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shiga toxin is transported into the nucleoli of intestinal epithelial cells via a carrier-dependent process.shiga toxin (stx) produced by the invasive shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae1) causes gastrointestinal and kidney complications. it has been assumed that stx is released intracellularly after enterocyte invasion by s. dysenteriae1. however, there is little information about stx distribution inside s. dysenteriae1-infected enterocytes. here, we use intestinal epithelial t84 cells to characterize the trafficking of stx delivered into the cytosol, in ways that mimic aspects of s. dyse ...201022069640
ceftriaxone resistant shigella flexneri, an emerging problem.shigellosis is a disease of public health importance in developing countries. it may cause self-limited diarrhea to severe dysentery. emergence of multi drug resistant (mdr) strains is a growing concern globally. ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are the drugs of choice for mdr cases. here, we report a case of mdr shigella flexneri from an immunocompromised patient. the strain was resistant to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) ≥ 64 μg/ml], limiting the treatment option. simultaneou ...201021258157
serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates): biogenesis and function.serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates) constitute a large family of proteases secreted by escherichia coli and shigella. spates exhibit two distinct proteolytic activities. first, a c-terminal catalytic site triggers an intra-molecular cleavage that releases the n-terminal portion of these proteins in the extracellular medium. second, the secreted n-terminal domains of spates are themselves proteases; each contains a canonical serine-protease catalytic site. some of thes ...201022069633
shiga toxins: intracellular trafficking to the er leading to activation of host cell stress responses.despite efforts to improve hygenic conditions and regulate food and drinking water safety, the enteric pathogens, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) and shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 remain major public health concerns due to widespread outbreaks and the severity of extra-intestinal diseases they cause, including acute renal failure and central nervous system complications. shiga toxins are the key virulence factors expressed by these pathogens mediating extra-intestinal disease. de ...201022069648
etiology of childhood diarrhea in the northeast of brazil: significant emergent diarrheal pathogens.in a study conducted in joão pessoa, northeast of brazil, 2344 escherichia coli isolated from 290 infants with diarrhea and 290 healthy matched controls were analyzed for virulence traits. enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec) was the most prevalent pathogen associated to acute diarrhea. based on the results of colony blot hybridization, serotyping, and hep-2 cell adherence assays, strains were separated in categories as typical enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) (1.7%), atypical epec (a-epec) (9.3%), e ...201018508227
phenotypic and genotypic characterization of shigella spp. with reference to its virulence genes and antibiogram analysis from river narmada.water samples of the river narmada from origin to end were analyzed for the presence of shigellae. analysis of 40 water samples by biotyping, serotyping, and molecular typing were done. out of all 40 isolates, 23 were identified as shigella flexneri, 10 as shigella sonnei, and seven as shigella dysenteriae. serotyping was found to be a better identification method than biotyping since biotyping was not found to be very sharp. in the present investigation, amplified ribosomal dna restriction anal ...201019501495
lactobacilli inhibit shigella dysenteriae 1 induced pro-inflammatory response and cytotoxicity in host cells via impediment of shigella-host interactions.shigella dysenteriae type 1 dysentery is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children from less developed and developing countries. the present study explores the hypothesis that lactobacilli protect the host cell during s. dysenteriae type 1 infection and its mechanism of action.201019535308
biennial hyperepidemic shigellosis in an observant jewish community.we aimed to study patterns of shigellosis in a large observant jewish community in israel and to describe local interventions during outbreaks. surveillance data from the ministry of health were used to calculate incidence rates in 1998-2006, both in the city of bene beraq and the tel aviv district. information on isolates was collected from the bacteriological laboratory of a community hospital. public notices and educational conferences conveyed a message to increase personal hygiene and keep ...201019602299
survey of bacterial populations present in us-produced linerboard with high recycle content.to survey paperboard products from 17 us mills for bacterial populations and for bacteria potentially harmful to human health.201019645765
differential expression of enteric neuroimmune-network in invasive and acute watery diarrhoea.we aimed to evaluate the changes of nerve morphology and distribution of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the rectum of shigella flexneri-infected patients and in the duodenum of vibrio cholerae o1-infected patients. nerve morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. immunoreactivity of nerve growth factor (ngf), neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry. ultrastructural analysis of intestinal biopsy revealed persisting axons degene ...201019650770
a new multiplex pcr for differential identification of shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei and detection of shigella virulence determinants.most of the multiplex pcr (mpcr) used to identify shigella do not discriminate between shigella species or serotypes. we designed a mpcr to differentiate between s. flexneri and s. sonnei strains based on the detection of markers associated with the she pathogenicity island described in shigella. in addition, specific primers were included to detect the shigella virulence determinants shet-1 and shet-2 enterotoxin genes. the analysis of 304 shigella strains from chile and 79 shigella strains fro ...201019765332
clinical practice. today's understanding of the haemolytic uraemic syndrome.the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus) includes the triad of haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. the classical form [d(+) hus] is caused by infectious agents, and it is a common cause of acute renal failure in children. the enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli-producing shiga toxin (stx) is the most common infectious agent causing hus. other infectious agents are shigella and streptococcus pneumoniae. infections by s. pneumoniae can be particularly severe and has a highe ...201019707787
diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known hiv status in kisumu, kenya.to compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known hiv status.201019664950
a novel antisense rna regulates at transcriptional level the virulence gene icsa of shigella flexneri.the virulence gene icsa of shigella flexneri encodes an invasion protein crucial for host colonization by pathogenic bacteria. within the intergenic region vira-icsa, we have discovered a new gene that encodes a non-translated antisense rna (named rnag), transcribed in cis on the complementary strand of icsa. in vitro transcription assays show that rnag promotes premature termination of transcription of icsa mrna. transcriptional inhibition is also observed in vivo by monitoring the expression p ...201020129941
cesarean delivery and risk of intestinal bacterial infection.an individual's intestinal bacterial flora is established soon after birth. delivery by cesarean section (c-section) deprives the newborn of colonization with maternal vaginal bacteria. we determined whether delivery by c-section is associated with an altered risk of infection with intestinal bacterial pathogens.201020132034
bacteriocin production by shigella sonnei isolated from faeces of children with acute diarrhoea.shigella is a common agent of diarrhoea, a worldwide major health problem. the bacterium produces bacteriocins; however, the role of these substances as a virulence factor is completely unknown. with the aim to search for colicin production by shigella sonnei, to evaluate the influence of culture conditions on bacteriocin expression, and to characterize the substance partially, 16 s. sonnei strains isolated from children with diarrhoea were tested for antagonism against members of the intestinal ...201020132176
a quantitative pcr assay for rapid detection of shigella species in fresh produce.a quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay with two primers and a taqman probe targeting conserved regions of the specific ipah gene of shigella species and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) were developed. this qpcr assay was used to identify 206 shigella strains (including four shigella species with all serotypes and two provisional shigella species), 3 eiec strains, and 113 non-shigella strains with 100% accuracy. pure cultures of six shigella reference strains were used to derive standard curves t ...201020132666
innate immune detection of the type iii secretion apparatus through the nlrc4 inflammasome.the mammalian innate immune system uses toll-like receptors (tlrs) and nod-lrrs (nlrs) to detect microbial components during infection. often these molecules work in concert; for example, the tlrs can stimulate the production of the proforms of the cytokines il-1beta and il-18, whereas certain nlrs trigger their subsequent proteolytic processing via caspase 1. gram-negative bacteria use type iii secretion systems (t3ss) to deliver virulence factors to the cytosol of host cells, where they modula ...201020133635
nleh effectors interact with bax inhibitor-1 to block apoptosis during enteropathogenic escherichia coli infection.the human pathogens enteropathogenic (epec) and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli and the related mouse pathogen citrobacter rodentium subvert a variety of host cell signaling pathways via their plethora of type iii secreted effectors, including triggering of an early apoptotic response. epec-infected cells do not develop late apoptotic symptoms, however. in this study we demonstrate that the nleh family effectors, homologs of the shigella effector kinase ospg, blocks apoptosis. during epec inf ...201020133763
crystal structure of the dna-recognition component of the bacterial virus sf6 genome-packaging machine.in herpesviruses and many bacterial viruses, genome-packaging is a precisely mediated process fulfilled by a virally encoded molecular machine called terminase that consists of two protein components: a dna-recognition component that defines the specificity for packaged dna, and a catalytic component that provides energy for the packaging reaction by hydrolyzing atp. the terminase docks onto the portal protein complex embedded in a single vertex of a preformed viral protein shell called procapsi ...201020133842
a piglet model of acute gastroenteritis induced by shigella dysenteriae type 1.the lack of a standardized laboratory animal model that mimics key aspects of human shigellosis remains a major obstacle to addressing questions about pathogenesis, screening therapeutics, and evaluation of vaccines.201020136414
extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing escherichia coli in patients with travellers' diarrhoea.the identification of patients carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing bacteria is important, since these patients are at risk of receiving inappropriate empirical therapy if they become infected. the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of esbl-producing bacteria in patients with travellers' diarrhoea. patients with travellers' diarrhoea (n = 242) having delivered stool samples for the diagnosis of salmonella, shigella, yersinia or campylobacter, were also ...201020121649
campylobacteriosis and other bacterial gastrointestinal diseases in sofia, bulgaria for the period 1987-2008.campylobacter is the most commonly reported enteric bacterial pathogen in humans. we still do not have any systematic data concerning campylobacteriosis in bulgaria. for that reason, we present data of the thermophilic campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in sofia, for the period from 1987 to 2008. the study included patients from 0 to over 65 years-old. a total of 51,607 faecal specimens were screened for campylobacter. c. jejuni and c. coli were d ...201020122383
bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factors sope-like and wxxxe effectors.subversion of rho family small gtpases, which control actin dynamics, is a common infection strategy used by bacterial pathogens. in particular, salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, shigella flexneri, enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec), and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) translocate type iii secretion system (t3ss) effector proteins to modulate the rho gtpases rhoa, cdc42, and rac1, which trigger formation of stress fibers, filopodia, and lamellipodia/ruffles, respectively. ...201020123714
risk factors for sporadic shigellosis, foodnet 2005.an estimated 450,000 cases of shigellosis occur annually in the united states. outbreaks have been associated with food, water, child daycare centers, and men who have sex with men. however, for sporadic infections, which account for the majority of cases, risk exposures are poorly characterized.201020113209
structural and functional divergence of the newly identified gtric from its gtr family of conserved shigella flexneri serotype-converting glucosyltransferases.glucosyltransferases (gtrs) and o-acetyltransferase (oac) are integral membrane proteins embedded within the cytoplasmic membrane of shigella flexneri. gtrs and oac are responsible for unidirectional host serotype conversion by altering the epitopic properties of the bacterial surface lipopolysaccharide (lps) o-antigen. in this study, we present the membrane topology of a recently recognized gtr, gtric, which is known to mediate s. flenxeri serotype switching from 1a to 1c. the gtric topology is ...201020095950
a yersinia pestis guaba mutant is attenuated in virulence and provides protection against plague in a mouse model of infection.there is a need to develop effective countermeasures for yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague and a potential bioterrorism agent. salmonella and shigella spp. deleted in the guaba genes involved in guanine biosynthesis have been shown to be attenuated in vivo. in this study, we sought to determine whether deletion of the guaba operon would render y. pestis auxotrophic for guanine and avirulent; such a strain could serve as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. a y. pestis guaba m ...201020096773
the proteome of shigella flexneri 2a 2457t grown at 30 and 37 degrees c.to upgrade the proteome reference map of shigella flexneri 2a 2457t, the protein expression profiles of log phase and stationary phase cells grown at 30 and 37 degrees c were thoroughly analyzed using multiple overlapping narrow ph range (between ph 4.0 and 11.0) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. a total of 723 spots representing 574 protein entries were identified by maldi-tof/tof ms, including the majority of known key virulence factors. 64 hypothetical proteins and six misannotated protein ...201020164057
influences of hydraulic loading rate on svoc removal and microbial community structure in drinking water treatment biofilters.six biofilters were used for advanced treatment of yangtze river source water to investigate the effects of hydraulic loading rate (hlr) on pollutant removal and microbial community. hlr was found to exert significant influences on the removal efficiency of the conventional pollutants and 24 detectable semivolatile organic compounds (svocs). more than 85% of chemical oxygen demand and assimilable organic carbon was removed at the optimal hlr of 3.0 m h(-1). with the increase of hlr, svoc removal ...201020189298
disruption of the rickettsia rickettsii sca2 autotransporter inhibits actin-based motility.rickettsii rickettsii, the etiologic agent of rocky mountain spotted fever, replicates within the cytosol of infected cells and uses actin-based motility to spread inter- and intracellularly. although the ultrastructure of the actin tail and host proteins associated with it are distinct from those of listeria or shigella, comparatively little is known regarding the rickettsial proteins involved in its organization. here, we have used random transposon mutagenesis of r. rickettsii to generate a s ...201020194597
specific igg activity against diarrheagenic bacteria in bovine immune milk and effect of ph on its antigen-binding activity upon heating.bovine colostrum and milk antibodies of calving and lactating cows immunized with a multivalent vaccine consisting of whole cells of three different species of pathogenic bacteria including four strains of enterotoxigenic escherischia coli, five strains of enteropathogenic esch. coli, three strains of enteroinvasive esch. coli, two strains of samonella typhi, and one strain each of shigellia dysenteriae, sh. sonnei and sh. flexneri were generated, respectively. a significantly elevated activity ...201020196896
mst (molecular serotyping tool): a program for computer-assisted molecular identification of escherichia coli and shigella o antigens.escherichia coli and shigella o antigens can be inferred using the rfb-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) molecular test. we present herein a dynamic programming algorithm-based software to compare the rfb-rflp patterns of clinical isolates with those in a database containing the 171 previously published patterns corresponding to all known e. coli/shigella o antigens.201020200287
structure, biological functions and applications of the ab5 toxins.ab(5) toxins are important virulence factors for several major bacterial pathogens, including bordetella pertussis, vibrio cholerae, shigella dysenteriae and at least two distinct pathotypes of escherichia coli. the ab(5) toxins are so named because they comprise a catalytic a-subunit, which is responsible for disruption of essential host functions, and a pentameric b-subunit that binds to specific glycan receptors on the target cell surface. the molecular mechanisms by which the ab(5) toxins ca ...201020202851
prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinants in shigella flexneri isolates from anhui province, china.quinolones are used extensively to treat shigella flexneri infection, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) determinants were recently reported. a total of 26 s. flexneri isolates collected from anhui province, china, in 2005 were screened for pmqr determinants, bla gene, gyra and parc genes, by pcr and sequencing. pmqr determinants were present in 53.8% (14 of 26) of isolates and qnra(1), qnrs(1), qnrs(2), aac(6')-ib-cr and qepa were present in 30.8, 11.5, 3.8, 19.2 and 11.5% of thos ...201020203702
[rectal prolapse in a neonate with shigella diarrhea].a case of neonatal rectal prolapse during shigella diarrhea is described. a 10 days neonate exclusively breast fed, whose 2 years old brother has had the same process 2 weeks ago. medical treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone resolved rectal prolapse in 48 hours. stool cultures showed the presence of shigella flexneri ii resistant to amoxicillin; blood and cerebrospinal fluid, cultures were negative. conclusion: rectal prolapse is an uncommon complication seen in infants with shigella diarrhea. ...201020204227
synthesis, in-vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic studies of novel azetidinone derivatives.developing novel antimicrobial drugs is increasingly important in the modern pharmaceutical industry. a series of novel 3-chloro-4-[4-(2-oxo-2h-chromen-4-ylmethoxy)phenyl]-1-phenylazetidin-2-ones 5a-o have been synthesized from 4-bromomethylcoumarins 1a-e and 4-aryliminomethyl-phenols 3a-c. these compounds were screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against two gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin resistant enteroccoccus) and two gram-negative (escherichia coli and shi ...201020205197
induction of apoptosis by shiga toxins.shiga toxins comprise a family of structurally and functionally related protein toxins expressed by shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and multiple serotypes of escherichia coli. while the capacity of shiga toxins to inhibit protein synthesis by catalytic inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes has been well described, it is also apparent that shiga toxins trigger apoptosis in many cell types. this review presents evidence that shiga toxins induce apoptosis of epithelial, endothelial, leukocytic, lymp ...201020210553
identification and characterization of ctx-m-producing shigella isolates in the united states. 201020211893
prolonged remission of chronic reactive arthritis treated with three infusions of infliximab.reactive arthritis is generally self-remitting but can be chronic. predictors of chronicity include hla b27 positivity and triggering infections with yersinia, salmonella, shigella, or chlamydia. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and local steroids are the mainstays, with some evidence for disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. limited evidence suggests effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor antagonists. we report the case of reactive arthritis following a chlamydia urinary tract infection pro ...201020216128
autotransporter passenger proteins: virulence factors with common structural themes.autotransporter proteins are virulence factors associated with a wide variety of diseases caused by pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, and they play a variety of roles in pathogenesis including disabling host defences and mediating colonization. pertactin, a key component of the whooping cough vaccine, is an autotransporter protein. a large sub-family of the autotransporters carries a trypsin-like protease domain, but these enzymes have different substrates and functions. the unique export proce ...201020217035
[role of galactose-specific receptor--lectin in bactericidal activity of hemolysin of vibrio cholerae non o1/o139].to study the role lectin galactose-specific receptor of vibrio cholerae hemolysin in receptor mechanisms of bacterial cells lysis.201020218337
shigella mediated depletion of macrophages in a murine breast cancer model is associated with tumor regression.a tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. in this model tumor-associated macrophages (tams) represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. to evaluate whether shigella-induced removal of macrophages may be sufficient for achieving tumor regression we have developed an attenuated strain of s. ...201020221397
disease burden of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome in the netherlands.post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) has been established as a sequel of infectious intestinal disease (iid). the aim of this study was to estimate the burden of pi-ibs caused by the pathogens campylobacter, salmonella and shigella, and to compare this with other outcomes associated with these pathogens. the attributable risk of pi-ibs due to bacterial pathogens was calculated and linked to national data on gastroenteritis incidence and measures for severity and duration of illness ...201020223049
a new paradigm of bacteria-gut interplay brought through the study of shigella.bacteria-gut epithelial interplay and the mucosal immune response are the most critical issues in determining the fate of bacterial infection and the severity of diseases. shigella species (abbreviated here as shigella), the causative agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), are highly adapted human pathogens that are capable of invading and colonizing the intestinal epithelium, which results in severe inflammatory colitis. shigella secrete a large and diverse number (more then 50) of effecto ...201020228623
[shigella bacteremia dysentery in an adult]. 201020232025
high-throughput screening of the virulence regulator virf: a novel antibacterial target for shigellosis.shigella flexneri is a human enteropathogen that infects about 165 million people and claims more than 1 million lives per year worldwide. although shigellosis has been considered a disease of the "third world," like many other contagious diseases, it does occur in developed countries. the emergence of drug and multidrug-resistant strains of shigella emphasizes the need for novel antibiotic development. virf, an arac-type transcriptional regulator, is responsible for the expression of all downst ...201020237205
antibacterial activity of artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria.the six organic solvent extracts of artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains.201020109237
selective deletion of cd8(+) cells upregulated by caspases-1 via il-18 in mice immunized with major outer membrane protein of shigella dysenteriae 1 following infection.introduction: mucosal lymphoid changes were observed in cryopreserved rectal tissues obtained from balb/c mice infected with shigella dysenteriae 1, immunized with 57-kda major antigenic outer membrane protein, and infection after immunization. discussion: our data suggested that caspase-3 is downregulated in cd4(+) cells of immunized balb/c mice following infection with substantial increased expression of interleukin (il)-2 and interferon (ifn)-gamma, while caspase-1 is upregulated in cd8(+) ce ...201020084439
the extreme c terminus of shigella flexneri ipab is required for regulation of type iii secretion, needle tip composition, and binding.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are widely distributed virulence determinants of gram-negative bacteria. they translocate bacterial proteins into host cells to manipulate them during infection. the shigella t3ss consists of a cytoplasmic bulb, a transmembrane region, and a hollow needle protruding from the bacterial surface. the distal tip of mature, quiescent needles is composed of ipad, which is topped by ipab. physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to assembly of a ...201020086081
chaperonin activity modulates codon adaptation. 201020087337
groel dependency affects codon usage--support for a critical role of misfolding in gene evolution.it has recently been suggested that the use of optimal codons limits mistranslation-induced protein misfolding, yet evidence for this remains largely circumstantial. in contrast, molecular chaperones have long been recognized to play crucial roles in misfolding prevention and remedy. we propose that putative error limitation in cis can be elucidated by examining the interaction between codon usage and chaperoning processes. using escherichia coli as a model system, we find that codon optimality ...201020087338
th17 cells are the dominant t cell subtype primed by shigella flexneri mediating protective immunity.the t cell response to shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, remains poorly understood. using a murine model of infection, we report that shigella flexneri primes predominately il-17a- and il-22-producing th17 cells. shigella-specific th1 cells are only significantly induced on secondary infection, whereas specific th2 and cd8(+) t cells are undetectable. apart from th17 cells that are primed in a mhc class ii- and il-6-dependent, but il12/23p40-independent manner, we identified ...201020089698
antibiotic therapy for shigella dysentery.shigella dysentery is a relatively common illness and occasionally causes death, worldwide. mild symptoms are self-limiting but in more severe cases, antibiotics are recommended for cure and preventing relapse. the antibiotics recommended are diverse, have regional differences in sensitivity, and have side effects.201020091606
osmoregulated periplasmic glucans synthesis gene family of shigella flexneri.osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (opgs) of food- and water-borne enteropathogen shigella flexneri were characterized. opgs were composed of 100% glucose with 2-linked glucose as the most abundant residue with terminal glucose, 2-linked and 2,6-linked glucose also present in high quantities. most dominant backbone polymer chain length was seven glucose residues. individual genes from the opg gene family comprising of a bicistronic operon opggh, opgb, opgc and opgd were mutagenized to study their ...201020062978
nlrc4/ipaf/clan/card12: more than a flagellin sensor.nlrc4 is a member of the nod-like receptors (nlrs), a family of cytosolic receptors involved in sensing bacterial molecules. nlrs are a group of proteins containing spans of leucine-rich repeats that senses bacterial factors within the eukaryotic cytosol. the recognition of bacterial factors provokes the formation of the inflammasome complex which includes specific nlrs. the inflammasome is responsible for caspase-1 activation which leads to the cleavage and maturation of inflammatory cytokines ...201020067841
tracking the dynamic interplay between bacterial and host factors during pathogen-induced vacuole rupture in real time.escape into the host cell cytosol following invasion of mammalian cells is a common strategy used by invasive pathogens. this requires membrane rupture of the vesicular or vacuolar compartment formed around the bacteria after uptake into the host cell. the mechanism of pathogen-induced disassembly of the vacuolar membrane is poorly understood. we established a novel, robust and sensitive fluorescence microscopy method that tracks the precise time point of vacuole rupture upon uptake of gram-nega ...201020070313
new enterovirulent escherichia coli serogroup 64474 showing antigenic and genotypic relationships to shigella boydii 16.studies based on the analysis of housekeeping genes indicate that escherichia coli and all shigella species, except for shigella boydii type 13, belong to a single species. this study analysed the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 23 e. coli strains isolated in different countries from faecal specimens taken from children with diarrhoea. strains were identified using the vitek system and typed with rabbit sera obtained against 186 somatic and 53 flagellar e. coli antigens and against 4 ...201020075111
age-related efficacy of shigella o-specific polysaccharide conjugates in 1-4-year-old israeli children.despite its high worldwide morbidity and mortality, there is yet no licensed vaccine for shigellosis. we reported the safety and immunogenicity of shigella o-specific polysaccharide-protein conjugates in adults and young children and efficacy of shigella sonnei conjugate in young adults.201020056180
the structure of the salmonella typhimurium type iii secretion system needle shows divergence from the flagellar system.the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is essential for the infectivity of many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. the t3ss contains proteins that form a channel in the inner and outer bacterial membranes, as well as an extracellular needle that is used for transporting and injecting effector proteins into a host cell. the homology between the t3ss and the bacterial flagellar system has been firmly established, based upon both sequence similarities between respective proteins in the two systems an ...201020060835
antibodies against recombinant shiga toxin subunit b neutralize shiga toxin toxicity in hela cells.shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli o157:h7 produce shiga toxin 1 (stx) and shiga toxin1 (stx1), respectively and these two toxins are almost identical. e. coli o157:h7 is the major cause of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. stx and stx1 are ab5 type of toxin with a molecular weight of 70 kda, comprising an enzymaticaly-active a subunit (32 kda) and five receptor-binding b subunits (7.7 kda). in this study dna fragment (289 bp, gene bank accn no. ef685161) coding for b ...201020044923
rifaximin-induced alteration of virulence of diarrhoea-producing escherichia coli and shigella sonnei.rifaximin shortens the duration of travellers' diarrhoea without important alteration of colonic flora. this study investigated the expression of virulence factors [heat-stable (st) and heat-labile (lt) enterotoxins, surface adhesion factors (cs2/cs3, cs6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (mmp-9)] as well as the interleukin (il)-8 induction potential of diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli and shigella sonnei strains exposed to rifaximin (8, 32 and 64mg/l) for 4, 8, 18 and 24h. following exposure to ri ...201020045287
increased immunoendocrine cells in intestinal mucosa of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients 3 years after acute shigella infection--an observation in a small case control study.postinfectiously irritable bowel syndrome (pi-ibs) develops in 3-30% of individuals with bacterial gastroenteritis. recent studies demonstrated increases in inflammatory components in gut mucosa of pi-ibs patients even after complete resolution of infection. we aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of pi-ibs subjects after long term period of infection.201020046513
a bacterial e3 ubiquitin ligase ipah9.8 targets nemo/ikkgamma to dampen the host nf-kappab-mediated inflammatory response.nf-kappab (nuclear factor kappab) has a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including the inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, its activation is tightly regulated by the ikk (ikappab kinase) complex and by ikappabalpha degradation. when shigella bacteria multiply within epithelial cells they release peptidoglycans, which are recognized by nod1 and stimulate the nf-kappab pathway, thus leading to a severe inflammatory response. here, we show that ipah9.8, a shigella effector pos ...201020010814
pivotal advance: bifidobacteria and gram-negative bacteria differentially influence immune responses in the proinflammatory milieu of celiac disease.cd is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that presents in genetically predisposed individuals following gluten consumption. in this study, the effects of bifidobacterium (bifidobacterium bifidum iata-es2 and bifidobacterium longum atcc15707) and gram-negative bacteria (bacteroides fragilis dsm2451, escherichia coli cbl2, and shigella cbd8 isolated from cd patients), alone and in the presence of cd triggers (gliadins and/or ifn-gamma) on surface marker expression and cytokine ...201020007908
characteristics of children with shigella encephalopathy: experience from a large urban diarrhea treatment center in bangladesh.encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication from shigellosis often with fatal outcome but data on simple clinical and sociodemographic predicting factors are limited. we sought to identify those factors in children.201020016394
cem-101, a novel fluoroketolide: antimicrobial activity against a diverse collection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.cem-101 is a novel fluoroketolide with reported high potency against diverse groups of gram-positive (micrococcus spp., viridans group streptococci, corynebacterium spp. listeria monocytogenes, clostridium spp., etc.) and gram-negative bacteria (neisseria gonorrhoeae, campylobacter jejuni, helicobacter pylori, bacteroides fragilis, shigella spp., etc.), including mycoplasma and ureaplasma, as well as bacteria commonly associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections and skin and s ...201020022192
reactive arthritis after enteric infections in the united states: the problem of definition.bacterial enteric infections cause substantial morbidity in the united states both from acute illness and sequelae that follow. reactive arthritis (rea) is a poorly defined term that is used to describe a variety of rheumatologic phenomena that may occur after salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and yersinia infection, as well as other types of infections (eg, chlamydia). this review focuses on clinical and epidemiologic investigations of rea following bacterial enteric infection in the united ...201020025528
transcriptional profile of the shigella flexneri response to an alkaloid: berberine.berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid found in many medicinal herbs, has been shown to be active against a variety of microbial infections. to examine the potential effects of berberine on shigella flexneri, a whole-genome dna microarray was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the cellular responses of s. flexneri when exposed to berberine chloride (bc) was performed. our data revealed that bc upregulated a group of genes involved in dna replication, repair and division. intriguingl ...201020030725
identification of antibacterial and antifungal pharmacophore sites for potent bacteria and fungi inhibition: indolenyl sulfonamide derivatives.synthesis of seven new indolenyl sulfonamides, have been prepared by the condensation reaction of indole-3-carboxaldehyde with different sulfonamides such as, sulphanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine. these synthesized compounds have been used as potential ligands for complexation with some selective divalent transition metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel & zinc). structure of the synthesized ligands has been deduced from thei ...201020005022
solution nmr structures of proteins vpa0419 from vibrio parahaemolyticus and yiis from shigella flexneri provide structural coverage for protein domain family pfam 04175. 201019927321
immobilization of bacteriophages on modified silica particles.bacteriophages are selective anti-bacterial agents, which are receiving increasing acceptance by regulatory agencies for use both in the food industry and in clinical settings for biocontrol. while immobilized phage could be particularly useful to create antimicrobial surfaces, current immobilization strategies require chemical bioconjugation to surfaces or more difficult processes involving modification of their head proteins to express specific binding moieties, for example, biotin or cellulos ...201019945158
galectin-3, a marker for vacuole lysis by invasive pathogens.shigella bacteria invade macrophages and epithelial cells and following internalization lyse the phagosome and escape to the cytoplasm. galectin-3, an abundant protein in macrophages and epithelial cells, belongs to a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins, the galectins, with many proposed functions in immune response, development, differentiation, cancer and infection. galectins are synthesized as cytosolic proteins and following non-classical secretion bind extracellular beta-galactoside ...201019951367
emergence of resistance to third-generation cephalosporin in shigella--a case report.the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in shigella has shifted the attention to cephalosporins. the first occurrence of third generation cephalosporin-resistant shigella flexneri was from france. this article reports the first case of cephalosporin-resistant s. flexneri from india. a 12-month-old child was admitted for a 20-day episode of loose stools, non-fetid, with mucus and blood. the stool sample showed the presence of blood and mucus and s. flexneri which was resistant to ampicillin, na ...201019955258
emergence of a new multidrug-resistant serotype x variant in an epidemic clone of shigella flexneri.shigella spp. are the causative agent of shigellosis with shigella flexneri serotype 2a being the most prevalent in developing countries. epidemiological surveillance in china found that a new serotype of s. flexneri appeared in 2001 and replaced serotype 2a in 2003 as the most prevalent serotype in henan province. the new serotype also became the dominant serotype in 7 of the 10 other provinces under surveillance in china by 2007. the serotype was identified as a variant of serotype x. it diffe ...201019955273
antilisterial activity of a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, enterocin lr/6 from enterococcus faecium lr/6.enterocin lr/6, a purified bacteriocin, exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum both against related as well as some food-borne pathogens such as listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, aeromonas sp., shigella sp., and bacillus licheniformis. in this investigation, we have focused on l. monocytogenes as the target organism, as it is not only an important pathogen but can also survive over a wide range of environmental conditions such as refrigeration temperature, low ph, and high-salt conce ...201019957209
interference of the cadc regulator in the arginine-dependent acid resistance system of shigella and enteroinvasive e. coli.a typical pathoadaptive mutation of shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) is the inactivation of the cad locus which comprises the genes necessary for lysine decarboxylation, an enzyme involved in ph homoeostasis. in e. coli, the cadba operon, encoding lysine decarboxylase (cada) and a lysine cadaverine antiporter (cadb), is submitted to the control of cadc, a positive activator whose gene maps upstream the operon, and is transcribed independently from the same strand. cadc is an i ...201019959396
combined effects of probiotic fermentation and high-pressure extraction on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities of deodeok (codonopsis lanceolata).this study was designed to evaluate the combined effects of probiotic fermentation and high-pressure extraction (hpe) on the functional properties of codonopsis lanceolata. the ground c. lanceolata samples were anaerobically fermented with lactobacillus acidophilus adh, bifidobacterium longum b6, lactobacillus rhamnosus gg, or lactobacillus paracasei at 37 degrees c for 10 days and subjected to 500 mpa at 50 degrees c for 30 min. the extraction yields of c. lanceolata samples were noticeably inc ...201020000575
global analysis of a plasmid-cured shigella flexneri strain: new insights into the interaction between the chromosome and a virulence plasmid.shigella flexneri is an important human pathogen that causes dysentery, and remains a significant threat to public health, particularly in developing countries. the virulence of this pathogen is dependent on an acquired virulence plasmid. to investigate the crosstalk between the bacterial chromosome and the exogenous virulence plasmid, a virulence plasmid-cured strain was constructed using plasmid incompatibility. the global patterns of gene expression of this strain compared with the wild-type ...201020000779
characterization of wrss2 and wrss3, new second-generation virg(icsa)-based shigella sonnei vaccine candidates with the potential for reduced reactogenicity.live, attenuated shigella vaccine candidates, such as shigella sonnei strain wrss1, shigella flexneri 2a strain sc602, and shigella dysenteriae 1 strain wrsd1, are attenuated principally by the loss of the virg(icsa) protein. these candidates have proven to be safe and immunogenic in volunteer trials and in one study, efficacious against shigellosis. one drawback of these candidate vaccines has been the reactogenic symptoms of fever and diarrhea experienced by the volunteers, that increased in a ...201019932216
development of a serogroup-specific dna microarray for identification of escherichia coli strains associated with bovine septicemia and diarrhea.escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups o8, o9, o15, o26, o35, o78, o86, o101, o115 and o119 are commonly associated with septicemia or diarrhea in calves and pose a significant threat to the cattle industry worldwide. in this study, a microarray detection system targeting o-antigen-specific genes was developed for the identification of those serogroups. by testing against 186 e. coli and shigella o-serogroup reference strains, 36 e. coli clinical isolates, and 9 representative strains ...201019932572
antimicrobial lipids from the hemolymph of brachyuran crabs.the potential of marine crabs as a source of biologically active products is largely unexplored. in the present study, antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph (plasma) and hemocytes (plasma cells) of six brachyuran crabs was investigated against 16 pathogenic strains. among the 16 strains tested maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in the hemolymph of hyas araneus against shigella flexineri. interestingly staphylococcus aureus and salmonella typhi were susceptible to all the hemolymph and hem ...201019937399
inactivation of escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on spinach leaves by x-ray.several recent foodborne disease outbreaks associated with leafy green vegetables, including spinach, have been reported. x-ray is a non-thermal technology that has shown promise for reducing pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on spinach leaves. inactivation of inoculated escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on spinach leaves using x-ray at different doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kgy) was studied. the effect of x-ray on col ...201019913687
effects of x-ray radiation on escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce.the main goal of this investigation was to study the efficacy of x-ray doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kgy) on inoculated escherichia coli o157: h7, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica and shigella flexneri on shredded iceberg lettuce. the second goal was to study the effect of x-ray on the inherent microflora counts and visual color of shredded iceberg lettuce during storage at 4 degrees c for 30 days. treatment with 1.0 kgy x-ray significantly reduced the population o ...201019913700
yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture.tonsil samples from 139 slaughter pigs were examined for the presence of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica by enrichment procedures based on the standard method iso 10273:2003. in addition, samples were tested by direct plating method to evaluate its efficiency compared to the enrichment culture methods and to quantify the level of contamination in porcine tonsils. in total, 52 samples (37.4%) were positive for pathogenic y. enterocolitica, all belonging to bioserotype 4/o:3. fifty out of the 5 ...201019913707
adaptive immune responses during shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection: an in vitro stimulation with 57 kda major antigenic omp in the presence of anti-cd3 antibody.an effort was made to understand the role of the 57 kda major antigenic fraction of shigella outer membrane protein (omp) in the presence of t-cell antigen receptor in activation of adaptive immune responses of the cell mediated immune (cmi) restored patients. the expression of hla-dr/cd4 out of cd3(+) t-cells was significantly dominant over the hla-dr/cd8 and comparable to unstimulated cells of infected or healthy controls. cd4(+) t-cell activation together with hla-dr is associated with the ex ...201019915959
differentiation and identification of shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli in environmental waters by a molecular method and biochemical test.both shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) are important human pathogens that are responsible for the majority of cases of endemic bacillary dysentery. however, they are difficult to identify and differentiate by biochemical tests or molecular methods alone. in this study, we developed a procedure to detect shigella spp. and eiec from environmental water samples using membrane filtration followed by nutrient broth enrichment, isolation using selective culture plates, and ident ...201019917511
the australian bush fly (musca vetustissima) as a potential vector in the transmission of foodborne pathogens at outdoor eateries.abstract australian outdoor activities are often accompanied by a barbeque (bbq) with family, friends, and guests, which are often interrupted by uninvited guests in the form of the australian bush fly, musca vetustissima. we investigated the bacterial loading associated with the australian bush in three different environments: on a cattle farm, in a typical urban area (shopping center car park), and at a bbq. the highest bacterial populations per fly were found to occur in a farm environment ( ...201019895260
caspase-8-mediated cleavage of bid and protein phosphatase 2a-mediated activation of bax are necessary for verotoxin-1-induced apoptosis in burkitt's lymphoma cells.verotoxin (vt-1) is a cytotoxin, produced by shigella dysenteriae type 1 or by shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, which binds specifically to globotriaosylceramide (gb3). this glycosphingolipid is a b cell differentiation antigen (gb3/cd77) strongly expressed on burkitt's lymphoma cells. we have previously shown that, in these cells, vt-1 induces apoptosis via a caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathway. in this report, we provide new insights into this signal transduction pathway. first, ...201019895884
requirement for formin-induced actin polymerization during spread of shigella flexneri.actin polymerization in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane is locally regulated by actin nucleators. several microbial pathogens exploit cellular actin polymerization to spread through tissue. the movement of the enteric pathogen shigella flexneri, both within the cell body and from cell to cell, depends on actin polymerization. during intercellular spread, actin polymerization at the bacterial surface generates protrusions of the plasma membrane, which are engulfed by adjacent cells. in the ...201019841078
genetic diversity of o157:h7 and non-o157 verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli from argentina inferred from multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (mlva).although serotype o157:h7 has been implicated in most cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (hus), there is growing concern about non-o157 serotypes of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec). multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (mlva) has been focused on the specific typing of o157:h7 isolates, but recently, a generic mlva assay for e. coli and shigella has been developed. we performed a study of the polymorphism in 7 generic vntr loci both in vtec o157:h7 and non-o157 isolat ...201019850517
pretreatment of epithelial cells with rifaximin alters bacterial attachment and internalization profiles.rifaximin is a poorly absorbed semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifampin licensed for use in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. rifaximin reduces the symptoms of enteric infection, often without pathogen eradication and with limited effects on intestinal flora. epithelial cells (hep-2 [laryngeal], hct-8 [ileocecal], a549 [lung], and hela [cervical]) were pretreated with rifaximin (or control antibiotics) prior to the addition of enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec). eaec adherence ...201019858255
evaluation of new chromogenic substrates for the detection of coliforms.to evaluate a new range of chromogenic substrates for the detection of beta-galactosidase activity in coliforms and to compare their performance in agar media and broths.201019878523
virulence, inflammatory potential, and adaptive immunity induced by shigella flexneri msbb mutants.the ability of genetically detoxified lipopolysaccharide (lps) to stimulate adaptive immune responses is an ongoing area of investigation with significant consequences for the development of safe and effective bacterial vaccines and adjuvants. one approach to genetic detoxification is the deletion of genes whose products modify lps. the msbb1 and msbb2 genes, which encode late acyltransferases, were deleted in the shigella flexneri 2a human challenge strain 2457t to evaluate the virulence, infla ...201019884336
immunomodulation using genetically engineered bacteria for type iii-mediated delivery of heterologous antigens and cytokines: potential application in vaccine and therapeutical developments.the rational design of new approaches aiming to improve antigen or drug delivery remains a major challenge in numerous vaccine and therapeutical strategies. studies on genetically engineered bacteria have led to significant progress in the delivery of heterologous proteins. yet, the efficiency of such recombinant bacteria relies particularly on their ability to deliver sufficient amount of the drug to intended cell tissues. gram-negative bacteria like salmonella, shigella, yersinia and pseudomon ...201019778176
the escherichia coli o149 rfb gene cluster and its use for the detection of porcine e. coli o149 by real-time pcr.pcr or hybridization assays are widely used for the identification and detection of various escherichia coli serogroups and serotypes. this study explored this approach for the detection of e. coli o149 in pigs, a dominant serogroup among those associated with porcine post-weaning diarrhea (pwd) worldwide. for this purpose, we sequenced the o antigen (rfb) gene cluster of a representative enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) o149:h10 strain and identified a 2kbp region specific for the o149 rfb gene c ...201019733452
evaluation of isolation methods for pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content.the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of four isolation methods for the detection of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica from pig intestinal content.201019735331
structure of the heme/hemoglobin outer membrane receptor shua from shigella dysenteriae: heme binding by an induced fit mechanism.shigella dysentriae and other gram-negative human pathogens are able to use iron from heme bound to hemoglobin for growing. we solved at 2.6 a resolution the 3d structure of the tonb-dependent heme/hemoglobin outer membrane receptor shua from s. dysenteriae. shua binds to hemoglobin and transports heme across the outer membrane. the structure consists of a c-terminal domain that folds into a 22-stranded transmembrane beta-barrel, which is filled by the n-terminal plug domain. one distal histidin ...201019731368
automated use of whonet and satscan to detect outbreaks of shigella spp. using antimicrobial resistance phenotypes.antimicrobial resistance is a priority emerging public health threat, and the ability to detect promptly outbreaks caused by resistant pathogens is critical for resistance containment and disease control efforts. we describe and evaluate the use of an electronic laboratory data system (whonet) and a space-time permutation scan statistic for semi-automated disease outbreak detection. in collaboration with whonet-argentina, the national network for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, we appl ...201019796449
sensitization of microcin j25-resistant strains by a membrane-permeabilizing peptide.microcin j25 (mccj25) is a plasmid-encoded, 21-amino-acid, antibacterial peptide produced by escherichia coli. mccj25 inhibits rna polymerase and the membrane respiratory chain. mccj25 uptake into e. coli-sensitive strains is mediated by the outer membrane receptor fhua and the inner membrane proteins tonb, exbb, exbd, and sbma. this peptide is active on some e. coli, salmonella, and shigella species strains, while other gram-negative bacteria, such as clinical isolates of enterobacter cloacae, ...201020802073
an outbreak of shigellosis due to shigella flexneri serotype 3a in a prison in iran.on june 16 and 17, 2007, the medical clinic of a prison in isfahan, iran received multiple reports of gastrointestinal illness among prisoners. a cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to determine the extent, causative agent and possible source of the outbreak.201020804308
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