separation and concentration of a thermolabile precipitinogen from shigella dysenteriae (shiga). 194720247165
the action of pasteurella pestis bacteriophage on strains of pasteutrella, salmonella, and shigella. 194720251259
experimental infection of mice with shigella dysenteriae and modification of the infection by means of antitoxic and antibacterial sera. 194720251869
wartime army medical laboratory activities; development of shigella typing by antigenic analysis. 194720252862
the action of pasteurella pestis bacteriophage on pasteurella, salmonella, and shigella. 194720255166
the poisson series in the evaluation of media used for the detection of shigellae and salmonellae. 194720255169
a short procedure for the isolation and preliminary identification of shigellae and salmonellae from stools. 194720256845
the effect of temperature on the survival of shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri in faeces. 194620258501
[not available]. 194720258532
chronic shigellosis due to shigella sonnei; a case report. 194720259688
description of strain c27: a motile organism with the major antigen of shigella sonnei phase i. 194720260769
non-mannitol-fermenting shigella flexneri, type 103. 194720266374
[not available]. 194720268597
studies on the genus shigella. 194720270456
the serological relationship between erwinia tracheiphila and species of shigella. 194620274666
urea decomposition as a means of differentiating proteus and paracolon cultures from each other and from salmonella and shigella types. 194620274674
the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections caused by the salmonella-shigella group. 194620276810
bacteriophage classification of shigella sonnei. 194720281020
selection of salmonella and shigella cultures for serologic classification. 194720282109
isolation of shigella gallinarum from turkey eggs. 194720284871
shigella types encountered in the mediterranean area. 194720284965
shigella carriers with special reference to their therapy, including the use of streptomycin. 194720292230
rapid identification of shigella in a public health laboratory. 194720293024
isolation of shigella from the gallbladder of carrier. 194720295393
characterisation of multidrug-resistant salmonella typhimurium 4,[5],12:i:- dt193 strains carrying a novel genomic island adjacent to the thrw trna 2006, monophasic, multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- strains appeared as a novel serotype in germany, associated with large diffuse outbreaks and increased need for hospitalisation. the emerging 4,[5],12:i:- strains isolated from patients in germany belong mainly to phage type dt193 according to the anderson phage typing scheme for s. typhimurium (stm) and exhibit at least a tetra-drug resistance. the strains have been shown to harbour stm-specific gifs ...201020303825
neutrophil antimicrobial proteins enhance shigella flexneri adhesion and invasion.shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. neutrophils are the first cells of the innate immune system recruited to the site of infection. these cells can attack microbes by phagocytosis, neutrophil extracellular trap (net) formation and degranulation. here, we investigated how neutrophil degranulation affects virulence and show that exposure of shigella to granular proteins enhances infection of epithelial cells. ...201020331641
an urban, water-borne outbreak of diarrhoea and shigellosis in a district town in eastern september 2007, the gayeshpur municipality reported a cluster of cases with diarrhoea. we aimed to identify the causative agent and the source of the disease.200920334044
identification of active site residues in the shigella flexneri glucosyltransferase gtrv.the serotype-specific glucosyltransferase, gtrv, is responsible for glucosylation of the o-antigen repeating unit of shigella flexneri serotype 5a strains. gtrv is an integral inner membrane protein with two essential periplasmic loops: the large loop 2 and the c-terminal loop 10. in this study, the full length of the loop 2 was shown to be necessary for gtrv function. site-directed mutagenesis within this loop revealed that conserved aromatic and charged amino acids have a critical role in the ...201020334579
[preparation of a 96-microwell plate dna diagnostic chip for detection of foodborne bacteria and its application in an incident of food poisoning].to develop a 96-microwell plate dna diagnostic chip for simultaneous detection of 9 major foodborne bacteria.201020335099
pcr targeting of antibiotic resistant bacteria in public drinking water of lahore metropolitan, investigate the prevalence of kanamycin (kan) and ampicillin (amp) resistant bacteria in public drinking water.200920337218
metal based biologically active compounds: design, synthesis, and antibacterial/antifungal/cytotoxic properties of triazole-derived schiff bases and their oxovanadium(iv) complexes.a new series of oxovanadium(iv) complexes have been designed and synthesized with a new class of triazole schiff bases derived from the reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetyl pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. physical (magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance), spectral (ir, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, mass and electronic) and analytical data have established the structures of these synthesized schi ...201020338672
infection and intoxication of macacus mulatta with shigella dysenteriae (shiga). 194720344285
an outbreak of dysentery caused by shigella schmitzi. 194720344558
a soluble form of the pilus protein fima targets the vdac-hexokinase complex at mitochondria to suppress host cell apoptosis.inhibition of apoptotic response of host cells during an early phase of infection is a strategy used by many enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens to enhance their survival. here, we report the identification of a soluble form of the pilus protein fima from the culture supernatants of e. coli k1, salmonella, and shigella that can potently inhibit bax-mediated release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria. similar to the infected cells, hct116 cells stably expressing fima display a delay in the ...201020347420
34 kda momp of shigella flexneri promotes tlr2 mediated macrophage activation with the engagement of nf-kappab and p38 map kinase signaling.the 34 kda major outer membrane protein (momp) of shigella flexneri 2a induces combinatorial expression of tlr2 and tlr6 on peritoneal macrophages of balb/c mice. between the two best-characterized tlrs, to date, tlr2 and tlr4, which are chiefly responsible for recognizing majority of bacterial products, tlr2 alone participates in recognition of 34 kda momp. in addition to tlrs, momp enhances the mrna expression of myd88 and traf6 and induces the nuclear translocation of nf-kappab as well as act ...201020347487
long-term downregulation of protease-activated receptor-2 expression in distal colon in rats following bacillary dysentery.the aim of this study was to determine changes of par-2 expression in distal colon and the sensitivity of colonic muscle to sligrl-nh2, the par-2-activating peptide (par-2-ap) following bacillary dysentery. shigella flexneri was administrated intragastrically in healthy male rats to induce bacillary dysentery. the effect of sligrl-nh2 on the motility of colonic muscle strips were examined. the expression of par-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. intragastric administr ...201020347884
antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children.ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and pivmecillinam are the antibiotics currently recommended by the world health organization (who) for the treatment of dysentery in children; yet there have been no reviews of the clinical effectiveness of these antibiotics in recent years.201020348130
global transcriptional response of macrophage-like thp-1 cells to shiga toxin type 1.shiga toxins (stxs) are bacterial cytotoxins produced by the enteric pathogens shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and some serotypes of escherichia coli that cause bacillary dysentery and hemorrhagic colitis, respectively. to date, approaches to studying the capacity of stxs to alter gene expression in intoxicated cells have been limited to individual genes. however, it is known that many of the signaling pathways activated by stxs regulate the expression of multiple genes in mammalian cells. to ex ...201020351145
antimicrobial resistence of shigella species isolated during 2004 and 2005 from selected sites in determine the predominant serotype and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of shigella isolates during 2004 and 2005 in zimbabwe.200620353132
isolation and selection of coliphages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing e. coli (ehec and stec) in isolate, characterize and select phages as potential biocontrol agents of enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (ehec and stec) in cattle.201020353429
molecular architecture of the mn2+-dependent lactonase ulag reveals an rnase-like metallo-beta-lactamase fold and a novel quaternary structure.the ulag gene, located in the ula regulon, is crucial for the catabolism of l-ascorbate under anaerobic conditions and it has been proposed to encode for the putative l-ascorbate-6-p lactonase. the ulag gene is widespread among eubacteria, including human commensal and pathogenic genera such as escherichia, shigella, klebsiella and salmonella. here, we report the three-dimensional structures of the apoenzyme and mn(2+) holoenzyme of ulag from e. coli to 2.6 a resolution, determined using single- ...201020359483
modeling fimbriae mediated parasite-host interactions.type 1 fimbriae are a known virulence factor in a number of pathogenic enterobacteriaceae, including salmonella, shigella and e. coli. yet, they are also expressed by some commensal strains, notably of e. coli. one hypothesis of the role of fimbriae in commensals is that they evoke a small but tolerable host immune response in order to have the host release sialic acid, which is a valuable nutrient. genetic evidence suggests that sialic acid down-regulates fimbriation. this has been believed to ...201020359486
laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea syndrome; a three years study in two hospitals of infectious diseases.infectious diarrhoea is a syndrome caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. the wide diversity of etiological agents impairs the surveillance and the diagnosis and affects the correct treatment applied to reduce the long-term complications. besides well known enteric pathogens such as salmonella, shigella and yersinia, a high number of emergent and re-emergent aetiologies are now recognised to be ...200920361527
structure of shigella ipgb2 in complex with human rhoa: implications for the mechanism of bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factor mimicry.a common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the manipulation of eukaryotic cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. this is in most cases achieved either by modifying actin, or indirectly via activation of key regulators controlling actin dynamics such as rho-gtpases. a novel group of bacterial virulence factors termed the wxxxe family has emerged as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) for these gtpases. the precise mechanism of nucleotide exchange, however, has remained unclear. here we repo ...201020363740
isolation of bacteria from mouse caecal samples and description of bacteroides sartorii sp. nov.caecal samples from wild-type and tnf(deltaare) mice were cultured on selective media containing bile salts, amino acids or casein macro-peptides. twenty-two strains were isolated and identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing. twenty-one strains showed >98% similarity to known bacteria (blautia spp., clostridium innocuum, enterococcus spp., escherichia coli, lactobacillus murinus, parabacteroides goldsteinii and shigella dysenteriae). one additional isolate, strain a-c2-0, was a new bacterium. the ...201020369227
antibacterial effect of the bioactive compound beauvericin produced by fusarium proliferatum on solid medium of obtain the bioactive compound beauvericin (bea), fusarium proliferatum cect 20569 was grown on a solid medium of wheat, utilizing the technique of the solid state fermentation (ssf), being this mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semi-preparative column using as the mobile phase acetonitrile/water in gradient condition. the purity of the bea was verified by analytical hplc and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lc/ms-ms). the p ...201020371252
the effects of a vegetable-derived probiotic lactic acid bacterium on the immune response.the objective of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of the fermented vegetable derived lactic acid bacterium, l. plantarum. l. plantarum 10hk2 showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulating effects on murine macrophage cell lines. raw 264.7 cells stimulated with viable cells of this probiotic strain increased the amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators such as il-1beta, il-6 and tnf-alpha, as well as the anti-inflammatory mediator, il-10. icr mic ...201020377751
use of optical mapping to sort uropathogenic escherichia coli strains into distinct subgroups.optical maps were generated for 33 uropathogenic escherichia coli (upec) isolates. for individual genomes, the ncoi restriction fragments aligned into a unique chromosome map for each individual isolate, which was then compared with the in silico restriction maps of all of the sequenced e. coli and shigella strains. all of the upec isolates clustered separately from the shigella strains as well as the laboratory and enterohaemorrhagic e. coli strains. moreover, the individual strains appeared to ...201020378655
biological potentials and cytotoxicity of various extracts from endemic origanum minutiflorum o. schwarz & p.h. davis.the aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidative, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of endemic origanum minutiflorum (o. schwarz & p.h. davis). antioxidant activities of the extracts from o. minutiflorum were evaluated by using dpph radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and metal chelating activity assays. in addition, the amounts of total phenol components in the plant extracts were determined. in the beta-carotene bleaching test, the extracts exhibited in the range of 58.1 ...201020381570
synthesis, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3, the present study, 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (3a-o) have been synthesized by the condensation of 4-methoxybenzohydrazide (1) with different aromatic acids (2a-o) in presence of phosphoryl chloride. the structural assignment of this compound (3a-o) has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, uv, ir, (1)h nmr and mass spectral data. the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi viz., staphylo ...200820390080
preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2009.the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) of cdc's emerging infections program conducts active, population-based surveillance in 10 u.s. states for all laboratory-confirmed infections with select enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. this report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2009 and trends in incidence since 1996. in 2009, a total of 17,468 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection were identified. in comparison with the first 3 years of surveillanc ...201020395935
nmr characterization of the interaction of the salmonella type iii secretion system protein sipd and bile salts.salmonella and shigella bacteria require the type iii secretion system (t3ss) to inject virulence proteins into their hosts and initiate infections. the tip proteins sipd and ipad are critical components of the salmonella and shigella t3ss, respectively. recently, sipd and ipad have been shown to interact with bile salts, which are enriched in the intestines, and are hypothesized to act as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. bile salts activate the shigella t3ss but repress the sa ...201020397637
innate ifn-gamma production by subsets of natural killer cells, natural killer t cells and gammadelta t cells in response to dying bacterial-infected macrophages.interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) activation of macrophages is a crucial step in the early innate defence against bacterial infection. this innate ifn-gamma is thought to be produced mainly by natural killer (nk) cells through activation with interleukin (il)-12p70 secreted by macrophages and dendritic cells (dcs) that have sensed bacterial products. however, a number of reports have shown that bacterial stimuli are unable to induce macrophages and/or dcs to produce sufficient amounts of il-12p70 unl ...201020415785
production and immunogenicity of recombinant ferric enterobactin protein (fepa).ferric siderophore complexes are produced by most bacteria to acquire iron, a vital element. these complexes are transported across the outer membrane by receptor proteins commonly known as fepa (ferric enterobactin protein). in this study we attempted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the membrane protein fepa, aiming at inhibition of iron uptake to protect invasion of the host by the bacterium.201020418143
tracking the secretion of fluorescently labeled type iii effectors from single bacteria in real time.a large number of gram negative pathogens use a specialized needle-like molecular machine known as type iii secretion (t3s) system. this highly sophisticated molecular device consists of a basal body spanning the two bacterial membranes and a protruding needle structure that is connected to a distal translocator complex. the main features of the t3s system are (i) activation after host cellular membrane contact and (ii) the ability to "inject" effectors into host cells through the needle apparat ...201020419414
production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies specific for escherichia coli monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for escherichia coli o157:h7, one of the major causes of haemorrhagic colitis in humans, were produced by immunising balb/c mice with the strain e. coli o157:h7. these monoclonal antibodies do not cross-react with other bacteria such as salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, e. coli o14, e. coli jm109, s. enterica serovar enteritidis, s. panama, s. saintpaul, s. derby, s. muenchen, s. bredeney, s. hadar, yersinia enterocolitica, proteus vulgaris, shi ...200620429059
microarray analysis of shigella flexneri-infected epithelial cells identifies host factors important for apoptosis inhibition.shigella flexneri inhibits apoptosis in infected epithelial cells. in order to understand the pro-survival effects induced by the bacteria, we utilized apoptosis-specific microarrays to analyze the changes in eukaryotic gene expression in both infected and uninfected cells in the presence and absence of staurosporine, a chemical inducer of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. the goal of this research was to identify host factors that contribute to apoptosis inhibition in infected cells.201020429941
bacteriological and parasitological assessment of food handlers in the omdurman area of sudan.pathogenic organisms are thought to be widely distributed among food handlers. this study was designed to assess the prevalence of carriers of some pathogenic bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the city of omdurman, sudan.201020434126
a multiplex pcr method to detect 14 escherichia coli serogroups associated with urinary tract infections.urinary tract infections (utis) are one of the most common bacterial infections and are predominantly caused by uropathogenic escherichia coli (upec). e. coli strains belonging to 14 serogroups, including o1, o2, o4, o6, o7, o8, o15, o16, o18, o21, o22, o25, o75 and o83, are the most frequently detected upec strains in a diverse range of clinical urine specimens. in the current study, the o-antigen gene clusters of e. coli serogroups o1, o2, o18 and o75 were characterized. a multiplex pcr method ...201020434495
modulation of shigella virulence in response to available oxygen in vivo.bacteria coordinate expression of virulence determinants in response to localized microenvironments in their hosts. here we show that shigella flexneri, which causes dysentery, encounters varying oxygen concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, which govern activity of its type three secretion system (t3ss). the t3ss is essential for cell invasion and virulence. in anaerobic environments (for example, the gastrointestinal tract lumen), shigella is primed for invasion and expresses extended t ...201020436458
microbial community on healthy and diseased leaves of an invasive plant eupatorium adenophorum in southwest china.invasive plants have caused great economic losses and environmental problems worldwide. eupatorium adenophorum is one of the most invasive weeds in china. to better understand its invasive mechanisms, in the present paper, the microbial communities of healthy and diseased leaves of e. adenophorum were obtained using both culture-independent and -dependent methods and their diversities were compared. the bacteria obtained from culture-independent method belong to proteobacteria (95.8%), actinobac ...201020437143
phenotypic characterization and genomic analysis of the shigella sonnei bacteriophage sp18.a novel bacteriophage that infects shigella sonnei was isolated from the gap river in korea, and its phenotypic and genomic characteristics were investigated. the virus, called sp18, showed morphology characteristic of the family myoviridae, and phylogenetic analysis of major capsid gene (gp23) sequences classified it as a t4-like phage. based on host spectrum analysis, it is lytic to s. sonnei, but not to shigella flexneri, shigella boydii or members of the genera escherichia and salmonella. py ...201020437154
antimicrobial resistance patterns and characterization of integrons of shigella sonnei isolates in seoul, 1999-2008.a total of 66 shigella sonnei isolates from 1999 to 2008 in seoul was analyzed for their antimicrobial resistance, carriage of integron, and the patterns of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). a high level of antimicrobial resistance to streptomycin (100%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (95%), tetracycline (94%), nalidixic acid (65%), and ampicillin (41%) was observed among s. sonnei isolates. fourteen profiles of antimicrobial resistance were identified with the most common resistance prof ...201020437157
antimicrobial resistance trends of shigella serotypes in new york city, 2006-2009.shigellosis is the third most common enteric bacterial infection in the united states. although infection is typically self-limiting, empiric treatment is often prescribed. because of increasing antimicrobial resistance to shigella, empiric treatment options are decreasing. identifying resistance patterns can inform empiric treatment recommendations. the goals of our study were to examine risk factors associated with antimicrobial resistance of shigella and examine issues related to empiric trea ...201020438349
high prevalence of trimethoprim-resistance cassettes in class 1 and 2 integrons in senegalese shigella spp isolates.integrons have a well-established role in the dissemination of resistance among gram-negative pathogens and are thus a useful marker of antibiotic resistance. shigellae are noteworthy for their multiple drug resistance, having gradually acquired resistance to most widely use and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs.201020440057
genome-wide analysis of the h-ns and sfh regulatory networks in salmonella typhimurium identifies a plasmid-encoded transcription silencing mechanism.the conjugative inchi1 plasmid psfr27 from shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t encodes the sfh protein, a paralogue of the global transcriptional repressor h-ns. sfh allows psfr27 to be transmitted to new bacterial hosts with minimal impact on host fitness, providing a 'stealth' function whose molecular mechanism has yet to be determined. the impact of the sfh protein on the salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium transcriptome was assessed and binding sites for sfh in the salmonella typhimurium g ...201020444106
the role of sura factor in outer membrane protein transport and virulence.the escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone and peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (ppiase) sura is a major factor in the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (omps) and as such plays an integral role in cell envelope homeostasis and cell envelope functions. recently, the biological importance of sura was further substantiated by the finding that sura also affects pathogenicity, being required for full virulence of uropathogenic escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella spp. moreover, given the ...201020447864
screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from melghat forest in india.cyperus rotundus, caesalpinia bonducella, tinospora cordifolia, gardenia gummifera, ailanthus excelsa, acacia arabica, embelia ribes and ventilago maderspatana from melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi, shigella flexneri, salmonella paratyphi, salmonella typhimurium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. out of these medicinal pla ...200920448847
mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking suggest that wzz dimer stability and oligomerization affect lipopolysaccharide o-antigen modal chain length shigella flexneri, the polysaccharide copolymerase (pcp) protein wzz(sf) confers a modal length of 10 to 17 repeat units (rus) to the o-antigen (oag) component of lipopolysaccharide (lps). pcps form oligomeric structures believed to be related to their function. to identify functionally important regions within wzz(sf), random in-frame linker mutagenesis was used to create mutants with 5-amino-acid insertions (termed wzz(i) proteins), and dna sequencing was used to locate the insertions. anal ...201020453100
carbon metabolism of intracellular bacterial pathogens and possible links to technologies such as high-throughput methods and 13c-isotopologue-profiling analysis are beginning to provide us with insight into the in vivo metabolism of microorganisms, especially in the host cell compartments that are colonized by intracellular bacterial pathogens. in this review, we discuss the recent progress made in determining the major carbon sources and metabolic pathways used by model intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate either in the cytosol or in vacuoles of infecte ...201020453875
acid stress response in enteropathogenic gammaproteobacteria: an aptitude for survival.enteric bacteria such as escherichia coli have acquired a wide array of acid stress response systems to counteract the extreme acidity encountered when invading the host's digestive or urinary tracts. these acid stress response systems are both enzyme and chaperone based. the 3 main enzyme-based acid resistance pathways are glutamate-, arginine-, and lysine-decarboxylase pathways. they are under a complex regulatory network allowing the bacteria to fine tune its response to the external environm ...201020453931
antioxidant, antibacterial and antigiardial activities of walsura robusta roxb.walsura robusta roxb. (family: meliaceae) is a well-known multi-purpose medicinal plant, and has been employed for a wide range of disease conditions without documented scientific data. in the current study, four pure isolated compounds, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), turpinionoside a (2), (+)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3) and (-)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of w. robusta. biological evaluation f ...201020461627
a thermolabile substance of shigella dysenteriae shiga. 194620475737
cytoskeleton-modulating effectors of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli: a case for espb as an intrinsically less-ordered effector.enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic escherichia coli produce various effector proteins that are directly injected into the host-cell cytosol through the type iii secretion system. e. coli secreted protein (esp)b is one such effector protein, and affects host-cell morphology by reorganizing actin networks. unlike most globular proteins that have well-ordered, rigid structures, the structures of type iii secretion system effectors from pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, including espb, are ofte ...201020477867
changing species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of shigella over a 29-year period (1980-2008).we studied changes in species distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of shigella during 1980-2008, using the diarrhoeal diseases surveillance system of dhaka hospital of icddr,b. in hospitalized patients shigella prevalence decreased steadily from 8-12% in the 1980s to 3% in 2008. endemic s. flexneri was the most commonly isolated species (54%). epidemic s. dysenteriae type 1 had two peaks in 1984 and 1993, but was not found after 2000, except for one case in 2004. the therapeutic op ...201120478088
the type iii effectors nlee and nleb from enteropathogenic e. coli and ospz from shigella block nuclear translocation of nf-kappab p65.many bacterial pathogens utilize a type iii secretion system to deliver multiple effector proteins into host cells. here we found that the type iii effectors, nlee from enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) and ospz from shigella, blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of the transcription factor, nf-kappab, to the host cell nucleus. nf-kappab inhibition by nlee was associated with decreased il-8 expression in epec-infected intestinal epithelial cells. ectopically expressed nlee also blocked nuclear ...201020485572
[traveler's diarrhea, the most common health problem of travelers].bacteria cause 50 to 80% of travelers' diarrheic diseases. the most important pathogens include enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), campylobacteria, salmonellae and shigella. diarrheic viruses cause 5 to 25% and protozoa less than 10% of travelers' diarrheas. hand and food hygiene constitute the main preventive measures. treatment of traveler's diarrhea is based on rehydration therapy and rest. antimicrobial therapy is required only in cases with exceptionally severe symptoms.201020486490
violations identified from routine swimming pool inspections--selected states and counties, united states, 2008.swimming is the third most popular u.s. sport or exercise activity, with approximately 314 million visits to recreational water venues, including treated venues (e.g., pools), each year. the most frequently reported type of recreational water illness (rwi) outbreak is gastroenteritis, the incidence of which is increasing. during 1997--2006, chlorine- and bromine-susceptible pathogens (e.g., shigella and norovirus) caused 24 (23%) of 104 treated venue--associated rwi outbreaks of gastroenteritis, ...201020489681
battle and balance at mucosal surfaces--the story of shigella and antimicrobial peptides.shigella is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children in many developing countries. emergence of antibiotic-resistance among shigella demands the development of effective medicines. antimicrobial peptides (amps) are expressed in phagocytes and at epithelial surfaces and are important effector molecules of innate immunity. we have found that pathogens are able to turn off the endogenous expression of amps, resulting in serious infections such as shigellosis. a therapeutic rationale to ...201020494122
regulation of high-affinity iron acquisition homologues in the tsetse fly symbiont sodalis glossinidius.sodalis glossinidius is a facultative intracellular bacterium that is a secondary symbiont of the tsetse fly (diptera: glossinidae). since studies with other facultative intracellular bacteria have shown that high-affinity iron acquisition genes are upregulated in vivo, we investigated the regulation of several sodalis genes that encode putative iron acquisition systems. these genes, sg1538 (hemt) and sg1516 (sita), are homologous to genes encoding periplasmic heme and iron/manganese transporter ...201020494987
antiviral and anti-inflammatory diterpenoids from the soft coral sinularia gyrosa.chemical investigation of the soft coral sinularia gyrosa led to the purification of three new diterpenoids, designated as gyrosanols a-c (1-3). the structures of 1-3 were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses. compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antiviral activity against hcmv with ic(50)'s of 2.6 and 3.7 microm, respectively. in addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the levels of the cox-2 protein (19.6 + or - 3.9% and 29.1 + or - 9.6%, res ...201020499851
foodborne illness: is it on the rise?foodborne illness is a serious public health threat. the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) estimates that 76 million foodborne illnesses, including 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths, occur in the united states each year. two recently published foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) reports showed that salmonella, campylobacter, shigella, cryptosporidium, and shiga toxin escherichia coli (stec) o157 continue to be leading causes of both the number and inci ...201020500787
[antibacterial activity of recombinant thanatin expressed by e.coli er2566].to express antibacterial peptide thanatin in the prokaryotic expression system and test its antibacterial activity.201020501392
the 33 carboxyl-terminal residues of spa40 orchestrate the multi-step assembly process of the type iii secretion needle complex in shigella flexneri.the type iii secretion apparatus (t3sa) is a central virulence factor of many gram-negative bacteria. its overall morphology consists of a cytoplasmic region, inner- and outer-membrane sections and an extracellular needle. in shigella, the length of the needle is regulated by spa32. to understand better the role of spa32 we searched for its interacting partners using a two-hybrid screen in yeast. we found that spa32 interacts with the 33 c-terminal residues (cc*) of spa40, a member of the conser ...201020507885
induction of specific cd8 t cells against intracellular bacteria by cd8 t-cell-oriented immunization approaches.for protection against intracellular bacteria such as mycobacterium tuberculosis and listeria monocytogenes, the cellular arm of adaptive immunity is necessary. a variety of immunization methods have been evaluated and are reported to induce specific cd8(+) t cells against intracellular bacterial infection. modified bcg vaccines have been examined to enhance cd8(+) t-cell responses. naked dna vaccination is a promising strategy to induce cd8(+) t cells. in addition to this strategy, live attenua ...201020508818
[analysis on bacillary dysentery surveillance data collected from the national surveillance system in 2007.].to improve the national surveillance plan on bacillary dysentery and to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system on the disease.201020510059
["autophagy and microorganisms": hotspots of a mini-symposium]. 201020510155
establishment of specific pathogen-free macaque colonies in tsukuba primate research center of japan for aids research.cynomolgus monkeys have been maintained in indoor facilities as closed colony monkeys in tsukuba primate research center in japan since 1978. several microorganisms, including bacteria, parasites and viruses, were eliminated from the cynomolgus monkeys in this colony of tprc. various kinds of viruses (b virus, measles virus, simian varicella virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian t cell leukemia virus, simian d type retrovirus, simian cytomegalovirus, simian epstein-barr virus, and simian ...201020510748
isolation of bacteriocin-like substances producing bacteria from finished cattle-manure compost and activity evaluation against some food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.a finished compost sample was examined for bacteriocin-like substance production against five pathogenic bacteria: salmonella typhimurium ef 85-9, escherichia coli o157:h7 atcc 43888, enterococcus faecalis jcm 8726, staphylococcus aureus jcm 2151, and yersinia enterocolitica jcm 7577. at the preliminary detection of bacterial strains exhibiting antimicrobial activity from the compost sample, thirteen strains could be isolated. screening of the inhibitory activity was done using agar-well diffusi ...201020513963
emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in shigella isolated from andaman & nicobar islands, india. 201020516546
crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of corc, a magnesium-ion transporter.corc is a magnesium transporter that is involved in the mg(2+)-efflux function of the cora transporter system, an mg(2+) channel, from shigella flexneri. native corc was purified and crystallized in the native form and in a ligand-free form and diffraction data sets were collected to 2.9 and 3.4 a resolution, respectively. the native corc crystals belonged to space group p2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 64.31, b = 74.44, c = 132.78 a. the ligand-free corc crystals belonged to space g ...201020516599
three-hour molecular detection of campylobacter, salmonella, yersinia, and shigella species in feces with accuracy as high as that of culture.campylobacter jejuni and salmonella, shigella, and yersinia species (along with shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli) are the most common causes of acute bacterial diarrheal disease in the united states. current detection techniques are time-consuming, limiting usefulness for patient care. we developed and validated a panel of rapid pcr assays for the detection and identification of c. jejuni, c. coli, salmonella, and yersinia species and shigella and enteroinvasive e. coli in stool samples. a ...201020519461
emerging trends in the etiology of enteric pathogens as evidenced from an active surveillance of hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in kolkata, india.abstract:201020525383
frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among young children with acute diarrhoea in saudi arabia.the frequency of viral, bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens among 270 paediatric patients (< 5 years of age) in various hospitals of makkah and jeddah cities of saudi arabia were investigated.201020527643
prevalence of enterotoxins among escherichia coli isolates causing bacteraemia.the most frequent cause of bacteraemia among gram-negative bacteria is escherichia coli. analysis of the genes encoding the shigella enterotoxin 1 (shet-1), shet-2, enteroaggregative heat stable toxin 1 (east-1) toxins and aggr factor in e. coli strains causing bacteraemia revealed that set1 genes were presented significantly more frequently among quinolone-susceptible strains (p<0.0001), in phylogenetic group b2 (p=0.0004) and in biofilm strains (p=0.02). in contrast, sen genes were significant ...201020529132
a novel anti-virulence gene revealed by proteomic analysis in shigella flexneri 2a.abstract:201020540790
immunochemical studies of shigella flexneri 2a and 6, and shigella dysenteriae type 1 o-specific polysaccharide-core fragments and their protein conjugates as vaccine candidates.there is no licensed vaccine for the prevention of shigellosis. our approach to the development of a shigella vaccines is based on inducing serum igg antibodies to the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) domain of their lipopolysaccharides (lps). we have shown that low molecular mass o-sp-core (o-spc) fragments isolated from shigella sonnei lps conjugated to proteins induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice than the full length o-sp conjugates. this finding is now extended to the o-spc ...201020542498
protein refolding is required for assembly of the type three secretion needle.pathogenic gram-negative bacteria use a type three secretion system (ttss) to deliver virulence factors into host cells. although the order in which proteins incorporate into the growing ttss is well described, the underlying assembly mechanisms are still unclear. here we show that the ttss needle protomer refolds spontaneously to extend the needle from the distal end. we developed a functional mutant of the needle protomer from shigella flexneri and salmonella typhimurium to study its assembly ...201020543831
an epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an hiv endemic region.the epidemiology of diarrheal disease in botswana, an hiv endemic region, is largely unknown. our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in gaborone, botswana. secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.201020543877
the sudden dominance of blactx-m harbouring plasmids in shigella spp. circulating in southern vietnam.plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. the rise of ctx-m class extended spectrum beta lactamases (esbls) has been well documented in industrialized countries. vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges.201020544028
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