PMID(sorted ascending)
community perceptions of bloody diarrhoea in an urban slum in south asia: implications for introduction of a shigella vaccine.understanding local perceptions of disease causation could help public health officials improve strategies to prevent bloody diarrhoea. a cross-sectional survey was conducted in dhaka, bangladesh to elicit community beliefs about the causes of and prevention strategies for bloody diarrhoea. between march and june 2003, we interviewed 541 randomly selected respondents. overall, 507 (93%) respondents perceived that a vaccine could prevent bloody diarrhoea. if a vaccine provided lifetime protection ...201120546637
structures of the o-antigens of escherichia coli o13, o129, and o135 related to the o-antigens of shigella flexneri.o-polysaccharides (o-antigens) were isolated from escherichia coli o13, o129, and o135 and studied by chemical analyses along with 2d (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. they were found to possess a common -->2)-l-rha-(alpha1-->2)-l-rha-(alpha1-->3)-l-rha-(alpha1-->3)-d-glcnac-(beta1--> backbone, which is a characteristic structural motif of the o-polysaccharides of shigella flexneri types 1-5. in both the bacterial species, the backbone is decorated with lateral glucose residues or/and o-acetyl gr ...201020546712
agap2 regulates retrograde transport between early endosomes and the tgn.the retrograde transport route links early endosomes and the tgn. several endogenous and exogenous cargo proteins use this pathway, one of which is the well-explored bacterial shiga toxin. adp-ribosylation factors (arfs) are approximately 20 kda gtp-binding proteins that are required for protein traffic at the level of the golgi complex and early endosomes. in this study, we expressed mutants and protein fragments that bind to arf-gtp to show that arf1, but not arf6 is required for transport of ...201020551179
host factors required for modulation of phagosome biogenesis and proliferation of francisella tularensis within the cytosol.francisella tularensis is a highly infectious facultative intracellular bacterium that can be transmitted between mammals by arthropod vectors. similar to many other intracellular bacteria that replicate within the cytosol, such as listeria, shigella, burkholderia, and rickettsia, the virulence of f. tularensis depends on its ability to modulate biogenesis of its phagosome and to escape into the host cell cytosol where it proliferates. recent studies have identified the f. tularensis genes requi ...201020552012
generation of chitin-derived oligosaccharides toxic to pathogenic bacteria using chia74, an endochitinase native to bacillus demonstrate that an endochitinase (chia74) native to bacillus thuringiensis can be used to generate chitin-derived oligosaccharides (ogs) with antibacterial activity against a number of aetiological agents of disease, including bacteria that cause diarrhoeal and emetic syndromes in humans.201020557451
development of a serogroup-specific multiplex pcr assay to detect a set of escherichia coli serogroups based on the identification of their o-antigen gene clusters.the escherichia coli serogroups o115, o126, o137, o158, o165, and o173 are pathogenic strains associated with diarrhea. molecular approaches such as pcr have been proven to be rapid, inexpensive, and accurate. the sequences of the o-antigen-processing genes wzx and wzy are specific for different o antigens and are generally used as the target genes for the detection and identification of e. coli strains belonging to different o serogroups. in this report, the o-antigen gene clusters of these 6 o ...201020561581
frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella species isolated in children medical center hospital, tehran, iran, 2001-2006.appropriate antimicrobial treatment of shigellosis depends on identifying its changing resistance pattern over time. we evaluated 15,255 stool culture submitted from july 2001 to june 2006 to the laboratory of children medical center hospital. specimen culture, bacterial identification, and disk diffusion susceptibility testing were performed according to national committee for clinical laboratory standards guidelines. from 15,255 stool samples, 682 (4.5%) were positive for shigella species. the ...201020563441
sporadic paediatric diarrhoeal illness in urban and rural sites in nyanza province, kenya.investigate differences in the infectious aetiology, health seeking behaviour, and provider practices with regard to diarrhoeal illness among children presenting to urban versus rural clinics in western kenya.200920575313
shigella-associated diarrhea in children in south jakarta, indonesia.a surveillance of shigella infections was conducted on 612 children aged 0-12 years-old presenting with diarrhea to mampang and tebet community health centers in south jakarta, indonesia, during february 2005 through september 2007. shigella was isolated from 9.3% of diarrhea patients in the health centers. s.flexneri which was found in 5.9% of patients, and was the most frequent species isolated, comprising 63.2% (36/57) of all shigella species isolated. shigella species were found significantl ...201020578526
newer insights into the mechanism of action of psidium guajava l. leaves in infectious diarrhoea.psidium guajava l., myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. however, the effect of the leaf extract of p. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. the present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried leaves of p. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. the aim was to understand its possible mecha ...201020584265
a pathoadaptive deletion in an enteroaggregative escherichia coli outbreak strain enhances virulence in a caenorhabditis elegans model.enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) strains are important diarrheal pathogens. eaec strains are defined by their characteristic stacked-brick pattern of adherence to epithelial cells but show heterogeneous virulence and have different combinations of adhesin and toxin genes. pathoadaptive deletions in the lysine decarboxylase (cad) genes have been noted among hypervirulent e. coli subtypes of shigella and enterohemorrhagic e. coli. to test the hypothesis that cad deletions might account fo ...201020584976
bacterial pathogens associated with bloody diarrhea in uruguayan children.diarrheal disease continues to be a serious health problem, especially in developing countries. bloody diarrhea represents approximately 20-30% of all cases and has higher morbidity and mortality. treatment with antibiotics is beneficial in cases of shigella, campylobacter, yersinia and salmonella infection, principally in those children with a higher risk of invasive disease. the aims of this study were to detect the bacterial agents associated with bloody diarrhea in children and to determine ...201020589332
progressivemauve: multiple genome alignment with gene gain, loss and rearrangement.multiple genome alignment remains a challenging problem. effects of recombination including rearrangement, segmental duplication, gain, and loss can create a mosaic pattern of homology even among closely related organisms.201020593022
cladophora in the great lakes: impacts on beach water quality and human health.cladophora in the great lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as escherichia coli, enterococci, shigella, campylobacter, and salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. as a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach an ...201020595755
probiotic administration effect on fecal mutagenicity and microflora in the goat's gut.the application of potentially beneficial microorganisms to increase host defense is a new trend to increase health benefits. in this paper the first specific host probiotics for goats from a mixture isolated from healthy animals (lactobacillus reuteri ddl 19, lactobacillus alimentarius ddl 48, enterococcus faecium dde 39 and bifidobacterium bifidum ddba) was assayed. the effect of probiotic oral administration on goats' weight, gut microbiota, as well as on the production of mutagen compounds a ...201020598940
escape of intracellular shigella from autophagy requires binding to cholesterol through the type iii effector, icsb.type iii secretion systems are present in many pathogenic bacteria and mediate the translocation of bacterial effectors into host cells. identification of host targets of these effectors is crucial for understanding bacterial virulence. icsb, a type iii secretion effector, helps shigella to evade the host autophagy defense system by binding to the autophagy protein, atg5. here, we show that icsb is able to interact specifically with cholesterol. the cholesterol binding domain (cbd) of icsb is lo ...201020599519
enterocyte-like caco-2 cells as a model for in vitro studies of diarrhoeagenic providencia alcalifaciens invasion.the entry of providencia alcalifaciens into the enterocyte-like cell line caco-2 compared to hep-2 was studied. of the 22 p. alcalifaciens strains, 13 and 21 were invasive for caco-2 and hep-2 cells, respectively. in contrast to hep-2 cells, p. alcalifaciens was internalised by caco-2 cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. tyrosine kinases play an important role in p. alcalifaciens uptake, also microfilaments and microtubules are engaged in this process. inhibition of endosome acidification by ...201020600792
inhibition of shigella sonnei adherence to ht-29 cells by lactobacilli from chinese fermented food and preliminary characterization of s-layer protein this study, seven lactobacilli with a high degree of antagonistic activity against three pathogens and good adherence to ht-29 cells were selected. the ability of these seven lactobacilli to inhibit adhesion of shigella sonnei to intestinal mucosa was studied on cultured ht-29 cells. lactobacilli were added simultaneously with, before or after s. sonnei to test for their effectiveness in exclusion, competition and displacement assays, respectively. lactobacillus paracasei subp. paracasei m5-l ...201020600857
microbial contamination of raw meat and its environment in retail shops in karachi, pakistan.this study was conducted to examine the frequency of contamination in retail meat available in karachi, pakistan.201020601790
isoprenoid metabolism as a therapeutic target in gram-negative pathogens.gram-negative enterobacteria include a variety of human pathogens, perhaps most notably e. coli, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, and proteus. while there are treatment options for the diseases caused by these organisms, multi-drug resistance is often a problem and development of novel antibiotics has lagged over recent years. in humans, the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway has become a subject of intense research for therapeutic modulation of human enzymes in diseases including hypercholesterolem ...201020615187
methods for monitoring trends in the incidence of foodborne diseases: foodborne diseases active surveillance network 1996-2008.foodborne illnesses are a substantial health burden in the united states. the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) is the principal foodborne disease component of the centers for disease control and prevention's emerging infections program. foodnet is a collaborative project among centers for disease control and prevention, emerging infections program sites, the u.s. department of agriculture, and the u.s. food and drug administration. one of foodnet's main objectives is to m ...201020617933
safety and immunogenicity of a shigella flexneri 2a invaplex 50 intranasal vaccine in adult volunteers.shigellosis is a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide prompting vaccine development. the shigella flexneri invaplex 50 is a macromolecular complex containing ipab, ipac, and lps, formulated from an aqueous extract of virulent shigella delivered via nasal administration. preclinical vaccine testing demonstrated safety, immunogenicity and efficacy. an open-label dose-escalating phase 1 study evaluated a 3-dose (2-week intervals) regimen via nasal pipette delivery. thirty-two subjects were enrolled ...201020619378
production of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in water extracts of the fungus amylomyces rouxii strain ksu-09.a fungal strain, ksu-09, isolated from the roots of date palm (phoenix dactylifera), was identified as amylomyces rouxii based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (its) region of its rrna genes. mycelia-free water extracts obtained from mycelium suspended in water for 72h facilitated the production of stable, predominantly monodispersed and spherical silver nanoparticles (agnps) in the size range of 5-27nm upon addition of 1mm silver nitrate, as determined by the xrd, afm and ...201020619641
synthesis, structure and in vitro antibacterial activities of new hybrid disinfectants quaternary ammonium compounds: pyridinium and quinolinium stilbene benzenesulfonates.the series of pyridinium (1-10) and quinolinium (11-20) stilbene benzenesulfonates have been synthesized and their structures were investigated by uv-vis, ft-ir and (1)h nmr spectroscopy. in addition, compound 5 was also determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. the antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria has been determined. the quinolinium derivatives exhibited two very potent characteristic activities, namely, ( ...201020619939
comparison of 61 sequenced escherichia coli genomes.escherichia coli is an important component of the biosphere and is an ideal model for studies of processes involved in bacterial genome evolution. sixty-one publically available e. coli and shigella spp. sequenced genomes are compared, using basic methods to produce phylogenetic and proteomics trees, and to identify the pan- and core genomes of this set of sequenced strains. a hierarchical clustering of variable genes allowed clear separation of the strains into clusters, including known pathoty ...201020623278
reduced azithromycin susceptibility in shigella sonnei, united investigate azithromycin susceptibility in shigella sonnei in the united states, we examined the azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of outbreak and routine human s. sonnei isolates. isolate susceptibility clustered at 8 mg/l, but three isolates displayed higher mics (>64  mg/l) to azithromycin. all three isolates contained a plasmid-encoded mpha gene, known to encode a macrolide-2'-phosphotransferase enzyme. transformation of the mpha gene into escherichia coli dh10b allowe ...201020624094
evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial type iii secretion system chaperone.type iii secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many gram-negative bacterial pathogens. these systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. the class ii chaperone, invasion plasmid gene (ipg) c, stabilizes ...201020633281
prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea reduce growth and increase risk of persistent diarrhea in children.prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea (prod; duration 7-13 days) or persistent diarrhea (pd; duration ≥14 days) are important causes of undernutrition, yet the epidemiology and nutritional impact of prod are poorly understood.201020638937
the omptins of yersinia pestis and salmonella enterica cleave the reactive center loop of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (pai-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) and a key molecule that regulates fibrinolysis by inactivating human plasminogen activators. here we show that two important human pathogens, the plague bacterium yersinia pestis and the enteropathogen salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, inactivate pai-1 by cleaving the r346-m347 bait peptide bond in the reactive center loop. no cleavage of pai-1 was detected with yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an oral/fecal pat ...201020639337
shiga toxin b subunits induce vwf secretion by human endothelial cells and thrombotic microangiopathy in adamts13-deficient mice.diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (d+hus) is the most common cause of acute renal failure among children. renal damage in d+hus is caused by shiga toxin (stx), which is elaborated by shigella dysenteriae and certain strains of escherichia coli, in north america principally e coli o157:h7. recent studies demonstrate that stx also induces von willebrand factor (vwf) secretion by human endothelial cells and causes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a disease with similarities to d+hus ...201020644116
photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy by liposome-encapsulated water-soluble photosensitizers.photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy is an alternative method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multi-antibiotic resistance. we examined the effect of three water-soluble photosensitizers (phs): methylene blue (mb), neutral red (nr) and rose bengal (rb) on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. we compared the efficacy of phs in their free form and encapsulated in liposomal formulations against various bacterial strains, and determined conditions for the effe ...201020644595
[structure of the oligosaccharide region (core) of the lipopolysaccharides of shigella flexneri types 2a and 5b].the full structure of the lipopolysaccharide core of bacteria shigella flexneri types 2a and 5b, the causative agents of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), was established by chemical methods, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy. the structure of the o-antigen repeating unit and the configuration and position of the linkage between the o-antigen and the core were determined in the lipopolysaccharide of s. flexneri type 2a.201020644600
antibacterial properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil ocimum basilicum occurring in bangladesh.the antibacterial potential of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil ocimum basilicum l. (lamiaceae) was evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves and stems were analyzed by gc-ms. fifty-seven compounds representing 94.9 and 96.1% of the total leaf and stem oils, respectively, were identified, of which methyl chavicol (36.7 and 29.9%), gitoxigenin (9.3 and 10.2%), trimethoquinol (10.3 ...201020645791
enteropathogenic escherichia coli, samonella, shigella and yersinia: cellular aspects of host-bacteria interactions in enteric diseases.abstract: a successful infection of the human intestine by enteropathogenic bacteria depends on the ability of bacteria to attach and colonize the intestinal epithelium and, in some cases, to invade the host cell, survive intracellularly and disseminate from cell to cell. to accomplish these processes bacteria have evolved an arsenal of molecules that are mostly secreted by dedicated type iii secretion systems, and that interact with the host, subverting normal cellular functions. here we overvi ...201020649986
in silico characterization of shikimate kinase of shigella flexneri: a potential drug target.shigella flexneri is a major pathogen responsible for shigellosis causing massive morbidity among young population and imposes huge socio-economic burden. in this study, shikimate kinase (sk) from s. flexneri was characterized in silico and disordered regions were predicted. motifs and domains were calculated using computational tools. a three dimensional model of shikimate kinase of s.flexneri was constructed using shikimate kinase of e.coli (pdbid: 1kag_a) as template by comparative modeling a ...201020658341
convalescent cultures for control of shigellosis outbreaks.a shigellosis outbreak in the st louis, missouri metropolitan area.201020661101
prevalence of integrons in shigella sonnei from brazil. 201020664608
synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of novel fluoroquinolone derivatives containing substituted piperidines.we report herein the synthesis of novel 7-(4-alkoxyimino-3-aminomethyl-3-methylpiperidin-1-yl) fluoroquinolone derivatives. the antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized compounds was evaluated and correlated with their physicochemical properties. results reveal that all of the target compounds have good potency in inhibiting the growth of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis including mrse (mic: 0.125-4 microg/ml). compounds 12, 13 are more potent than or comparable to lev ...201020667731
glycan encapsulated gold nanoparticles selectively inhibit shiga toxins 1 and 2.shiga toxins (stx) released by escherichia coli o157:h7 and shigella dysentriae cause life-threatening conditions that include hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus), kidney failure, and neurological complications. cellular entry is mediated by the b-subunit of the ab(5) toxin, which recognizes cell surface glycolipids present in lipid raft-like structures. we developed gold glyconanoparticles that present a multivalent display similar to the cell surface glycolipids to compete for these toxins. these ...201020669970
control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of moringa oleifera.the aims of this study were to determine the total population of coliform bacteria in the samples collected from diarrhea associated patients from the local area of bangladesh and to examine the antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of moringa oleifera (moringaceae) against the isolated coliform bacteria. the coliform bacteria detected in these samples by some microbial-biochemical tests such as escherichia coli, shigella dysenteriae, salmonella sp., enterobacter sp., klebsiella pneumoniae and ...201020677603
impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from europe and rural africa.gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. in this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of european children (eu) and that of children from a rural african village of burkina faso (bf), where the diet, high in fiber content, is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture. by using high-throu ...201020679230
facile glycosylation strategy with two-stage activation of allyl glycosyl donors. application to concise synthesis of shigella flexneri serotype y o-antigen.a practical, useful glycosylation method employing only allyl glycoside building blocks has been developed. the donor's glycosylation reactivity is turned on via isomerization of its anomeric allyl protecting group into the corresponding prop-1-enyl moiety. subsequent chemoselective activation with nis/tfoh achieves high yields in glycosidic bond construction at room temperature. the efficacy and efficiency of this approach in carbohydrate synthesis is demonstrated in the concise synthesis of th ...201020683518
antimicrobial resistance and molecular analysis of non-typhoidal salmonella isolates from human in tunisia.during the period from 2006 to 2007, a total of 32 clinical isolates of salmonella enterica were isolated from diarrheagenic stool samples and further examined for their susceptibility to various antibiotics. sixteen of the human isolates were from the capital tunis, 11 were from sousse, four were from nabeul and one was from mahdia, tunisia. the isolates were serotyped and identified at the national centre of enteropathogenic bacteria, pasteur institute, tunis (centre national de salmonella, sh ...201020685046
plasmid-mediated streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole resistance in shigella flexneri 3a.shigellosis is a major cause of diarrhoea-related morbidity and mortality, especially in children in developing countries such as india. recently, it was estimated that 91 million individuals worldwide contract shigellosis each year. the emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant strains of shigella is now an emerging global health problem. during the past two decades, much attention was given to re-evaluation of treatment recommendations. in the present study, we investigated a clinical ...201020685089
antibiotic therapy for shigella dysentery.shigella dysentery is a relatively common illness and occasionally causes death, worldwide. mild symptoms are self-limiting but in more severe cases, antibiotics are recommended for cure and preventing relapse. the antibiotics recommended are diverse, have regional differences in sensitivity, and have side effects.201020687081
hemolysin e (hlye, clya, shea) and related toxins.certain strains of escherichia coli, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri produce a pore-forming toxin hemolysin e (hlye), also known as cytolysin a (clya) and silent hemolysin, locus a (shea). hlye lyses erythrocytes and mammalian cells, forming transmembrane pores with a minimum internal diameter of-25 a. we review the current knowledge of hlye structure and function in its solution and pore forms, models for membrane insertion, its potential use in biotechnology applications and its rela ...201020687485
shigellosis update: advancing antibiotic resistance, investment empowered vaccine development, and green bananas.shigella is the principal cause of clinical dysentery and an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children in impoverished regions. the purpose of this review is to present key findings in the areas of epidemiology, disease control, and treatment of shigellosis.201020689423
etiology of diarrhea in older children, adolescents and adults: a systematic review.diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in all regions of the world and among all ages, yet little is known about the fraction of diarrhea episodes and deaths due to each pathogen.201020689809
crystal structures of phd-doc, higa, and yeeu establish multiple evolutionary links between microbial growth-regulating toxin-antitoxin systems.bacterial toxin-antitoxin (ta) systems serve a variety of physiological functions including regulation of cell growth and maintenance of foreign genetic elements. sequence analyses suggest that ta families are linked by complex evolutionary relationships reflecting likely swapping of functional domains between different ta families. our crystal structures of phd-doc from bacteriophage p1, the higa antitoxin from escherichia coli cft073, and yeeu of the yeeuwv systems from e. coli k12 and shigell ...201020696400
pic, an autotransporter protein secreted by different pathogens in the enterobacteriaceae family, is a potent mucus secretagogue.a hallmark of enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) infection is a formation of biofilm, which comprises a mucus layer with immersed bacteria in the intestines of patients. while studying the mucinolytic activity of pic in an in vivo system, rat ileal loops, we surprisingly found that eaec induced hypersecretion of mucus, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of mucus-containing goblet cells. interestingly, an isogenic pic mutant (eaec δpic) was unable to cause this mucus hypers ...201020696826
diverse pathways for salicin utilization in shigella sonnei and escherichia coli carrying an impaired bgl operon.utilization of the aryl-β-glucosides salicin or arbutin in most wild-type strains of e. coli is achieved by a single-step mutational activation of the bgl operon. shigella sonnei, a branch of the diverse e. coli strain tree, requires two sequential mutational steps for achieving salicin utilization as the bglb gene, encoding the phospho-β-glucosidase b, harbors an inactivating insertion. we show that in a natural isolate of s. sonnei, transcriptional activation of the gene sso1595, encoding a ph ...201020697693
[mucocutaneous abnormalities in chlamydia trachomatis-induced reactive arthritis].reactive arthritis (previously known as reiters syndrome) is an inflammatory arthritis that is a type of spondyloarthropathy. the disease consists of the classical triad of arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis, but mucocutaneous abnormalities also frequently appear: balanitis circinata, keratoderma blennorrhagicum, aphthous ulcers in the mouth and nail disorders. these skin lesions are mainly found in reactive arthritis induced by chlamydia trachomatis (ct). reactive arthritis is often trigg ...201020699017
production of glycoprotein vaccines in escherichia coli.conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. state-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. in vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of campylobacter jejuni in recombinant escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler method for producing conjugate vaccines. in this study we descri ...201020701771
comparative in vitro activity of tigecycline and other antimicrobial agents against shigella species from kuwait and the united arab of emirates.shigella species isolated from stool samples of symptomatic patients of all age groups at the mubarak al kabir hospital and infectious diseases hospital, kuwait and tawam hospital, uae during a 2-year period were investigated for their susceptibility to tigecycline and several other antibiotics by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) using the e test method. a total of 100 and 42 strains were collected from uae and kuwait, respectively. the extent of drug resistance in the sh ...201020701889
foodborne proportion of gastrointestinal illness: estimates from a canadian expert elicitation survey.the study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of the foodborne attributable proportion for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in canada. it was based on a similar study conducted in the united states and focused on campylobacter, escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal salmonella enterica, shigella spp., vibrio spp., yersinia enterocolitica, cryptosporidium parvum, and norwalk-like virus. for each pathogen, experts were asked to provide ...201020704505
seasonal variation of enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea in western mexico.the present study estimates the prevalence of some enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea. from 2006 to 2007, 5459 consecutive stool samples were evaluated. cryptosporidium parvum was the parasite identified with the higher frequency (5.1%), followed by giardia lamblia (1.2%). campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 858 cases (15.7%) and was the most frequent enteropathogen overall. the rates of c parvum, shigella, and salmonella were higher in the summer. rotavirus had the ...201020706147
csra and cra influence shigella flexneri pathogenesis.shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and disrupts the colonic epithelium. in order to thrive in the host, s. flexneri must adapt to environmental conditions in the gut and within the eukaryotic cytosol, including variability in the available carbon sources and other nutrients. we examined the roles of the carbon consumption regulators csra and cra in a cell culture model of s. flexneri virulence. csra is an activator of glycolysis and a repressor of gluconeogene ...201020713625
development of a pcr protocol for the detection of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella spp. in surface water.escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella are pathogenic microorganisms that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans. these pathogens may be transmitted in a variety of ways, including food and water. the presence of salmonella and e. coli o157:h7 in surface waters constitutes a potential threat to human health when used for either drinking or recreation. as with most waterborne pathogens, salmonella and e. coli o157:h7 are difficult to detect and enumerate with accuracy in surface wat ...201120714926
detection of airborne bacteria in a german turkey house by cultivation-based and molecular's large-scale poultry production with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms leading to a clear health hazard for employees working in such environments. depending on the expected exposure to microorganisms, work has to be performed under occupational safety conditions. in this study, turkey houses bioaerosols were investigated by cultivation-based and molecular methods in parallel to determine the conce ...201020720091
uncivil engineers: chlamydia, salmonella and shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. like the enteric pathogens salmonella and shigella, chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. numerous salmonella and shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating ...201020722600
serum neopterin is elevated in patients infected with shigella.abstract:201020727206
lactoferrin increases both resistance to salmonella typhimurium infection and the production of antibodies in mice.lactoferrin (lf) is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein with antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. the antibacterial influence of orally administered bovine lf (blf) against murine infection caused by salmonella typhimurium (s. typhimurium) has scarcely been explored. in the current study, balb/c mice were treated orally for 7 days with either 5 or 100mg of bovine lactoferrin (blf). on day 7 of treatment, mice were intragastrically infected with a lethal or sublethal dose of col ...201020727369
medicinal potions used against infectious bowel diseases in mayan traditional medicine.since one of the main health problems of the indigenous population are infectious bowel diseases, we decided to test mayan medicinal potions used to treat these conditions against some of the causal agents.201020728517
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2008].the number as well as incidence rate of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in xxi century are every year lower. only 33 cases were notified in the year 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000 population), while the 64 cases were notified in 2007 (incidence rate 0.17/100 000), but 35 (incidence rate 0.09) were notified in 2006 and median in the 2002-2006 years was 75 cases, incidence rate 0.2/100 000 population. since 2000 no one-death case was notified. several imported cases were noti ...201020731222
pad4 is essential for antibacterial innate immunity mediated by neutrophil extracellular traps.neutrophils trap and kill bacteria by forming highly decondensed chromatin structures, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). we previously reported that histone hypercitrullination catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (pad4) correlates with chromatin decondensation during net formation. however, the role of pad4 in net-mediated bacterial trapping and killing has not been tested. here, we use pad4 knockout mice to show that pad4 is essential for net-mediated antibacterial function. u ...201020733033
association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in parts of ibadan city, nigeria.occurrence of diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases in cities of developing countries has been on the increase over the decades largely due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene among human population. this study examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of water-borne diseases vis-a-vis water quality in parts of ibadan city in nigeria. data on 1334 cases of various water-borne diseases was collected from eight public hospitals with catchments covering the study ...200920734698
[the evolution of the etiological structure of shigellosis]. 201020734730
plasmon-induced inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms with ag-agi/al2o3 under visible-light irradiation.the plasmon-induced photocatalytic inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms in water using ag-agi/al(2)o(3) under visible-light irradiation was investigated. the catalyst was found to be highly effective at killing shigella dysenteriae (s. dysenteriae), escherichia coli (e. coli), and human rotavirus type 2 wa (hrv-wa). its bactericidal efficiency was significantly enhanced by hco(3)(-) and so(4)(2-) ions, which are common in water, while phosphate had a slightly positive effect on the ...201020734989
antidiarrheal activity, chemical and toxicity profile of berberis aristata.context: this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antidiarrheal activity, oral acute toxicological profile, and developed a chemical fingerprint of berberis aristata linn. (berberidaceae). materials and methods: the ethanol (by maceration) and aqueous (by soxhlet) extracts of berberis aristata bark were used for the study. the study involved the antimicrobial (minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc) by micro dilution) and antidiarrheal (castor oil ...201120738174
sensitization of microcin j25-resistant strains by a membrane-permeabilizing peptide.microcin j25 (mccj25) is a plasmid-encoded, 21-amino-acid, antibacterial peptide produced by escherichia coli. mccj25 inhibits rna polymerase and the membrane respiratory chain. mccj25 uptake into e. coli-sensitive strains is mediated by the outer membrane receptor fhua and the inner membrane proteins tonb, exbb, exbd, and sbma. this peptide is active on some e. coli, salmonella, and shigella species strains, while other gram-negative bacteria, such as clinical isolates of enterobacter cloacae, ...201020802073
an outbreak of shigellosis due to shigella flexneri serotype 3a in a prison in iran.on june 16 and 17, 2007, the medical clinic of a prison in isfahan, iran received multiple reports of gastrointestinal illness among prisoners. a cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to determine the extent, causative agent and possible source of the outbreak.201020804308
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic escherichia coli and shigella species associated with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran.a study was performed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of shigella species and diarrheagenic escherichia coli isolates cultured from patients with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran. between may 2003 and may 2005, 1120 diarrheal specimens were collected and assayed for bacterial enteropathogens by conventional and molecular methods. etiological agents were isolated from 564 (50.3%) specimens, and included 305 (54%) e coli, 157 (27.8%) shigella species, and 102 (18%) from othe ...200920808457
a disposable immunosensor for shigella flexneri based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/sodium alginate composite electrode.a novel shigella flexneri immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibodies to s. flexneri (hrp-anti-s. flexneri) immobilized by physical adsorption on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (mwcnt)/sodium alginate (sa) composite modified screen-printed electrode surface was successfully fabricated. in this strategy, mwcnt/sa biocomposite acted as the matrix to adsorb and immobilize hrp-anti-s. flexneri. the modified electrodes were characterized with an atomic force microscope and cyclic ...201120816661
comparison of chromogenic biolog rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas with xylose lysine desoxycholate agar for isolation and detection of shigella spp. from foods.shigella outbreaks are widely reported throughout the world. however, it remains a challenge to isolate shigella spp. from foods by using conventional microbiological media. the main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel chromogenic medium, rainbow agar shigella/aeromonas (rainbow agar), for the isolation and detection of shigella spp. in foods. all four shigella species, s. sonnei, s. flexneri, s. dysenteriae, and s. boydii, were studied. rainbow agar was compare ...201020819355
effect of freeze-drying on viability and in vitro probiotic properties of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir.the effect of freeze-drying on viability and probiotic properties of a microbial mixture containing selected bacterial and yeast strains isolated from kefir grains (lactobacillus kefir, lactobacillus plantarum, lactococcus lactis, saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus) was studied. the microorganisms were selected according to their potentially probiotic properties in vitro already reported. two types of formulations were performed, a microbial mixture (mm) suspended in milk and a ...201120822567
near-atomic resolution analysis of bipd, a component of the type iii secretion system of burkholderia pseudomallei.burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, possesses a type iii protein secretion apparatus that is similar to those found in salmonella and shigella. a major function of these secretion systems is to inject virulence-associated proteins into target cells of the host organism. the bipd gene of b. pseudomallei encodes a secreted virulence factor that is similar in sequence and is most likely to be functionally analogous to ipad from shigella and sipd from salmonella. proteins ...201020823511
molecular mechanisms of necroptosis: an ordered cellular explosion.for a long time, apoptosis was considered the sole form of programmed cell death during development, homeostasis and disease, whereas necrosis was regarded as an unregulated and uncontrollable process. evidence now reveals that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. the initiation of programmed necrosis, 'necroptosis', by death receptors (such as tumour necrosis factor receptor 1) requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein 1 (rip1; also known as ripk1) and rip3 (also kn ...201020823910
development of a multiplex real-time pcr assay with internal amplification control for the detection of shigella species and enteroinvasive escherichia coli.shigella species, particularly s. sonnei and s. flexneri, remain some of the leading bacterial etiological agents of gastrointestinal diseases in the united states and globally. the isolation and detection of these foodborne pathogens are critical for preventing the spread of disease and facilitating epidemiological investigations aimed at determining the source of a shigella infection outbreak. a multiplex real-time pcr-based assay was developed that targets all four species of shigella plus en ...201020828467
a disulfide driven domain swap switches off the activity of shigella ipah9.8 e3 ligase.we show that the monomeric form of shigella ipah9.8 e3 ligase catalyses the ubiquitination of human u2af35 in vitro, providing a molecular mechanism for the observed in vivo effect. we further discover that under non-reducing conditions ipah9.8 undergoes a domain swap driven by the formation of a disulfide bridge involving the catalytic cysteine and that this dimer is unable to catalyse the ubiquitination of u2af35. the crystal structure of the domain-swapped dimer is presented. the redox inacti ...201020831869
the effects of x-ray radiation on escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri inoculated on whole roma the last two decades several foodborne disease outbreaks associated with produce were reported. tomatoes, in particular, have been associated with several multi-state salmonella outbreaks. inactivation of inoculated escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on whole roma tomato surfaces by x-ray at 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5 kgy was studied. the main purpose of this study was to achieve a 5 log reduction in consistent with the recommendation ...201020832685
transmembrane bax inhibitor motif containing (tmbim) family proteins perturbs a trans-golgi network enzyme, gb3 synthase, and reduces gb3 biosynthesis.globotriaosylceramide (gb3) is a well known receptor for shiga toxin (stx), produced by enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli and shigella dysenteriae. the expression of gb3 also affects several diseases, including cancer metastasis and fabry disease, which prompted us to look for factors involved in its metabolism. in the present study, we isolated two cdnas that conferred resistance to stx-induced cell death in hela cells by expression cloning: ganglioside gm3 synthase and the cooh terminus regio ...201020837469
normal aerobic bacterial conjunctival flora in the crab-eating raccoon (procyon cancrivorus) and coati (nasua nasua) housed in captivity in pernambuco and paraiba (northeast, brazil).to determine the normal aerobic bacterial conjunctival population of the coatis and the crab-eating raccoons housed in captivity in the pernambuco and paraiba states of brazil.201020840103
mass spectrometry biotyper system identifies enteric bacterial pathogens directly from colonies grown on selective stool culture media.we evaluated the performance and cost-effectiveness of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based biotyper system for the routine identification of common enteric bacterial pathogens seen in middle tennessee from suspicious colonies grown on selective stool culture media. a total of 304 suspicious colonies were selected and further identified from 605 stool specimens. the suspicious colonies were analyzed by the biotyper system, and the results were comp ...201020844226
formulation and immunogenicity studies of type iii secretion system needle antigens as vaccine candidates.bacterial infections caused by shigella flexneri, salmonella typhimurium, and burkholderia pseudomallei are currently difficult to prevent due to the lack of a licensed vaccine. here we present formulation and immunogenicity studies for the three type iii secretion system (ttss) needle proteins mxih(δ5), prgi(δ5), and bsal(δ5) (each truncated by five residues at its c terminus) as potential candidates for vaccine development. these antigens are found to be thermally stabilized by the presence of ...201020845448
formulation and immunogenicity of a potential multivalent type iii secretion system-based protein vaccine.the virulence of many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria is dependent upon their type iii secretion (tts) systems. here, we discuss initial formulation studies of five tts needle tip proteins ipad (shigella flexneri), bipd (burkholderia pseudomallei), sipd (salmonella spp.), lcrv (yersinia spp.), and pcrv (pseudomonas aeruginosa) as targets for subunit vaccines. excipient screening and subsequent assays lead to the selection of 10% sucrose and 5% dextrose as an optimal stabilizer combination for ...201020845449
assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs commercialized in spain.spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. conventional production of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. in this study, we have analyzed the microbial quality of 53 samples of spices and dry herbs collected from spanish markets detecting a contamination of samples of s ...201020848208
dysbiosis of fecal microbiota in crohn's disease patients as revealed by a custom phylogenetic microarray.a custom phylogenetic microarray composed of small subunit ribosomal rna probes, representing ≈500 bacterial species from the human and animal gut, was developed and evaluated for analysis of gut microbial diversity using fecal samples from healthy subjects and crohn's disease (cd) patients.201020848492
predacious bacteria, bdellovibrio with potential for biocontrol.bacteria of the genus of bdellovibrio are highly motile gram-negative predators of other gram-negative bacteria causing lysis of their prey. here we report results of studies on the interactions of bdellovibrio with species of alcaligenes, campylobacter, erwinia, escherichia, helicobacter, pseudomonas, legionella, and shigella in agar lower, liquid media and cells attached to a surface. helicobacter pylori was studied employing both actively growing and viable but nonculturable (vbnc) cells. the ...201020850380
infectious colitis.purpose of review: the incidence of gastrointestinal infections continues to increase and infectious colitis contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. the purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in knowledge of pathogens causing infectious colitis. we describe the various pathogens and specifically focus on enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and entamoeba histolytica infections, and their impact on long-t ...201020856114
prevalence of bacteria and parasites in white ibis in egypt.a field survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections among free-living white ibis (nipponia nippon) in which 92 bacterial isolates were recovered from 193 different internal organs of 55 apparently healthy ibis. escherichia coli and salmonella spp. were isolated at rates of 43.6% and 14.5%, respectively. the other bacterial pathogens isolated were shigella spp. (34.5%), enterobacter spp. (21.8%) citrobacter spp. (18.1%), klebsiella pneumonia (16.3), staphylococcus aure ...201020857378
improved detection of five major gastrointestinal pathogens by use of a molecular screening approach.the detection of bacterial and parasitic gastrointestinal pathogens through culture and microscopy is laborious and time-consuming. we evaluated a molecular screening approach (msa) for the detection of five major enteric pathogens: salmonella enterica, campylobacter jejuni, giardia lamblia, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec), and shigella spp./enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), for use in the daily practice of a clinical microbiology laboratory. the msa consists of prescreening of stool ...201020861334
antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from trilepisium madagascariense stem bark.the present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of trilepisium madagascariense in rats.201020871767
defensins play a crucial role in protecting mice against oral shigella flexneri earlier study revealed that 4-day-old mice, but not older mice, were infected with invasive shigella strains. here we attempted to determine the underlying mechanism that induces inflammation in the intestines of neonate mice after oral shigella infection. wild-type balb/c mice of different ages (7, 14, and 35 days old) were orally administered gfp-expressing shigella flexneri 5a m90t strain (5 x 10⁹ cfu) and analyzed for colonization 6h following infection. we found that shigella localized i ...201020888321
improved fructosylated chondroitin production by kfoc overexpression in e. coli k4.escherichia coli k4 is one of the bacteria expressing a surface polysaccharide, indicated as capsular polysaccharide (k-antigen), showing a chemical structure that resembles that of metabolites commonly used in pharmaceutical applications. in this study we provide evidence that homologous overexpression of the chondroitin polymerase, encoded by the kfoc gene, acts on a potential bottleneck for production of capsular polysaccharide, and increases productivity by 100%. however, we also demonstrate ...201020888875
pediatric diarrhea in southern ghana: etiology and association with intestinal inflammation and malnutrition.diarrhea is a major public health problem that affects the development of children. anthropometric data were collected from 274 children with (n = 170) and without (n = 104) diarrhea. stool specimens were analyzed by conventional culture, polymerase chain reaction for enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec), shigella, cryptosporidium, entamoeba, and giardia species, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for fecal lactoferrin levels. about 50% of the study population was mildly to severely m ...201020889896
selective testing of ß-galactosidase activity in the laboratory identification of salmonella and shigella species.salmonella and shigella species are pathogens of great medical and public health importance. however, laboratory identification of these organisms is time consuming. using current standard laboratory algorithms, the vast majority of organisms submitted for serological typing with salmonella-specific and shigella-specific antisera are not clinically significant.201020924038
bacterial enteropathogens and risk factors associated with childhood investigate the etiology of bacterial enteropathogens causing diarrhea among children; to elucidate the risk factors, sign and symptoms involved in developing of infection; and to identify the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.201020924718
[screening of harmine tolerance/degrading bacteria from camel rumen].peganum harmala, a famous traditional chinese drug, contains a variety of alkaloids and toxic for many animals. camels mainly live in desert or semi-desert areas, with the robust gastrointestine system in digesting various feed including toxic plants without disease symptoms.201020931866
viable but nonculturable state of foodborne pathogens in grapefruit juice: a study of laboratory.several foodborne human pathogens, when exposed to harsh conditions, enter viable but nonculturable (vbnc) state; however, still open is the question whether vbnc pathogens could be a risk for public health, because, potentially, they can resuscitate. moreover, cultural methods for food safety control were not able to detect vbnc forms of foodborne bacteria. particularly, it has not been established whether food chemophysical characteristics can induce vbnc state in contaminating pathogen bacter ...201020932087
shigella deploy multiple countermeasures against host innate immune responses.although the intestinal epithelium is equipped with multiple defense systems that sense bacterial components, transmit alarms to the immune system, clear the bacteria, and renew the injured epithelial lining, mucosal bacterial pathogens are capable of efficiently colonizing the intestinal epithelium, because they have evolved systems that modulate the inflammatory and immune responses of the host and exploit the harmful environments as replicative niches. in this review we highlight current topi ...201020934372
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