PMID(sorted descending)
concentrations of cefazolin in human skeletal muscle.tissue concentrations of cefazolin were measured in 18 patients undergoing urological operations. specimens of skeletal muscle and blood were taken simultaneously at predetermined intervals. the concentrations in serum and homogenized skeletal muscle were determined by means of the agar well diffusion method. a comparison of standard curves obtained with phosphate buffer solution and the supernatant of muscle homogenate revealed no substantial binding of cefazolin to the supernatant of muscle ho ...19761017877
antimicrobial resistance in organisms isolated at the university hospital of the west indies during 1975. 19761014635
[shigellosis related with the cause of death in children].from a series of 4,147 postmortem studies, there were 2,280 cases of infectious processes as responsibility of death out of which, 647 corresponded to the digestive tract. within the group of digestive tract infections, 283 were of bacterial nature and within this last group, there were 43 cases of shigellosis. included in the fatal cases of shigellosis is the description of their description by ages and sexes; the types of enteropathogenic germs identified in the course of disease and at postmo ...19761008934
heavy trichuris infection and amoebic dysentery in orang asli children. a comparison of the two diseases.children with heavy trichuris infestation were compared with paediatric amoebic dysentery patients and normal children. heavy trichuris infestation was diagnosed by visualization of worms on anoscopy. patients with heavy trichuris infection had a longer duration of disease, more frequent hospitalization and a higher rate of rectal prolapse than did patients with amoebiasis. five trichuris children also had clubbing. trichuris patients had lower mean haematrocrits (27%) and serum albumin (3-3 gm% ...19761006759
[study of the penicillinase of the plague microbe, the synthesis of which is determined by the r-episome].penicillinase produced by a culture of the plague microbe with episomic resistance to benzylpenicillin was isolated and purified. comparative investigation of the substrate spectrum, michaelis constant and antigenic properties of the enzymes from the plague and dysentery microbes (r-factor donor) showed that transfer of the r-episome to the new host did not affect the investigated properties of penicillinase the synthesis of which was controlled by this episome.1976999263
a simplified biochemical system to screen salmonella isolates from poultry for serotyping.the 24 most frequently isolated paratyphoids from poultry, along with salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum, plus strains of arizona, citrobacter, edwardsiella, escherichia, klebsiella, prteus, pseudomonas, serratia and shigella were inoculated into triple sugar iron (tsi) and lysine iron (li) slants and into six fermentation broths which were numbered: 1 (dextrose), 2 (lactose), 3 (sucrose), 4 (mannitol), 5 (maltose), 6 (dulcitol). all the salmonella cultures (except s. pullorum) gave a ...1976995819
studies on the pathogenesis of intestinal disease caused by invasive bacteria [proceedings]. 1976983528
[isolation and enumeration of bacteriophages against s. typhi, e. coli, and shigella in the streams of ankara].active bacteriophages were detected agains s. typhi vi4, e. coli 36 and shigella ygr in the streams of ankara, during 27.3.1973 and 19.3.1974. 49 samples were collected from 3 chosen places. bacteriophages in high concentrations were detected against s. typhi vi4, e. coli 36 and shigella y6r even in 0.0001 ml amounts of these water samples. besides bacteriophages, salmonella and shigella were detected as well. these studies showed that the streams in ankara were highly contaminated with bacteria ...1976979697
[providencia isolated from the stools of patients with gastroenteritis].92 providencia strains were isolated from the stools of patients with gastroenteritis. all specimens were negative for other pathogenes such as salmonella, shigella, enteropathogenic e. coli and vibrios. viral etiology was not investigated. the distribution according to years and months is shown in the table. 17 isolations made during august, seemed rather high and gave the impression of a small epidemic.1976979696
shigella hepatitis. 1976970392
[effect of combined plasmids of resistance and colicinogeneity of shigella on the clinical course of acute dysentery]. 1976968614
[biochemical characteristics of strains from the citrobacter and hafnia genera and their laboratory identification].a study of biochemical properties of 176 strains of coprocultures isolated from the patients and persons who sustained various acute enteric diseases, and also from contacts and persons examined for prophylaxis showed that they corresponded to the taxonomic definition of the citrobacter and hafnia genus. in connection with the similarity by biochemical properties between bacteria of citrobacter and salmonella genus and bacteria of hafnia and shigella genus it is of expedience in their identifica ...1976961244
mecillinam, a novel penicillanic acid derivative with unusual activity against gram-negative bacteria.the in vitro activity of mecillinam, a 6 beta-amidinopenicillanic acid derivative, was investigated. mecillinam is not active against most gram-positive coccal or bacilliary forms. many members of the enterobacteriaceae are inhibited, with 86% of escherichia coli, 71% of klebsiella, 62% of enterobacter, 75% of salmonella, 69% of shigella, and 70% of citrobacter inhibited by 6.3 mug/ml. indole-positive proteus and serratia were generally resistant as are pseudomonas strains. although mecillinam i ...1976949176
[an accumulation medium for isolation of salmonellae and shigellae from sea water]. 1976941599
[bacteriological studies on doxycycline (bonnamycin 'cipan') (author's transl)].bonnamycin which is a new tetracycline group antibiotic isolated from a variant strain of streptomyces rimosus and is identified chemically as doxycycline was investigated, comparing with tetracycline. the results are as follows: (1) in in vitro studies of anti-bacterial spectrum, doxycycline is widely effective against standard strains kept in our department. (2) the distribution of susceptibility of 75 staphylococci, 62 salmonella and 64 shigella strains isolated from clinical materials was si ...1976933344
c.s. sut, shigellosis in poona 1974. 1977924949
[study of the antibiotic sensitivity of shigella newcastle isolated in zaporozhe province].sensitivity to antibacterial drugs of 510 strains of shigella newcastle isolated from both sporadic patients and cases during the disease outbreaks was studied. the studies revealed a rather high percentage of shigella newcastle resistant to the antibiotics widely used in clinical practice. most of the strains, i.e. 90.5 per cent were resistant to tetracycline and a significant number of the isolates, i.e. 55.6--53.3 per cent were resistant to streptomycin and erythromycin. a statistically relia ...1977921234
infectious diseases of gastrointestinal origin in the richmond, virginia, area. 1977919721
[microbiological pollution of the environment due to breeding. i. enterobacteriaceae due to cattle breeding].enterobacteriaceae from faeces of cattle belonging to four cattle farms situated in the ferrara district were investigated. at the same time, investigation was made of effluent sewage and recipient wells (upstream and downstream). the cattle (of the italian frisona breed) resulted uncontaminated by salmonellae, but proved to be very susceptible to arizona, citrobacter, shigella and s. gallinarum-pullorum infections, coming from the environment. predominant species in faeces were as follows: prot ...1977911464
[infectious agents in diarrhea of hospitalized children in costa rica].shigella, toxigenic escherichia coli (stable toxin) and rotaviruses were frequently found among 50 children hospitalized with diarrhea studied during one year. these agents were less common among 45 controls without diarrhea, of comparable age and from the same wards as the cases reported. there was a greater frequency of respiratory symptoms in the diarrhea associated with rotaviruses. these were characterized by frequent bowel movements and vomiting and often fever. the bacterial diarrheas sho ...1977911458
salmonellosis and shigellosis in togo (west africa), 1971-1973. ii. infections in the urban population of lomé. 1977910286
studies on the pathogenicity of yersinia enterocolitica. i. experimental infection in rabbits.analysis of the pathogenicity of yersinia enterocolitica was performed with an experimental model successfully produced in rabbits by intraduodenal inoculation with strains isolated from various sources. pathogenic strains easily penetrated the epithelial linings of the intestinal mucous membrane into the target reticuloendothelial tissues of the intestine, such as the lamina propria and lymph follicles, where they multiplied within mononuclear cells and produced granuloma. granuloma, in severe ...1977909458
shigella vaccines, shigella pathogens--dr. jekyll and mr. hyde. 1977908856
icmsf methods studies. ix. the influence of selective enrichment broths, differential planting media, and incubation temperatues on the detection of salmonella in dried foods and feed ingredients.ninety-eight dried foods and feed ingredients were analyzed for salmonella using tetrathionate brilliant green (t) and selenite cystine (s) broths incubated at 35 and 43 degrees c. the four enrichment cultures for each sample were subcultured in duplicate onto brilliant green (bg) , salmonella--shigella (ss), and bismuth sulfite (bs) agars, one plate of each being incubated at 35 degrees c, the other at 43 degrees c. salmonellae were isolated from 44 of the 98 samples. differences in the salmone ...1977907918
[incidence of shigella among personnel employed in food-and water-supply plants in the zagreb region during the period from 1964 to 1973]. 1977906347
giardiasis in day-care centers: evidence of person-to-person august and september 1975, an outbreak of diarrhea occurred in children 1 to 3 1/2 years old attending a day-care center. an investigation revealed overlapping epidemics of shigellosis and giardiasis, with 54% of the children infected with giardia lamblia. at two other centers 29% and 38% of the children had g. lamblia infection, but none had shigella. the prevalence of g. lamblia in the day-care children was significantly higher than the 2% prevalence in age-matched children not in day-care ...1977905014
[classification of acute bacterial enteropathies].the first part considers pathogenic microorganisms (vibrio cholerae and parahaemolytic vibrio, clostridium welchii, enteropathogenic e. coli, shigella, salmonella, other enterobacteria and pseudomonas. yersinia, simply enterotoxic staphylococcus and that producing acute enteritis) and the process of infection (formation of a surface link without endocellular penetration with elaboration of hexotoxins, formation of a surface link with subsequent intracellular penetration, submucosa penetration). ...1977896078
bl-s786, a new parenteral cephalosporin. ii. in vitro antimicrobial activity comparison with six related was compared by in vitro studies with 6 other parenteral cephalosporins (cefamandole, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cephaloridine, cephalothin and cephradine). the following parameters were assessed: comparative mics against a wide variety of bacterial isolates, mic/mbc comparisons and the effect of inoculum size on the mic. bl-s786 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against k. pneumoniae, c. diversus and salmonella species; was equal to cefamandole against e. coli, e. agglomerans and p. ...1977893227
family study of reiter's disease and hla b27 distribution.starting from index patients with confirmed reiter's disease, a clinical and immunogenetic study was performed on 12 families in which there were further cases of arthritis. altogether 51 family members were investigated and some information was available on 15 additional members. in most families there were two or three affected members in addition to the proband. the manifestations included acute polyarthritis (16 cases), which frequently followed urethritis or occurred as a complication of ye ...1977886557
serologic relationship of fimbriae among enterobacteriaceae.the existence of serological relationship of fimbriae among serotypes of the same genus and among genera of enterobacteriaceae was determined by agglutination and absorption procedures. it was found that fimbriae of different serotypes of the same genus and among the genera a) escherichia, shigella and klebsiella, and b) salmonella, arizona and citrobacter were more or less antigentically related. no relationship was found among fimbriae of the edwardsiella, enterobacter, hafnia, serratia, prote ...1977880000
elimination of the shigella carrier state in rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.the shigella carrier state was eliminated from its nonhuman primate host, macaca mulatta. each of 31 animals was treated twice a day for ten consecutive days with 16 mg trimethoprim and 80 mg sulfamethoxazole delivered via stomach tube. fresh rectal swab and stool enrichment cultures were taken for seven consecutive days as well as the 35th and 78th days after treatment, and all were negative for shigellae. in addition, no clinical signs of shigellosis were observed during or following an extens ...1977875006
shigellosis in chandigarh. 1977873578
macrophage phagocytic recognition sites. demonstration of selectivity by hetero- and alloantisera.separate and independent phagocytic recognition sites have been identified on mouse peritoneal macrophages through the use of xenogeneic antimacrophage serum (ams) and allogeneic anti h-2 antisera. anti h-2d and anti h-2b antisera inhibit the binding and ingestion of opsonized erythrocytes (ea) by macrophages bearing h-2 haplotypes d and b, respectively. ams and its f(ab')2 and fab fragments inhibit the binding and ingestion of ea, and the ingestion but not the binding of 125i-labelled shigella ...1977873573
[the diffusion of salmonellae. study of a homogeneous sample of 1257 children under 3 years of age in day-nurseries of rome].with a view to examining the importance of healthy carriers in the diffusion of salmonellas, 1257 faeces cultures were examined in a homogeneous population sample, well distributed in the area and considered healthy. the research was carried out between 5th march and 16th june 1975. 5 pathogenic germs were isolated: 2 s. london, 1 s. wien, 1 s. blokey and 1 shigella. the s. wien proved resistant to several antibiotics. discussing the technical and epidemiological aspects of this investigation, p ...1977870855
[shigella growth under the influence of different types of intestinal wall cells]. 1977865325
[characteristics of the antibiotic sensitivity of the pathogenic enterobacteria isolated from sick children].the authors studied 2287 strains of pathogenic enteric bacteria, i.e. shigella, enteropathogenic escherichia and salmonella freshly isolated from children with respect to their sensitivity to the most widely used antibiotics, i.e. levomycetin, tetracycline, streptomycin, monomycin, neomycin, kanamycin and erythromycin. low sensitivity of these strains to the above antibiotics and their combinations was observed. in the treatment of children of this group it is necessary to take into account mult ...1977860871
[evaluation of new media for the isolation of salmonella and shigella].two hundred stool specimens were studied by using direct and indirect methods on xld, he, emb and ss culture media. the results were consistent with the previous studies. as the media currently used in turkey seem inadequate in the bacteriological diagnosis of salmonella and shigella infections, the introduction of the more satisfactory media such as xld and he is suggested for routine use.1977857121
[shigella and salmonella in kigali (rwanda)]. 1977856071
in vitro activity of cinoxacin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol against shigella and nontyphoid salmonella.the in vitro antibacterial activity of cinoxacin was compared with that of ampicillin and chloramphenicol against 26 strains of nontyphoid salmonella and 44 strains of shigella. cinoxacin was found to have a lower minimal inhibitory concentration than ampicillin and chloramphenicol against all salmonella and shigella sonnei strains. cinoxacin had minimal inhibitory concentrations similar to those of chloramphenicol but lower than those of ampicillin against shigella flexneri and s. boydii strain ...1977856008
xylose lysine deoxycholate agar for the isolation of salmonella and shigella from clinical specimens.xylose lysine deoxycholate (xld) agar was more efficient for the detection of shigella sonnei than salmonella-shigella (ss) agar and drigalski agar, xld was slightly more efficient for the detection of salmonellae by direct plating than ss agar. xylose lysine deoxycholate agar is proposed as the second selective plating medium for shigellae isolation. it is also a useful second selecting plating medium for the isolation of salmonellae serotypes, which form non-characteristic colonies on bismuth- ...1977848209
dna maturation by the "headful" mode in bacteriophage t1. 1977845957
the evolution of the sensitivity to fosfomycin over the past two years.the sensitivity of 1,823 bacteriological strains of differing types is shown (e. coli, klebsiella-enterobacter-serratia, proteus-providence, pseudomonas, salmonella-shigella-citrobacter, haemophilus, staphylococcus and streptococcus); all of clinical origin, isolated during march and april, 1975. the methods used were series of double dilutions in mueller-hinton agar and the disc-plate method (weight of 50 mug). a comparative study is made of the sensitivity between a part of the present strains ...1977832547
[intestinal motility and pattern of biliary acids in healthy children and children with acute and chronic diarrheic syndrome].thirteen children between the ages of six months and six years with acute diarrheal syndrome were investigated for small bowel transit time (sbtt). the results were compared with another study made by our section in which eleven children were studied; seven with chronic non-specific diarrhea and four controls. all the subjects had a double lumen catheter positioned in the small intestine with ports located 1 meter apart. a bolus of 4% p.e.g. was delivered into the stomach and the rate of appeara ...1976829877
[use of the neutralization test for mass population studies].the authors applied the antibody neutralization test (ant) for detection of causative agent of intestinal infections in feces of healthy population in turkmenia. some part of the material was studied in parallel with the aid of the ant and by the bacteriological method. as a result of comparison it appeared that in using the ant causative agents of intestinal infections were revealed much more frequently than by the bacteriological method; in this connection this serological method can be recomm ...1976828825
[antibody levels in patients with bacillary dysentery and carriers. iii. igg, igm and iga antibody responses in sonnei dysentery]. 1976828664
recurrent urinary tract infection due to shigella flexneri--case report.a case of urinary tract infection due to shigella flexneri is reported. the case presented suggests that in persistent and recurrent urinary tract infection in topical countries, investigations for organisms such as shigella flexneri should be considered. urinary tract infection due to shigella flexneri is unknown and as far as we known has not been reported in the literature. a case report is presented in whom recurrent urinary tract infection was due to shigella flexneri and was treated effect ...1976826670
irradiation of cells by single and double pulses of high intensity radiation: oxygen sensitization and diffusion kinetics.the biological effects of ionizing radiation in living cells are the ultimate result of a long chain of events with the initial step being the local absorption of radiation. whereas such physical abosrption is probably over within 10(-16) s after dose delivery, the biological consequences of radiation do not manifest themselves until very much later times. between these two extremes of time, events occur relatively early at the molecular level which are undoubtedly critically related to the stil ...1976826371
basic characterization of w-pili.the bacterial drug-resistance plasmids sa, r388 and r7k that comprise the w compatability group were transferred by conjugation to species in the genera escherichia, salmonella, shigella and pseudomonas, chosen for their lack of common pili. on receiving the w plasmids, all strains produced pili, which were similar morphologically, at average frequencies of up to 3-0 pila/cell. the pili determined by the w plasmids were also related serologically, but unrelated to those of other plasmids. r- seg ...1976825614
glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria. 1976825019
nonenteric shigella infections in nonhuman primates. 1976824262
fluid and electrolyte transport in rhesus monkeys challenged intracecally with shigella flexneri 2a.shigella flexneri 2a is an invasive enteric pathogen that may produce diarrhea when ingested by human beings and subhuman primates. we have previously shown that shigella diarrhea correlates with water and electrolyte transport abnormalities in the jejunum and colon. dysentery alone is associated only with colonic transport abnormalities. to define the relationship between invasion and inflammation of the colon and the occurrence of jejunal transport abnormalities, we studied water and electroly ...1976823110
[antibacterial activity of a carbenicillin-cephaloridin combination].the effectiveness of the combination of carbenicilline and cephaloridine in the ratio of 4:1 was studied. the antibacterial activity of the association whether in vitro or in vivo is sinergic, that is, superior to the simply addition by the individual components. the hematic levels of the combination remain high up to 5 hours after the administration and are greater than those obtained with carbenicilline alone. levels in the urine are high, therefore the species judged to be resistent in vitro ...1975821404
the enterobacteriaceae of south african baboons.the results of routine rectal swab examinations, carried out on 776 baboons on the day of arrival at the colony and also on 394 animals which subsequently developed diarrhoea, are described. a dramatic increase was observed in the incidence of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms during the diarrhoeic phase. the significance of bacterial species which are not pathogenic under normal circumstances as the possible cause of disease in animals subjected to stress is discussed.1976821157
[a microbiological survey of stool samples from normal and diarrheic persons in 2 districts of ankara]. 1975820946
an outbreak of shigellosis in laboratory marmosets and tamarins (family: callithricidae).an outbreak of shigellosis due to shigella sonnei, is reported in laboratory maintained marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and tamarins (saguinus nigricollis). the clinical signs and pathological lesions are described and the microbiological findings discussed. control of the disease was based upon hygiene and antibiotic therapy and the consequences of this approach are described in detail.1976819574
cell-wall lipopolysaccharide of the 'shigella-like' escherichia coli 0124. structure of the polysaccharide chain.from escherichia coli 0124 two lipopolysaccharide preparations were obtained with phenol/water extraction and cetavlon precipitation. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate and chemical analysis showed that the two preparations from e. coli 0124 and the corresponding preparations from shigella dysenteriae type 3 reacted alike. the o-specific polysaccharide moiety was characterized with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, optical rotation and paper electro ...1976819266
[drug resistance and distribution of r factors among shigella strains]. 1976816981
extracellular deoxyribonuclease activity of pseudomonas aeruginosa.pseudomonas aeruginosa cultured on deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) media containing nissan's heart extract or chicken heart extract could produce extracellular deoxyribonuclease, while on other dna media with heart extracts from cow, pig and mouse could not. variation in the kind of peptones in the dna media did not make significant difference in this activity, although some peptones caused cloudiness of the media. p. aeruginosa did not need cation activators of chloride compounds to produce extrace ...1975816619
[respect for biological balance in the treatment of liquid waste with a new disinfectant]. 1975815893
[dynamics of multiplication and changes in the virulence of various pathogenic microorganisms in milk and milk products]. 1975814792
[antibacterial activity of a lysozyme-like enzyme from staphylococci].a lysozyme-like enzyme isolated from the culture broth of staph. aureus 712 presented in its native state a lipoproteid complex. the lytic and antibacterial spectrum of the enzyme was similar to that of the egg albumin enzyme. however, the lipoproteid complex was somewhat superior to the egg albumin complex in its activity against micrococcus lysodeikticus, a number of gramnegative bacteria and staphylococci. out of the organisms studied microccus lysodeikticus, sarcina and bac. subtilis proved ...1975813563
enterobacterial chelators of iron: their occurrence, detection, and relation to or on agar media, low-density seedings of enterobacteria fail to grow in the presence of certain concentrations of ethylene diamine-di-orthohydroxyphenyl acetic acid (edda); on the other hand, high-density seedings not only grow but secrete iron chelators which release the iron bound by the edda in the medium and stimulate the growth of low-density seedings. plates of media containing edda with low-density seedings of indicator organisms were used to survey iron-chelator production in seven e ...1975812996
nationwide survey of antibiotic resistance by means of a computer. an introduction into the analysis of multiple antibiotic surveillance of single and multiple antibiotic resistance of 8 species of so-called "problem bacteria" by computer analysis of data obtained from 18 public health laboratories in slovakia in 1973 enables to establish the most frequently occuring spectra of multiple drug resistance which would point to the spread of typical r plasmids among the problem bacteria investigated. as an introduction, we surveyed the mode of testing of problem bacteria in individual phls against antibiotics - d ...1975812292
bacteriophage typing of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria. 1975811424
[the antibiotic effect of the madder root (rubia tinctorium)]. 1975810813
disinfectant effect of performic acid.1. performic acid applied at short exposures to various kinds of microorganisms known for their resistance shows a strong bactericidal and sporicidal effect. 2. in addition to disinfection of hands and other parts of the body, the preparation could be used for the disinfection of various surfaces and objects.1975810511
animal model of human disease. bacillary dysentery, shigellosis, shigella dysentery. animal model: monkey shigellosis or dysentery. 1975810032
transmissible drug resistance in shigella and salmonella isolated from pet monkeys and their owners.during two dysentery outbreaks in primate pet owners, shigella and salmonella strains were isolated from the enteric flora. in both outbreaks the source of infection was traced to asymptomatic spider monkeys (ateles geoffroyi). the spider monkeys and their owners shed multiply drug-resistant shigella and salmonella serotypes. six of the nine bacterial strains isolated from the animals were multiply drug-resistant and capable of transferring antibiotic resistance patterns.1975808621
chemistry of cephalosporin antibiotics. 28. preparation and biological activity of 3-(substituted)vinyl cephalosporins.3-(substituted)vinylcephem nuclei have been prepared by the reaction of 3-formylcephem derivatives with stabilized phosphoranes. appropriate synthetic steps allowed preparation of a series of 3-ethoxycarbonylvinyl- and 3-carboxyvinylcephem derivatives bearing a variety of 7-acylamino functions. the phenoxyacetyl and thiopheneacetyl derivatives of the 3-cyanovinylcephem nucleus were also prepared. although general gram-positive activity was comparable to cephalothin in many cases, against penicil ...1975808607
arylamidase activity of salmonella species.arylamidase activity in cell extracts of sonically cell treated suspensions of 23 salmonella strains, including 12 strains of s. typhimurium, was investigated. all cultures hydrolyzed five of nine different neutral and basic substrates. activity against aspartyl-, cystyl- histidinyl-, and isoleucyl-beta-naphylamide was negligible. alanyl-beta-naphthylamide was the preferred substrate for the salmonella species; however, specific activities ranged widely. of several gram-negative organisms survey ...1975808165
the influence of some cations on bacterial endotoxins: the course of its isolation and purification, bacterial endotoxin may be contaminated by some inorganic cations. the present study was concerned with cu-2+ contamination of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (lps) extracted from shigella dysenteriae 1 s and r strains. the cu-2+ contamination level of lps prepared by raynaud's method and partly purified through sephadex g200 and sepharose 4b was in the range of 1-5 mug cu-2+/mg lps. crude raynauds extract, similarly as lps prepared by west ...1975808051
nation-wide survey of antibiotic resistance by means of a computer. analysis of 200.000 strains of problem bacteria isolated in 1973.based on a pilot study performed in 5 district public health laboratories (phl) in the slovakia in 1972 (1), the computer system for elaborating the informations concerning the resistance of "problem bacteria" to antibiotics has completely been introduced in 18 phls for all-year studies on the resistance to antibiotics in 1973. the results obtained in each phl and also in total of about 200.000 bacterial strains belonging to 8 of the clinically most important bacterial species were passed on to ...1975808050
divalent cation stimulation of the cell infectivity of shigella flexneri 2a. 1975807763
substituted 1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones.a series of 1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones has been prepared. a new synthesis of 4-alkyl-1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones involving the oxidative ring closure of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde 2-(2-hydroxyethylalkyl)semicarbazones is described. the in vitro testing of the compounds against a variety of bacteria is reported.1975807733
conditions critical for optimal visualization of bacteriophage adsorbed to bacterial surfaces by scanning electron microscopy.the potential of scanning electron microscopy as a tool for the detection of viruses on cell surfaces has been studied using bacteriophage p1 adsorbed to shigella dysenteriae as a model system. viral particles were readily detectable by scanning electron microscopy on the surface of infected cells which were fixed with glutaraldehyde followed by postfixation in oso4 and prepared by critical point drying. the virus-studded surface of the infected cells differed markedly from the relatively smooth ...1975806704
microbial development of drug resistance: mechanisms and clinical significance.bacteria have demonstrated a disconcerting ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents nearly as quickly as new compounds become available. during the past two decades the molecular bases of several types of resistance have been elucidated. mechanisms of resistance include the transference of genetic material either through conjugation (involving direct contact between microorganisms), or indirectly through transduction (involving bacteriophages). in addition to this "infectious" drug ...1975806419
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections, including enteric fever and typhoid carriers.forty-three patients suffering from typhoid fever, 11 from paratyphoid fever, six from bacillary dysentery caused by shigella flexneri, and nine carriers of salmonella typhi or s. paratyphi b, have been treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compound. fifty-one of the 54 patients who had typhoid fever or paratyphoid fever responded satisfactorily to treatment. two patients with typhoid fever failed to respond and one died. in the patients with bacillary dysentery acute symptoms subsided rapi ...1975805647
comparison of the germicidal activity of prepodyne and betadine surgical scrub solutions.two iodophoric surgical scrubs soaps, prepodyne and betadine, were evaluated for bacteriocidal activity in a modified phenol coefficient test. a standard inoculum of each of 18 species of microorganisms was mixed with a 1:8 dilution of each iodophor and subcultured after one, three, and five minutes of exposure. complete cidal activty was exhibited by both prepodyne and betadine. twenty-five subjects were tested in hand washing experiments using betadine and prepodyne surgical scrub solutions. q ...1975805538
in-vitro effect of edta-tris-lysozyme solutions on selected pathogenic bacteria.the in-vitro effect of edta-tris-lysozyme solution on 16 pathogenic bacteria of medical or veterinary importance was determined. marked decreases in bacterial count occurred with pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, moraxella osloensis and campylobacter fetus, and smaller decreses with salmonella typhimurium, shigella boydii, aeromonas hydrophila, proteus mirabilis, listeria monocytogenes and erysipelothrix insidiosa. the test solution had no effect on klebsiella ozaenae, brucella canis, co ...1975805241
behaviour and indicator value of some microorganisms under conditions of soil contamination by pesticides.the comparative effect of two organophosphorus pesticides (chlorophos and metaphos) on escherichia coli, an enterococcus and shigella organisms present in chernozem, podzolic, and loamy soils was investigated. a considerable level of resistance of the test organisms to the insecticides was established. this was expressed by their behaviour only changing on contamination of the soil samples with the insecticides in amounts considerably exceeding those used in natural conditions. escherichia coli ...1975805171
[vibriolysis in cholera and nag-vibrios].the causative agent of classic cholera, vibrios of the el-tor biotype and nag-vibrios produced on agar plates a substance which lysed killed indicator strains of the vibrios and the gram negative bacilli, but was indifferent against the gram positive bacilli. the action of the vibriolysins varied extending from the causative agent of classic cholera in the direction of saprophytes.1975804789
the destruction of tumor cells by alloimmune peritoneal cells: mechanism of action of activated macrophages in vitro. 1975804549
the effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. iii. bacteriolysis induced by extracts of different leukocyte populations and the inhibition of lysis by macromolecular substances.the lysis of 14c-labeled bacteria by hydrolases of human and rabbit leukocytes was studied in vitro. while staphylococcus albus, streptococcus faecalis, and streptococcus mutans were highly susceptible to lysis, staphylococcus auresus was intermediate in its susecptibility to lysis by the leukocyte enzymes. group a streptococcus, listeria monocytogenes, shigella flexneri, escherichia coli, and mycobacterium smegmatis were very resistant to degradation by these enzymes. the lytic activity of leuk ...1975804017
demonstration of cell division by septation in a variety of gram-negative rods.through use of an initial fixative employing a combination of crotonaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, septa were preserved in thin sections of dividing cells of strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhimurium, shigella sonnei, and escherichia coli when grown at 30 c in a dilute basal medium. the same procedures, however, revealed only a constrictive division process in proteus vulgaris and erwinia sp. this adds to the evidence that septation, although difficult to demonstrate, is the proces ...1975803487
[microbiological analysis of vindolinina (an alkaloid isolated from catharanthus roseus) and some of its structural changes].bacteriostatic properties of vindolinina (an alkaloid isolated from catharanthus roseus that has an ester group within its molecule) as well as of its alkaline-hydrolysis product (vindolininic acid) crystallized as chlorhydrate, and of the product of its reduction with lithium and aluminum hydrides (vindolininol) are compared. several strains of bacteria pathogenic to man (proteus, escherichia, shigella, staphylococcus, and pseudomonas) cultured in nutritive-agar dishes containing disks and incu ...1976802793
scanning electron microscopic studies on the microstructure of s and r type colonies of salmonella and shigella groups. 1976802350
gastro-enteritis in egypt, certain epidemiological aspects. 1976801623
[researches on antibiotic-resistance in "shigella sonnei" and "flexneri" and in "salmonella typhimurium" (author's transl)].ampicillin (a), streptomycin (s), aminosidin (k), chloramphenical (c) and tetracycline (t) resistance was investigated in 130 s. typhi murium, 18 shigella flexneri and 13 shigella sonnei strains, recovered from enteritis cases in 1970-1973. all salmonella and 70% shigella strains (without any appreciable differences between sh. sonnei and flexneri) were found resistant and most multiresistant. a-s-k-c-t resistance was frequently found: in 48% of the salmonella and 12% of the shigella strains. as ...1976800942
[chemical structure and biological activities of lipopolysaccharides (author's transl)]. 1976800274
resistance to antibiotics of shigella strains isolated in somalia.the resistance to antibiotics of 240 shigella strains isolated in somalia from 1973 to 1976 was studied. many strains, particularly those of shigella dysenteriae type 1, were found to be resistant to more than one drug. in view of their resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides, it is suggested that polymyxin b or m sulfate - which have proved to be effective in vivo - should be used for the treatment of clinically typical cases of bacillary dysenter ...1976799953
immunity of the guinea pig's eye after vaccination with shigella sonnei phase i antigen.a total of 8 doses, each containing 10(9) live or heated cells of pure phase i antigen of shigella sonnei and plesiomonas shigelloides, was administered into the conjunctival sac of guinea pigs during a 3-week period. the eyes were challenged with virulent s. sonnei. the vaccines protected the eyes in 50-80% to the minimum infecting dose andin 20-50% to 3 mid. the peak of immunity began to decrease after the 26th day and on the 56th day it was practically nil. vaccination caused histological cha ...1976799899
generalized transduction of shigella flexneri by converting phage pe5.phage pe5, responsible for the conversion of type v antigen in shigella flexneri, has the ability to produce generalized transduction. the correlation between phage multiplicity and the number of transductants, the specific inhibitory activity of anti-pe5 serum, and the lack of transduction in pe5 resistant recipients, indicate the role of phage pe5 in generalized transduction. transduction of the r100-1 factor resulted in a non-transmissible tetracycline resistance segragation. the characterist ...1976799898
transfer of colicinogenic and antibiotic resistance factors of shigella sonnei. 1976799726
[distribution of lysotypes and study of antibiotic sensitivity of shigella flexneri 2 isolated in iran].152 strains of shigella flexneri 2 isolated from the stools of patients having sporadic bacillary dysenteria have been studied for their phage types as well as for the presence of transferable resistance factor. the distribution of the phage types has shown a high predominance of lysotype 12 (67%). proportion of shigella flexneri 2 strains resistant to one or several antibiotics has been highest in the years 1968 and 1973. the most frequent transferable resistance pattern was found to be (tc, cm ...1976799541
[production and characteristics of glycerin mutants of s. typhimurium].s. typhimurium glycerine mutants-gly 90 and gly 87 were obtained under the action of ethylmethanesulfonate. the mutants obtained were characterized by the site of block in the course of glycerine utilization:gly 90 mutant bore the mutation in the glp k-gene, this leading to the defect by glycerokinase-the enzyme of the first stage of glycerine metabolism; gly 87 mutant had derangements in the other stage of glycerine utilization. both mutants lost their capacity to induce keratoconjunctivitis in ...1976799451
[copro- and serum antibodies to enteropathogenic bacteria in patients with sonne dysentery and other acute intestinal diseases]. 1976799369
[antibodies to enteropathogenic bacteria in the saliva of patients with different forms of acute intestinal diseases and healthy subjects]. 1976799368
[mechanism of increasing vascular permeability under the influence of dysentery endotoxin]. 1976799293
[relationship between the epithelium and the stroma of the small-intestinal mucosa during antigenic stimulation].the state of cells and intercellular structures, as well as the pattern of interaction between the epithelium and the stroma of the small intestine mucosa following their exposure to microbic toxins were studied in experiments on rabbits using histological, histochemical and immunofluorescent methods. it was established that the immuno-barrier function of the intestine was implemented by the brush border, epithelial cells, their basal membrane, fibres and cells of lamina propia of the mucosa. da ...1976798566
[effect of r-factors on the sensitivity of shigella sonnei to nalidixic acid].bacteriostatic effect of nalidixic acid was studied by the method of serial dilutions in nutrient agar using 36 antibiotic sensitive strains of shigella sonnei and their conjugated substrains carrying separately the following r-factors: r1(tccmsm) fi-, r2(tccm) fi+, r3(cmsm) fi-. the above r-factors were isolated from clinical strains of shigella sonnei and transferred to the strains studied by means of an intermediate donor of e. coli mf-nr. the bactericidal effect of nalidixic acid was studied ...1976798548
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