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isolation of salmonellas and shigella sonnei from a laboratory bench.an area of the laboratory bench on which slide agglutinations were performed in the diagnosis of salmonella and shigella infection was examined for these organisms. impression plates and broth-moistened swabs were used for sampling. both techniques gave satisfactory results, but the contact plates provided positive results a day earlier than the swabs. suitable precautions to minimize contamination of the bench surface are discussed.1976778256
shigella flexneri 6 biotypes: a review.except in gas production, s. flexneri 6 is generally similar to other s. flexneri. s. flexneri 6 contains both aerogenic and anaerogenic strains which are identical serologically. it is not surprising that s. flexneri 6 is not separable from other s. flexneri types on the basis of dna relatedness (overall genetic makeup) (4). the manchester biotype is seen in the united states, and is easily separable from other enterobacteriaceae by biochemical tests. one can no longer assume à priori that any ...1976776900
strain-related differences in immunosuppressive effects of enterobacteriaceae and their lipopolysaccharides on production in rabbits of antibody to enterobacterial common antigen.certain polysaccharides have been shown to inhibit the antibody response of rabbits to the common enterobacterial antigen (ca). the present investigation revealed that striking differences exist in the immunosuppressive effects of enteric bacteria and their lipolysaccharides (lps), depending upon ca production by the strains. mixtures of immunogenic strains (escherichia coli f2378 [r4], e. coli f470 [r1], or shigella boydii f3140 [r]) and non-immunogenic ca-producing strains, such as e. coli o1, ...1976776827
studies on the survival of shigella flexneri in river and tap water. 1975776123
[characteristics of the salmonella and shigella strains isolated from diarrhea patients during antibiotic therapy].drug resistant strains of salmonella and shigella were isolated from diarrhoeic children during antibiotic treatment. two strains of sh. flexneri serotype 2a, resistant to sulfonamides, streptomycin,chloramphenicol, and tetracyclines, were able to transfer "en bloc" their resistances to e. coli k12.1975776095
toxigenic escherichia coli and childhood diarrhea.stool specimens were examined from 40 children with diarrhea who were under three years of age to determine the incidence of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in endemic diarrhea. heat-labile e. coli enterotoxin was assayed in the very sensitive and reproducible cultured adrenal tumor cell system. toxigenic e. coli were isolated from only one stool specimen and in this case infection with shigella dysenteriae was also present. none of the eight classic enteropathogenic e. coli isolates were posit ...1976775792
[correlation between biochemical features and pathogenicity of shigella. iv. threonine deaminase of shigella strains producing and not producing keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs]. 1976775224
[one-stage method of identification of salmonella and shigella by biochemichal test. i. evaluation and selection of differentiating test]. 1976775223
shigella hepatitis. 1976775138
[the influence of several prophages on the genetic behavior of flexner dysentery bacteria].in conjugation experiments of escherichia coli k-12 hfr strains and converted clones of shigella flexneri var. y(-:3,4) that had acquired the capacity to synthesize type of antigens iv or v it is confirmed that the locus linked to lac-pro region in sh. flexneri chromosome called tp locus is a site of an attachment of prophages responsible for certain type specific antigens. lac+ hybrids of the clone converted by phage iv lost the type specific antigen iv with the frequency comparable with the lo ...1975773758
[observations on the sensitivity to antibiotics of the shigella isolated from patients in 1966-1973].sensitivity to levomycetin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, monomycin, neomycin and erythromycin of 3766 strains of shigella isolated from dysentery patients within 1966-1973 was determined with the method of standard discs. the strains proved to be resistant to tetracycline (94.3-99.4 per cent), streptomycin (85.1-94.9 per cent) and levomycetin (69-93.1 percent). by present the dysentery bacilli have preserved their sensitivity to monomycin (88.2 per cent) and neomycin (98.2 p ...1975773290
transfer of drug resistance factor in shigella sonnei isolated in iran.the pattern of drug resistance and incidence of r-factors were studied in shigella sonnei strains isolated in iran. eighty-nine out of 172 strains (51.7%) were resistant to one or more drugs and multiple drug resistance was more common than single drug resistance. the most predominant pattern of resistance observed was (tc, cm, sm, su). by mixed cultivation, 85.7% of shigella sonnei resistant strains isolated on the central plateau and 100% of the strains from the caspian littoral transferred at ...1976772518
travelers' diarrhea in mexico. a prospective study of physicians and family members attending a congress.we conducted a prospective study of travelers' diarrhea on 73 physicians and 48 family members attending a medical congress in mexico city, in october, 1974. fecal and blood specimens were collected before, during and after their visit and examined for enteric bacterial pathogens, viruses and parasites. in 59 (49 per cent) participants travelers' diarrhea developed. median duration of illness was five days. onset occurred a median of six days after arrival. an etiologic agent was found in 63 per ...1976772435
resistance of shigella dysenteriae type 1 to ampicillin and other antimicrobial agents: strains isolated during a dysentery outbreak in a hospital in mexico city.in june 1972, an epidemic of dysentery began in a hospital ward lodging 22 children with tuberculosis. fifteen of them developed the disease and five children died. the age of the children ranged from five months to four years. a rectal swab culture taken from all hospitalized children three weeks after the initiation of the outbreak revealed shigella dysenteriae type 1 in five of the patients (28%). the strains isolated were susceptible to cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin, colistin, trimethop ...1976772132
tryptophan operon regulation in interspecific hybrids of enteric bacteria.we examined tryptophan regulation in merodiploid hybrids in which a plasmid carrying the trp operon of escherichia was introduced into trp mutants of other enteric genera, or in which a plasmid carrying the trpr+ (repressor) gene of e. coli was transfered into fully constitutive trpr mutants of other genera. in these hybrids the trp operon of one species is controlled by the repressor of a different species. similar investigations were possible in transduction hybrids in which either the trp ope ...1976770450
naturally occurring sites within the shigella dysenteriae tryptophan operon severely limit tryptophan biosynthesis.we investigated the structural, functional, and regulatory properties of the shigella dysenteriae tryptophan (trp.) operon in transduction hybrids in which the cysb-trp-region of escherichia coli is replaced by the corresponding region from s. dysenteriae. tryptophan biosynthesis was largely blocked in the hybrids, although the order of the structural genes was identical with that of e. coli. nutritional tests and enzyme assays revealed that the hybrids produced a defective anthranilate synthet ...1976770449
a perspective on the use of antibiotics in animal feeds. 1976770412
colicine typing in the epidemiology of bacillary dysentery. 1975770220
isolation and analysis of the lipid a backbone. lipid a structure of lipopolysaccharides from various bacterial groups.a degradation procedure of lipopolysaccharides was worked out which allows the isolation of the reduced backbone of lipid a in a total yield of between 20 and 30%. this procedure was applied to lipopolysaccharides of s forms (salmonella minnesota, shigella flexneri 5b, escherichia coli 086, e. coli 0111, xanthomonas sinensis, rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa) and r mutants (salmonella minnesota, shigella flexneri, 5b, e. coli bb9 and e. coli eh 100). chemical analysis, reaction with beta-n-acetyl-glu ...1976770165
[bacteriological and epidemiological considerations on shigelloses in south vietnam (1969-1973)].during the period from 1969 to 1973, a rectal swabs from 13.943 diarrhea patients of all ages were examined by bacteriological surveys. from these specimens, 981 strains of shigella were isolated. the most commonly encounted were shigella flexneri 2. all of strains of shigella isolated were highly resistant to aureomycin, tetracyclin, terramycin, novobiocin and chloramphenicol. there has been an increase in the development of multiresistance of shigella. colimycin and streptomycin were the most ...1975770024
[intestinal localization of shigellae in dysentery and experimental shigellosis].the investigation of 53 section cases of dysentery and 18 biopsy specimens of the large intestine in acute dysentery in children showed that intrapithelial distribution of shigella was not always regular. in studies of experimental shigellosis on isolated loops of the intestine 459 segments of the intestine of 51 rabbits were investigated. the results obtained showed that shigella multiplied mainly in the lumen of the intestine. the increase in number of shigella in enterocytes was by 8-9 orders ...1976769758
an epidemic of gastroenteritis traced to a contaminated public water supply.between january 1 and march 15, 1974, approximately 1200 cases of acute gastrointestinal illness occurred in richmond heights, florida, a residential community of 6500 in south dade county. over one-third of all families in the area had at least one member affected. the findings of 10 culture-proven cases of shigellosis among those who became ill and clinical signs and symptoms in the others suggest that most of the other cases that were not cultured may have been shigellosis also. epidemiologic ...1976769540
[phagocytosis of shigellae sonnei, isolated from patients with dysentery and healthy persons, in the culture of peritoneal macrophages]. 1975769337
effect of isolation media on recovery of rough variants of salmonella.preferential inhibition of rough variants of salmonella was observed with tetrathionate and selenite-f broths and with salmonella shigella agar. these results suggest that rough strains of salmonella may be more prevalent in nature than previously suspected.1976769121
unusual enterobacteriaceae: h2s+ shigella sonnei, one authentic and one false positive due to contamination with the obligate anaerobe eubacterium lentum.a mixture of shigella sonnei and eubacterium lentum produced h2s in triple sugar iron agar; however, neither produced any in pure culture. a second culture of s. sonnei, isolated in japan, is thought to be the first documented h2s+ shigella.1976767362
diagnostic value of indirect hemagglutination in the seroepidemiology of shigella infections.to evaluate the usefulness of the indirect hemagglutination (iha) test in the epidemiological investigation of shigellosis, single serum specimens were tested from 50 patients with shigella dysenteriae 1 (shiga bacillus) infections, 103 asymptomatic contacts of these cases, 267 adult and 100 student control, and serum specimens collected during two outbreaks caused by s. sonnei and one outbreak due to s. flexneri 6. in patients with s. dysenteriae 1, 74% demonstrated titers of greater than or eq ...1976767361
comparative serologic analysis of lac+ recombinants of serotypes 2a, 2b, 5a and variant y of shigella flexneri.the serologic structure of lac+ recombinants of 2a, 2b, 5a and var. y serotypes of sh. flexneri was compared. rec. 2a lac+, rec. 2b lac+ and rec. y lac+ were shown to be identified, and rec. 5a lac+ was found to differ from those mentioned in that it was deficient in determinants for 3,4 group antigen complex. furthermore, the paper discusses the presumable genetic mechanisms of the described variability.1975766722
immunochemical studies on the serotype of shigella flexneri and its recombinant.chemical and serologic analysis of polysaccharides of shigella flexneri 2b and its recombinant revealed complete defect of the gene responsible for type ii specificity as a result of recombination. at the same time, function of the gene in the same locus responsible for 7,8 group specificity was partially inhibited. attenuation of group antigen 7,8, associated with partial uncovering of the structure of the basic chain, causes appearance of a distinct 3,4 group antigen. changes of this type in s ...1975766721
[characteristics of bacteriophages used in the detection of disturbances in the synthesis of the o-antigen polysaccharide of shigella flexneri].a study was made of the sensitivity spectra of various strains of sh. flexneri and r-mutants of various chemotypes to bacteriophages used for lysotyping of shigellae and to some bacteriophages specific of the r-mutants of salmonellae and e. coli. as a result of study there was selected and characterized a collection of bacteriophages specific of the s-strains and r-mutants of shigellae of different chemotypes, which could be used in genetic and immunochemical investigations.1975766530
[construction of new types of chemical vaccines for the prevention of intestinal infections, and their qualitative assessment. iv. physical properties and immunological characteristics of the experimental series of chemical vaccines presented for comparative study].the authors present the results of study of physico-chemical properties of the chemical sorbed monovaccines from the antigens of the causative agents of typhoid fever, paratyphoid a and b and sonne and flexner dysentery obtained by various methods; the results of investigation of their reactogenic properties and immunological activity of limited groups of volunteers also given. the vaccines from the antigens obtained by sparing methods were less reactogenic than the rest experimental and control ...1975766526
[serologic interrelations of choleragen and the neurotoxins of enterobacteria].antibodies reacting with the endotoxins of enterobacteria or antibodies to homologous endotoxin were eliminated from the sera to cholerigen, cholerigen-toxoid by precipitin abosrption. sera to neurotoxin of enterobacteria were exhausted in the same way. the exhausted sera continued to form precipitation lines with heterologous toxic complexes. the presence of affiliated antigens in the composition of cholerigen and of shigellae, salmonellae and escherichia neurotoxins was also shown by the metho ...1975766521
[study of the role of colicins in the formation of microbial association in experiments in chick embryos].experiments were conducted on chick embryos; conditions of formation of bacterial cenosis of shigella sonnei and e. coli were reproduced. the role of colicinogenia in the formation of bacterial cenosis was demonstrated. an accumulation of colicines in high titres (1: 5120- 1:2560) in the chick embryonic cavity was noted in combined or separate cultivation of colicinogenic shigellae and e. coli. an intergenera transmission of the col-factor was traced in experiments on chick embryos. the data obt ...1975766520
[detection of autoimmune changes in white mice as a method of studying the biological properties of shigella sonnei].an attempt was made of using for the purpose of studying the virulence of sh. sonnei of the method of determination of autoimmune plaque-forming cells in infected albino mice. by the mentioned method a total of 231 strains of sh. sonnei of various biochemical types were examined. the virulence of 103 strains was checked in paralled by the keratoconjunctival test. it was shown that the method of determination of the autoimmune plaque-forming cells in the blood of infected mice could be used as a ...1975766519
[reactivity and immunogenicity of the sonne dysentery detergent monovaccine].the authors elaborated a method of isolation under industrial conditions of shigella sonnei surface antigens by the treatment of the culture with a detergent (sodium laurylsulfate). the antigens obtained possessed a much lesser toxicity in comparison with the tryptic ones. a method of preparation of a detergent sonne monovaccine with an increased antigen content (1.3 mg/ml) was described. experimental series of the preparation were tested on 38 volunteers. a lower reactogenicity of the detergent ...1975766518
[results of a quantitative study of the interaction of pathogenic enterobacteria with a cell monolayer].a study was made of the cytopathic effect and dynamics of intracellular reproduction of s. typhimurium and shigellae in the monolayer of hela cells, macrophages (monocytes) of the peritoneal exudate of rabbits and rats and microphages (granulocytes) of the pleural exudate of rabbits. the presence of bactericidal mechanism in the host cell to the invaded infectious agent is postulated. an important role of the cell component of defence in insensibility in shigellosis is supposed.1975766517
receptors for t2, t4 and t6 phages in sh. dysenteriae 7 and other serotypes of sh. dysenteriae.the sensitivity of four strains of sh. dysenteriae and of nine strains representing other serotypes of sh. dynsenteriae to phages t2, t4 and t6 was examined. different extracts, prepared from sensitive strains were tested for their capacity of phage inactivation. we found that the receptor substance for phage t2 is localized differently in various strains: in sh. dysenteriae 7, it was found in bacterial extracts obtained by water/phenol at 68 degrees c and in extracts obtained by trichloracetic ...1975766504
[rectoromanoscopic pictures in dysentery associated with helminthic diseases]. 1975765713
[microtubular structures in the cytoplasm of macrophages and their enzymatic activity in interaction with salmonella typhi and shigella dysenteriae]. 1975765699
[phagocytosis of shigellas with hela cells]. 1975765698
[activity of various enzyme systems of shigella sonnei]. 1975765696
[antagonistic effect of actinomycetes to shigella sonneń≠ in the soil]. 1975765688
[preparation of colicin produced by shigella sonnei 100052]. 1975765575
[antibacterial action by bacteriocin produced by shigella sonnei 100052]. 1975765567
[cellular infiltration of shigella]. 1975765541
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy for shigellosis.twenty-eight infants and children hospitalized for severe shigellosis were treated orally either with ampicillin trihydrate (100 mg/kg/day administered in divided doses every six hours) or with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (trimethoprim, 10 mg; sulfamethoxazole, 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours) for five days. four patients with ampicillin-resistant shigellae continued to have diarrhea and positive stool cultures during therapy. patients with susceptible shigellae treated with ampic ...1976765518
extensive urban outbreak caused by antibiotic-sensitive shigella sonnei.during 1970 and 1971, a large increase in the number of isolations of shigella organisms (90% s sonnei) occurred among patients of grady memorial hospital in atlanta. examination of strains isolated during this outbreak showed a marked decline in the frequency of antibiotic resistance, especially multiple resistance, from that which had been observed during the preceding three years, in spite of continued heavy usage of antibiotics. these findings are contrary to most recently reported experienc ...1976765512
rare type of shigellosis. 1976765409
pathogenicity of escherichia coli recovered from food.in western nations, pathogenic biotypes are sporadically encountered in foodborne gastroentetis. cholera, dysentery, and chronic ulcerative colitis syndromes are recognized. e. coli has been associated on the average with 2% of annual food outbreaks and 5% of total cases. in developing nations, the incidence may be greater. in contrast with salmonella and shigella, significance can be assessed only by fulfillment of koch's postulates. preliminary studies using vascular permeability reaction for ...1976765322
disease agents carried by flies in dacca city.studies were conducted to determine the different disease agents naturally carried by flies in dacca city by collecting outdoor unbaited flies from 8 different representative locations and identifying the agents in the laboratory. out of 96 fly pools containing 25 flies each, 62.5%, 46.9%, 15.6%, 8.3%, 8.3%, 15.6% and 6.2% of the pools were found positive for ascaris lumbrioeides, trichuris trichiura, hookworm, enterebious vermicularis eggs and entamoeba coli, trichomonas spp giardia spp. cysts, ...1978757347
bacteriophage contamination in calf sera collected by different methods from various sources. 1978755822
[epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of shigellosis in greece in 1977]. 1978754658
drug resistant shigellosis in south india. 1978744630
[case studies of bacterial species responsible for urinary tract infections and their sensitivity to antibiotic treatment].a microbiological assessment was made of 829 urine specimens to determine the percentage incidence of different bacterial species and their susceptibility to antibiotic treatment. it was found that e. coli was most common, followed by pseudomonas, proteus, staphylococcus, candida, faecal streptococcus, and shigella. the results suggest that the aetiological agent should be systematically ascertained and an antibiogram run before a treatment programme is laid down.1978740260
shigella bacteraemia in africans. 1978734732
[r plasmid-determined variability of bacteria. effect of plasmid replication on bacterial variability]. 1978733674
giardiasis in american travelers to madeira island, portugal.a high incidence of diarrhea was reported in a group of approximately 1,400 americans who traveled to the portuguese island of madeira in october 1976. a mail questionnaire survey revealed that 39% of the responding 859 travelers experienced diarrhea; in 42% of these diarrhea lasted for longer than 1 week. the most frequent accompanying symptoms were abdominal cramps (75%), abdominal distention (72%), nausea (70%), and weight loss (40%). of all travelers surveyed, 33% developed an illness resemb ...1978727317
effects of intestinal micro-organisms on fluid and electrolyte transport in the jejunum of the rat.culture filtrates of micro-organisms isolated from the upper intestinal secretions of malnourished children and grown in pure culture were shown to impair the intestinal absorption of water and electrolytes in live rats. decreased net movement out of the intestinal lumen, or actual secretion of water, sodium or potassium into the intestinal lumen, was found with culture filtrates of single isolates of staphylococcus epidermidis, escherichia coli 055, escherichia coli b7a, shigella sonnei, klebsi ...1978722783
shigella infection in african and indian children with special reference to shigella septicemia. 1978712484
cytotoxic activity of aeromonas hydrophila.most strains of aeromonas hydrophila tested demonstrated cytotoxic activity on several tissue-cultured cell lines. the cytotoxin is heat-labile, non-dialyzable, and immunologically distinct from that of shigella dysenteriae and clostridium perfringens. none of the aeromonas isolates was found to be enterotoxigenic by either tissue culture or rabbit ileal loop assays.1978711344
oxolinic acid for the treatment of chronic gastrointestinal shigella carriers.two patients were long-term gastrointestinal carriers of shigella flexneri for 23 mo and 6 mo, respectively. neither patient responded to oral antibiotics, despite in vitro sensitivity of the bacteria to the antibiotics administered. oral oxolinic acid produced immediate cessation of the carrier state in both patients, with resolution of minor but persistent physical complaints.1978686252
on the serology of plesiomonas shigelloides.the serology of 87 strains of plesiomonas shigelloides was studied. thirty o antigenic groups and 11 h antigens were defined within the 87 strains, and an antigenic schema consisting of 40 serovars was established. some o antigens of p. shigelloides were identical or closely related to those of some shigella serovars.1978682370
[identification of 5-hydroxycytosine as an anomalous base of phage h-17]. 1978679802
the role of non-biting flies in the transmission of enteric pathogens (salmonella species and shigella species) in beirut, lebanon.in the summer and early autumn of 1974, flies were trapped in the beirut districts of ashraffiyah, burj, burj-hammoud, quarantine, the new slaughter house, ras beirut, american university campus, and the suburbs of chiyah and mreyjieh. musca domestica, muscina stabulans, calliphora vicina, phormia regina, phaenicia sericata, sarcophagidae spp. and fannia canicularis were identified. the rural areas of mreyjieh and chiyah had higher densities of musca domestica while higher densities of calliphor ...1978678345
azlocillin and mezlocillin: new ureido penicillins.the activity of azlocillin and mezlocillin, new semisynthetic ureido penicillins, was investigated and compared with that of other known beta-lactam antibiotics. at a concentration of 25 mug/ml, azlocillin inhibited 74% of enterobacter, 97% of proteus mirabilis, 64% of citrobacter, 91% of pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 82% of bacteroides strains tested. mezlocillin inhibited 86% of shigella, 96% of enterobacter, 80% of indole-positive proteus, 88% of bacteroides, and 63% of pseudomonas strains test ...1978677860
the rectal biopsy appearances in salmonella colitis.rectal biopsies were examined from 22 patients with salmonella infection of food-poisoning type and from seven patients with inflammatory bowel disease and coincidental salmonella infection. in the former group the changes observed were mucosal oedema with acute inflammation of varying severity but with preservation of the crypt architecture. crypt abscesses were present in a few cases but were usually localized in the crypt and mucus depletion only occurred with severe inflammation. these featu ...1978669591
synergism of fosfomycin-ampicillin and fosfomycin-chloramphenicol against salmonella and shigella.ninety strains of salmonella and 50 strains of shigella were tested for susceptibility to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin by the agar dilution method. drug interaction between fosfomycin-ampicillin and fosfomycin-chloramphenicol was studied by the agar dilution method. the fractional inhibitory concentration was calculated. the combination of fosfomycin-ampicillin was synergistic against salmonella in 74 cases, additive in 7, indifferent in 7, antagonistic in none, and nonevaluable i ...1978666297
cefaclor: in vitro spectrum of activity and beta-lactamase stability.the in vitro activity of cefaclor against 556 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was compared with that of other cephalosporins. cefaclor had activity similar to that of cephalexin against gram-positive bacteria. it showed greater activity against haemophilus strains than did cephalexin and inhibited beta-lactamase-producing haemophilus isolates. cefaclor was more active than cephalexin or cephalothin against escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella isolates but did ...1978666290
[pathogenicity of the shigella isolated from wild and game animals of the far north of the ussr].experiments were conducted on guinea pigs. a study was made of the pathogenicity of brucellae culture isolated from various wild and game animals of the extreme north of the ussr (wolf, polar fox, ermine, glutton). the majority of the cultures under study proved to be highly pathogenic. observations carried out led to the conclusion that brucella cultures circulating between the wild and domestic reindeers and migrating to other species of animals presented definite danger to the health of man.1978665050
[study of a collection of shigella strains of provisional serovars (cultural and biochemical properties)].the author studied 17 standard and local strains of shigellae of provisional serological variants (3873-50, 2000-53, 3341-53, 3615-53, 2710-54, 1621-54). by a number of biochemical signs (alkalization of citrate agar of christiansen and molke's lacmus, the growth on acetate medium, utilization of soluble starch) and resistance to the genus-specific dysentery bacteriophage the cultures of serological variant 2000-53 possessed no properties of shigellae and were escherichia according to the genera ...1978665043
[bacteriophages isolated from smallpox vaccine].a number of lots of dermal and tissue culture smallpox vaccine was studied for the presence of bacteriophage. the presence of bacteriophage was established in lots of tissue culture vaccine but not in the dermal vaccine. bacteriophage was detected by a modified method for phage isolation. the concentration and activity of the isolated bacteriophage were low. its activity was increased by passages. the bacteriophage was stable and lysed the main serotypes of enteropathogenic e. coli as well as st ...1978664622
the critical role of iron in host-bacterial interactions.the ability of potential pathogens to acquire iron in a host is an important determinant of both their virulence and the nature of the infection produced. virulent gram-negative bacteria are capable of acquiring sufficient iron from the host because their virulence (for chick embryos) is unaffected by exogenous iron. avirulent mutants which are apparently limited in their ability to acquire iron could be isolated from the virulent strains. the lethality of these mutants was significantly enhance ...1978659605
l-2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid as a constituent of salmonella lipopolysaccharides (lipid a).l-2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid was recognized as a characteristic, although minor, constituent of the lipid a component of salmonella lipopolysaccharides. the 2-hydroxy fatty acid was present in lipid a as an ester, probably bound to the hydroxyl group of some d-3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid residues. a survey of enterobacterial lipopolysaccharides showed that l-2-hydroxytetradecanoid acid was also present in klebsiella and serratia strains. it was absent, however, from lipopolysaccharides of other ...1978658049
[on the present problems associated with shigella and salmonella infections (author's transl)]. 1978657184
[bacillary disentery (author's transl)]. 1978652726
in vitro activity of cefaclor against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.cefaclor (ccl), a new cephalosporin, was tested in vitro against 602 (271 anaerobic and 331 aerobic) clinical isolates in comparison with cephalothin, cefazolin, cephradine, and cefamandole. sixteen micrograms of ccl per ml inhibited 68% of all aerobes tested and 80% of the 211 enteropathogenic organisms (escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella) isolated from cases of infantile diarrhoea. ccl inhibited 88% of gram-positive anaerobic cocci and 72% of bacteroides other than b. fragilis at a con ...1978646343
an economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage o-1.an easy, rapid and economic two-step procedure is described for the detection of salmonella/shigella. in the first step the susceptibility of suspected colonies for the phage o-1 of felix and callow is tested. positive cultures are serologically confirmed. the test is performed on triple sugar iron agar and lasts 4-6 hrs. phage negative cultures which are lactose- and sucrose negative are tested for lysine decarboxylase and, if shigella is possible (i.e. in human material on primary plates), for ...1978636706
[length of stay in the hospital in shigella and salmonella infections treated with furazolidone and without any antimicrobial chemotherapy].163 patients suffering from shigellosis and salmonellosis were treated in principle of alternating sequence with furazolidon and without drug. without antimicrobial chemotherapy the average period of rest in hospital was five days shorter.1978636501
lipid a-induced tolerance and hyperreactivity to hypothermia in mice.mice responded to lipopolysaccharide (lps) with a dose-dependent, monophasic hypothermia reaching a maximum at 2 h postinjection. degraded polysaccharide was not active; free lipid a, however, induced a similar pattern of hypothermia, indicating that the hypothermic principle of lps was embedded within the lipid a component. the hypothermic response of mice to lps was modified by prior exposure of the host to lps. this altered reactivity was manifested by refractory periods (early and late toler ...1978631875
[fistulated diffusion chamber and its use in studying microbial associations in vivo].the fistulated diffusion chamber intended for the cultivation of microbial associations in vivo was elaborated. the interralation between the yeast-like candida albicans fungi, staphylococci, shigella sonnei, the influence of each one upon the macroorganism, and its response to their combined action were studied.1978630109
the evaluation of some newer media for enrichment and for isolation of salmonella and shigella from stool samples. 1977617920
[studies of the diffusion of shigella in the area of naples]. 1977617376
candida as a cause of diarrhoea in children.in a study of 134 children under 12 years of age suffering from diarrhoea, candida was responsible either directly or indirectly in 23 (17.1%) cases. mixed incidence of candida and shigella were found in 2 (1.7%) cases. candida species were isolated in 78(58.2%) specimens. shigella and salmonella were recovered from 10(7.4%) children suffering from diarrhoea.1977615578
[presence of resistance factors to antibiotics in multiresistant enterobacteria].the present study was carried out with 111 multiresistant pathogenic strains of enterobacterias isolated from different sources with increased resistance to three or more antibiotics. among the identified species are included e. coli, shigella sp., salmonella oranienburg, klebsiella pneumoniae and citrobacter freundii. in general, the minimal inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was above 100 microgram/ml and in some cases it was superior to 1000 microgram/ml. resistance transfer factors were ...1977614652
effect of enteric micro-organisms on intestinal sugar and fatty acid absorption.the effect of micro-organisms contaminating the upper intestinal contents of malnourished children on intestinal absorption of 3-0 methyl-alpha-d-glucopyranose (3-m.g.) and oleic acid was studied in rats in vivo. oleci acid absorption was unaffected by non-pathogenic e. coli but decreased by e. coli 0111, salmonella paratyphi b., shigella sonnei and candida sp. this effect was probably explained by intestinal secretion diluting the test solution leading to a decreased diffusion gradient for solu ...1977603464
[shigella isolated in the bach mai hospitial (hanoi) during the 3 years 1974--1976]. 1977581419
[activities of the sengalese center for enterobacteria in 1975 (institut pasteur of dakar)]. 1977579336
yersinia enterocolitica in oneida county, new york.in a 7-month study during and after an outbreak of yersiniosis in oneida, n.y., a total of 963 specimens were examined for yersinia enterocolitica. of the 103 y. enterocolitica isolates recovered, 91 were from oneida county. sixty-two (60.2%) were from humans including 52 from oneida county. the isolates from the outbreak were mainly serotype 0:8, which on biotypnig proved to be niléhn type 2, wauters type 1, knapp and thal type 2. the rest of the isolates were distributed among various biotypes ...1979575321
[epidemiology and clinical aspects of shigella infections in the population of the irpinia region]. 1978570021
[rearing and management of chimpanzees for experimental infection with hepatitis b virus (author's transl)].for the purpose of experimental infection with human hepatitis b virus, 14 chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) were delivered to the division of animal research, faculty of medicine, university of tokyo, tokyo. these chimps, 11 males and 3 females, born in the west africa, had been reared for two to six months. several days after delivery, they were anesthetized with ketalar in order to make clinical, bacteriological and parasitological examinations; it was found that one of them was in malnutrition, ...1977558103
inflammatory effects of endotoxin-like contaminants in commonly used protein preparations.protein preparations from commercial suppliers are contaminated with bacterial endotoxins. the continued use of these preparations indicates that many researchers are unaware of this, and they may attribute all observed effects to the proteins themselves. intravitreous injection of bovine serum albumin has an initial inflammatory effect on the rabbit eye which occurs before an immune reaction to the antigen itself can develop. this direct inflammatory effect can be fully accounted for by endotox ...1977557238
[the effects of intestinal parasites on enteric bacterial flora].intestinal parasites, can cause malabsorption syndromes and shifts in intestinal bacterial flora. in this study 200 cases with parasitic infestations were examined in regard to their intestinal flora. the series included 96 giardiasis. 58 ascariasis, 20 oxyuriasis and 17 h. nana 14 t. trichiura, 8 tenia cases. the stool cultures yielded mainly e. coli, strep. faecalis and other gram negative enteric bacteria, yeasts along with uncommon species as b. subtilis, herellea, shigella at low frequencie ...1979555793
studies on the inhibitory effects of zinc heptanoate on microorganisms.inhibitory effect of zinc heptanoate was observed on different cultures of bacteria and fungi. growth of all the bacteria was inhibited by the compound. greatest inhibition was seen in the case of staphylococcus albus, streptococcus pyogenes, shigella dysenteriae, shigella sonnei, shigella flexneri, salmonella typhi, s. paratyphi a, s. paratyphi b, vibrio cholerae, corynebacterium diphtheriae, and e. coli whereas least inhibition was found in the case of staphylococcus aureus. in triethanolamine ...1979553835
[antimicrobial effect of derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazin-1,1-dioxide. vii].series of alkyl derivatives of the following have been prepared: 5,7-dichloro- [compounds (ii leads to v)], 6-methyl- [compounds (vi leads to ix)] and 6-methoxy-3-mercapto-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide [compounds (x leads to xiii)]. the products were tested for antimicrobial activity. studies were also made of the corresponding 3-mercapto precursors (xiv, xv, xvi) and the relative 3-picolinium salts (xvii, xviii, xix) and also of the 3-picolinium salts of 6-chloro-, 7-chloro- and 6,7-dichlo ...1979553823
[an experiment of the examination on the shigella phage from wells in the epidemic areas (author's transl)]. 1979552976
morphologic homogeneity of bacteriophage and their lytic activity. 1979546103
purification of two different toxins from shigella. 1979541877
synthesis of a selective agar medium for yersinia enterocolitica.a new agar medium for isolation of yersinia enterocolitica was formulated based on growth studies which defined an optimum basal, and the evaluation of selective chemical agents, dyes, and antibiotics. the final formulation, designated cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin(cin) agar, provided quantitative recovery of 40 different strains of y. enterocolitica in 24 h using incubation at 32 degrees c or with 48 h of incubation at 22 degrees c. the medium was highly selective, especially against pseudomona ...1979540256
edwardsiella tarda in freshwater catfish and their environment.edwardsiella tarda was isolated from 47, 88, and 79% of skin, visceral, and dressed-fish samples, respectively. this species was also isolated from 30% of imported dressed fish, 75% of catfish pond water samples, 64% of catfish pond mud samples, and 100% of frogs, turtles, and crayfish from catfish ponds. the incidence of edwardsiella increased during the summer months, as water temperatures increased. of several isolation media evaluated, the most effective was selective enrichment in double-st ...1979539822
[the role of immunization against bacterial enteric infections (author's transl)].the author reviews critically the available vaccines against salmonellosis and shigellosis, the more sophisticated vaccines against these two infections and cholera presently under experimentation and using parenteral or oral dispensing. to contribute to public health planning, with particular reference to developping countries, the authors points on the necessity to evaluate carefully the merits of the different techniques aiming at controling bacterial enteric infections. sanitation seems to b ...1979537492
[enteric infections in tropical areas. introduction]. 1979537485
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