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domains of the shigella flexneri type iii secretion system ipab protein involved in secretion regulation.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are key determinants of virulence in many gram-negative bacterial pathogens. upon cell contact, they inject effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells through a needle protruding from the bacterial surface. host cell sensing occurs through a distal needle "tip complex," but how this occurs is not understood. the tip complex of quiescent needles is composed of ipad, which is topped by ipab. physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to ...201020937761
combination of two separate binding domains defines stoichiometry between type iii secretion system chaperone ipgc and translocator protein ipab.type iii secretion systems (ttsss) utilized by enteropathogenic bacteria require the presence of small, acidic virulence-associated chaperones for effective host cell infection. we adopted a combination of biochemical and cellular techniques to define the chaperone binding domains (cbds) in the translocators ipab and ipac associated with the chaperone ipgc from shigella flexneri. we identified a novel cbd in ipab and furthermore precisely mapped the boundaries of the cbds in both translocator pr ...201020937829
characterization and antimicrobial activity of 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide; a novel bioactive compound from moringa oleifera seed extract.antimicrobial activity of crude seed extract of moringa oleifera was investigated by thin layer chromatography bioassay against escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, cladosporium cladosporioides, and penicillium sclerotigenum; most of them were prominently inhibited by an isolate with r(f) 0.92-0.96. characterization and identification of the extract revealed the occurrence of three bioactive compounds: 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, methyl n-4-(α-l-r ...201020941575
expression of bacterial virulence factors and cytokines during in vitro macrophage infection by enteroinvasive escherichia coli and shigella flexneri: a comparative study.enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) and shigella spp cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading and multiplying within epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. although eiec and shigella share many genetic and biochemical similarities, the illness caused by shigella is more severe. thus, genomic and structure-function molecular studies on the biological interactions of these invasive enterobacteria with eukaryotic cells have focused on shigella rather than eiec. here we comparatively stud ...201020944993
an fda bioinformatics tool for microbial genomics research on molecular characterization of bacterial foodborne pathogens using microarrays.advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. the food and drug administration (fda) has developed a genomics tool, arraytrack™, which provides extensive functionalities to manage, analyze, and interpret genomic data for mammalian species. arraytrack™ has been widely adopted by the research community and used for pharmacogenomics data review in the fda's voluntary genomics data submissio ...201020946615
integron types, gene cassettes, antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids of shigella sonnei isolates from outbreaks and sporadic cases in taiwan.this study analysed the presence, location and transferability of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in 103 shigella sonnei outbreak isolates and in 32 sporadic isolates from taiwan. multiple antimicrobial resistance was common in both outbreak (95 %) and sporadic (97 %) isolates. class 1 integrons were present in 34 outbreak isolates (33 %) and in six sporadic isolates (19 %). this study is the first, to our knowledge, to identify an atypical sul3-associated class 1 integron carrying the ...201020947666
rapid multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis of shigella spp. using multicolour capillary electrophoresis.the multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (mlva) method for genotyping has proven to be a fast and reliable typing tool in several bacterial species. mlva is in our laboratory the routine typing method for salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium, escherichia coli (two assays), listeria monocytogenes and yersinia enterocolitica. the gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium shigella is the most common cause of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) worldwide, a ...201020951171
surveillance of shigellosis by real-time pcr suggests underestimation of shigellosis prevalence by culture-based methods in a population of rural china.shigellosis is a leading public health issue in china, especially in children under 5 years of age. the disease burden of shigellosis is usually underestimated by conventional culture. in this study, real-time pcr was applied to detect shigella infection in parallel with routine culture, to investigate the true burden of disease caused by shigella spp.201020951728
subtype prevalence, plasmid profiles and growing fluoroquinolone resistance in shigella from kolkata, india (2001-2007): a hospital-based study.shigellosis is a major public health problem, and increasing antimicrobial resistance has complicated its treatment. we report isolation frequency, plasmid profiles and antimicrobial resistance of shigella subtypes in kolkata, india, from a prospective hospital-based study.201020955371
health effects of the 1991 bangladesh cyclone: report of a unicef evaluation team.to assess the impact on health of the cyclone and tidal wave that struck the southern coast of bangladesh on the evening of 29 april 1991, a team of health professionals visited cyclone affected areas from 4-27 june, 1991. team members met with health workers and officials of the government of bangladesh and with staff pom nongovernmental organizations, and conducted field surveys in two severely affected areas. mortality among the 135 households surveyed (pre-cyclone population 1,123) was 14 pe ...199320958764
enhancement of reactive oxygen species production and chlamydial infection by the mitochondrial nod-like family member nlrx1.chlamydia trachomatis infections cause severe and irreversible damage that can lead to infertility and blindness in both males and females. following infection of epithelial cells, chlamydia induces production of reactive oxygen species (ros). unconventionally, chlamydiae use ros to their advantage by activating caspase-1, which contributes to chlamydial growth. nlrx1, a member of the nod-like receptor family that translocates to the mitochondria, can augment ros production from the mitochondria ...201020959452
prominent human health impacts from several marine microbes: history, ecology, and public health implications.this paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. these examples include three types of dinoflagellates (gambierdiscus spp., karenia brevis, and alexandrium fundyense), bmaa-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. the dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have pl ...201020976073
ikkα contributes to canonical nf-κb activation downstream of nod1-mediated peptidoglycan recognition.during pathogen infection, innate immunity is initiated via the recognition of microbial products by pattern recognition receptors and the subsequent activation of transcription factors that upregulate proinflammatory genes. by controlling the expression of cytokines, chemokines, anti-bacterial peptides and adhesion molecules, the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa b (nf-κb) has a central function in this process. in a typical model of nf-κb activation, the recognition of pathogen associa ...201020976174
atypical class 1 integron coexists with class 1 and class 2 integrons in multi-drug resistant shigella flexneri isolates from china.the antimicrobial resistance and the character of integrons were determined in 58 shigella flexneri strains isolated from china. all isolates were multi-drug resistant and found to carry integrons of class 1 (94.8%), class 2 (100%), or both (94.8%). no inti3 was detected. the typical class 1 integrons were found in conjugative plasmids and could be transferred to the recipient e. coli dh5α. the gene cassettes of typical class 1 integrons dfra17-aada5 and dfra12-orff-aada2 were detected in 54 str ...201020976456
[susceptibility surveillance of clinical isolates to fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents from 2003 to 2008: post-marketing study of prulifloxacin].yearly changes in the susceptibility of clinical isolates to ulifloxacin (ufx) and other fluoroquinolones were examined through surveys over 3 periods. in the first survey, 534 strains derived from 19 species were collected from clinical specimens during 6 months from december 2003 to may 2004. in the same way, 805 strains were collected from december 2005 to may 2006 in the second survey, and 863 strains were from december 2007 to may 2008 in the third survey. over these 3 study periods, the su ...201020976880
shigellosis studies; clinical observations on dysentery caused by shigella flexneri iii. 194620982721
the detoxification by acetylation of soluble antigens from shigella dysenteriae and e. typhosa. 194620984596
an additional shigella paradysenteriae serotype. 194620985564
relationships of proshigella dispar to other proshigella and shigella species. 194620987018
immunochemical studies on the shigella paradysenteriae (flexner). 194620987082
shigella sp. wakefield and its relations to shigella sp. sachs q454. 194620988491
bacteriology of a collection of shigella strains typed by weil's method. 194620988553
the increased antigenicity of shigella paradysenteriae (flexner) in saline-in-mineral-oil emulsion; experiments in mice and rabbits. 194620992665
hydrogen sulfide formation by shigella alkalescens. 194620994881
two new types of shigella flexneri. 194620996438
the increase of bacteriophage in vivo during experimental infections with shigella paradysenteriae flexner in mice. 194620996528
preparation and evaluation of an irradiated toxoid from the toxin of shigella dysenteriae. 194621001448
antigens of shigella sonnei. 194521003541
the type-specificity of immune protection against shigella paradysenteriae (flexner). 194521003545
the antigenicity of shigella paradysenteriae (flexner) in saline-in-mineral-oil emulsion. 194521004019
relationship between precipitative and protective anti-bodies of type iii shigella paradysenteriae (flexner) immune serum. 194521004030
typing sera for the genus shigella. 194521004173
a study of shigella by means of bacteriophage. 194521005127
shigella equirulis infection in california. 194521005490
distribution of shigella in india as determined by spot agglutination with absorbed sera. 194521006721
the importance of paracolon organisms with salmonella and shigella antigens. 194521007049
occurrence of shigella types in the military population of the southeastern united states, 1943 and 1944. 194621009284
studies with the somatic antigen of shigella para-dysenteriae (flexner). 194621012783
a thermolabile substance of shigella dysenteriae shiga. 194621013070
two paracolon cultures related antigenically to shigella paradysenteriae. 194621014237
shigella types from eastern france. 194621016044
the detoxification by acetylation of soluble antigens from shigella dysenteriae (shiga) and e. typhosa. 194621017963
observations concerning the growth of three species of shigella on bismuth sulfite agar. 194621018339
the antigenic complex of shigella paradysenteriae, boyd type p274. 194621018687
the mannitol-negative shigella group. 194621018707
a comparison of rabbit and mouse antisera to shigella paradysenteriae. 194621018814
shigella paradysenteriae (flexner) type ii. vii. 194621018819
the phase variation of shigella paradysenteriae (flexner) type iv. 194621018824
active immunization of children with shigella vaccines. 194521021615
shigellosis studies; resistance of shigella flexneri iii to therapy with sulfadiazine. 194621022905
a new species of shigella. 194621023165
antigenic relationship of shigella dispar, types i and ii, to shigella paradysenteriae, boyd type p143. 194621024155
the preparation of a potent toxin of shigella dysenteriae (shiga) on a semi-synthetic medium and its use for the preparation of an alum-precipitated toxoid. 194621026411
[the immunizing properties of the phago-resistent strains of shigella dysenteriae]. 194521027462
incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens isolated from an integrated aquaculture system.to evaluate an integrated aquaculture system, microbiological analyses of water used in this system were carried out and the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogens were determined in the related ecosystem.201021029138
decrease in shigellosis-related deaths without shigella spp.-specific interventions, asia.in 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in asia. our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in asia, of which ≈14,000 are fatal. this estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than ...201021029529
shigella spp. antimicrobial drug resistance, papua new guinea, 2000-2009. 201021029550
effects of backbone substitutions on the conformational behavior of shigella flexneri o-antigens: implications for vaccine strategy.the o-antigen (o-ag), the polysaccharide part of the lipopolysaccharide, is the major target of the serotype-specific protective humoral response elicited upon host infection by shigella flexneri, the main causal agent of the endemic form of bacillary dysentery. the o-ag repeat units (rus) of 12 s. flexneri serotypes share the tetrasaccharide backbone →2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-α-l-rhap-(1 → 3)-β-d-glcpnac-(1→, with site-selective glucosylation(s) and/or o-acetylation defining the ser ...201021030536
genetic characterization of atypical shigella flexneri isolated in korea.three types of serotypically atypical shigella flexneri strains were isolated from 2007 to 2008 in patients at the korea national institute of health (nih). these strains were characterized and compared with serologically typical s.flexneri. one type of strain either displayed nonreacting typing or grouping sera, reacting strongly only with polyb antisera, which indicates this strain is s. flexneri (polyb:un). the second type displayed reactions with one of the typing sera (iv) and did not bind ...201021030833
plasmid-encoded multidrug resistance: a case study of salmonella and shigella from enteric diarrhea sources among humans.salmonellosis and shigellosis are significant and persistent causes of diarrheal diseases among humans in developing countries. with that in mind, the current study investigates the occurrence of plasmid-encoded multidrug resistances in salmonella and shigella from diarrheal cases among humans. the isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, transfer experiments and curing. the extended spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) was detected by the double disc diffusion syn ...201021031258
the crystal structures of the salmonella type iii secretion system tip protein sipd in complex with deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate.the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is a protein injection nanomachinery required for virulence by many human pathogenic bacteria including salmonella and shigella. an essential component of the t3ss is the tip protein and the salmonella sipd and the shigella ipad tip proteins interact with bile salts, which serve as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. sipd and ipad have long central coiled coils and their n-terminal regions form α-helical hairpins and a short helix α3 that pack ...201121031487
[rapid detection of shigella dysenteriae by pcr assay].based on the invasive plasmid antigen h gene (ipah) of s. dysenteriae, one pair of specific primers was designed for pcr assays in this study. the concentrations of dntp, mg2+ and primer, dosage of taq dna polymerase, annealing temperature and circulating parameter in the pcr amplification system were optimized. in this way, a rapid and stable method of pcr assay for the detection of s. dysenteriae was established. the specificity and sensitivity of pcr were also analyzed. the detection limits o ...201021033439
counting bacteria on a microfluidic chip.this paper reports a lab-on-a-chip device that counts the number of bacteria flowing through a microchannel. the bacteria number counting is realized by a microfluidic differential resistive pulse sensor (rps). by using a single microfluidic channel with two detecting arm channels placed at the two ends of the sensing section, the microfluidic differential rps can achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. this method is applied to detect and count bacteria in aqueous solution. the detected rps signa ...201021035606
case-control study of diarrheal disease etiology in a remote rural area in western thailand.the objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in thailand. stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, giardia, and cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. campylobacter, plesiomonas, salmonella, and ent ...201021036846
[viable non-culturable bacteria].viable but non-culturable cells (vbnc) are defined as live bacteria, but which do not either grow or divide. such bacteria cannot be cultivated on conventional media (they do not form colonies on solid media, they do not change broth appearance), but their existence can be proved using other methods. the switch to the vbnc stage has been described and documented for several bacterial species: vibrio spp. (cholerae, vulnificus and other species), escherichia coli (including ehec), campylobacter j ...201021038700
laboratory based surveillance of travel-related shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri in alberta from 2002 to 2007.abstract: between 2002 and 2007, travel related cases of shigella sonnei and s. flexneri in alberta, canada were acquired from central america, the indian subcontinent and north america. of this group, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was identified in isolates from patients who had travelled to the indian subcontinent. this study provides a canadian perspective to a growing body of literature linking ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance to travel to the indian subcontinent. ...201021040566
safety, dose, immunogenicity, and transmissibility of an oral live attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate (sc602) among healthy adults and school children in matlab, bangladesh.in double-blind trials in bangladesh, 88 adults, and 79 children (8-10 years) were randomized to receive either a single oral dose of 1 × 10(4), 1 × 10(5) or 1 × 10(6)cfu of sc602 (a live, attenuated shigella flexneri 2a strain vaccine) or placebo. in the adult outpatient 1 × 10(6) cfu group, severe joint pain and body aches were reported by one and two vaccinees respectively. in the adult inpatient trial, sc602 was isolated from 3 volunteers, pre-vaccination antibody titers were high, and fourf ...201021040694
evidence of cellular immune response to outer membrane protein of salmonella typhimurium in patients with enthesitis-related arthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.enthesitis-related arthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (jia-era) clinically resembles reactive arthritis (rea). in patients with rea the immune response is targeted at the outer membrane protein (omp) of salmonella typhimurium. we studied the immune response in jia-era to s. typhimurium omp.201021041273
biosensors for efficient diagnosis of leishmaniasis: innovations in bioanalytics for a neglected disease.the need for reliable, fast diagnostics is closely linked to the need for safe, effective treatment of the so-called "neglected" diseases. the list of diseases with no field-adapted diagnostic tools includes leishmaniasis, shigella, typhoid, and bacterial meningitis. leishmaniasis, in particular, is a parasitic disease caused by leishmania spp. transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandfly, which remains a public health concern in developing countries with ca. 12 million people infected and 350 m ...201021043437
prevalence of shigellosis diarrhoea in a paediatrics population: hospital based survey in bangui, central african republic.shigellosis is still a major public health problem in sub-saharan countries, especially among children.201021045359
evaluation of bacterial multiplication in cleaning cloths containing different quantities of organic matter.to determine a proper length of time for cleaning cloth usage, the present work aimed to evaluate bacterial multiplication in artificially contaminated cleaning cloths containing different amounts of organic matter.201021045369
research progress in shigella in the postgenomic era.gram-negative, facultative intracellular anaerobes of the genus shigella, the principal etiologic agents of shigellosis, continue to pose a threat to public health. shigellosis causes 1.1 million deaths with over 164 million annual cases. the shigella spp. can be divided into four serogroups: shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri, shigella boydii and shigella sonnei. the completion of seven shigella genome sequences of representative strains from each of the shigella species has introduced an ...201021046319
detection of representative enteropathogenic bacteria, vibrio spp., pathogenic escherichia coli, salmonella spp., shigella spp., and yersinia enterocolitica, using a virulence factor gene-based oligonucleotide microarray.rapid identification of enteropathogenic bacteria in stool samples is critical for clinical diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy. in this study, we describe the development of an approach that couples multiplex pcr with hybridization to a dna microarray, to allow the simultaneous detection of the 10 pathogens. the microarray was synthesized with 20-mer oligonucleotide probes that were designed to be specific for virulence-factor genes of each strain. the detection limit for genomic dna from a sin ...201021046348
controlled study on enteropathogens in travellers returning from the tropics with and without diarrhoea.clin microbiol infect abstract: diarrhoea is the most frequent health problem among travellers in the tropics. however, data on the spectrum and relevance of enteropathogens in international travellers with and without diarrhoea are limited. stool samples from 114 cases of diarrhoea in travellers returning from the tropics were collected for microbiological examination and pcr for norovirus genogroups i and ii, enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec), and enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) produci ...201021054662
[detection and drug resistance analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing shigella in pediatric patients].to investigate the occurrence and drug resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls)-producing strains of shigella in pediatric patients, so as to provide information for clinical treatment.201021055309
biochemical characterization of udp-gal:glcnac-pyrophosphate-lipid β-1,4-galactosyltransferase wfed, a new enzyme from shigella boydii type 14 that catalyzes the second step in o-antigen repeating-unit synthesis.the o antigen is the outer part of the lipopolysaccharide (lps) in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and contains many repeats of an oligosaccharide unit. it contributes to antigenic variability and is essential to the full function and virulence of bacteria. shigella is a gram-negative human pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. the o antigen of shigella boydii type 14 consists of repeating oligosaccharide units with the structure [→6-d-galpα1→4-d-glcpaβ1→6-d-galpβ1→4-d-galpβ1→4-d ...201021057010
multiplex polymerase chain reaction method discriminating escherichia coli and shigella sp.to distinguish between escherichia coli and other bacteria that have similar biochemical characteristics, 3 polymerase chain reaction techniques were combined. the primer sets cyda-f2-a2 and cyda-r2-a2 were designed to amplify 605 base pairs of nucleotide sequence specific for the cyda gene of escherichia coli; primer sets lacz-f-a and lacz-r-a to amplify 1,023 bp of nucleotide sequence specific for the lacz gene of escherichia coli; and primers laca-f2-a2 and laca-r2-a2 to amplify 325 bp of nucle ...201121060994
[antibacterial antibodies in human immunoglobulins and sera: past and present].to measure levels of several types of antibacterial antibodies in preparations of normal human immunoglobulin as well as in samples of donor sera obtained in 1965 and 2009.201021061576
[microsporidium spp. infection in an immunocompromised child diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction].microsporidium spp. may lead to a variety of clinical pictures like sinusitis, keratoconjunctivitis, hepatitis, myositis, peritonitis, nephritis, encephalitis and pneumonia in case of immune deficiencies. in this report, a case of diarrhea due to microsporidium spp. has been presented. a four years old male patient who was followed with the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophia, was admitted to the hospital with the complaints of respiratory distress and fever. due to the history of recurrent infecti ...201021063982
sulfa drugs in the control of shigella gallinarum infections. 194621064713
preparation and evaluation of an irradiated toxoid from the toxin of shigella dysenteriae. 194621064736
prevalence and characterization of human shigella infections in henan province, china, in 2006.in 2006, 3,531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in henan province, china. a total of 467 (13.2%) shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. seventy-one shigella flexneri strains were characterized by mic determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and detection of genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. most infections were caused by s. flexneri variant x [iv:(7),8] (27.6%), s. sonnei (24.2%), and s. flexneri 2a (20.8%). however, large regional differences ...201021068291
the host outer membrane proteins ompa and ompc are associated with the shigella phage sf6 virion.assembly of dsdna bacteriophage is a precisely programmed process. potential roles of host cell components in phage assembly haven't been well understood. it was previously reported that two unidentified proteins were present in bacteriophage sf6 virion (casjens et al, 2004, j.mol.biol. 339, 379-394, fig. 2a). using tandem mass spectrometry, we have identified the two proteins as outer membrane proteins (omps) ompa and ompc from its host shigella flexneri. the transmission electron cryo-microsco ...201021071053
anaerobic environment of the intestine primes pathogenic shigella for infection.marteyn et al. have investigated the role of oxygen and the regulator fnr in infection by the intracellular enteric pathogen shigella flexneri. fnr is active under anaerobic conditions like those present in the lumen of the distal intestine. fnr causes elongation of a secretion apparatus required for bacterial entry into cells and represses secretion of proteins that trigger entry. higher oxygen levels present at the intestinal cell surface are sufficient to inactivate fnr, thereby derepressing ...201021073287
the structure of the escherichia coli o148 lipopolysaccharide core region and its linkage to the o-specific polysaccharide.recently it was demonstrated that shigella dysenteriae type 1, a cause of severe dysentery epidemics, gained its o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) from escherichia coli o148. the o-sps of these bacteria differ only by a galactose residue in the repeat unit of s. dysenteriae type 1 in place of a glucose residue in e. coli o148. herein, we analyzed the core structure and its linkage to the o-sp in e. coli o148 lps. both were found to be identical to those of s. dysenteriae type 1 structures, furthe ...201021074753
shigella flexneri spa15 crystal structure verified in solution by double electron electron resonance.shigella flexneri spa15 is a chaperone of the type 3 secretion system, which binds a number of effectors to ensure their stabilization prior to secretion. one of these effectors is ipgb1, a mimic of the human ras-like rho guanosine triphosphatase rhog. in this study, spa15 alone and in complex with ipgb1 has been studied by double electron electron resonance, an experiment that gives distance information showing the spacial separation of attached spin labels. this distance is explained by determ ...201021075116
caging targets for destruction.intracellular bacterial pathogens engage in a tug-of-war with innate host defenses. in this issue of cell host & microbe, mostowy et al. (2010) identify a role for the septin family of cytoskeletal proteins in targeting intracellular shigella to the autophagy pathway.201021075349
entrapment of intracytosolic bacteria by septin cage-like structures.actin-based motility is used by various pathogens for dissemination within and between cells. yet host factors restricting this process have not been identified. septins are gtp-binding proteins that assemble as filaments and are essential for cell division. however, their role during interphase has remained elusive. here, we report that septin assemblies are recruited to different bacteria that polymerize actin. we observed that intracytosolic shigella either become compartmentalized in septin ...201021075354
microbiological quality of blue mussels (mytilus edulis) in nunavik, quebec: a pilot study.this pilot study was aimed at documenting the presence of fecal indicators and enteric pathogens in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) from 6 communities in nunavik, quebec. one to four 2 kg samples of mussels were collected at low tide in each community. samples were investigated by enumeration methods for the fecal indicators enterococci, escherichia coli, f-specific coliphages, clostridium perfringens, and by molecular identification for the pathogens norovirus, salmonella spp., campylobacter jeju ...201021076488
extended-spectrum ß-lactamase production in shigella flexneri.emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of shigella is a growing concern across the globe. third-generation cephalosporins are used for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant shigellae. however, resistance to these cephalosporin antibiotics due to extended-spectrum ß-lactamases, has emerged as a new problem. so far extended-spectrum ß-lactamases producing shigella has not been reported from pakistan. we report such a case in shigella flexneri from an 8-year old girl with acute dysent ...201021078255
assessment of the underestimation of childhood diarrhoeal disease burden in israel.summarywe determined the extent by which mandatory reporting on isolates of shigella and salmonella underestimates the burden of diarrhoeal diseases in individuals aged <17 years in israel and examined paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to patient visits with diarrhoeal diseases. sources of data were a nationwide population-based telephone survey for presence of diarrhoeal diseases, maccabi healthcare services databases and a mail survey among its paediatricians. monte ca ...201021087537
[shigella strategy for host defense and mucosal infection]. 200921089529
[secondary structure of ssoii-like (cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferases n-terminal region determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy].(cytosine-5)-dna methyltransferase ssoii (m.ssoii) has a long n-terminal region (1-71 residues) preceding the sequence with conservative motifs, which are characteristic for all dna methyltransferases of such kind. the presence of this region provides m.ssoii capability to act as a transcription regulator in ssoii restriction-modification system. to perform its regulatory function, m.ssoii binds specifically to a 15-mer inverted repeat in the promoter region of ssoii restriction-modification sys ...201021090246
enteropathogenic e. coli non-lee encoded effectors nleh1 and nleh2 attenuate nf-κb activation.enteric bacterial pathogens have evolved sophisticated strategies to evade host immune defences. some pathogens deliver anti-inflammatory effector molecules into the host cell cytoplasm via a type iii secretion system (t3ss). enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) inhibits inflammation by an undefined, t3ss-dependent mechanism. two proteins encoded outside of the epec locus of enterocyte effacement (lee) pathogenicity island, non-lee-encoded effector h1 (nleh1) and h2 (nleh2), display sequence ...201021091507
cell-cell propagation of nf-κb transcription factor and map kinase activation amplifies innate immunity against bacterial infection.the enteroinvasive bacterium shigella flexneri uses multiple secreted effector proteins to downregulate interleukin-8 (il-8) expression in infected epithelial cells. yet, massive il-8 secretion is observed in shigellosis. here we report a host mechanism of cell-cell communication that circumvents the effector proteins and strongly amplifies il-8 expression during bacterial infection. by monitoring proinflammatory signals at the single-cell level, we found that the activation of the transcription ...201021093316
isolation and characterization of shigella flexneri g3, capable of effective cellulosic saccharification under mesophilic conditions.a novel shigella strain (shigella flexneri g3) showing high cellulolytic activity under mesophilic, anaerobic conditions was isolated and characterized. the bacterium is gram negative, short rod shaped, and nonmotile and displays effective production of glucose, cellobiose, and other oligosaccharides from cellulose (avicel ph-101) under optimal conditions (40°c and ph 6.5). approximately 75% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed in modified atcc 1191 medium containing 0.3% cellulose, and the oligosacc ...201021097577
development of a quantitative rt-pcr assay to examine the kinetics of ribosome depurination by ribosome inactivating proteins using saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model.ricin produced by the castor bean plant and shiga toxins produced by pathogenic escherichia coli (stec) and shigella dysenteriae are type ii ribosome inactivating proteins (rips), containing an enzymatically active a subunit that inhibits protein synthesis by removing an adenine from the α-sarcin/ricin loop (srl) of the 28s rrna. there are currently no known antidotes to shiga toxin or ricin, and the ability to screen large chemical libraries for inhibitors has been hindered by lack of quantitat ...201021098653
thrombotic microangiopathies: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura / hemolytic uremic syndrome.thrombotic microangiopathies (tmas) are pathological conditions characterized by generalized microvascular occlusion by platelet thrombi, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. two typical phenotypes of tmas are hemolytic- uremic syndrome (hus) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (ttp). other disorders occasionally present with similar manifestations. depending on whether renal or brain lesions prevail, two pathologically indistinguishable but somehow clinically different d ...201021103695
environmental contamination of hokersar wetland waters in kashmir himalayan valley, india.this paper investigates the environmental contamination of himalayan wetland ecosystem (hokersar, kashmir) by analyzing the distribution and loading of bacterial population in waters. seven locations representing heterogeneous spatial habitat zonation of the wetland were studied. site-specific variability in bacterial load was markedly discernible at doodhganga inlet and zainakoot locations, with maximum values in the range of 242-276/100 ml against soziath, an outlet, with minimum value of 157- ...201021114125
predation of human pathogens by the predatory bacteria micavibrio aeruginosavorus and bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.the focus of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the predatory bacteria bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and micavibrio aeruginosavorus to control the pathogens associated with human infection.201021114596
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