TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
development of a travelers' diarrhea vaccine for the military: how much is an ounce of prevention really worth?infectious diarrhea is one of the many threats to the deployed military, and given limited resources, a decision to pursue a vaccine acquisition strategy should be based on best evidence that weighs costs and benefits compared to alternatives. an economic model was developed to estimate the marginal cost to avert a duty day lost due to diarrhea for a vaccine acquisition strategy compared to current clinical management, for both multiplex and pathogen-specific vaccines. vaccines against campyloba ...200818417259
preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--10 states, 2007.the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) of cdc's emerging infections program collects data from 10 u.s. states regarding diseases caused by pathogens commonly transmitted through food. foodnet quantifies and monitors the incidence of these infections by conducting active, population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed infections. this report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2007 and compares them with data for previous years. in 2007, the estimated inciden ...200818401330
characterisation of escherichia coli strains involved in transcytosis across gut epithelial cells exposed to metabolic and inflammatory stress.translocation of normally non-pathogenic bacteria across the gut may drive inflammatory responses associated with sepsis and inflammatory bowel disease. recent evidence suggests translocation may not be purely passive, but occurs via novel transcellular pathways activated in enterocytes by inflammatory and metabolic stress. the specificity of this pathway with respect to different e. coli strains and other bacterial species, and possible molecular determinants of the "translocating" phenotype ha ...200818403240
the emergence and fate of horizontally acquired genes in escherichia coli.bacterial species, and even strains within species, can vary greatly in their gene contents and metabolic capabilities. we examine the evolution of this diversity by assessing the distribution and ancestry of each gene in 13 sequenced isolates of escherichia coli and shigella. we focus on the emergence and demise of two specific classes of genes, orfans (genes with no homologs in present databases) and hops (genes with distant homologs), since these genes, in contrast to most conserved ancestral ...200818404206
insecticidal properties and microbial contaminants in a spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (baculoviridae) formulation stored at different temperatures.the spodoptera exigua (hübner) multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (semnpv) is currently being tested as a biological insecticide for use in greenhouse crops in southern spain. we performed a study in which semipurified semnpv occlusion bodies (obs) were formulated in phosphate-buffered saline, ph 6.5, with 5% (vol:vol) glycerol and 0.15% (wt:vol) sorbic acid, and they were stored at -20, 4, or 25 degrees c during 18 mo. initial aerobic counts (+/-se) averaged 1.4 (+/-0.17) x 10(7) colony-forming unit ...200818330114
subversion of actin dynamics by espm effectors of attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens.rho gtpases are common targets of bacterial toxins and type iii secretion system effectors. ipgb1 and ipgb2 of shigella and map of enteropathogenic (epec) and enterohemorrhagic (ehec) escherichia coli were recently grouped together on the basis that they share a conserved wxxxe motif. in this study, we characterized six wxxxe effectors from attaching and effacing pathogens: trca and espm1 of epec strain b171, espm1 and espm2 of ehec strain sakai and espm2 and espm3 of citrobacter rodentium. we s ...200818331467
prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including campylobacter, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, as well as arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in belfast zoological gardens, during july-september 2006. thermophilic campylobacters including campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (1 ...200818331520
a pharmacokinetic study of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin after oral and intramuscular dosing of enrofloxacin in rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta).enrofloxacin is used for treating shigellosis in non-human primates; however, there are no reports describing its pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys. pharmacokinetic data in intended target species (rhesus) help to determine the proper dose regimen. blood levels of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (enrofloxacin's active metabolite), were determined after either intramuscular or oral dosing of enrofloxacin for 7 days in a cross-over study. levels of both antibiotics were determined by solid phase e ...200818384536
antimicrobial activity of 2,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone from embelia schimperi.chromatographic separation of an ethyl acetate extract from embelia schimperi led to the isolation of a new compound identified as 2,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (1) on the basis of spectroscopic and physical data. the plant's crude extract and pure compound 1 were assayed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of salmonella spp., proteus spp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, cryptococcus neoformans, shigella dysentriae and staphylo ...200818386487
a cost function analysis of shigellosis in thailand.the purpose of this study was to develop a cost function model to estimate the public treatment cost of shigellosis patients in thailand.200818387071
human-derived probiotic lactobacillus reuteri demonstrate antimicrobial activities targeting diverse enteric bacterial pathogens.lactobacillus reuteri is a commensal-derived anaerobic probiotic that resides in the human gastrointestinal tract. l. reuteri converts glycerol into a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound, reuterin, which inhibits the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. in this study, we compared four human-derived l. reuteri isolates (atcc 55730, atcc pta 6475, atcc pta 4659 and atcc pta 5289) in their ability to produce reuterin and to inhibit the growth of different enteric pathogens i ...200818396068
increased isolation and characterization of shigella sonnei obtained from hospitalized children in tehran, iran.shigella flexneri has been the most frequent cause of shigellosis in children in iran. to evaluate the changes in frequency of serogroups, 302 shigella species were isolated in 2003 from hospitalized children, aged less than 12 years, with acute diarrhoea in tehran, iran. the number of collected s. sonnei, s. flexneri, s. boydii, and s. dysenteriae isolates was 178 (58.9%), 110 (37.4%), 10 (3.3%), and 4 (1.3%) respectively. most (94%) s. sonnei isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole. they wer ...200819069621
prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in gondar town, northwest with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. the study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the university of gondar and the gondar teachers training college, gondar, ethiopia. fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. the samples were e ...200819069624
prevalence of shigella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in southern trinidad.the serogroup distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of shigella isolates obtained from stool specimens of persons with acute diarrhoea in community-based studies from southern trinidad during 1997-2006 were reviewed. of the 5,187 stool specimens, 392 (8%) were positive for shigella organisms. from these 392 isolates, 88.8% were recovered from children aged >0-10 year(s). shigella sonnei was the most frequently-isolated serogroup (75%), followed by s. flexneri (19%), s. boydii (4 ...200819069625
characterization of shigella spp. by antimicrobial resistance and pcr detection of ipa genes in an infantile population from porto velho (western amazon region), brazil.the incidence of shigella spp. was assessed in 877 infants from the public hospital in rondônia (western amazon region, brazil) where shigella represents the fourth cause of diarrhea. twenty-five isolates were identified: 18 were shigella flexneri, three shigella sonnei, three shigella boydii and one shigella dysenteriae. with the exception of s. dysenteriae, all shigella spp. isolated from children with diarrhea acquired multiple antibiotic resistances. pcr detection of ipa virulence genes and ...200819057826
[antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains in paediatric infections: there are resistance and resistance!].isolation of a bacterial strain at the infectious site and determination of the susceptibility profile may help to guide appropriate antibiotic treatment. however technical difficulties justify interpretative reading to recognize interfering resistance mechanisms from resistance phenotypes. the aim of this article is to give some examples showing interpretative reading of routine sensitivity test data.200819000854
spa32 interaction with the inner-membrane spa40 component of the type iii secretion system of shigella flexneri is required for the control of the needle length by a molecular tape measure mechanism.the effectors of enterocyte invasion by shigella are dependent on a type iii secretion system that contains a needle whose length average does not exceed 50 nm. previously, we reported that spa32 is required for needle length control as well as to switch substrate specificity from mxih to ipa proteins secretion. to identify functional domains of spa32, 11 truncated variants were constructed and analysed for their capacity (i) to control the needle's length; (ii) to secrete the ipa proteins; and ...200819019157
the acrab-tolc pump is involved in multidrug resistance in clinical shigella flexneri isolates.the two multiple-antibiotic resistance (mar) phenotypes (n = 8, respectively) and susceptible isolates (n = 4) of shigella flexneri from china were characterized involving the efflux pump acrab-tolc. the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, acrab-tolc pcr, and levels of mrna with northern blots were performed in three groups. sequencing of acrab-tolc was performed in selected isolates. an efflux inhibition was performed with phe-arg-beta-naphthylamide. the accumulation of ciprofloxacin at steady state ...200819035770
gef-h1 mediated control of nod1 dependent nf-kappab activation by shigella effectors.shigella flexneri has evolved the ability to modify host cell function with intracellular active effectors to overcome the intestinal barrier. the detection of these microbial effectors and the initiation of innate immune responses are critical for rapid mucosal defense activation. the guanine nucleotide exchange factor h1 (gef-h1) mediates rhoa activation required for cell invasion by the enteroinvasive pathogen shigella flexneri. surprisingly, gef-h1 is requisite for nf-kappab activation in re ...200819043560
outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. part 4. infective doses and pathogen this article, the fourth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the presence of enteric pathogens in the community, the numbers of organisms required to initiate an infection, and the length of carriage are presented. although workers have been implicated in outbreaks, they were not always aware of their infections, either because they were in the prodromic phase before symptoms began or because they were asymptomatic carriers. pathoge ...200819044283
shigella from humans in thailand during 1993 to 2006: spatial-time trends in species and serotype thailand during 1993-2006, a total of 9063 shigella isolates from different medical centers were serotyped and trends over time and spatial clustering analyzed. of 3583 cases with age information, 1315 (37%) cases were from children between 0 and 4 years and 684 (19%) from children between 5 and 8 years. most infections were recorded during 1993-1994 (> 1500 per year), decreasing to < 200 in 2006. the relative species distribution also changed. during 1993-1994, shigella flexneri accounted fo ...200819086804
[structures of o-polysaccharides from two shigella dysenteriae type 8 strains].the structure of the o-polysaccharide (o-antigen) from shigella dysenteriae type 8 bacteria (strain 599) was corrected using modern nmr techniques (structure 1). the revisions concerned the position of the glc residue (in the main, but not the side, chain), the site of its substitution, and the configuration of the o-glycoside linkage of the glcnac residue. the s. dysenteriae type 8 bacterium (strain g1221), the second investigated representative, was found to produce another structural variant ...200819088755
genomic analysis of bacteriophage epsilon 34 of salmonella enterica serovar anatum (15+).the presence of prophages has been an important variable in genetic exchange and divergence in most bacteria. this study reports the determination of the genomic sequence of salmonella phage epsilon 34, a temperate bacteriophage that was important in the early study of prophages that modify their hosts' cell surface and is of a type (p22-like) that is common in salmonella genomes.200819091116
analysis of plasmid genes by phylogenetic profiling and visualization of homology relationships using blast2network.phylogenetic methods are well-established bioinformatic tools for sequence analysis, allowing to describe the non-independencies of sequences because of their common ancestor. however, the evolutionary profiles of bacterial genes are often complicated by hidden paralogy and extensive and/or (multiple) horizontal gene transfer (hgt) events which make bifurcating trees often inappropriate. in this context, plasmid sequences are paradigms of network-like relationships characterizing the evolution o ...200819099604
[detection and identification of seven clinical common pathogenic bacteria by oligonucleotide microarray].using 16s rdna and 23s rdna genes as the target sequences to develop a system based on oligonucleotide microarray and to detect the seven clinical pathogenic bacteria, commonly seen.200819103121
water-related diseases outbreaks reported in italy.water related disease outbreak (wrdo) statistics in italy from 1998 to 2005 have been discussed in this paper. the true incidence of wrdo is not reflected in the national surveillance system (nss), although this study has provided information on pathogens associated to different water sources, incidence in regions and inadequacy of regulations. 192 outbreaks and 2546 cases of wrd were reported to the nss, an average of 318 cases per year. cases were associated to shellfish (58.79%), drinking wat ...200819108563
in silico comparison of simple sequence repeats in high nucleotides-rich genomes of microorganism.this study determined the distribution of a specific group of simple sequence repeats (ssrs), in genome sequences of 7 chromosomes (shigella flexneri 2a str 301 and 2457 t, shigella sonnei, e. coli k12, m. tuberculosis, m. leprae and s. saprophytycus) have downloaded from the genbank database for identifying abundance, distribution and composition of ssrs. the data obtained in the present study show that: (i) tandem repeats are widely distributed throughout the genomes. (ii) ssrs are differentia ...200819137845
a pilot sheds light on secretin assembly. 200818940600
structural characterization of the type-iii pilot-secretin complex from shigella flexneri.assembly of the type-iii secretion apparatus, which translocates proteins through both membranes of gram-negative bacterial pathogens into host cells, requires the formation of an integral outer-membrane secretin ring. typically, a small lipidated pilot protein is necessary for the stabilization and localization of this ring. using nmr spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the c-terminal residues 553-570 of the shigella flexneri secretin mxid encompass the minimal binding domain for its cognate pilo ...200818940609
antimicrobial activity of endemic crataegus tanacetifolia (lam.) pers and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells.up to now an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been reported and thus new natural therapeutic agents are needed in order to eradicate these pathogens. through the discovery of plants such as crataegus tanacetifolia (lam.) pers that have antimicrobial activity, it will be possible to discover new natural drugs serving as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of nosocomial pathogens and take these antibiotic-resistant bacteria under control. the objective of the present s ...200818946875
detection of protozoan and bacterial pathogens of public health importance in faeces of corvus spp. (large-billed crow).parasites and bacteria are reported in the faeces of birds in the current study. fresh faecal samples of the large-billed crow (corvus spp.) were collected from the study site at bangsar, an urban setting in kuala lumpur, malaysia. these samples were transported to laboratory and analysed for parasites and bacteria. pre-prepared xld agar plates were used for culturing the bacteria in the laboratory. using the api 20etm test strips, 9 different species of bacteria were identified belonging to the ...200818948884
analysis of immune responses and serological cross reactivities among vibrio cholerae o1, shigella flexneri 2a and haemophilus influenzae b.antigenic determinants expressed on the bacterial cell surface are of importance in the serological characterization and microbiological diagnosis. the bacterial strains carrying these identical or similar antigenic epitopes might react with antibodies produced against other strains. in this study, strong immunogenicity and antigenic cross reactivity were demonstrated among v. cholerae o1, s. flexnerii 2a and h. influenzae b surface components. the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) resul ...200818954564
the elucidation of the structure of the core part of the lps from plesiomonas shigelloides serotype o17 expressing o-polysaccharide chain identical to the shigella sonnei o-chain.plesiomonas shigelloides o17 lps contains the same o-antigenic polysaccharide chain as a causative agent of dysentery, shigella sonnei. this polysaccharide can be used as a component of a vaccine against dysentery. core part of the p. shigelloides o17 lps was studied using nmr and mass spectrometry and the following structure was proposed: [structure : see text]. significant similarity of the p. shigelloides o17 lps core with the structure of the p. shigelloides o54 core was observed.200818954864
structure of the shigella t3ss effector ipah defines a new class of e3 ubiquitin ligases.ipah proteins are e3 ubiquitin ligases delivered by the type iii secretion apparatus into host cells upon infection of humans by the gram-negative pathogen shigella flexneri. these proteins comprise a variable leucine-rich repeat-containing n-terminal domain and a conserved c-terminal domain harboring an invariant cysteine residue that is crucial for activity. ipah homologs are encoded by diverse animal and plant pathogens. here we demonstrate that the ipah c-terminal domain carries the catalyti ...200818997778
structure of a shigella effector reveals a new class of ubiquitin ligases.bacterial pathogens have evolved effector proteins with ubiquitin e3 ligase activities through structural mimicking. here we report the crystal structure of the shigella flexneri type iii effector ipah3, a member of the leucine-rich repeat (lrr)-containing bacterial e3 family. the lrr domain is structurally similar to yersinia pestis yopm and potentially binds to substrates. the structure of the c-terminal e3 domain differs from the typical ring- and hect-type e3s. ipah3 synthesizes a lys48-link ...200818997779
in this issue: proteomics 20/ this issue of proteomics you will find the following highlighted articles:comprehensively confirmed annotation of short orfsduring the california gold rush, prospectors did not look only for large nuggets to pave their road to riches - they also collected gold dust. the proteomic equivalent of dust is the small orf. it does not pay to put a lower limit on dust or orf size because almost any size may be turned into "cash" or an important peptide. wei et al. demonstrate how a combination of con ...200818924177
closing the diarrhoea diagnostic gap in indian children by the application of molecular techniques.a large proportion of diarrhoeal illnesses in children in developing countries are ascribed to an unknown aetiology because the only available methods, such as microscopy and culture, have low sensitivity. this study was aimed at decreasing the diagnostic gap in diarrhoeal disease by the application of molecular techniques. faecal samples from 158 children with and 99 children without diarrhoea in a hospital in south india were tested for enteric pathogens using conventional diagnostic methods ( ...200818927413
porin-incorporated liposome induces toll-like receptors 2- and 6-dependent maturation and type 1 response of dendritic cell.porin of shigella dysenteriae was incorporated in liposome (pil) and presented to mouse splenic dendritic cells (dc). pil up-regulated toll-like receptor (tlr) 2 and tlr6 on dc, showing that co-expression of the two tlrs is involved in recognition of porin. detection of myeloid differentiating factor 88 (myd88)-tlr2 complex confirmed interaction between the two for triggering the downstream signaling, which ultimately led to tlr2-dependent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa b. pil-ind ...200818931363
biometric fingerprinting for visa application: device and procedure are risk factors for infection transmission.biometric fingerprint identity verification is currently introduced in visa application and entry screening at border control. the system implies physical contact between the skin and the surface of the fingerprint-capturing and reading devices.200819006507
functional nanoparticle-based proteomic strategies for characterization of pathogenic bacteria.although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (maldi ms) can be employed to rapidly characterize pathogenic bacteria, bacterial cultures are generally required to obtain sufficient quantities of the bacterial cells prior to maldi ms analysis. if this time-consuming step could be eliminated, the length of time required for identification of bacterial strains would be greatly reduced. in this paper, we propose an effective means of rapidly identifying bacteria--one that do ...200819007241
is escherichia coli o157:h7 a common pathogen in children with bloody diarrhea in shiraz, iran?escherichia coli (e. coli) o157:h7 is a common cause of bloody diarrhea in developed countries. the aim of this study was to determine whether e. coli o157:h7 is a possible pathogen of bloody diarrhea in southern iran. out of 719 children with diarrhea, 243 (34%) patients with positive occult blood took part in our study. the polyclonal antibody test and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were used to identify e. coli o157:h7. stool cultures showed enteropathogens in 107 patients (44%). shigella (3 ...200819014048
gateways to clinical trials.11d10, 9vpnc-mncc; adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, aln-rsv01, ame-133, amg-317, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, anisodamine, anti-il-5 receptor antibody, apremilast, aripiprazole, atacicept, atazanavir sulfate, atrasentan; banoxantrone, bevacizumab, bibw-2992, binodenoson, bms-387032; cac10, caldaret hydrate, cd-np, ceftobiprole medocaril, celivarone fumarate, certolizumab pegol, cholesteryl hydrophobized polysaccharide-her2 protein complex, ...200818773127
novel cassette arrays of integrons in clinical strains of enterobacteriaceae in hundred and forty-two enterobacteriaceae isolates randomly selected from four general hospitals in nanjing region of china were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility, the presence of integrons and the characterisation of gene cassettes. eighty-five (59.9%) enterobacteriaceae strains contained class 1 integrons, and 17 (65.4%) of 26 shigella contained class 2 integrons. class 3 integrons were not detected in this study. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and dna sequencing a ...200818778917
novel fold of vira, a type iii secretion system effector protein from shigella flexneri.vira, a secreted effector protein from shigella sp., has been shown to be necessary for its virulence. it was also reported that vira might be related to papain-like cysteine proteases and cleave alpha-tubulin, thus facilitating intracellular spreading. we have now determined the crystal structure of vira at 3.0 a resolution. the shape of the molecule resembles the letter "v," with the residues in the n-terminal third of the 45-kda molecule (some of which are disordered) forming one clearly iden ...200818787201
[molecular typing of isolates from two dysentery outbreaks in chengdu, through pulsed field gel electrophoresis technology].using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) typing to analyze strains isolated from two outbreaks caused by shigella sonnei and to trace the source of infection.200818788530
the roles of two-component systems in virulence of pathogenic escherichia coli and shigella spp.two-component systems (tcss) are well conserved among e. coli strains, including pathogenic e. coli and also closely related shigella spp. although 25% of the genome of pathogenic e. coli is strain-specific, only small number of strain-specific tcss is found. regulation of virulence genes in response to environmental stimuli is partly dependent on tcss commonly present in nonpathogenic e. coli strains. some virulence genes are directly regulated by response regulator oftcs but some are affected ...200818792690
structural and functional studies indicate that shigella vira is not a protease and does not directly destabilize microtubules.vira, an essential virulence factor in shigella disease pathogenesis, is involved in the uptake, motility, and cell-to-cell spread of shigella organisms within the human host. these functions have been attributed to a vira protease activity and a mechanism of microtubule destruction via tubulin degradation [yoshida, s., et al. (2006) science 314, 985-989]. we report functional and crystallographic data indicating a novel vira structure that lacks these activities but highlights the homology to t ...200818763811
bacterial conjugation in the cytoplasm of mouse cells.intracellular pathogenic organisms such as salmonellae and shigellae are able to evade the effects of many antibiotics because the drugs are not able to penetrate the plasma membrane. in addition, these bacteria may be able to transfer genes within cells while protected from the action of drugs. the primary mode by which virulence and antibiotic resistance genes are spread is bacterial conjugation. salmonellae have been shown to be competent for conjugation in the vacuoles of cultured mammalian ...200818765719
shigellosis in puducherry. 200818765885
molecular approach and bacterial quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities in egypt.water is necessary to life so when supplied as drinking water to consumers, a satisfactory quality must be maintained. in egypt, infectious intestinal diseases are the major cause of hospitalization in almost all regions. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples from urban and rural communities. thirty-five samples of treated (chlorinated) water from taps, 25 samples of bottled water and 15 samples of hand pump (untreated) water ...200818800596
incidence of bacterial enteropathogens among hospitalized diarrhea patients from orissa, india.bacteriological analysis of 1,551 stool/rectal swabs from all age groups of diarrhea patients of different hospitals of orissa from january 2004 to december 2006 was carried out using standard procedures. among all enteropathogens isolated in 886 culture-positive samples, escherichia coli constituted 75.5%, including 13.2% pathogenic e. coli; vibrio cholerae o1 constituted 17.3%; v. cholerae o139, 1%; shigella spp., 4.5% (shigella flexneri type 6, 2.9%, s. dysenteriae type i, 0.7%, s. sonnei, 0. ...200818806340
indications and challenges of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in the management of arthralgias and spondyloarthropathies in inflammatory bowel disease.arthralgia and spondyloarthropathy of the peripheral and the axial joints are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. evidence for this association has been provided by clinical, epidemiologic, and immunologic studies confirming the presence of shared inflammatory pathways in gut and joint. bacterial gut infections such as salmonella typhimurium, yersinia enterocolitica, shigella, campylobacter jejuni may induce reactive peripheral arthritis and 20% of these patients may develop chr ...200818806706
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2006].the number of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in the three last years (2004, 2005, 2006) is lower and lower and is the lowest of all years since 1918 when notification started. only 35 cases were notified in the year 2006, while 80 were notified in 2005 (incidence rate 0.21/100 000 population), and 74 cases in 2004 (incidence rate 0.19/100 000 population). no one-death case was notified. the last three death cases were notified in 1999. no one outbreak was registered. twelve c ...200818807468
[treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea with a suspension of donor faeces].to study the effect of treating recurrent clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (cdad) with a suspension of donor faeces.200818808083
[glycosphingolipids gb3 and igb3. in vivo roles in hemolytic-uremic syndrome and inkt cell function].the glycosphingolipids globotrihexosylceramide (gb3, cd77) and isoglobotrihexosylceramide (igb3) are isomers differing only in one glycosidic bond and have been implicated in several processes of the innate and adaptive immune system.200818810447
mechanisms of infectious diarrhea.infectious diarrhea is an important public health problem worldwide. research has provided new insights into the mechanisms of diarrhea caused by various pathogens that are classified as noninflammatory, inflammatory or invasive. these three groups of organisms cause two diarrheal syndromes--noninflammatory diarrhea and inflammatory diarrhea. the noninflammatory diarrheas are caused by enterotoxin-producing organisms such as vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, or by viruses tha ...200818813221
subproteomic tools to increase genome annotation complexity.comprehensive and precise annotations of short protein-coding genes are always a challenging task. here we propose a new design to facilitate the characterization of previously overlooked short protein-coding genes by integrating a shotgun proteomics method and oligonucleotide array analysis. using shigella flexneri as a model, we validate 163 annotated orfs and 51 hypothetical or putative transcripts at the protein level, and discover four novel short orfs. this strategy will contribute signifi ...200818814329
inhibitory effects of sage extract on the growth of enteric bacteria.antibacterial activity of sage extract at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, 0.00625, 0.003125, 0.00156, 0.0005 and 0.00025 g dl(-1) against salmonella typhi, shigella sonnei, s. flexneri, proteus vulgaris, staphylococcus aureus, etec escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. susceptibility testing of bacterial strains against 18 antibiotics was also performed for comparison. the results showed that p. aeruginosa and etec e. coli were completely resistant to sage extrac ...200818817180
[rotaviruses in younger children in novosibirsk in 2005-2007: detection and genotyping].examination of 1898 patients with acute enteric infection from march 2005 to february 2007 showed that group a rotaviruses were the most frequent cause (35%) of acute gastroenteritis among children under 3 years of age. majority of cases of rotavirus infection was detected in infants under 1 year of age (71.8%). the peak of sporadic incidence was observed between february and may. high rate of mixed infection (45.6%) was observed - associations of rotaviruses with other viruses (noroviruses, ast ...200818819400
occurrence and characteristics of the cytolysin a gene in shigella strains and other members of the family enterobacteriaceae.cytolysin a (clya, hlye, shea) is a hemolytic pore-forming toxin found in escherichia coli and salmonella enterica serovars typhi and paratyphi a. in the present study, analysis of several shigella strains revealed that they harbor only nonfunctional clya gene copies that have been inactivated either by the integration of insertion sequence (is) elements (shigella dysenteriae, shigella boydii, and shigella sonnei strains) or by a frameshift mutation (shigella flexneri). shigella dysenteriae and ...200818754791
characterization of endemic shigella boydii strains isolated in iran by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profile, ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.shigellosis is one of the major causes of morbidity in children with diarrhea in iran. the present study was undertaken to characterize apparently sporadic shigella boydii strains isolated from pediatric patients in iran.200818755045
topology and identification of critical residues of the o-acetyltransferase of serotype-converting bacteriophage, sf6, of shigella flexneri.the modification of the lps o-antigen, seen in the diverse serotypes of shigella flexneri is brought about by the glucosyltransferases (gtr) and the o-acetyltransferase (oac). in this study, we establish the membrane topology of oac using the dual reporter phoa-laczalpha. we have determined that oac is an integral membrane protein with 10 transmembrane regions. the hydrophilic n- and c-termini are oriented in the cytoplasm. functionally important cytoplasmic and periplasmic loops have also been ...200818755141
methods and tools for comparative genomics of foodborne pathogens.a comparison of genome sequences and of encoded proteins with the database of existing annotated sequences is a useful approach to understand the information at the genome level. here we demonstrate the utility of several dna and protein sequence comparison tools to interpret the information obtained from several genome projects. comparisons are presented between closely related strains of escherichia coli commensal isolates, different isolates of o157:h7, and shigella spp. it is expected that c ...200818713064
all blood, no stool: enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 infection.enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli serotype o157:h7 is a pathotype of diarrheagenic e. coli that produces one or more shiga toxins, forms a characteristic histopathology described as attaching and effacing lesions, and possesses the large virulence plasmid po157. the bacterium is recognized worldwide, especially in developed countries, as an emerging food-borne bacterial pathogen, which causes disease in humans and in some animals. healthy cattle are the principal and natural reservoir of e. col ...200818716441
a potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin e acetate, from dioscorea bulbifera l. against multidrug-resistant bacteria.bioassay-guided fractionation of an aqueous methanolic extract of dioscorea bulbifera l. bulbs was performed using organic solvents. a novel plasmid-curing compound was identified as 8-epidiosbulbin e acetate (eea) (norditerpene) on the basis of modern spectroscopic analysis and x-ray crystallography. eea exhibited broad-spectrum plasmid-curing activity against multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacteria, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci. eea cured antibiotic resistance plasmids (r-plasmids) fr ...200818718743
factors associated with acute diarrhoea in children in dhahira, oman: a hospital-based elucidate the bacterial etiology of childhood diarrhoea in dhahira, 856 children < 12 years admitted for diarrhoea to ibri regional referral hospital from 2000 to 2002 were studied. the mean age was 2.4 (sd 2.3) years; the majority (92.9%) were < 5 years. bacterial etiology was found in 15.2% of cases; 10.6% due to shigella and 2.1% to salmonella. sh. sonnei was the commonest shigella serogroup isolated. salmonella infection was significantly associated with cramps, while shigella infection w ...200818720621
antimicrobial activity of extracts of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms against foodborne bacterial strains.the antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate extracts from edible wild and cultivated mushrooms against nine foodborne pathogenic bacterial strains (escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella enteritidis, shigella sonnei, vibrio parahaemolyticus, yersinia enterocolitica, bacillus cereus, clostridium perfringens, listeria monocytogenes, and staphylococcus aureus) was screened with a disk diffusion assay. twenty-nine of the 48 species tested had antimicrobial activity. meth ...200818724768
role of nleh, a type iii secreted effector from attaching and effacing pathogens, in colonization of the bovine, ovine, and murine gut.the human pathogen enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157:h7 colonizes human and animal gut via formation of attaching and effacing lesions. ehec strains use a type iii secretion system to translocate a battery of effector proteins into the mammalian host cell, which subvert diverse signal transduction pathways implicated in actin dynamics, phagocytosis, and innate immunity. the genomes of sequenced ehec o157:h7 strains contain two copies of the effector protein gene nleh, which share 49 ...200818725419
resistance to fluoroquinolones by the combination of target site mutations and enhanced expression of genes for efflux pumps in shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei strains isolated in korea.among 5938 clinical shigella spp. isolates, two s. flexneri strains were isolated as those resistant to fluoroquinolones based on the mics of the following antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin and levofloxacin. s. flexneri 021787 had three substitutions, one in gyra (ser83leu) and two in parc (ser80ile and arg91gln). s. flexneri 021895 had four substitutions, two in gyra (ser83leu and asp87gly) and two in parc (ser80ile and arg91gln). the increased susceptibility of s ...200818727800
variable length tandem repeat polyglutamine sequences in the flexible tether region of the tsr chemotaxis receptor of escherichia coli.methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (mcps) are receptors that play an important role in bacterial chemotaxis. methylation of tsr, the mcp that mediates chemotaxis towards serine in escherichia coli, is thought to be facilitated by binding of the methyltransferase to a flexible tether region at the c-terminal end of tsr. this study analysed natural length variants of the tether that occur in e. coli due to genetic instability in tandem repeat dna sequences that code for glutaminyl (q) residues, ...200818667570
vaccination against shigellosis: is it the path that is difficult or is it the difficult that is the path?following several decades of research, there is not yet a convincing vaccine against shigellosis. it is still difficult, in spite of the breadth of strategies (i.e. live attenuated oral, killed oral, subunit parenteral) to select an optimal option. two approaches are clearly emerging: (i) live attenuated deletion mutants based on rational selection of genes that are key in the pathogenic process, and (ii) conjugated detoxified polysaccharide parenteral vaccines, or more recently conjugated synth ...200818672087
macrolide-resistant shigella sonnei.shigella sonnei ucn59, isolated during an outbreak of s. sonnei in january 2007, was resistant to azithromycin (mic 64 mg/l). the isolate contained a plasmid-borne mph(a) gene encoding a macrolide 2 -phosphotransferase that inactivates macrolides. emergence of the mph(a) gene in s. sonnei may limit usefulness of azithromycin for treatment of shigellosis.200818680661
bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of biodegradation of organic pollutants in wastewater effluents.significant amounts of toxic substances which are hazardous to animals, plants, microorganisms, and other living organisms including humans are released annually into aquatic and terrestrial environments, mostly from improper wastewater discharges. early detection of such pollutants in wastewater effluents and proper monitoring before their final release into the environment is therefore necessary. in this study, two whole-cell bacterial biosensors were constructed by transforming competent cell ...200818688458
liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of escherichia coli and shigella species.liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (lc/qtof ms) utilizing electrospray ionization was employed to monitor protein expression in escherichia coli and shigella organisms. comparison with maldi/tof-ms revealed more proteins, particularly above 15 kda. a combination of automated charge state deconvolution, spectral mirroring, and spectral subtraction was used to reveal subtle differences in the lc/ms data. reproducible intact protein biomarker candidates were discovere ...200818692404
[antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria: 41. structures of the o-specific polysaccharides of shigella dysenteriae types 4 and 5 revised by nmr spectroscopy].the earlier established structures of the acidic o-specific polysaccharides from two typical strains of the shigella dysenteriae bacterium were revised using modern nmr spectroscopy techniques. in particular, the configurations of the glycosidic linkages of glcnac (s. dysenteriae type 4) and mannose (s. dysenteriae type 5) residues were corrected. in addition, the location of the sites of nonstoichiometric o-acetylation in s. dysenteriae type 4 was determined: the lateral fucose residue was show ...200818695724
epidemiological evidence of multidrug-resistant shigella sonnei colonization in india by sentinel surveillance in a japanese quarantine station.we applied a previously reported method to clarify whether a multidrug-resistant shigella colonizes in a south asian country. at kansai airport quarantine station, stool samples were collected from overseas travelers who reported a history of diarrhea. shigella strains were isolated, ranging from 53 to 106 (average, 82.4) isolates/year (2001-2005), and almost 80% of the isolates were shigella sonnei. the most frequent country of origin was india. strains from the country of the most frequent ori ...200818697484
identification and functional characterization of gene components of type vi secretion system in bacterial genomes.a new secretion system, called the type vi secretion system (t6ss), was recently reported in vibrio cholerae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and burkholderia mallei. a total of 18 genes have been identified to be belonging to this secretion system in v. cholerae. here we attempt to identify presence of t6ss in other bacterial genomes. this includes identification of orthologous sequences, conserved motifs, domains, families, 3d folds, genomic islands containing t6ss components, phylogenetic profiles and ...200818698408
structural and functional characterization of human iba proteins.iba2 is a homolog of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (iba1), a 17-kda protein that binds and cross-links filamentous actin (f-actin) and localizes to membrane ruffles and phagocytic cups. here, we present the crystal structure of human iba2 and its homodimerization properties, f-actin cross-linking activity, cellular localization and recruitment upon bacterial invasion in comparison with iba1. the iba2 structure comprises two central ef-hand motifs lacking bound ca2+. iba2 crystallize ...200818699778
use of flow cytometry in an apoptosis assay to determine ph and temperature stability of shiga-like toxin 1.shiga toxins and shiga-like toxins (stx) are a relatively large group of cytotoxins produced by certain serotypes of shigella and e. coli (stec). these toxins are responsible for diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and may induce hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) with serious consequences in young children. the toxins are proteins made up of 5 small b subunits responsible for binding to an outer membrane ligand on host cells and surround the larger, biologically active a subunit. for shiga-like toxin 1 ...200818710788
epidemiology of highly endemic multiply antibiotic-resistant shigellosis in children in the peruvian amazon.our goal was to estimate the impact of a shigella vaccine in an area where shigellosis is endemic by characterizing the disease burden and antibiotic-resistance profiles of isolates and by determining the prevalence of shigella flexneri serotypes.200818710884
invitro antibacterial activity of crude preparation of myrtle (myrtus communis) on common human pathogens.myrtle "addus" (myrtus communis) has long history as a traditional medicine/or different infectious disease by many peoples of the world and in ethiopia too.200818711991
'form variation' of the o12 antigen is critical for persistence of salmonella typhimurium in the murine intestine.salmonella enterica subspecies i serotypes are responsible for the vast majority of salmonellosis in mammals and birds, yet only a few factors specific to this group that allow them to persist in this niche have been identified. we show that stm0557, a s. enterica subspecies i-specific gene encoding an inner membrane protein, is critical for faecal shedding and intestinal persistence of s. enterica serotype typhimurium atcc14028 in salmonella-resistant mice, but mutations in this gene do not dim ...200818826410
bacteriophage 2851 is a prototype phage for dissemination of the shiga toxin variant gene 2c in escherichia coli o157:h7.the production of shiga toxin (stx) (verocytotoxin) is a major virulence factor of escherichia coli o157:h7 strains (shiga toxin-producing e. coli [stec] o157). two types of shiga toxins, designated stx1 and stx2, are produced in stec o157. variants of the stx2 type (stx2, stx2c) are associated with high virulences of these strains for humans. a bacteriophage designated 2851 from a human stec o157 encoding the stx2c variant was described previously. nucleotide sequence analysis of the phage 2851 ...200818824528
evaluation of methods for isolation of dna for polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based identification of pathogenic bacteria from pure cultures and water samples.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) provides a reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria in water samples. however, this method can be adversely influenced by the purity of the dna template. this is a particularly important obstacle when the bacterial dna is directly extracted from water samples. in this study we compared the suitability of 8 different methods for isolation of bacterial dna from pure cultures and 10 different methods for isolation of dna from water samples. the quality of extracted ...200818824796
evaluation by real-time pcr of the expression of s. flexneri virulence-associated genes ospb and phon2 under different genetical backgrounds.under conditions of activated type iii secretion shigella flexneri up-regulates the expression of numerous genes, including the virulence plasmid (pinv)-encoded ospb and phon2 genes. ospb and phon2 are virulence-associated genes which are part of a bicistronic transcriptional unit encoding ospb, a protein (effector) of unknown function secreted by the type iii secretion (tts) apparatus, and phon2 (apyrase or atp-diphosphohydrolase), a periplasmic protein involved in polar icsa localization on th ...200818831939
[htpg protein of shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t evokes inflammatory response in mice].to analyze the function of htpg of s. flexneri 2a 2457t, we constructed an htpg deletion mutant and a recovery mutant.200818837368
[detection of staphylococcus aureus, shigella spp., salmonella spp. in food by multiplex pcr].to establish a multiplex pcr method for simultaneous detection of staphylococcus aureus, shigella spp., salmonella spp. in food.200818839528
[the distribution and antimicrobial resistance tendency of pathogens associated with diarrhea in beijing].to monitor the constituents and resistant tendency of bacterial pathogens isolated from diarrheal patients in our hospital form 1994 to 2005 to offer the basis for guiding epidemiologic study, vaccination research and clinical treatment.200818843955
[analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis molecular subtyping of shigella strains in shenzhen].to analyze the genetic relations of shigella isolated from shenzhen in 2001-2006 and develop primary molecular subtyping surveillance network of shigella.200818844079
[analysis on incidence of bacillary dysentery in jinan municipality from 1951 to 2005].to explore the epidemic characteristics of bacterial dysentery in jinan municipality, and to provide scientific basis for effective strategy for bacterial dysentery control.200818844085
prevention of the cytopathic effect induced by clostridium difficile toxin b by active rac1.clostridium difficile toxin b (tcdb) glucosylates low molecular weight gtp-binding proteins of the rho subfamily and thereby causes actin re-organization (cell rounding). this "cytopathic effect" has been generally attributed to rhoa inactivation. here we show that cells expressing non-glucosylatable rac1-q61l are protected from the cytopathic effect of tcdb. in contrast, cells expressing rhoa-q63l or mock-transfected cells are fully susceptible for the cytopathic effect of tcdb. these findings ...200818848548
antibacterial antibodies for some enterobacteria in sera of patients with reactive arthritis and other rheumatoid diseases.the presence of the specific antibodies for some enterobacteria--yersinia, salmonella and shigella was investigated in patients hospitalized in the period 2000-2007 with reactive arthritis and other rheumatoid diseases. the antibacterial antibodies in the diagnosis titres were found in 172 out of 1102 (15.6%) patients. increased antibodies levels to yersinia were detected in the sera from 113 (65.7%) of the 172 patients, for shigella in 47 (27.3%) and for salmonella in 12 (7.0%) cases. from all ...200819284164
microbiological quality and safety of rastrineobola argentea retailed in kisumu town markets, investigate faecal contamination and safety of rastrineobola argentea sold in retail markets in kisumu town.200819537428
[typing of shigella sonnei strains isolated in some provinces of turkey using antimicrobial resistance and pulsed field gel electrophoresis methods].shigella species may lead to large epidemics owing to their low infective doses and frequent transmission from person to person with high secondary attack rates. shigella sonnei is one of the most prevalent causative agent of infectious gastroenteritis in developing and developed countries and it is the most frequently reported shigella serotype from turkey in recent years. the aim of this study was to determine the types of s. sonnei strains isolated in different provinces of turkey [in marmara ...200819149077
[evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of the first norovirus outbreak in turkey in 2008].norovirus (nov) is one of the most prominent agents of gastroenteritis and water/food-borne outbreaks affecting all of the age groups in the world. as the identification of the etiologic agent is important during gastroenteritis outbreaks, it is recommended to combine two different methods for rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of nov. although nov outbreaks have been observed in many different countries of the world, there was no report on "nov outbreak" in turkey till 2008 due to the abse ...200819149082
shigella and salmonella serogroups and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in this study, the serogroup and susceptibility patterns of shigella and salmonella spp. isolated from stool cultures were determined using standard laboratory procedures. among the 76 shigella isolates serogroup b (sh. flexeneri) was the most prevalent species (54.0%) and among the 37 salmonella strains serogroup b was also the most prevalent (81.1%). antibiograms of shigella and salmonella spp. showed 100% resistance to erythromycin and high resistance rates (> or = 75%) to ampicillin, cephalo ...200819166157
antimicrobial activity of some macrophytes from lake manzalah (egypt).the antimicrobial activities of aqueous and organic solvents (chloroform, ethanol and methanol) extracts of four plants ceratophyllum demersum l., eichhornia crassipes, potamogeton crispus and potamogeton pectinatus were tested in vitro against seventeen different microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. nine of these identified organisms were obtained from different sources, bacillus subtilis 1020, bacillus cereus 1080, staphylococcus aureus, erwinia carotovo ...200819205264
interactions of the intestinal epithelium with the pathogen and the indigenous microbiota: a three-way crosstalk.the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract harbor a vast number of commensal microbiota that have coevolved with the host, and in addition display one of the most complex relationships with the host. this relationship affects several important aspects of the biology of the host including the synthesis of nutrients, protection against infection, and the development of the immune system. on the other hand, despite the existence of several lines of mucosal defense mechanisms, pathogenic org ...200819259328
intestinal bacterial and parasitic infections among food handlers in a tertiary care hospital of north india.intestinal infection is still an important public health problem in developing countries like india. food handlers may be infected by a wide range of enteropathogens and have been implicated in the transmission of many infections to the public in the community and to patients in hospitals.200819323089
[new selective indicator medium for detection of aeromonas and plesiomonas: unisc agar].we evaluated a new selective indicator medium (unisc agar) for isolation of classical enteropathogens, aeromonas spp and plesiomonas shigelloides. the xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents) or blue (no fermenting agent). this, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting aeromonas and plesiomonas shigelloides. its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it ...200818853024
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