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[pathogenicity factors of gramnegative enteropathogenic bacteria and pathogenesis of intestinal diseases (author's transl)].enterotoxins as produced by the majority of enteropathogenic bacteria play a central role in the pathogenesis of cholera and e. coli enteritis but are obviously of little significance as to the development of salmonella enteritis and dysentery. pathology of salmonella enteritis and dysentery results from multiplication of bacteria within the bowel wall and from the damage of tissue caused thereby. the lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) of invasive enteropathogenic bacteria do not possess the chara ...19751106437
[intracellular parasitism of shigella in patients with dysentery].bioptic specimens of the mucosa of the distal portion of the colon in patients with dysentery, caused by flexner and sonne shigellas, were studied by luminescent-serological and electron-microscopy methods. in the cells with unchanged ultrastructure no shigellas were detected. intracellular localization of shigellas was observed only in cases of deep irreversible alterations in the ultrastructure of the cells.19751106366
[study of the virulence of shigella sonnei isolated from persons with different forms of dysenteric infection].possible ranges of virulence of sh. sonnei strains isolated from the patients and carriers in the foci of sonne dysentery, supposedly with the same source of infection, were studied. sh. sonnei strains isolated from carriers proved to be less virulent than the strains isolated from patients with the clinical manifestation of the infection. a hypothesis was put forward explaining some aspects of carrier state in sonne dysentery, which most probably was explained by the refracterity of the macroor ...19751106091
[study of the sensitivity of shigella to ectericide]. 19751106086
[immune serum globulins in acute dysentery in children]. 19751106085
[comparative study of the preventive properties of sera obtained by immunization with shigella flexneri strains of varying degrees of virulence]. 19751106084
typing of shigella sonnei colicins by means of specific indicators.an enlarged and perfected scheme of typing of shigella sonnei colicins is based on the knowledge of types of colicins produced by abbott's types as well as by newly discovered and determined colicin types. a set of specific indicators prepared from e. coli k13 hfrr, e. coli c6 and shigella sonnei by a selection of suitable mutants and recombinations was used for the typing. seven new colicin types were determined on typing shigellae found in the field. type 9a produces colicins e3, ia, type 16 p ...19751106068
[occurrence of the cathode-bound group antigen of the dysentery bacilli in escherichieae types of intermediate character (author's transl)].protoplasmatic antigens of 28 strains of 27 escherichieae types not accepted as shigellae have been examined for the occurrence of a cathode-bound group antigen (kga). from the tested cultures of non-dysentery-provoking types e. coli o28 e1073(z) taylor, e. coli o32, e. coli o115 (27w), alkalescens-dispar o1, a.-d. o1 var. koji, a.-d. o2, a.-d. o3, a.-d. o4, a.-d. o5, a.-d. o6, a.-d. o7, and the intermediate serotypes h62 and 6275-52 no one possessed kga, and likewise one of the two examined e. ...19751106061
[certain cytochemical indicators of neutrophils in acute dysentery sonnei in children]. 19751105382
[biological peculiarities of the etiology in connection with various clinical manifestations of sonne dysentery in children]. 19751105369
epidemiological and bacteriological studies on an outbreak of sh. sonnei. 19751104983
r-factors in urinary tract infection. 19751104976
selective cleavage of glycosidic linkages: studies with the polysaccharide component of shigella dysenteriae type 6 lipopolysaccharide.the polysaccharide component obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae type 6 was subjected to milk hydrolysis with acid, and the products were fractionated on sephadex g-50. an acidic hexosaminoglycan and a core oligosaccharide fraction were obtained, the former containing d-glucose, d-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose (in the ratios 1:1:1), and an unidentified acidic component (x). the hexosaminoglycan was n-deacetylated and then hydrolysed and deaminated to give 3- ...19751104165
superinfection immunity and prophage repression in phage p1. ii. mapping of the immunity-difference and ampicillin-resistance loci of p1 and phi amp. 19751103441
some immunochemical and chemical aspects of s and r shigella dysenteriae 1 endotoxins.endotoxins of s and r forms of shigella dysenteriae 1 were prepared by nacl-na citrate extraction, purified by gel chromatography on sephadex g 200 and on sepharose 4b and subjected to immunochemical and chemical analysis. the toxins contained 25--30% of lipids, 40--50% of carbohydrates and 14--24% of protein. the lipid and protein moieties of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes exhibited no significant difference, whereas the sugar moieties differed markedly (both qualitatively and quantit ...19751102598
hemagglutination test in 150 children with diarrhoea and 100 normal children. 19751102449
[sensitivity of bacterial flora to antibiotics according to data from a clinical hospital].antibiotic sensitivity of e. coli o-124, salmonella and shigella sonnei isolated from patients during 1968-1972 was studied with the disc method. increase in the resistance levels to monomycin and neomycin in e. coli o-124 was observed. sensitivity of salmonella and shigella sonnei to some antibiotics did not practically change.19751101809
epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of shiga bacillus dysentery in an island population.an epidemic of dysentery broke out in st. martin island during may through july 1973. the epidemic was caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1. the dysentery could not be controlled by conventional antibiotics and other antidysenteric drugs. the average attack rate was 32.9%. the age specific attack rate was highest in the age group 1-4 years (52.2%). the attack rates were higher in smaller families. the rates were not greatly different amongst people using different sources of water. the overall ...19751101385
complement-mediated bactericidal system: evidence for a new pathway of complement action.the early components of human complement (c1, c4, and c2) plus certain serum euglobulins will kill pathogenic strains of shigella sonnei. serum from patients with hereditary c3 deficiencies and specific antiserums to c3, c5, and c6 were utilized to demonstrate the absence of requirements for late-acting complement components in this unusual bactericidal system.19751101380
[prevalence of biochemical variants of shigella flexneri 6 in poland]. 19751101312
surveillance of some infectious diseases among aircrew personnel in southeast asia.a 2-year analysis of specimens among aircrew personnel in southeast asia is reported. stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites and enteric bacteria, blood smears for blood parasites, and sera tested for transaminases (sgot) and antibodies to entamoeba histolytica, toxoplasma gondii, chikungunya and japanese encephalitis viruses, rickettsia tsutsugamushi, leptospira sp. and pseudomonas pseudomallei. one to four specimens each were obtained from 537 adult males and 20 females. there ...19751100040
principal component analysis of infraspecific variation in bacteria.in certain types of ecological investigations it may be desirable to investigate infraspecific variation in bacteria. principal component analysis is demonstrated to be satisfactory for this purpose. hypothetical bacterial populations were used to show that such analysis can be used to compare collections of bacterial isolates taken at different times or from different sources. alternatively, given n isolates, whether they represent a single bacterial population can be determined. the method is ...19751099988
specific antibodies and heterologous antigensin monofactor sera.a concentrated monofactor serum 9 (wellcome lot k 8028) precipitated against proteins from 2 different strains of salmonella enteritidis and from a strain of s. dublin, as well as against the proteinic moiety of the somatic antigen from s. typhi 0 901; no polysaccharide from the strains, sharing factor 9, precipitated against this serum. a concentrated monofactor serum 20 (wellcome lot k 6733) precipitated against the proteins from s. emek (8, 20), but not against its polysaccharide. a monofacto ...19751099401
colicin types of shigella sonnei in relation to antibiotic resistance.colicin typing of 436 strains of shigella sonnei isolated in dallas during a 10-year period was performed to determine whether resistance to ampicillin was associated with a single strain or was widespread among all s. sonnei types. one hundred ninety-three strains collected during a period of eight and one-half years when ampicillin resistance was 1.6% were available for retrospective review. during the last one and one-half years of study, 20.6% of the 243 strains that represented almost all ...19751099149
an outbreak of dysentery caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1 on a coral island in the bay of bengal.an epidemic of severe dysentery occurred on st. martin island in the bay of bengal at a time when the island, with a population of 1,318, was isolated from the mainland because of the monsoon season. there were 434 cases and 28 deaths within a three-month period. mortality (2%) was limited to the very young and the elderly. shigella dysenteriae type 1 (shiga bacillus) was isolated from 12 of 65 rectal swab specimens. all strains gave similar biochemical reactions and were resistant to tetracycli ...19751099145
[survival of microorganisms of the intestinal group and staphylococcus aureus on synthetic polymeric materials]. 19751098966
[antigenic relationships between "levinea amalonatica" and "shigella dysenteriae" and "boydii" (author's transl)].twenty-eight strains among thirty-five levinea amalonatica show o antigenic relationships with shigella as follows: with s. dysenteriae 3 (5 strains), s. dysenteriae 4 (1 strain), s. dysenteriae 5 (3 strains), s. dysenteriae 7 (11 strains), s. boydii 6 (7 strains), and with both s. boydii 15 and s. dysenteriae 8 (1 strain). these strains do not induce purulent keratogenous conjunctivitis in guinea pigs as shigella do.19751098541
bactericidal and opsonic activities of normal sheep serum against gram-negative bacteria.the bactericidal and opsonic activities of normal sheep serum against 9 smooth and 4 rough strains of gram-negative bacteria were measured. three smooth strains-escherichia coli 3662, salmonella typhimurium, and salmonella gallinarum-were resistant to the bactericidal action of normal sheep serum with or without complement. six smooth strains-e coli o78:k80(b), salmonella arizonae, proteus inconstans, klebsiella pneumoniae, salmonella stanley, and salmonella abortus-equi-were moderately sensitiv ...19751098532
enteroinvasive and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli. occurrence in acute diarrhea of infants and children.the abilities of escherichia coli to induce diarrhea by enterotoxin production and by intestinal cell penetration have not been explored simultaneously in children with diarrheal disease. in this study, we investigated 36 infants and children with acute diarrhea and 17 healthy controls. from each patient's rectal swab culture, e coli colonies were tested for enterotoxin production by intragastric inoculation in suckling mice and screened for cell penetration with hep-2 cells. colonies showing in ...19751098446
[dynamics of dysenteric diseases, caused by sh. sonnei of different enzymatic and conditional colicinogenotypes, in kharkov in 1965-1972].results of studying the enzymatic (by maltose, rhamnose and xylose) properties of 9277 freshly-located sh. sonnei strains isolated in kharkov in 1965-1972 showed that they were referred to 14 enzymatic types (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, k, l, m, n, o, p, q). the strains under study were additionally--within the range of each of the enzymatic type-divided into 8 conditioned coli phi,cinogen types (i-viii) by their sensitivity to colicines of the indicator e. coli, k12 and b cultures. subdivision of the ...19751098335
[the anodic-moving thermolabile antigen (ata) of gram-negative bacteria: its occurrence in rough mutants of shigella flexneri and escherichia coli(author's transl)].the thermolabile antigen (ata) moving to the anode, discovered by us (9) and also described by larsson et al. (8), could be detected in ra-, rb-, re- and rd-mutants of sh. flexneri and, in smaller amounts, in rd- and re- mutants of e. coli o8:k27:h. so it proves to be different from kunin's common antigen (7). our results lead to the conclusion that ata is located in a more inner part of the bacterial cell wall and is fixed by noncovalent linkages.19751098323
studies on the energetic metabolism of shigella flexneri and escherichia coli hybrids devoid of penetration ability. ii. oxygen uptake and dehydrogenase activity.oxygen uptake and dehydrogenase activity are studied with lac+ kcpminus hybrids of shigella flexneri, being avirulent to the eyes of guinea pigs, because of having lost ability for penetration in epithelial cells. these strains were obtained by hybridization of the virulent strain shigella flexneri 222 5 a with the hfr strain escherichia coli k-12 p4x. it is established that lac+ kcp minus hybrids are characterized by significant decrease of respiratory activity. this decrease is outlined as a t ...19751098322
chronic vulvovaginitis in children due to shigella flexneri.although previous reports have implicated shigella flexneri in resistant or chronic cases of vulvovaginitis in children, no authors have described the clinical findings of this condition. the report presents four cases of persistent vulvovaginitis in prepubertal indian girls from different reservation communities in arizona. s. flexneri was isolated in pure culture from the vaginal discharge of each patient. all four cases were characterized by a prolonged vaginitis with a bloody, purulent disc ...19751098002
antibiotic resistance of escherichia coli from non-hospital environments. i. frequency and determinants of ampicllin resistance. 19751097362
shigella strains associated with infantile diarrhea in the kaohsiung area.in 1969 and 1974, 375 shigella strains were isolated in the kaohsiung area, and their serotypes and in vitro susceptibility to antimicorbial agents were studied. in 1969, 249 (16.2%) strains were isolated from 1,476 specimens collected from infantile and young children dirrheal cases, whereas 126 strains (11.6%) were isolated from 1,086 specimens in 1969. the isolation rates were higher in may (21.2%), october (20.8%), april (20.6%), august (19.7), november (18.8%) and january (18.5%), than in o ...19751097211
comparative in vitro acitvity of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol on common aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli(salmonella and shigella excluded).the antibacterial activity of thiamphenicol was compared to that of chloramphenicol against 313 strains of gram-negative bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens. these two antiboitics were equally active against the 106 isolates of haemophilus mic equals 0.1 minus 1.56 mu g/ml) and against 40 strains of bacteroides fragilis (almost all strains being inhibited by 12.5 mug/ml of the two drugs). in contrast, when compared with chloramphenicol, 2-16 times as much of thiamphenicol was requir ...19751097209
shigellosis in a neonate: successful treatment with an oral elemental diet. 19751097146
selective cleavage of glycosidic linkages: studies with the o-specific polysaccharide from shigella dysenteriae type 3.treatment of the o-specific polysaccharide from shigella dysenteriae type 3 with hydrazine in the presence of hydrazine sulphate resulted in quantitative n-deacetylation with the formation of a modified polysaccharide containing free amino groups. oxidation of the modified polysaccharide with periodate did not destroy the 2-amino-2-deoxygalactose residues, thus indicating that they were substituted at position 3. acid hydrolysis of the modified polysaccharide afforded 3-o-(2-amino-2-deoxy-beta ...19751097111
[differentiation of tryptophanases of five species of enterobacteriaceae by sulfhydryl groups].we have studied the sulfhydryl groups (-sh) on the tryptophanases (tpases) from escherichia coli b. and e. aurescens, shigella alkalescens, and proteus vulgaris and p. morganii. the coli group and the p. morganii apo tpases have 20 -sh groups per mole of enzyme, where as p. vulgaris apotpase has 16. in coli group tpases, there are 16 -sh groups on the mole surface and they are all implicated in the activity and the enzyme-substrate bond. proteus morganii tpase has 8 surface -sh groups, 4 of whic ...19751097069
[physical and chemical properties of tryptophenases of five species of enterobacteriaceae].the molecular weight, sedimentation coefficient, and amino acids composition were determined on five tryptophanases (tpases) from escherichia coli b and e. aurescens, shigella alkalescens, and proteus vulgaris and p. morganii. these tpases have identical sedimentation profile and coefficient (9.6 s), and the same molecular weight (220 000). each enzyme is constituted of four identical subunits having a molecular weight of 55 000. the amino acids composition of these tpases is very similar, with ...19751097068
proceedings: dissociation of bacterial pyrexia from prostaglandin e activity. 19751097014
comparative efficacy of cephalexin and ampicillin for shigellosis and other types of acute diarrhea in infants and children.most ampicillin-resistant shigella are susceptible to cephalexin. randomized treatment with cephalexin or ampicillin was given to 154 infants and children with acute diarrhea. rectal swab cultures revealed shigella in 42%, salmonella in 6%, enteropathogenic escherichia coli in 2%, and no pathogen in 50%. cephalexin failed to eradicate shigella after 5 days of treatment in 76% of patients as contrasted with 28% of ampicillin-treated patients with susceptible organisms. shigella persisted in 78% o ...19751096800
effect of microorganisms isolated from the upper gut of malnourished children on intestinal sugar absorption in vivo.the effect of microorganisms isolated from the upper gastrointestinal tract of malnourished children on intestinal sugar absorption was studied in rats in vivo. pure cultures of organisms were grown overnight in a nutrient broth and the resultant supernatant fluid which contained microorganisms in similar numbers to those found in the patients was used as the basic solution for jejunal perfusions which were done in anesthetized adult wistar rats. the substrate used was arbutin (p-hydroxphenyl-be ...19751096588
studies on the energetic metabolism of shigella flexneri times escherichia coli hybrids devoid of penetration ability i. glycolysis.the aerobic and anaerobic (in presence of kcn) glycolysis is studied of avirulent hybrids of shigella flexneri according to the keratoconjunctivitis test of sereny with genetic characteristics lac-+kcp-minus devoid of penetration ability. it is established that lac-+kcp-minus hybrids which have lost their ability to penetrate the cells due to replacement of kcp-gene of the chromosome of donor strain e. coli k-12 p4 times, are characterized with a steep decrease of their glycolitic activity in bo ...19751096507
[characteristics of serum immunoglobulins in sonne dysentery in children]. 19751096467
[hygienic assessment of unboiled milk purchased in the szczecinek county in 1973]. 19751096281
diarrhoea: a traveller's tale.travellers' diarrhoea is a result of travelling overseas. proper diagnosis can only be made when a full microbiological investigation is carried. a case due to shigella flexneri is described.19751095981
shigella outbreak in amos cottage, hospital for retarded children. 19751095939
[antibiosis shown by a strain of byssochlamys nivea westling, 1909. iii. chromatographic characteristics and isolation of the active fraction].early papers revealed that culture filtrate of byssochlamys nivea has antibiotic properties. active filtrate of b. nivea is extracted with ethyl acetate. paper chromatography is carried out on whatman no. 1; thin-layer chromatography is carried out on kieselgel; visualization with bioautographic technique reveals a single spot. ethyl acetate extract is passed through silicic acid-celite column. each isolated fraction is tested for antibiotic activity. only one supports this activity; a crystalli ...19751095929
microbiological methods. methodology for enteropathogenic escherichia coli.pathogenic biotypes of escherichia coli grow poorly at temperatures greatly different from that of the host. percentages quantitatively recovered at 42.0, 44.0, 44.5, and 45.5 degrees c in lauryl tryptose broth were 100, 76, 76, and 42, respectively. corresponding values for 175 strains of varied origin were 98, 89, 82, and 65%. maximal growth temperature is dependent upon medium. lauryl tryptose and elevated coliform broths were equivalent in the recovery of small inocula (100 cells/ml) at 41.5 ...19751095543
relationships of antibiotics in animal feeds and salmonellosis in animals and man. 19751095537
[aminopenicillins from microbiological viewpoint].in this report it was tried to emphasize several microbiological aspects of the amino-penicillin. hereby it turns out that the activity differences of all the substances are very similar on microbiological part. a break of the cross-resistance does not happen with all the amino-penicillins. with regard to the appearance of resistant strains, it can be told that the conditions still are advantageous on non-hospitalized patients in the totality. in the clinic a high part of resistant strains are f ...19751095501
role of immunoglobulins in protection against shigella-induced keratoconjunctives.various immunoglobulin preparations were tested for their ability to protect guinea pig eyes from infection by a virulent strain of shigella flexneri. secretory immunoglobulin a was effective in delaying or preventing keratoconjunctivitis in eight guinea pigs when it was used to precoat the organism, and was also placed in the eye with the inoculum. neither immunoglobulin g nor immunoglobulin m gave any protection when used in the same way. protection by secretory immunoglobulin a appeared to be ...19751095483
bacteremia in suckling rabbits after oral challenge with vibrio parahaemolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophilic marine enteropathogen, produces diarrhea in man after ingestion of contaminated seafood. only strains capable of producing beta-hemolysis (kanagawa-positive strains) are enteropathogenic. yet the majority of marine isolants are nonhemolytic and kanagawa negative. studies were initiated in suckling rabbits in an attempt to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms. fasting animals were infected orally with kanagawa-positive and kanagawa-negative strains of v. parahae ...19751095481
[nature of the reactions in vaccination against intestinal infections]. 19751094698
letter: hemolytic uremic syndrome after shigellosis. 19751094293
transmissible substrate-utilizing ability in enterobacteria.three of 152 strains of escherichia coli transmitted their ability to utilize sucrose (sac+) to other strains by conjugation. the transfer factor of one of them and of a sac+ salmonella thompson strain was thermosensitive. the raffinose-utilizing ability of 27 of 163 e. coli strains was also transmissible. transmissible raffinose-utilizing ability was a feature of porcine enterpathogenic strains possessing the k88 antigen. the determinants controlling raffinose utilization (raf) and k88 antigen ...19751094091
superiority of macconkey's agar over salmonella-shigella agar for isolation of shigella dysenteriae type 1.the efficiency of macconkey's agar in the isolation of various types of shigella was compared with that of salmonella-shigella (ss) agar during an extensive 18-month outbreak of disease caused by shigella. in all, 1,580 isolates of shigella were obtained from 12,307 rectal swab and fecal samples of patients with diarrhea and their contacts by direct plating onto macconkey's and ss agars. shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri constituted 55 percent and 33 percent of all isolates, resp ...19751094073
undecaprenol phosphate, the endogenous acceptor of glucose from udpglucose in shigella flexneri. 19751093344
[on flucloxacillin sensitivity determination by the disc method (author's transl)]. 19751092891
a simple single-step immunoimmobilisation method for the detection of salmonella in the presence of large numbers of other bacteria.a single-step disk immunoimmobilisation method for the detection of motile salmonellae is described. it combines in a single step the use of the motility of these bacteria in soft agar, their selective growth on salmonella-shigella media, and their immobilisation by polyvalent h antiserum. the method is shown to be 10 to 10,000 times more senstitive than a standard method for detection of salmonella under the experimental conditons used. the time required for detection is shortened to 24-48 h.19751092865
production and characterization of exotoxin(s) of shigella dysenteriae type 1.a semicontinuous fermenter system was developed in which broth culture filtrates of shigella dysenteriae type 1 yielded substantial amounts of exotoxin. biologic activity of the exotoxin was characterized by means of three assays: the rabbit ileal loop for fluid evocation (enterotoxicity), mouse lethality after parenteral injection (neurotoxicity), and hela cell toxicity in vitro (cytotoxicity). although the culture filtrate was highly active, disc electrophoresis revealed that the toxin is a mi ...19751092769
jejunal microflora in malnourished gambian children.growth of bacteria greater than 10-5 organisms/ml was found in 22 children, of whom 17 gave a histroy of chronic diarrhoea. the other 8 children had either no diarrhoea or where having an acute attack lasting for a few days. in those with chronic diarrhoea, esch. coli, bacteroides, and enterococci tended to occur more frequently, whereas streptococci occurred more frequently in those with acute diarrhoea. bacilli, staphylococci, micrococci, klebsiellas, pseudomonads, and candidas often occurred ...19751092272
waterborne shigellosis at a public school.in november 1972 an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred at a public school in stockport, iowa. one hundred ninety-four (72%) of 269 pupils and 14 (16%) of 23 staff members were affected. the etiologic agent was a strain of shigella sonnei resistant to multiple antimicrobials. waterborne transmission of shigellosis was documented epidemiologically and by isolation of the organism from the school water system. ninety-seven (14%) of 698 of the students' household contacts developed diarrh ...19751092157
shigellosis at sea: an outbreak aboard a passenger cruise ship.between june 23 and june 30, 1973, 90% of 650 passengers and at least 35% of 299 crew members experienced a diarrheal illness during a 7-day caribbean cruise aboard a passenger cruise liner. symptoms were consistent with shigellosis, and shigella flexneri 6, boyd 88 biotype, was isolated from rectal swabs taken from 8 to 35 ill passengers and 33 of 294 crew members. epidemiologic evidence incriminated the ship's water, including ice, as the probable vehicle of transmission, and elevated coliform ...19751092155
transfer of e1 and v colicinogenic factors to shigella flexneri.from escherichia coli strains, cole1-ml and colv-k94 factors were transferred to a virulent shigella flexneri 2a strain at 1-2% frequency. s. flexneri colv+ and cole1+v+ produced col- segregants. the cole1 factor was stably incorporated into s. flexneri. the colv+ culture lost its virulence to the guinea pig eye.19751092133
[the role of the ability of sh. flexneri to synthesize pili of the common type in the development of dysenteric infections].hep-2 epithelial cells infected with isogenic sh. flexneri strains characterized by capacity to synthesize common pili (confirmed by electron microscopy) were studied. it was shown that although pili promoted an earlier adhesion of shigellae to the cells, they were not very significant for the penetration and intracellular development of dysentery bacilli in the epithelium. the use of bacteria labeled with 3h-glucose offers a possibility of an objective rapid and precise determination of the cap ...19751092108
[microbial antagonism and its role in the development of infection (literature review)]. 19751092099
[polyamines in species of microorganisms of the intestinal group].a study was made of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermin) in various representatives of the enterobacteriaceae family--e. coli, sh, sonnei, sh. flexneri and s. typhi abdominalis. all the strains under study contained putrescine and spermidine, and many shigella and salmonella strains had spermin in addition. there were significant differences in the quantitative content of polyamines in the individual species. by the ratio of nitrogen of polyamine to phosphorus of nucleic acid it is po ...19751092098
[typing properties of bacteriophages isolated from sh. sonnei strains].on the basis of studying the lytic activity of eight bacteriophages the authors elaborated a scheme of bacteriophage typing of sh. sonnei consisting of nine bacteriophage types with two subtypes. in typing 2348 strains isolated in various cities of the ussr bacteriophage pattern of sh. sonnei was found to differ in different towns of the ussr. all the strains isolated repeatedly from the same patients were referred to the same bacteriophage type, this pointing to the stability of the type-deter ...19751092096
[lysotypy of shigella sonnei (literature review)]. 19751092095
[genetic control of the ability of sh. flexneri to produce a lethal effect on macrophages. i. study of the possible extrachromosomal nature of the cyt+-determinant].it was shown that cyt+-determinant could not be eliminated when the sh. flexneri cultures were treated with ethidium bromide under the regimen providing the elimination of the f'lac-factor in a part of shigellae population. the cytotoxic sh. flexneri strains which acquired the r-factor transmitted the multiple drug resistance to the cyt minus -strain of sh. flexneri, but not the cyt+-properties. there was found no correlation between the cytoxicity of the sh. flexneri strains and their capacity ...19751092094
[sensitivity of different strains of e. coli and shigella to the inhibitory action of ploskirev's bactoagar].a study was made of the sensitivity of 190 strains of e. coli and 107 strains of shigellae of different serological types to the inhibitory action of ploskirev's bactoagar on the capacity of these bacteria to form colonies. the strains under study proved to be nonhomogenous in this respect: between different strains of e. coli there were revealed 10-, 100- and even 1000-fold differences by this property; the differences between shigellae strains were less marked--in over 90% of shigellae strains ...19751092090
[retroperitoneal, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema and bacillary dysentery]. 19751092028
chemistry of cephalosporin antibiotics. 30. 3-methoxy- and 3-halo-3-cephems.the exo-methylene group in esters of 7-acylamido- and 7-amino-3-methylenecephams was ozonized to give 3-hydroxy-3-cephems. conditions are described to effect a selective n-acylation of a 3-hydroxy-3-cephem nucleus ester. vilsmeier reagents converted 7-acylamido-3-hydroxy compounds to 3-halo-3-cephem derivatives. diazomethane converted the 3-hydroxy compounds to 3-methoxy-3-cephem derivatives. removal of the ester-protecting group at the c4-carboxyl afforded a select group of cephalosporins with ...19751091736
diarrhoea in general practice: a sixteen-year report of investigations in a microbiology laboratory, with epidemiological assessment.results are presented of the laboratory examination of faeces specimens from 20,273 patients with acute diarrhoea. these were household index cases seen in general practice in a london borough during the years 1953-68. an annual average of about 2 per cent of households in the area were affected, but there was considerable fluctuation with year and season. half the patients were children although only one-fifth of the population at risk was under 15 years of age. the greatest incidence of diarr ...19751091696
detection of a leukocytic endogenous mediator-like mediator of serum amino acid and zinc depression during various infectious illnesses.serum samples from patients with many different kinds of infection were shown to contain a substance characteristic of leukocytic endogenous mediator. generalized bacterial infections produced more leukocytic endogenous mediator than did localized ones; viral infections produced very little. in typhoid fever, mediator concentrations increased before the onset of illness.19751091555
phage conversion of shigella flexneri group antigens.a temperate phage, designated sf6, has been isolated from shigella flexneri 3a. characterization of sf6 revealed that it possesses the capacity for converting the s. flexneri 3,4 group antigen complex to group factor 6. serological studies and chemical analysis of lipopolysaccharide from converted strains suggest that group factor 6 is a reflection of an acetylation of the preexisting 3,4 antigen complex. evidence is provided that the 3,4 group antigen complex functions, at least in part, as a c ...19751091548
attempted prevention of diarrheal disease in apache children with a non-absorbable broad-spectrum antimicrobial.a double-blind study was conducted to test the prophylactic effect of a non-absorbable broad-spectrum antimicrobial (oral colistin sulfate) against acute diarrhea in apache children. children 1 to 6 months old had over twice the morbidity from diarrhea if assigned to the antimicrobial group as compared to placebo, while the toddler group (7-30 months) taking the antimicrobial had somewhat less diarrhea. enteropathogenic e. coli were significantly more often isolated from the antimicrobial group ...19751091171
live versus killed bacterial vaccines. 19751090808
shiga bacillus dysentery associated with marked leukocytosis and erythrocyte fragmentation.granulocytic leukemoid reactions (white blood cell counts greater than 50,000 with myelocytes and promyelocytes in the peripheral blood) were documented in 15 per cent of 273 patients with dysentery due to shigella dysenteriae, type 1 (shiga bacillus) in bangladesh. peak granulocytosis occurred during the second week of illness, when the children were commonly afebrile and diarrhea had ceased or was subsiding. more than half of the patients with leukemoid reactions subsequently developed a fall ...19751090770
occurrence of the bacteriophage lambda receptor in some enterobacteriaceae.in escherichia coli k-12, the receptor for phage lambda is an outer membrane protein which inactivates the phage in vitro. lambda receptor activity was found in extracts from all wild strains of e. coli tested, although most of them fail to support growth of the phage. in some cases this failure is due to a masking of the receptor in vivo, the bacteria being unable to adsorb the phage or to react with antireceptor antibodies. in other cases, adsorption does occur, and the nature of the block in ...19751090748
comparison of secretory and histological effects of shigella and cholera enterotoxins in rabbit jejunum.the purpose of this study was to compare the actions of shigella toxin and cholera toxin to determine if mucosal damage is a prerequisite for shigella toxin-induced secretion. the secretory response to maximal doses of cholera toxin and shigella toxin were compared. the maximal rate of secretion and the electrolyte and protein concentration of the intestinal fluid were similar for both toxins. on the other hand, the time of onset after exposure to the toxin was 105 min for shigella toxin and 15 ...19751090481
pathophysiology of shigella diarrhea in the rhesus monkey: intestinal transport, morphological, and bacteriological studies.in contrast to the "toxigenic diarrheas" caused by vibrio cholerae and escherichia coli, the site and mechanism of fluid loss in shigellosis are unknown. the occurrence of watery diarrhea in shigellosis suggests involvement of the small bowel. therefore, jejunal, ileal, and colonic water and electrolyte transport was studied in shigella flexneri 2a-infected monkeys. infected animals fell into three groups: dysentery alone, diarrhea alone, or diarrhea and dysentery. in controls, net water, sodium ...19751090480
observations on the serologic changes in the recombinants in shigella flexneri serotype 4a.studies on the antigenic composition of 84 diagnostic strains of s. flexneri serotype 4a and their lac+ recombinants from a cross with e. coli hfrc were carried out. considerable differentiation of agglutination reaction was found both in original material and in recombinants. an interesting group included recombinants which completely lost their capability to agglutinate with sera specific for type and group antigens and preserved only the capability to agglutinate in the polyvalent serum of s. ...19751090112
[some immunoallergic tests in patients with ulcerative colitis]. 19751089962
antimicrobial resistance of shigellae isolated in michigan.patterns of antimicrobial resistance were studied for 213 strains of shigellae isolated in rural and urban areas of michigan by quantitative techniques: 66% of these organisms were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalexin, or chloramphenicol or had multiple resistance to various combinations of these antibiotics. the incidence of resistant organisms was higher in the detroit-wayne county area, which is the most urban part of the state. nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid were noted to be q ...19751089819
somatic antigen of shigella dysenteriae type 3. structural features of specific polysaccharide chain.on mild acid hydrolysis of lipolysaccharide from shigella dysenteriae type 3 the o-specific polysaccharide (hapten) was obtained which appeared to be acidic branched hexosaminoglycan. the repeating unit of this polysaccharide represents a pentasaccharide composed of two d-galactose residues, n-acetyl-d-galactosamine, d-glucose and unidentified acidic component. on the basis of methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, partial acid hydrolysis and chromic anhydride oxidation it is concluded that ...19751089541
[mixed epidemic of typhoid fever and shigellosis]. 19751089349
bacteriology and pharmacokinetics of the new amidino penicillin-mecillinam. 19761084337
experience of co-trimoxazole in the treatment of salmonella and shigella infections. 19761064917
antibiotic resistance of shigellas in new zealand.a who assisted survey of antibiotic resistance of shigella sp from various countries in the western pacific region was carried out by the national institute of health, tokyo, japan. of 282 unselected isolates from throughout new zealand, 221 (78 percent) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. the implications of these results in relation to treatment are briefly discussed.19761063919
genetic recombination of bacteriophage t7 dna in vitro.we have demonstrated recombination of bacteriophage t7 dna in vitro. an extract of escherichia coli b cells infected with wild-type t7(t7+) is incubated with mature dna extracted from t7 phage. packaging of the exogenous dna within the phage head appears to be preceded by recombination of exogenously added dna with dna present in the extracts. in order to detect the recombination, we used an exogenous dna bearing a marker (ss-) such that progeny phage which have packaged this marker are able to ...19761062779
comparison of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin theraphy for shigellosis in ambulatory.one-hundred seventy-four infants and children with acute diarrhea were treated as ambulatory patients with either ampicillin (100 mg/kg/day orally in four divided doses) or trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (10 mg tmp and 50 mg smx/kg/day orally in two divided doses). there were 65 patients with shigellosis. responses of those treated with tmp/smx and of those with susceptible shigella treated with ampicillin were comparable. patients with resistant organisms failed to respond to ampicillin. all shi ...19761048183
pc-904, a novel broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin with marked antipseudomonal activity: microbiological evaluation.pc-904, sodium 6-{d(-)-alpha-(4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxamido) phenylacetamido}-penicillanate, is a novel semisynthetic penicillin derivative that possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities. in low concentrations, pc-904 inhibits growth against large proportions of the gram-positive and gram-negative organisms susceptible to carbenicillin and gentamicin. in addition, pc-904 is several times more potent than carbenicillin against organisms such as pseudo ...19761046355
letter: shigella infection and antibiotic resistance. 19751041214
pharmacokinetics and efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of gastroenteritis in children.in vitro studies indicates that the constitutents of the drug combination co-trimoxazole are synergistic against salmonella and effective against shigella isolated from children ill with gastroenteritis. the drug is well absorbed in children with gastroenteritis due to a variety of causes and is distributed, excreted and metabolized in a manner similar to that seen in normal adult volunteers. the drug is tolerated well by children with gastroenteritis even in very high dosages. despite its in vi ...19751039907
studies on shigella isolated in southern taiwan.during 1969, a total of 1,476 fecal and rectal swab specimens was collected from children with diarrhea and 249 strains of shigella were isolated. the incidence was 16.9%. the serotypes of 249 strains were: shigella dysenteriae, 1.6% (4 strains); s. flexneri, 73.1% (182 strains); s. boydii, 3.2 (8 strains) and s. sonnei, 22.1% (55 strains). there was no marked difference of the isolation rate throughout the whole year. the susceptibility of shigella isolates to chemotherapeutic agents were also ...19761036983
shigellosis. another sexually transmitted disease?following the clinical observation that there appeared to be an association between shigellosis and male homosexuality, the medical records of 113 patients at the new york hospital were reviewed retrospectively. of the 38 males studied who were between the ages 19 and 61, seventeen were homosexual (44-7 per cent.). only one of the matched controls was homosexual. of the men with shigellosis who had a history of foreign travel, 10 per cent. were homosexual; however, among the patients without a t ...19761036464
inhibition of adp-induced platelet aggregation as a possible test for evaluation of the enterotoxigenicity of some enterobacteria. preliminary study].some culture filtrates or enterotoxin preparations from enterobacteria that activate the adenylate cyclase system (vibrio cholerae, lt fraction from escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae, shigella dysenteriae type 1) exibit an inhibiting effect on adp-induced platelet aggregation, while other enterotoxin preparations not effective on adenylate cyclase system, don't interfere with this model. the a. propose the platelet aggregation as cellular assay to detect enterotoxin fractions effective ...19761028645
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