdph, the strain implicated in a 1998 outbreak, may have played an important role in surviving the acidic food (bean salad). the strain was capable of inducing arginine-dependent acid-resistance (adar) pathway. this pathway was assumed to be absent in shigella sp. here, we have examined occurrence and efficacy of adar pathway ...201021136041
enteric glia protect against shigella flexneri invasion in intestinal epithelial cells: a role for s-nitrosoglutathione.enteric glial cells (egcs) are important regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (ieb) functions. egc-derived s-nitrosoglutathione (gsno) has been shown to regulate ieb permeability. whether egcs and gsno protect the ieb during infectious insult by pathogens such as shigella flexneri is not known.201021139062
facile synthesis and antibacterial activity of naturally occurring 5-methoxyfuroflavone.a convenient synthesis of 5-methoxyfuroflavone (6, pongaglabol methyl ether), a constituent of some pongamia or millettia genus, was achieved by starting from 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone via a chalcone precursor, followed by treatment with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (ddq). this five-step reaction (total yield: 21.6%) is more facile with that of previously utilized procedures using each different starting material. antibacterial activities of the above compound and its prec ...201021139271
the shigella t3ss needle transmits a signal for mxic release, which controls secretion of effectors.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are key determinants of virulence in many gram-negative bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens. they inject 'effector' proteins through a 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface directly into eukaryotic cells after assembly of a 'translocator' pore in the host plasma membrane. secretion is a tightly regulated process, which is blocked until physical contact with a host cell takes place. host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle 'tip comple ...201021143311
antimicrobial resistance patterns and prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons in shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei isolated in uzbekistan.abstract:201021143880
prevalence and characterization of human shigella infections in henan province, china, in 2006, 3,531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in henan province, china. a total of 467 (13.2%) shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. seventy-one shigella flexneri strains were characterized by mic determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and detection of genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. most infections were caused by s. flexneri variant x [iv:(7),8] (27.6%), s. sonnei (24.2%), and s. flexneri 2a (20.8%). however, large regional differences ...201021068291
the host outer membrane proteins ompa and ompc are associated with the shigella phage sf6 virion.assembly of dsdna bacteriophage is a precisely programmed process. potential roles of host cell components in phage assembly haven't been well understood. it was previously reported that two unidentified proteins were present in bacteriophage sf6 virion (casjens et al, 2004, j.mol.biol. 339, 379-394, fig. 2a). using tandem mass spectrometry, we have identified the two proteins as outer membrane proteins (omps) ompa and ompc from its host shigella flexneri. the transmission electron cryo-microsco ...201021071053
anaerobic environment of the intestine primes pathogenic shigella for infection.marteyn et al. have investigated the role of oxygen and the regulator fnr in infection by the intracellular enteric pathogen shigella flexneri. fnr is active under anaerobic conditions like those present in the lumen of the distal intestine. fnr causes elongation of a secretion apparatus required for bacterial entry into cells and represses secretion of proteins that trigger entry. higher oxygen levels present at the intestinal cell surface are sufficient to inactivate fnr, thereby derepressing ...201021073287
the structure of the escherichia coli o148 lipopolysaccharide core region and its linkage to the o-specific polysaccharide.recently it was demonstrated that shigella dysenteriae type 1, a cause of severe dysentery epidemics, gained its o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) from escherichia coli o148. the o-sps of these bacteria differ only by a galactose residue in the repeat unit of s. dysenteriae type 1 in place of a glucose residue in e. coli o148. herein, we analyzed the core structure and its linkage to the o-sp in e. coli o148 lps. both were found to be identical to those of s. dysenteriae type 1 structures, furthe ...201021074753
shigella flexneri spa15 crystal structure verified in solution by double electron electron resonance.shigella flexneri spa15 is a chaperone of the type 3 secretion system, which binds a number of effectors to ensure their stabilization prior to secretion. one of these effectors is ipgb1, a mimic of the human ras-like rho guanosine triphosphatase rhog. in this study, spa15 alone and in complex with ipgb1 has been studied by double electron electron resonance, an experiment that gives distance information showing the spacial separation of attached spin labels. this distance is explained by determ ...201021075116
caging targets for destruction.intracellular bacterial pathogens engage in a tug-of-war with innate host defenses. in this issue of cell host & microbe, mostowy et al. (2010) identify a role for the septin family of cytoskeletal proteins in targeting intracellular shigella to the autophagy pathway.201021075349
entrapment of intracytosolic bacteria by septin cage-like structures.actin-based motility is used by various pathogens for dissemination within and between cells. yet host factors restricting this process have not been identified. septins are gtp-binding proteins that assemble as filaments and are essential for cell division. however, their role during interphase has remained elusive. here, we report that septin assemblies are recruited to different bacteria that polymerize actin. we observed that intracytosolic shigella either become compartmentalized in septin ...201021075354
microbiological quality of blue mussels (mytilus edulis) in nunavik, quebec: a pilot study.this pilot study was aimed at documenting the presence of fecal indicators and enteric pathogens in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) from 6 communities in nunavik, quebec. one to four 2 kg samples of mussels were collected at low tide in each community. samples were investigated by enumeration methods for the fecal indicators enterococci, escherichia coli, f-specific coliphages, clostridium perfringens, and by molecular identification for the pathogens norovirus, salmonella spp., campylobacter jeju ...201021076488
extended-spectrum ß-lactamase production in shigella flexneri.emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of shigella is a growing concern across the globe. third-generation cephalosporins are used for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant shigellae. however, resistance to these cephalosporin antibiotics due to extended-spectrum ß-lactamases, has emerged as a new problem. so far extended-spectrum ß-lactamases producing shigella has not been reported from pakistan. we report such a case in shigella flexneri from an 8-year old girl with acute dysent ...201021078255
assessment of the underestimation of childhood diarrhoeal disease burden in israel.summarywe determined the extent by which mandatory reporting on isolates of shigella and salmonella underestimates the burden of diarrhoeal diseases in individuals aged <17 years in israel and examined paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to patient visits with diarrhoeal diseases. sources of data were a nationwide population-based telephone survey for presence of diarrhoeal diseases, maccabi healthcare services databases and a mail survey among its paediatricians. monte ca ...201021087537
incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens isolated from an integrated aquaculture evaluate an integrated aquaculture system, microbiological analyses of water used in this system were carried out and the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens were determined in the related ecosystem.201021029138
decrease in shigellosis-related deaths without shigella spp.-specific interventions, 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in asia. our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. this estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than ...201021029529
shigella spp. antimicrobial drug resistance, papua new guinea, 2000-2009. 201021029550
effects of backbone substitutions on the conformational behavior of shigella flexneri o-antigens: implications for vaccine strategy.the o-antigen (o-ag), the polysaccharide part of the lipopolysaccharide, is the major target of the serotype-specific protective humoral response elicited upon host infection by shigella flexneri, the main causal agent of the endemic form of bacillary dysentery. the o-ag repeat units (rus) of 12 s. flexneri serotypes share the tetrasaccharide backbone →2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-β-d-glcpnac-(1→, with site-selective glucosylation(s) and/or o-acetylation defining the ser ...201021030536
genetic characterization of atypical shigella flexneri isolated in korea.three types of serotypically atypical shigella flexneri strains were isolated from 2007 to 2008 in patients at the korea national institute of health (nih). these strains were characterized and compared with serologically typical s.flexneri. one type of strain either displayed nonreacting typing or grouping sera, reacting strongly only with polyb antisera, which indicates this strain is s. flexneri (polyb:un). the second type displayed reactions with one of the typing sera (iv) and did not bind ...201021030833
plasmid-encoded multidrug resistance: a case study of salmonella and shigella from enteric diarrhea sources among humans.salmonellosis and shigellosis are significant and persistent causes of diarrheal diseases among humans in developing countries. with that in mind, the current study investigates the occurrence of plasmid-encoded multidrug resistances in salmonella and shigella from diarrheal cases among humans. the isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, transfer experiments and curing. the extended spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) was detected by the double disc diffusion syn ...201021031258
[rapid detection of shigella dysenteriae by pcr assay].based on the invasive plasmid antigen h gene (ipah) of s. dysenteriae, one pair of specific primers was designed for pcr assays in this study. the concentrations of dntp, mg2+ and primer, dosage of taq dna polymerase, annealing temperature and circulating parameter in the pcr amplification system were optimized. in this way, a rapid and stable method of pcr assay for the detection of s. dysenteriae was established. the specificity and sensitivity of pcr were also analyzed. the detection limits o ...201021033439
counting bacteria on a microfluidic chip.this paper reports a lab-on-a-chip device that counts the number of bacteria flowing through a microchannel. the bacteria number counting is realized by a microfluidic differential resistive pulse sensor (rps). by using a single microfluidic channel with two detecting arm channels placed at the two ends of the sensing section, the microfluidic differential rps can achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. this method is applied to detect and count bacteria in aqueous solution. the detected rps signa ...201021035606
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