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a food-borne outbreak of shigella sonnei gastroenteritis, austria, 2008.we report on the first foodborne outbreak of shigella sonnei described in austria. on july 14 2008, ages was informed of a cluster of 22 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with s. sonnei restricted to public health district x in the province of salzburg. all cases had attended a youth-group trip to a small village in the province of tyrol from july 7 to july 9. an outbreak case among the trip participants was a person who (1) attended the trip and (2) fell ill with diarrhea in the period be ...200919280143
synthesis, characterization, and immunogenicity in mice of shigella sonnei o-specific oligosaccharide-core-protein conjugates.shigellosis, an enteric disease, is on the world health organization's priority prevention list. in one study, the shigella sonnei o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp)-protein conjugate showed 72% protection against disease in israeli army recruits exposed to high rates (8-14%) of infection. the protection was related to vaccine-induced igg anti-o-sp levels. synthetic oligosaccharides of shigella dysenteriae type 1, bound by their reducing ends to a carrier protein ("sun"-type configuration), induce ...200919346477
altered expression of inflammatory cytokine receptors in response to lps challenge through interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and lymphocytes of peyer's patch.the intense innate immunological activities occurring at the enteric mucosal surface involve interactions between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. our previous studies have indicated that peyer's patch lymphocytes may modulate intestinal epithelial barrier and ion transport function in homeostasis and host defense via cell-cell contact as well as cytokine signaling. the present study was undertaken using the established co-culture system of caco-2 epithelial cells with lymphocytes o ...200919385035
molecular characterisation of the reca locus in clinical isolates of verocytotoxigenic e. coli o157:h7.molecular epidemiology of verocytoxigenic escherichia coli o157:h7 is important to help elucidate reservoirs and modes of transmission, particularly between animals and humans. as the reca gene locus is now beginning to gain application in bacterial genotyping schemes, and as it has not been examined previously in e. coli o157 isolates, this study aims to examine potential polymorphic variation as a possible epidemiological marker for the subspecies characterisation of clinically significant ver ...200919348125
the pic protease of enteroaggregative escherichia coli promotes intestinal colonization and growth in the presence of mucin.enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec) is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrheal disease in diverse populations. no small animal model is currently available to study this pathogen. we report here that conventional mice orally inoculated with prototype eaec strain 042 generally became colonized, though the abundance of organisms cultured from their stool varied substantially among individual animals. in contrast, mice whose water contained 5 g/liter streptomycin consistently be ...200919349428
enteric bacterial pathogens in hiv-infected children with acute diarrhea in mulago referral and teaching hospital, kampala, uganda.hiv-infected children develop severe bacterial infections. we set out to determine the enteric bacterial pathogens in hiv-infected children and hiv-negative controls with acute diarrhea and their antimicrobial sensitivities.200919357426
acute non-outbreak shigellosis: ten years experience in southern taiwan.we conducted a retrospective study of both the clinical and laboratory characteristics of shigellosis in southern taiwan.200919292940
the changing panorama of bacterial enteric infections.we studied the age-specific population-based incidence of bacterial enteric infections caused by shigella, salmonella and campylobacter, in jerusalem. during 1990-2008, 32,408 cases were reported (incidence rate 232.1/100,000 per annum). the patterns of shigella (47.4% of cases), salmonella (34.4%) and campylobacter (18.2%) infections evolved noticeably. campylobacter rates increased from 15.0 to 110.8/100,000 per annum. salmonella rates increased from 74.2 to 199.6/100,000 in 1995 then decrease ...200919296872
preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--10 states, 2008.foodborne diseases remain an important public health problem in the united states. the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) of cdc's emerging infections program collects data from 10 u.s. states on diseases caused by enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. foodnet is an active, population-based surveillance system for these laboratory-confirmed infections. this report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2008 and trends since 1996. in 2008, the estimated i ...200919357633
the rho gtpase inactivation domain in vibrio cholerae martx toxin has a circularly permuted papain-like thiol protease fold.a rho gtpase inactivation domain (rid) has been discovered in the multifunctional, autoprocessing rtx toxin rtxa from vibrio cholerae. the rid domain causes actin depolymerization and rounding of host cells through inactivation of the small rho gtpases rho, rac, and cdc42. with only a few toxin proteins containing rid domains in the current sequence database, the structure and molecular mechanisms of this domain are unknown. using comparative sequence and structural analyses, we report homology ...200919434753
virb alleviates h-ns repression of the icsp promoter in shigella flexneri from sites more than one kilobase upstream of the transcription start site.the icsp promoter of shigella spp. is repressed by h-ns and derepressed by virb. here, we show that an inverted repeat located between positions -1144 and -1130 relative to the icsp transcription start site is necessary for virb-dependent derepression. the atypical location of this cis-acting site is discussed.200919363111
a similarity in the o-acetylation pattern of the o-antigens of shigellaflexneri types 1a, 1b, and 2a.shigella flexneri type 2a is the first, and type 1b is the second, most prevalent isolates from patients with shigellosis in russia. the o-specific polysaccharides (opss, o-antigens) of s. flexneri types 1-5 possess a common -->2)-alpha-l-rhapiii-(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhapii-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhapi-(1-->3)-beta-d-glcpnac-(1--> backbone and differ from each other in its glucosylation or/and o-acetylation at various positions, the modifications being responsible for various o-factors. it was suggested tha ...200919246033
the mere protein encoded by transposon tn21 is a broad mercury transporter in escherichia coli.in order to clarify the physiological role of the mere gene of transposon tn21, a pe4 plasmid that contained the merr gene of plasmid pmr26 from pseudomonas strain k-62, and the mere gene of tn21 from the shigella flexneri plasmid nr1 (r100) was constructed. bacteria with plasmid pe4 (merr-o/p-mere) were more hypersensitive to ch(3)hg(i) and hg(ii), and took up significantly more ch(3)hg(i) and hg(ii), than the isogenic strain. the mere protein encoded by pe4 was localized in the membrane cell f ...200919265693
high-let ion radiolysis of water: oxygen production in tracks.it is known that molecular oxygen is a product of the radiolysis of water with high-linear energy transfer (let) radiation, a result that is of particular significance in radiobiology and of practical relevance in radiotherapy. in fact, it has been suggested that the radiolytic formation of an oxygenated microenvironment around the tracks of high-let heavy ions is an important factor in their enhanced biological efficiency in the sense that this may be due to an "oxygen effect" by o(2) produced ...200919267566
efficient synthesis of six tri- to hexasaccharide fragments of shigella flexneri serotypes 3a and/or x o-antigen, including a study on acceptors containing n-trichloroacetylglucosamine versus n-acetylglucosamine.six tri- to hexasaccharide fragments of the {2)-[alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)]-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-[ac-->2]-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-beta-d-glcpnac-(1-->}(n) polymer ([(e)ab(ac)cd](n)) were synthesized as their propyl glycosides. all targets share the (e)ab sequence. following a thorough investigation on the use of n-trichloroacetylglucosamine- versus n-acetylglucosamine-containing tri- and tetrasaccharide acceptors, the successful strategy was based on an efficient combination of the ...200919278208
mucosal adjuvanticity of a shigella invasin complex with dna-based vaccines.protection against many infectious diseases may require the induction of cell-mediated and mucosal immunity. immunization with plasmid dna-based vaccines has successfully induced cell-mediated immune responses in small animals but is less potent in humans. therefore, several methods are under investigation to augment dna vaccine immunogenicity. in the current study, a mucosal adjuvant consisting of an invasin protein-lipopolysaccharide complex (invaplex) isolated from shigella spp. was evaluated ...200919225079
tri-county comprehensive assessment of risk factors for sporadic reportable bacterial enteric infection in children.the aim of this study was to determine risk factors for childhood sporadic reportable enteric infection (rei) caused by bacteria, specifically campylobacter, salmonella, escherichia coli o157, or shigella (rei-b).200919281302
utility of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis as a molecular tool for phylogenetic analysis of shigella sonnei.a panel of 916 isolates, including 703 closely related ist1 isolates, were characterized by inter-is1 spacer typing (ist), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (vntr) analysis (mlva) to evaluate the utility of mlva as a molecular tool for the phylogenetic analysis of shigella sonnei. the global phylogenetic patterns determined by ist, pfge, and mlva were concordant. mlva was carried out using 26 vntr loci with a range of degrees of variability. ml ...200919225095
piscidin 4, a novel member of the piscidin family of antimicrobial peptides.piscidins are linear, amphipathic, antimicrobial peptides (amps) with broad, potent, activity spectrum. piscidins and other members of the piscidin family appear to comprise the most common group of amps in teleost fish. all piscidins and related members of the piscidin family described to date are 18-26 amino acids long.we report here the isolation of a novel 5329.25 da, 44-residue (ffrhlfrgakaifrgarqgxrahkvvsryrnrdvpetdnnqeep) antimicrobial peptide from hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops fem ...200919266617
the effects of the bacterial interaction with visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst on the bactericidal performance.bactericidal activity of traditional titanium dioxide (tio2) photocatalyst is effective only upon irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the potential applications of tio2 for use in our living environments. recently carbon-containing tio2 was found to be photoactive at visible-light illumination that affords the potential to overcome this problem; although, the bactericidal activity of these photocatalysts is relatively lower than conventional disinfectants. evidenced from scanning e ...200919272171
characterisation of early mucosal and neuronal lesions following shigella flexneri infection in human colon.shigella, an enteroinvasive bacteria induces a major inflammatory response responsible for acute rectocolitis in humans. however, early effect of shigella flexneri (s. flexneri) infection upon the human mucosa and its microenvironement, in particular the enteric nervous system, remains currently unknown. therefore, in this study, we sought to characterize ex vivo the early events of shigellosis in a model of human colonic explants. in particular, we aimed at identifying factors produced by s. fl ...200919274103
foodborne outbreaks, austria 2007.in 2007 austria reported a total of 438 foodborne outbreaks affecting 1715 people, including 286 hospitalized patients and one death. salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp. accounted for 95% of all reported outbreaks. forty-eight (11%) of the 438 austrian outbreaks were acquired abroad. of the 390 domestically acquired foodborne outbreaks, bacterial infection caused 376, viruses (norovirus and 1-time hepatitis a virus) caused 11, and intoxications (staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, alkaloid to ...200919280130
antimicrobial pentacyclic triterpenoids from terminalia superba.antibacterial bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the stem bark of terminalia superba led to the isolation of four new triterpene glucosides (1-4) which were characterized as 2 alpha,3 beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 2 alpha,3 beta, 21 beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2 alpha,3 beta, 29-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3) and 2 alpha,3 beta,23,27-tetrahydroxyolean-12-e ...200919214947
streptococcus-, shigella-, and listeria-induced autophagy.autophagy has recently been described as an intrinsic host defense system for recognizing and eliminating intracellular-invading bacterial pathogens. some cytoplasmic-invading bacteria are trapped through the process of autophagy and are ultimately degraded within autolysosomal compartments. however, others exhibit highly evolved maneuvers for circumventing autophagic recognition and are capable of surviving and replicating within the cytoplasm. in this chapter, we describe bacterial infectious ...200919200893
application of a multiplex pcr assay for the detection of shigella, escherichia coli and shiga toxin-producing esch. coli in milk.a multiplex pcr (mpcr) assay using previously known genetic markers of shigella, escherichia coli and shiga-toxic esch. coli was standardized. uida gene was targeted for the common detection of esch. coli and shigella, whereas ipah and stx1 genes were used as markers for the detection of shigella and shiga-toxin producing strains, respectively. the standardized assays detected the target organism specifically and selectively. the mpcr developed by combining all the three reactions generated spec ...200919281632
septins regulate bacterial entry into host cells.septins are conserved gtpases that form filaments and are required in many organisms for several processes including cytokinesis. we previously identified sept9 associated with phagosomes containing latex beads coated with the listeria surface protein inlb.200919145258
pathogen trafficking pathways and host phosphoinositide metabolism.phosphoinositide (pi) glycerolipids are key regulators of eukaryotic signal transduction, cytoskeleton architecture and membrane dynamics. the host cell pi metabolism is targeted by intracellular bacterial pathogens, which evolved intricate strategies to modulate uptake processes and vesicle trafficking pathways. upon entering eukaryotic host cells, pathogenic bacteria replicate in distinct vacuoles or in the host cytoplasm. vacuolar pathogens manipulate pi levels to mimic or modify membranes of ...200919208094
a look back at an ongoing problem: shigella dysenteriae type 1 epidemics in refugee settings in central africa (1993-1995).shigella dysenteriae type 1 (sd1) is a cause of major dysentery outbreaks, particularly among children and displaced populations in tropical countries. although outbreaks continue, the characteristics of such outbreaks have rarely been documented. here, we describe the sd1 outbreaks occurring between 1993 and 1995 in 11 refugee settlements in rwanda, tanzania and democratic republic of the congo (drc). we also explored the links between the different types of the camps and the magnitude of the o ...200919214226
apyrase-based colorimetric test for detection of shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli in stool.for lack of simple inexpensive early detection methods for shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec), bacillary dysentery remains a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity in india and other developing countries. rapid stool testing for apyrase, a specific periplasmic enzyme essential for the pathogen's intracellular spread, may provide a solution. we have developed a whole-cell colorimetric pyrophosphate hydrolysis assay based on cheap, stable, and locally available reag ...200919216937
diagnosis and prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in tehran children's hospitals.acute diarrhea disease is the second cause of death among all infectious diseases in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. the aim of this study was to employ a combination of biochemical, microbiological and molecular diagnostic techniques to investigate the stools of iranian children with acute diarrhea for bacterial enteropathogens.200919117609
shigella targets the mitochondrial checkpoint of programmed necrosis.in nonmyeloid cells, shigella hijacks the mitochondrial checkpoint of cell death, thereby inducing a regulated form of necrosis depending on bnip3 and cyclophilin d. carneiro et al. (2009) describe the interplay between this program and a prosurvival response transmitted via the nod1/rip2/nf-kappab/bcl-2 axis, which determines the fate of infected cells.200919218080
shigella induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in nonmyleoid cells.shigella rapidly kills myeloid cells via a caspase-1 inflammasome-dependent cell death mechanism. however, despite a critical role for nonmyeloid cells in the physiopathology of shigella infection, the mechanism by which shigella kills nonmyeloid cells remains uncharacterized. here we demonstrate that, in nonmyeloid cells, shigella infection induces loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, mitochondrial damage, and necrotic cell death through a pathway dependent on bnip3 and cyclophilin d ...200919218084
genetics and virulence association of the shigella flexneri sit iron transport system.the sit-encoded iron transport system is present within pathogenicity islands in all shigella spp. and some pathogenic escherichia coli strains. the islands contain numerous insertion elements and sequences with homology to bacteriophage genes. the shigella flexneri sit genes can be lost as a result of deletion within the island. the formation of deletions was dependent upon reca and occurred at relatively high frequency. this suggests that the sit region is inherently unstable, yet sit genes ar ...200919289511
the 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease (encoded by hp1248) of helicobacter pylori regulates motility and apoptosis-inducing genes.the human gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori has many virulence factors involved in pathogenesis, but the mechanisms regulating these virulence factors are not yet fully understood. in this study, we cloned hp1248, which is similar in sequence to escherichia coli vacb, which was previously shown to be associated with the expression of virulence in shigella and enteroinvasive e. coli. e. coli vacb encodes rnase r. rnase r is involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of mrna stability. by g ...200919218383
etiology of acute gastroenteritis in three sentinel general practices, austria 2007.we studied the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in a village with a total population of approximately 6,000. this is the first study in austria that has investigated a broad range of pathogens recovered from an unselected population of patients who had consulted general practitioners because of gastroenteritis.200919148576
extensive antibody cross-reactivity among infectious gram-negative bacteria revealed by proteome microarray analysis.antibodies provide a sensitive indicator of proteins displayed by bacteria during sepsis. because signals produced by infection are naturally amplified during the antibody response, host immunity can be used to identify biomarkers for proteins that are present at levels currently below detectable limits. we developed a microarray comprising approximately 70% of the 4066 proteins contained within the yersinia pestis proteome to identify antibody biomarkers distinguishing plague from infections ca ...200919112181
bacterial particle endocytosis by epithelial cells is selective and enhanced by tumor necrosis factor receptor ligands.bacterial pathogens use virulence strategies to invade epithelial barriers, but active processes of epithelial cells may also contribute to the endocytosis of microbial particles. to focus on the latter, we studied the uptake of fixed and fluorescently labeled bacterial particles in intestinal and bronchoepithelial cell cultures and found it to be enhanced in caco-2bbe and nci-h292 cells after treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha and an agonist antibody against the lymphotoxin beta recepto ...200919129472
genetics and environmental regulation of shigella iron transport systems.shigella spp. have transport systems for both ferric and ferrous iron. the iron can be taken up as free iron or complexed to a variety of carriers. all shigella species have both the feo and sit systems for acquisition of ferrous iron, and all have at least one siderophore-mediated system for transport of ferric iron. several of the transport systems, including sit, iuc/iuta (aerobactin synthesis and transport), fec (ferric di-citrate uptake), and shu (heme transport) are encoded within pathogen ...200919130265
seasonal stability of cladophora-associated salmonella in lake michigan watersheds.the bacterial pathogens shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, and shiga toxin-producing e. coli (stec) were recently found to be associated with cladophora growing in southern lake michigan. preliminary results indicated that the salmonella strains associated with cladophora were genetically identical to each other. however, because of the small sample size (n=37 isolates) and a lack of information on spatial-temporal relationships, the nature of the association between cladophora and salmonella ...200919059626
prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the united kingdom.the prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (scp) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the united kingdom over a 2-year period. slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with scp and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. phenotypic resistance to scp was significantly higher in ...200919064898
trends in antimicrobial resistance of fecal shigella and salmonella isolates in tehran, iran.the resistance of bacteria to commonly prescribed antibiotics is increasing both in developing as well as developed countries. resistance has emerged even to newer, more potent antimicrobial agents. the present study was therefore undertaken to report resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in 2487 stool culture isolates in a tertiary care hospital between 1996 and 2000 and 2001 and 2005.200919136781
inferring genomic flux in bacteria.acquisition and loss of genetic material are essential forces in bacterial microevolution. they have been repeatedly linked with adaptation of lineages to new lifestyles, and in particular, pathogenicity. comparative genomics has the potential to elucidate this genetic flux, but there are many methodological challenges involved in inferring evolutionary events from collections of genome sequences. here we describe a model-based method for using whole-genome sequences to infer the patterns of gen ...200919015321
rapid emergence of third generation cephalosporin resistant shigella spp. in southern vietnam. 200919141753
giardia duodenalis assemblages associated with diarrhea in children in south india identified by pcr-rflp.giardial diarrhea in a birth cohort of 452 children in an urban slum in south india was characterized. of the 155 episodes that occurred in 99 children, 73% were acute diarrhea. children with better educated mothers and a toilet at home had lower odds of acquiring giardial diarrhea, whereas low socioeconomic status and drinking municipal water were associated with greater risk. children with co-infections tended to have a slightly longer duration of diarrhea (p = 0.061) and showed significantly ...200919141832
fungal and bacterial killing by neutrophils.neutrophils are professional phagocytes of the innate immune system that are essential to control bacterial and fungal infections. these cells engulf and kill invading microbes. additionally, activated neutrophils are able to release neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). these fibers consist of chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins to trap and kill microbes. appropriate quantitative methods are required to understand the nature of interactions of neutrophils with pathogens. here we pr ...200919089391
contribution of the periplasmic chaperone skp to efficient presentation of the autotransporter icsa on the surface of shigella flexneri.icsa is an outer membrane protein in the autotransporter family that is required for shigella flexneri pathogenesis. following its secretion through the sec translocon, icsa is incorporated into the outer membrane in a process that depends on yaet, a component of an outer membrane beta-barrel insertion machinery. we investigated the role of the periplasmic chaperone skp in icsa maturation. skp is required for the presentation of the mature amino terminus (alpha-domain) of icsa on the bacterial s ...200919047350
repression of galp, the galactose transporter in escherichia coli, requires the specific regulator of n-acetylglucosamine metabolism.soupene et al. [j. bacteriol. (2003) 185 5611-5626] made the unexpected observation that the presence of a mutation, in the gene for the n-acetylglucosamine repressor, nagc, increased the growth rate of escherichia coli mg1655 on galactose, an unrelated sugar. we have found that nagc, binds to a single, high-affinity site overlapping the promoter of galp (galactose permease) gene and that expression of galp is repressed by a combination of nagc, galr and gals. in addition to the previously ident ...200919007420
tlr4 and myd88 control protection and pulmonary granulocytic recruitment in a murine intranasal rsv immunization and challenge model.an intranasal vaccine composed of toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) ligand neisseria meningitidis outer membrane proteins and toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) ligand shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide (lps) (protollin) and enriched respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) proteins (ersv) has been demonstrated to promote balanced th1/th2 responses without eosinophil recruitment and to protect against challenge in mouse models. we used tlr2, tlr4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) knock-out (-/-) mice ...200919013492
tight junctions as targets of infectious agents.the epithelial barrier is a critical border that segregates luminal material from entering tissues. essential components of this epithelial fence are physical intercellular structures termed tight junctions. these junctions use a variety of transmembrane proteins coupled with cytoplasmic adaptors, and the actin cytoskeleton, to attach adjacent cells together thereby forming intercellular seals. breaching of this barrier has profound effects on human health and disease, as barrier deficiencies ha ...200919059200
molecular detection of all 34 distinct o-antigen forms of shigella.shigella is the cause of shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, the occurrence of which is estimated to be 165 million cases per year worldwide, resulting in 1.1 million deaths. rapid and reliable assays for detecting and identifying shigella in food, environmental and clinical samples are therefore necessary. shigella species are traditionally identified by their o antigens. this study developed a dna microarray targeting o-serotype-specific genes to detect all 34 distinct o-antigen forms of shige ...200919074655
functions and pathologies of bip and its interaction partners.the endoplasmic reticulum (er) is involved in a variety of essential and interconnected processes in human cells, including protein biogenesis, signal transduction, and calcium homeostasis. the central player in all these processes is the er-lumenal polypeptide chain binding protein bip that acts as a molecular chaperone. bip belongs to the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) family and crucially depends on a number of interaction partners, including co-chaperones, nucleotide exchange factors, and sig ...200919151922
a synthetic carbohydrate-protein conjugate vaccine candidate against shigella flexneri 2a infection.the protective ag of shigella, the gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium causing bacillary dysentery, or shigellosis, is its o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) domain of the lps, the major bacterial surface component. as an alternative to the development of detoxified lps-based conjugate vaccines, recent effort was put into the investigation of neoglycoproteins encompassing synthetic oligosaccharides mimicking the protective ags of the o-sp. we previously reported that when coupled to tetanus tox ...200919201878
overexpression, purification, characterization and preliminary crystallographic study of phosphoglycolate phosphatase from shigella flexneri 2a strain 301.phosphoglycolate phosphatase has a salvage function in the metabolism of the 2-phosphoglycolate formed during bacterial dna repair. in order to better understand its dimerization behaviour, the influence of metal ions on its activity and its catalytic mechanism at the molecular level, recombinant phosphoglycolate phosphatase from shigella flexneri was overexpressed, purified, characterized and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 k using polyethylene glycol 3500 as a p ...200919153451
simultaneous detection of multifood-borne pathogenic bacteria based on functionalized quantum dots coupled with immunomagnetic separation in food samples.this paper reports a method that simultaneously detects three food-borne pathogenic bacteria, salmonella typhimurium, shigella flexneri, and escherichia coli o157:h7, via an approach that combines magnetic microparticles for the enrichment and antibody-conjugated semiconductor quantum dots (qds) as fluorescence markers. using the water-in-oil reverse microemulsions method, the gamma-fe(2)o(3) magnetic nanoparticles were coated with silica to empower the particles with high dispersibility and bro ...200919154162
shigella type iii secretion effectors: how, where, when, for what purposes?bacteria of shigella spp., the causative agents of shigellosis in humans, possess a repertoire of approximately 25-30 effectors injected into host cells by a type iii secretion apparatus (t3sa). the t3sa activity is activated upon contact of bacteria with cells and controls expression of some effectors. recent structural and functional studies suggest that two different sets of effectors are involved in inducing actin cytoskeleton reorganization to promote entry of bacteria into epithelial cells ...200919157960
rapid dna amplification using a battery-powered thin-film resistive thermocycler.a prototype handheld, compact, rapid thermocycler was developed for multiplex analysis of nucleic acids in an inexpensive, portable configuration. instead of the commonly used peltier heating/cooling element, electric thin-film resistive heater and a miniature fan enable rapid heating and cooling of glass capillaries leading to a simple, low-cost thin-film resistive thermocycler (tfrt). computer-based pulse width modulation control yields heating rates of 6-7 k/s and cooling rates of 5 k/s. the ...200919159110
organised genome dynamics in the escherichia coli species results in highly diverse adaptive paths.the escherichia coli species represents one of the best-studied model organisms, but also encompasses a variety of commensal and pathogenic strains that diversify by high rates of genetic change. we uniformly (re-) annotated the genomes of 20 commensal and pathogenic e. coli strains and one strain of e. fergusonii (the closest e. coli related species), including seven that we sequenced to completion. within the approximately 18,000 families of orthologous genes, we found approximately 2,000 comm ...200919165319
the ipac carboxyterminal effector domain mediates src-dependent actin polymerization during shigella invasion of epithelial cells.shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades epithelial cells by locally reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton. shigella invasion requires actin polymerization dependent on the src tyrosine kinase and a functional bacterial type iii secretion (t3s) apparatus. using dynamic as well as immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that the t3s translocon component ipac allows the recruitment of the src kinase required for actin polymerization at bacterial entry sites during the initial sta ...200919165331
phage-mediated shiga toxin 2 gene transfer in food and water.shiga toxin (stx) transduction in various food matrices has been evaluated with lysogens of stx phages. stx transduction events were observed for many phages under appropriate conditions. transduction did not occur at low ph and low temperatures. a total of 10(3) to 10(4) cfu ml(-1) was the minimal amount of donor and recipient strains necessary to generate transductants.200919168651
development of prophylactic recombinant hpv58-attenuated shigella live vector vaccine and evaluation of its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model.to develop a prophylactic recombinant hpv58l1-attenuated shigella live vector vaccine and evaluate its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model, the hpv58l1 gene was cloned into vector pucmt, and then subcloned into the suicide vector pcvd442. the recombinant plasmid pcvd442-hpv58l1 was introduced into attenuated shigella (sf301:deltavirg) with the helper plasmid prk2013 by filter mating. the positive colonies were harvested and confirmed by polymerase ...200919204831
genotypic and phenotypic diversity among induced, stx2-carrying bacteriophages from environmental escherichia coli strains.shiga toxin 2 (stx(2)) gene-carrying bacteriophages have been shown to convert escherichia coli strains to shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec). in this study, 79 e. coli strains belonging to 35 serotypes isolated from wastewaters of both human and animal origin were examined for the presence of stx(2)-carrying bacteriophages in their genomes. the lytic cycle of the bacteriophages was induced by mitomycin, and the bacteriophage fraction was isolated and used for morphological and geneti ...200919011056
outbreaks of shigella sonnei infections in denmark and australia linked to consumption of imported raw baby corn.we investigated an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections in denmark and australia associated with imported baby corn from one packing shed in thailand. we reviewed nationwide surveillance and undertook case finding, food trace-back and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. a recall of baby corn and sugar snaps was based on descriptive epidemiological evidence. in denmark, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in one workplace. in total, 215 cases were labor ...200919134229
improvement in detection of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in patients with travelers' diarrhea by increasing the number of e. coli colonies tested.no cause of one-third of travelers' diarrhea (td) cases can be detected despite microbiologic assessment. we propose that these pathogen-negative td cases include undetected enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec). as a standard in diagnostic microbiology, samples of five e. coli colonies were tested to detect etec from stool cultures. we compared the sensitivities and the number of etec detected by 20 colonies with those of 5, 10, and 15 colonies. the percent detection of etec with five e. coli ...200919141833
crystal structure analysis and in silico pka calculations suggest strong pka shifts of ligands as driving force for high-affinity binding to tgt.a novel ligand series is presented to inhibit trna-guanine transglycosylase (tgt), a protein with a significant role in the pathogenicity mechanism of shigella flexneri, the causative agent of shigellosis. the enzyme exchanges guanine in the wobble position of trna(asn,asp,his,tyr) against a modified base. to prevent the base-exchange reaction, several series of inhibitors have already been designed, synthesized, and tested. one aim of previous studies was to address a hydrophobic pocket with di ...200919199329
lactobacilli facilitate maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity during shigella dysenteriae 1 infection in rats.lactobacilli are used in various dairy products and fermented foods for their potential health beneficial effects. recently we reported the protective role of lactobacillus rhamnosus and lactobacillus acidophilus during shigella dysenteriae 1 infection. nevertheless, investigations on the membrane-stabilizing effect of l. rhamnosus and l. acidophilus have not been done. hence, the present study evaluated the effect of l. rhamnosus and l. acidophilus on the maintenance of intestinal membrane inte ...200919036564
selective ccr2-targeted macrophage depletion ameliorates experimental mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.the ccl2/ccr2 chemokine/receptor axis directs the chemotaxis of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and t cells and plays a pivotal role in tissue damage and fibrosis in kidney diseases. the eradication of the activated leucocytes should diminish the production of inflammatory mediators, limit tissue damage and ameliorate disease. a recombinant fusion protein (opl-ccl2-lpm) comprised of the human ccl2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) chemokine fused to a truncated form of the enzymatically ac ...200919040610
novel chimeric beta-lactamase ctx-m-64, a hybrid of ctx-m-15-like and ctx-m-14 beta-lactamases, found in a shigella sonnei strain resistant to various oxyimino-cephalosporins, including ceftazidime.the plasmid-mediated novel beta-lactamase ctx-m-64 was first identified in shigella sonnei strain uih-1, which exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (mic, 1,024 microg/ml) and ceftazidime (mic, 32 microg/ml). the amino acid sequence of ctx-m-64 showed a chimeric structure of a ctx-m-15-like beta-lactamase (n- and c-terminal moieties) and a ctx-m-14-like beta-lactamase (central portion, amino acids 63 to 226), suggesting that it originated by homologous recombination between the corresponding genes. ...200918955524
espt triggers formation of lamellipodia and membrane ruffles through activation of rac-1 and cdc42.subversion of the eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton is a virulence strategy employed by many bacterial pathogens. due to the pivotal role of rho gtpases in actin dynamics they are common targets of bacterial effector proteins and toxins. ipgb1, ipgb2 (shigella), sifa, sifb (salmonella) and map and espm (attaching and effacing pathogens) constitute a family of type iii secretion system effectors that subverts small gtpase signalling pathways. in this study we identified and characterized espt from cit ...200919016787
mxic is secreted by and controls the substrate specificity of the shigella flexneri type iii secretion apparatus.many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria use a type iii secretion (t3s) system to interact with cells of their hosts. mechanisms controlling the hierarchical addressing of needle subunits, translocators and effectors to the t3s apparatus (t3sa) are still poorly understood. we investigated the function of mxic, the member of the yopn/inve/sepl family in the shigella flexneri t3s system. inactivation of mxic led specifically to a deregulated secretion of effectors (including ipaa, ipgd, icsb, ipgb2, ...200919017268
antigen-specific b memory cell responses to lipopolysaccharide (lps) and invasion plasmid antigen (ipa) b elicited in volunteers vaccinated with live-attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidates.we evaluated b memory responses in healthy adult volunteers who received one oral dose of live-attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccine. lps-specific b(m) cells increased from a median of 0 at baseline to 20 spot forming cells (sfc)/10(6) expanded cells following vaccination (p=0.008). a strong correlation was found between post-vaccination anti-lps b(m) cell counts and peak serum anti-lps igg titers (rs=0.95, p=0.0003). increases in b(m) specific for ipab approaching significance were also obser ...200919022324
interaction of enteric bacterial pathogens with murine embryonic stem cells.embryonic stem (es) cells are susceptible to genetic manipulation and retain the potential to differentiate into diverse cell types, which are factors that make them potentially attractive cells for studying host-pathogen interactions. murine es cells were found to be susceptible to invasion by salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and shigella flexneri and to the formation of attaching and effacing lesions by enteropathogenic escherichia coli. s. enterica serovar typhimurium and s. flexneri c ...200919029302
ceramide and cerebrosides from the octocoral sarcophyton ehrenbergi.chemical investigation of the octocoral sarcophyton ehrenbergi, collected at the dongsha islands, taiwan, has led to the isolation of a known ceramide (1) and two new cerebrosides, sarcoehrenosides a (2) and b (4), along with three known cerebrosides (3, 5, and 6). the structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. sarcoehrenoside a (2) differs from previously known marine cerebrosides in that it possesses a rare alpha-glucose moiety. compounds 1-6 were e ...200919006372
diversity of tight junctions (tjs) between gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their function in maintaining the mucosal barrier.the gastrointestinal epithelium, which is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, including enterocytes, intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells, microfold cells, and dendritic cells, serves as a protective barrier separating luminal contents from the underlying tissue compartments. the epithelium plays an important role in the first line of host defense against a variety of pathogens, as well as maintaining the homeostasis in gastrointestinal tract. all these epithelial cells express j ...200918938254
a genomic distance based on mum indicates discontinuity between most bacterial species and genera.the fundamental unit of biological diversity is the species. however, a remarkable extent of intraspecies diversity in bacteria was discovered by genome sequencing, and it reveals the need to develop clear criteria to group strains within a species. two main types of analyses used to quantify intraspecies variation at the genome level are the average nucleotide identity (ani), which detects the dna conservation of the core genome, and the dna content, which calculates the proportion of dna share ...200918978054
the temporal dynamics of slightly deleterious mutations in escherichia coli and shigella spp.the shigella are recently emerged clones of escherichia coli, which have independently adopted an intracellular pathogenic lifestyle. we examined the molecular evolutionary consequences of this niche specialization by comparing the normalized, directional frequency profiles of unique polymorphisms within 2,098 orthologues representing the intersection of five e. coli and four shigella genomes. we note a surfeit of at-enriching changes (gc-->at), transversions, and nonsynonymous changes in the sh ...200918984902
small-molecule type iii secretion system inhibitors block assembly of the shigella type iii secreton.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are essential virulence devices for many gram-negative bacteria that are pathogenic for plants, animals, and humans. they serve to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic host cells. t3sss are composed of a large cytoplasmic bulb and a transmembrane region into which a needle is embedded, protruding above the bacterial surface. the emerging antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens urges the development of novel strategies to fight b ...200918996990
the molecular evolutionary history of shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli.shigellosis, which caused by shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec), was still a threat to public health. compelling evidence indicates that shigella species and eiec are derived from multiple origins of e. coli and form a single pathovar. eiec strains are regarded as precursors of 'full-blown'shigella evolved from e. coli. by gain and loss of functions, shigella and eiec became successful human pathogens through convergent evolution from diverse genomic backgrounds.200919000785
shigella flexneri type iii secretion system effectors ospb and ospf target the nucleus to downregulate the host inflammatory response via interactions with retinoblastoma protein.ospf, ospg and ipah(9.8) are type iii secretion system (t3ss) effectors of shigella flexneri that downregulate the host innate immune response. ospf modifies mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and polymorphonuclear leucocyte transepithelial migration associated with shigella invasion. ospf also localizes in the nucleus to mediate chromatin remodelling, resulting in reduced transcription of inflammatory cytokines. we now report that ospb can be added to the set of s. flexneri t3ss effector ...200919017275
role for the chlamydial type iii secretion apparatus in host cytokine expression.in many important human pathogens, such as shigella and salmonella spp., the bacterial type iii secretion (t3s) apparatus is required to initiate inflammation via activation of caspase-1- or nf-kappab-dependent genes. using an ex vivo infection model, the goal of the present study was to determine whether the chlamydial t3s apparatus also modulates the host inflammatory response. infections of mouse peritoneal macrophages were performed with chlamydia muridarum, and the expression of inflammator ...200918852236
simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria from surface waters by qpcr in comparison with conventional bacterial indicators.a rapid quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) method was developed for simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria from surface waters by utilizing a pair of universal primers which targeted four bacteria strains, namely shigella dysenteriae, vibrio cholerae, salmonella typhimurium, and escherichia coli. it was estimated that the qpcr method had a 94% confidence, and a detection limit as 2.7 e. coli cells per sample in undiluted dna extracts. the qpcr method was applied for the bacteriolo ...200918931927
detection of escherichia coli, salmonella spp., shigella spp., yersinia enterocolitica, vibrio cholerae, and campylobacter spp. enteropathogens by 3-reaction multiplex polymerase chain reaction.the magnitude of bacterial diarrhea in developing countries is largely unknown because affordable detection methods are not available. we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay for use in areas with limited resources to screen for diarrheogenic strains from clinical isolates. to simplify the assay and minimize reagents, our method implemented the use of plasmids rather than bacteria as template controls and the use of bacterial suspensions or crude dna preparations rather t ...200918990527
quinolone-induced arthropathy: an update focusing on new mechanistic and clinical data.quinolones possess favourable antibacterial and pharmacokinetic characteristics and are often used as anti-infective agents in adults. they are contraindicated in children and adolescents because they damage weight-bearing joints in juvenile animals. in addition, they possess a tendotoxic potential. since ciprofloxacin has been used off-label for decades in children and adolescents, it is known today that no pronounced risks for arthropathies or tendinopathies exist in humans. recently published ...200918835137
reduction in infection risk through treatment of microbially contaminated surfaces with a novel, portable, saturated steam vapor disinfection system.surface-mediated infectious disease transmission is a major concern in various settings, including schools, hospitals, and food-processing facilities. chemical disinfectants are frequently used to reduce contamination, but many pose significant risks to humans, surfaces, and the environment, and all must be properly applied in strict accordance with label instructions to be effective. this study set out to determine the capability of a novel chemical-free, saturated steam vapor disinfection syst ...200918834748
design, synthesis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of 6,6-dimethyl-7,9-diaryl-1,2,4,8-tetraazaspiro[4.5]decan-3-thiones--a new series of 'tailor-made' compounds.some novel 'tailor-made' compounds, 6,6-dimethyl-7,9-diaryl-1,2,4,8-tetraazaspiro[4.5]decan-3-thiones 23-27 have been studied for their in vitro antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus, beta-heamolytic streptococcus, vibreo cholerae, salmonella typhii, shigella felxneri, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia, pseudomonas aeruginosa and anti-fungal activity against aspergillus flavus, mucor, rhizopus and microsporum gypsuem. compounds 24 and 25 exerted potent antibacterial activity ...200918830884
shigella species and serotypes among clinical isolates in thailand from 2001 to 2005.to study the species and the serotypes of the clinical isolates of shigella obtained from patients in thailand.200921298848
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic escherichia coli and shigella species associated with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran.a study was performed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of shigella species and diarrheagenic escherichia coli isolates cultured from patients with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran. between may 2003 and may 2005, 1120 diarrheal specimens were collected and assayed for bacterial enteropathogens by conventional and molecular methods. etiological agents were isolated from 564 (50.3%) specimens, and included 305 (54%) e coli, 157 (27.8%) shigella species, and 102 (18%) from othe ...200920808457
[shigella strategy for host defense and mucosal infection]. 200921089529
pcr targeting of antibiotic resistant bacteria in public drinking water of lahore metropolitan, pakistan.to investigate the prevalence of kanamycin (kan) and ampicillin (amp) resistant bacteria in public drinking water.200920337218
laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea syndrome; a three years study in two hospitals of infectious diseases.infectious diarrhoea is a syndrome caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. the wide diversity of etiological agents impairs the surveillance and the diagnosis and affects the correct treatment applied to reduce the long-term complications. besides well known enteric pathogens such as salmonella, shigella and yersinia, a high number of emergent and re-emergent aetiologies are now recognised to be ...200920361527
an urban, water-borne outbreak of diarrhoea and shigellosis in a district town in eastern india.in september 2007, the gayeshpur municipality reported a cluster of cases with diarrhoea. we aimed to identify the causative agent and the source of the disease.200920334044
screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from melghat forest in india.cyperus rotundus, caesalpinia bonducella, tinospora cordifolia, gardenia gummifera, ailanthus excelsa, acacia arabica, embelia ribes and ventilago maderspatana from melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi, shigella flexneri, salmonella paratyphi, salmonella typhimurium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. out of these medicinal pla ...200920448847
sporadic paediatric diarrhoeal illness in urban and rural sites in nyanza province, kenya.investigate differences in the infectious aetiology, health seeking behaviour, and provider practices with regard to diarrhoeal illness among children presenting to urban versus rural clinics in western kenya.200920575313
association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in parts of ibadan city, nigeria.occurrence of diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases in cities of developing countries has been on the increase over the decades largely due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene among human population. this study examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of water-borne diseases vis-a-vis water quality in parts of ibadan city in nigeria. data on 1334 cases of various water-borne diseases was collected from eight public hospitals with catchments covering the study ...200920734698
[the evolution of the etiological structure of shigellosis]. 201020734730
antibiotic therapy for shigella dysentery.shigella dysentery is a relatively common illness and occasionally causes death, worldwide. mild symptoms are self-limiting but in more severe cases, antibiotics are recommended for cure and preventing relapse. the antibiotics recommended are diverse, have regional differences in sensitivity, and have side effects.201020687081
evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial type iii secretion system chaperone.type iii secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many gram-negative bacterial pathogens. these systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. the class ii chaperone, invasion plasmid gene (ipg) c, stabilizes ...201020633281
seasonal variation of enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea in western mexico.the present study estimates the prevalence of some enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea. from 2006 to 2007, 5459 consecutive stool samples were evaluated. cryptosporidium parvum was the parasite identified with the higher frequency (5.1%), followed by giardia lamblia (1.2%). campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 858 cases (15.7%) and was the most frequent enteropathogen overall. the rates of c parvum, shigella, and salmonella were higher in the summer. rotavirus had the ...201020706147
enteropathogenic escherichia coli, samonella, shigella and yersinia: cellular aspects of host-bacteria interactions in enteric diseases.abstract: a successful infection of the human intestine by enteropathogenic bacteria depends on the ability of bacteria to attach and colonize the intestinal epithelium and, in some cases, to invade the host cell, survive intracellularly and disseminate from cell to cell. to accomplish these processes bacteria have evolved an arsenal of molecules that are mostly secreted by dedicated type iii secretion systems, and that interact with the host, subverting normal cellular functions. here we overvi ...201020649986
medicinal potions used against infectious bowel diseases in mayan traditional medicine.since one of the main health problems of the indigenous population are infectious bowel diseases, we decided to test mayan medicinal potions used to treat these conditions against some of the causal agents.201020728517
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2008].the number as well as incidence rate of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in xxi century are every year lower. only 33 cases were notified in the year 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000 population), while the 64 cases were notified in 2007 (incidence rate 0.17/100 000), but 35 (incidence rate 0.09) were notified in 2006 and median in the 2002-2006 years was 75 cases, incidence rate 0.2/100 000 population. since 2000 no one-death case was notified. several imported cases were noti ...201020731222
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