rapid allelic exchange in enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) and other e. coli using lambda red recombination.this unit describes an allelic exchange system for enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), and similar pathogenic species of bacteria. the phage lambda red recombination system is expressed from a plasmid, inducing a hyper-recombinogenic state where electroporated pcr-generated substrates recombine with the bacterial chromosome at high efficiency. the technique can be used to substitute a drug marker for the gene of interest, or used to generate a clean in-frame deletion of the target gene. single gen ...200618770591
gateways to clinical trials.11d10, 9vpnc-mncc; adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, aln-rsv01, ame-133, amg-317, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, anisodamine, anti-il-5 receptor antibody, apremilast, aripiprazole, atacicept, atazanavir sulfate, atrasentan; banoxantrone, bevacizumab, bibw-2992, binodenoson, bms-387032; cac10, caldaret hydrate, cd-np, ceftobiprole medocaril, celivarone fumarate, certolizumab pegol, cholesteryl hydrophobized polysaccharide-her2 protein complex, ...200818773127
novel cassette arrays of integrons in clinical strains of enterobacteriaceae in hundred and forty-two enterobacteriaceae isolates randomly selected from four general hospitals in nanjing region of china were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility, the presence of integrons and the characterisation of gene cassettes. eighty-five (59.9%) enterobacteriaceae strains contained class 1 integrons, and 17 (65.4%) of 26 shigella contained class 2 integrons. class 3 integrons were not detected in this study. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and dna sequencing a ...200818778917
novel fold of vira, a type iii secretion system effector protein from shigella flexneri.vira, a secreted effector protein from shigella sp., has been shown to be necessary for its virulence. it was also reported that vira might be related to papain-like cysteine proteases and cleave alpha-tubulin, thus facilitating intracellular spreading. we have now determined the crystal structure of vira at 3.0 a resolution. the shape of the molecule resembles the letter "v," with the residues in the n-terminal third of the 45-kda molecule (some of which are disordered) forming one clearly iden ...200818787201
[molecular typing of isolates from two dysentery outbreaks in chengdu, through pulsed field gel electrophoresis technology].using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) typing to analyze strains isolated from two outbreaks caused by shigella sonnei and to trace the source of infection.200818788530
the roles of two-component systems in virulence of pathogenic escherichia coli and shigella spp.two-component systems (tcss) are well conserved among e. coli strains, including pathogenic e. coli and also closely related shigella spp. although 25% of the genome of pathogenic e. coli is strain-specific, only small number of strain-specific tcss is found. regulation of virulence genes in response to environmental stimuli is partly dependent on tcss commonly present in nonpathogenic e. coli strains. some virulence genes are directly regulated by response regulator oftcs but some are affected ...200818792690
guideline for the investigation and initial therapy of diarrhea-negative hemolytic uremic syndrome.this guideline for the investigation and initial treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) is intended to offer an approach based on opinion, as evidence is lacking. it builds on the current ability to identify the etiology of specific diagnostic sub-groups of hus. hus in children is mostly due to infection, enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec), shigella dysenteriae type 1 in some geographic regions, and invasive streptococcus pneumoniae. these sub-groups are relatively straight ...200918800230
molecular approach and bacterial quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities in egypt.water is necessary to life so when supplied as drinking water to consumers, a satisfactory quality must be maintained. in egypt, infectious intestinal diseases are the major cause of hospitalization in almost all regions. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples from urban and rural communities. thirty-five samples of treated (chlorinated) water from taps, 25 samples of bottled water and 15 samples of hand pump (untreated) water ...200818800596
incidence of bacterial enteropathogens among hospitalized diarrhea patients from orissa, india.bacteriological analysis of 1,551 stool/rectal swabs from all age groups of diarrhea patients of different hospitals of orissa from january 2004 to december 2006 was carried out using standard procedures. among all enteropathogens isolated in 886 culture-positive samples, escherichia coli constituted 75.5%, including 13.2% pathogenic e. coli; vibrio cholerae o1 constituted 17.3%; v. cholerae o139, 1%; shigella spp., 4.5% (shigella flexneri type 6, 2.9%, s. dysenteriae type i, 0.7%, s. sonnei, 0. ...200818806340
indications and challenges of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in the management of arthralgias and spondyloarthropathies in inflammatory bowel disease.arthralgia and spondyloarthropathy of the peripheral and the axial joints are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. evidence for this association has been provided by clinical, epidemiologic, and immunologic studies confirming the presence of shared inflammatory pathways in gut and joint. bacterial gut infections such as salmonella typhimurium, yersinia enterocolitica, shigella, campylobacter jejuni may induce reactive peripheral arthritis and 20% of these patients may develop chr ...200818806706
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2006].the number of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in the three last years (2004, 2005, 2006) is lower and lower and is the lowest of all years since 1918 when notification started. only 35 cases were notified in the year 2006, while 80 were notified in 2005 (incidence rate 0.21/100 000 population), and 74 cases in 2004 (incidence rate 0.19/100 000 population). no one-death case was notified. the last three death cases were notified in 1999. no one outbreak was registered. twelve c ...200818807468
[treatment of recurrent clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea with a suspension of donor faeces].to study the effect of treating recurrent clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (cdad) with a suspension of donor faeces.200818808083
[glycosphingolipids gb3 and igb3. in vivo roles in hemolytic-uremic syndrome and inkt cell function].the glycosphingolipids globotrihexosylceramide (gb3, cd77) and isoglobotrihexosylceramide (igb3) are isomers differing only in one glycosidic bond and have been implicated in several processes of the innate and adaptive immune system.200818810447
mechanisms of infectious diarrhea.infectious diarrhea is an important public health problem worldwide. research has provided new insights into the mechanisms of diarrhea caused by various pathogens that are classified as noninflammatory, inflammatory or invasive. these three groups of organisms cause two diarrheal syndromes--noninflammatory diarrhea and inflammatory diarrhea. the noninflammatory diarrheas are caused by enterotoxin-producing organisms such as vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, or by viruses tha ...200818813221
subproteomic tools to increase genome annotation complexity.comprehensive and precise annotations of short protein-coding genes are always a challenging task. here we propose a new design to facilitate the characterization of previously overlooked short protein-coding genes by integrating a shotgun proteomics method and oligonucleotide array analysis. using shigella flexneri as a model, we validate 163 annotated orfs and 51 hypothetical or putative transcripts at the protein level, and discover four novel short orfs. this strategy will contribute signifi ...200818814329
inhibitory effects of sage extract on the growth of enteric bacteria.antibacterial activity of sage extract at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, 0.00625, 0.003125, 0.00156, 0.0005 and 0.00025 g dl(-1) against salmonella typhi, shigella sonnei, s. flexneri, proteus vulgaris, staphylococcus aureus, etec escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. susceptibility testing of bacterial strains against 18 antibiotics was also performed for comparison. the results showed that p. aeruginosa and etec e. coli were completely resistant to sage extrac ...200818817180
[rotaviruses in younger children in novosibirsk in 2005-2007: detection and genotyping].examination of 1898 patients with acute enteric infection from march 2005 to february 2007 showed that group a rotaviruses were the most frequent cause (35%) of acute gastroenteritis among children under 3 years of age. majority of cases of rotavirus infection was detected in infants under 1 year of age (71.8%). the peak of sporadic incidence was observed between february and may. high rate of mixed infection (45.6%) was observed - associations of rotaviruses with other viruses (noroviruses, ast ...200818819400
nlrc4/ipaf: a card carrying member of the nlr family.the nod-like receptor (nlr) family of proteins is involved in the regulation of innate immune responses and cell death pathways. recent findings show that the nlr family member nlrc4 (also known as ipaf) has important roles in innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria. macrophages infected with legionella pneumophila, salmonella typhimurium, shigella flexneri, or pseudomonas aeruginosa activate caspase-1 in an nlrc4-dependent manner leading to macrophage cell death and the release of pro ...200918819842
bacteriophage 2851 is a prototype phage for dissemination of the shiga toxin variant gene 2c in escherichia coli o157:h7.the production of shiga toxin (stx) (verocytotoxin) is a major virulence factor of escherichia coli o157:h7 strains (shiga toxin-producing e. coli [stec] o157). two types of shiga toxins, designated stx1 and stx2, are produced in stec o157. variants of the stx2 type (stx2, stx2c) are associated with high virulences of these strains for humans. a bacteriophage designated 2851 from a human stec o157 encoding the stx2c variant was described previously. nucleotide sequence analysis of the phage 2851 ...200818824528
evaluation of methods for isolation of dna for polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based identification of pathogenic bacteria from pure cultures and water samples.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) provides a reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria in water samples. however, this method can be adversely influenced by the purity of the dna template. this is a particularly important obstacle when the bacterial dna is directly extracted from water samples. in this study we compared the suitability of 8 different methods for isolation of bacterial dna from pure cultures and 10 different methods for isolation of dna from water samples. the quality of extracted ...200818824796
design, synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of 4,6-diaryl-4, 4,6-diaryl-4,5-dihydro-2-phenyl-2h-indazol-3-ols 25-32 were designed, synthesized and in vitro microbially evaluated using clinically isolated bacterial strains viz staphylococcus aureus, beta-heamolytic streptococcus, vibreo cholerae, salmonella typhii, shigella felxneri and fungal strains viz aspergillus flavus, mucor, rhizopus and microsporum gypsuem. results of this study showed that the nature of the substituents on the phenyl rings viz., methyl, methoxy, chloro, nitro as well as the br ...200918825556
metal based isatin-derived sulfonamides: their synthesis, characterization, coordination behavior and biological activity.some isatin derived sulfonamides and their transition metal [co(ii), cu(ii), ni(ii), zn(ii)] complexes have been synthesized and characterized. the structure of synthesized compounds and their nature of bonding have been inferred on the basis of their physical (magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements), analytical (elemental analyses) and spectral (ir, (1)h nmr and (13)c nmr) properties. an octahedral geometry has been suggested for co(ii), ni(ii) and zn(ii) and square-planar for cu ...200918825557
'form variation' of the o12 antigen is critical for persistence of salmonella typhimurium in the murine intestine.salmonella enterica subspecies i serotypes are responsible for the vast majority of salmonellosis in mammals and birds, yet only a few factors specific to this group that allow them to persist in this niche have been identified. we show that stm0557, a s. enterica subspecies i-specific gene encoding an inner membrane protein, is critical for faecal shedding and intestinal persistence of s. enterica serotype typhimurium atcc14028 in salmonella-resistant mice, but mutations in this gene do not dim ...200818826410
design, synthesis and in vitro microbiological evaluation of 6,6-dimethyl-7,9-diaryl-1,2,4,8-tetraazaspiro[4.5]decan-3-thiones--a new series of 'tailor-made' compounds.some novel 'tailor-made' compounds, 6,6-dimethyl-7,9-diaryl-1,2,4,8-tetraazaspiro[4.5]decan-3-thiones 23-27 have been studied for their in vitro antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus, beta-heamolytic streptococcus, vibreo cholerae, salmonella typhii, shigella felxneri, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumonia, pseudomonas aeruginosa and anti-fungal activity against aspergillus flavus, mucor, rhizopus and microsporum gypsuem. compounds 24 and 25 exerted potent antibacterial activity ...200918830884
evaluation by real-time pcr of the expression of s. flexneri virulence-associated genes ospb and phon2 under different genetical backgrounds.under conditions of activated type iii secretion shigella flexneri up-regulates the expression of numerous genes, including the virulence plasmid (pinv)-encoded ospb and phon2 genes. ospb and phon2 are virulence-associated genes which are part of a bicistronic transcriptional unit encoding ospb, a protein (effector) of unknown function secreted by the type iii secretion (tts) apparatus, and phon2 (apyrase or atp-diphosphohydrolase), a periplasmic protein involved in polar icsa localization on th ...200818831939
reduction in infection risk through treatment of microbially contaminated surfaces with a novel, portable, saturated steam vapor disinfection system.surface-mediated infectious disease transmission is a major concern in various settings, including schools, hospitals, and food-processing facilities. chemical disinfectants are frequently used to reduce contamination, but many pose significant risks to humans, surfaces, and the environment, and all must be properly applied in strict accordance with label instructions to be effective. this study set out to determine the capability of a novel chemical-free, saturated steam vapor disinfection syst ...200918834748
quinolone-induced arthropathy: an update focusing on new mechanistic and clinical data.quinolones possess favourable antibacterial and pharmacokinetic characteristics and are often used as anti-infective agents in adults. they are contraindicated in children and adolescents because they damage weight-bearing joints in juvenile animals. in addition, they possess a tendotoxic potential. since ciprofloxacin has been used off-label for decades in children and adolescents, it is known today that no pronounced risks for arthropathies or tendinopathies exist in humans. recently published ...200918835137
[htpg protein of shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t evokes inflammatory response in mice].to analyze the function of htpg of s. flexneri 2a 2457t, we constructed an htpg deletion mutant and a recovery mutant.200818837368
[detection of staphylococcus aureus, shigella spp., salmonella spp. in food by multiplex pcr].to establish a multiplex pcr method for simultaneous detection of staphylococcus aureus, shigella spp., salmonella spp. in food.200818839528
prevalence and antibiotic resistant shigellae among primary school children in urban calabar, a recent study, involving the examination of 593 stool samples obtained from randomly selected children from three primary schools in calabar, shigella spp. were isolated from 123 (20.7%) of the samples. the infection rate was highest among the younger children with (64.2%) 79/123 of the isolates coming from children under 10 years of age. infection rate was comparable among boys and girls (p = 0.1). only two species of shigella were isolated viz: shigella flexneri 12.0% (71/593) and shigella ...200418839866
bacterial enteropathogens of neonates admitted to an urban diarrhoeal hospital in on the aetiology of diarrhoea in neonates are scarce, especially from developing countries including bangladesh. a retrospective review of the electronic database of the microbiology laboratory of the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh (icddr,b), was carried out to examine enteropathogens associated with diarrhoea in neonates. stool specimens of the neonates on admission to the dhaka hospital of icddr,b were collected and sent to the laboratory for direct plati ...200918840632
[the distribution and antimicrobial resistance tendency of pathogens associated with diarrhea in beijing].to monitor the constituents and resistant tendency of bacterial pathogens isolated from diarrheal patients in our hospital form 1994 to 2005 to offer the basis for guiding epidemiologic study, vaccination research and clinical treatment.200818843955
[analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis molecular subtyping of shigella strains in shenzhen].to analyze the genetic relations of shigella isolated from shenzhen in 2001-2006 and develop primary molecular subtyping surveillance network of shigella.200818844079
[analysis on incidence of bacillary dysentery in jinan municipality from 1951 to 2005].to explore the epidemic characteristics of bacterial dysentery in jinan municipality, and to provide scientific basis for effective strategy for bacterial dysentery control.200818844085
prevention of the cytopathic effect induced by clostridium difficile toxin b by active rac1.clostridium difficile toxin b (tcdb) glucosylates low molecular weight gtp-binding proteins of the rho subfamily and thereby causes actin re-organization (cell rounding). this "cytopathic effect" has been generally attributed to rhoa inactivation. here we show that cells expressing non-glucosylatable rac1-q61l are protected from the cytopathic effect of tcdb. in contrast, cells expressing rhoa-q63l or mock-transfected cells are fully susceptible for the cytopathic effect of tcdb. these findings ...200818848548
role for the chlamydial type iii secretion apparatus in host cytokine many important human pathogens, such as shigella and salmonella spp., the bacterial type iii secretion (t3s) apparatus is required to initiate inflammation via activation of caspase-1- or nf-kappab-dependent genes. using an ex vivo infection model, the goal of the present study was to determine whether the chlamydial t3s apparatus also modulates the host inflammatory response. infections of mouse peritoneal macrophages were performed with chlamydia muridarum, and the expression of inflammator ...200918852236
[new selective indicator medium for detection of aeromonas and plesiomonas: unisc agar].we evaluated a new selective indicator medium (unisc agar) for isolation of classical enteropathogens, aeromonas spp and plesiomonas shigelloides. the xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents) or blue (no fermenting agent). this, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting aeromonas and plesiomonas shigelloides. its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it ...200818853024
shigellae occurring in japan. 194818859821
the labile antigens of shigella dysenteriae shiga. 194818861434
invasion by shigella sonnei of tissues of mice following gavage with viable shigella. 194818863683
the toxic and antigenic properties of fractions prepared from the complete antigen of shigella dysenteriae. 194818864078
studies in dysentery vaccination; immunity in mice injected with vaccines of shigella. 194818864081
prolonged laboratory observations on clinical cases and carriers of shigella flexneri iii following an epidemic. 194818864928
isolation of shigella from the gallbladder in bacillary dysentery. 194818866888
[not available]. 194818868572
studies with shigella dysenterias, shiga; infection and toxin action in mice. 194818869809
studies with shigella dysenteriae, shiga; the effect of serums on experimental infection and intoxication in mice. 194818869810
the genus shigella and shigellosis. 194818871435
[not available]. 194818871824
[not available]. 194818871841
susceptibility of mongoloids to infection; incidence of pneumonia, influenza a and shigella dysenteriae, sonne. 194818872694
[not available]. 194818878174
[not available]. 194818878713
the relation of antabonistic coliform organisms to shigella infections; survey observations. 194818881069
studies in dysentery vaccination; immunization of mice with vaccine of shigella sonnei administered by gavage. 194818881080
studies in dysentery vaccination; primary vaccination of children with monovalent vaccines of shigella. 194818886530
enteric infections in chimpanzees and spider monkeys with special reference to a sulfadiazine resistant shigella. 194818888330
the relation of antagonistic coliform organisms to shigella infections; observations in acute infections. 194818890195
shigella rio, a new type of shigella. 194818897988
responses of human subjects to vaccines in saline-in-mineral oil emulsion; shigella paradysenteriae vaccines. 194818897990
contribution to the diagnosis of shigellae and salmonellae in the tropics. 194718899852
[not available]. 194818908201
hemagglutination by bacterial suspensions with special reference to shigella alkalescens. 194818910635
[not available]. 194818911146
an outbreak of shigella flexneri infection among rheus monkeys. 194818915380
studies on the genus shigella. 194718915385
shigella tieté. 194818915661
a case of shigella alkalescens cystopyelitis and bacteremia. 194818920536
on some culture media used for the isolation of salmonella, eberthella and shigella organisms. 194718920730
experimental type transformation of shigella paradysenteriae (flexner). 194718921755
in this issue: proteomics 20/ this issue of proteomics you will find the following highlighted articles:comprehensively confirmed annotation of short orfsduring the california gold rush, prospectors did not look only for large nuggets to pave their road to riches - they also collected gold dust. the proteomic equivalent of dust is the small orf. it does not pay to put a lower limit on dust or orf size because almost any size may be turned into "cash" or an important peptide. wei et al. demonstrate how a combination of con ...200818924177
closing the diarrhoea diagnostic gap in indian children by the application of molecular techniques.a large proportion of diarrhoeal illnesses in children in developing countries are ascribed to an unknown aetiology because the only available methods, such as microscopy and culture, have low sensitivity. this study was aimed at decreasing the diagnostic gap in diarrhoeal disease by the application of molecular techniques. faecal samples from 158 children with and 99 children without diarrhoea in a hospital in south india were tested for enteric pathogens using conventional diagnostic methods ( ...200818927413
porin-incorporated liposome induces toll-like receptors 2- and 6-dependent maturation and type 1 response of dendritic cell.porin of shigella dysenteriae was incorporated in liposome (pil) and presented to mouse splenic dendritic cells (dc). pil up-regulated toll-like receptor (tlr) 2 and tlr6 on dc, showing that co-expression of the two tlrs is involved in recognition of porin. detection of myeloid differentiating factor 88 (myd88)-tlr2 complex confirmed interaction between the two for triggering the downstream signaling, which ultimately led to tlr2-dependent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa b. pil-ind ...200818931363
simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria from surface waters by qpcr in comparison with conventional bacterial indicators.a rapid quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) method was developed for simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria from surface waters by utilizing a pair of universal primers which targeted four bacteria strains, namely shigella dysenteriae, vibrio cholerae, salmonella typhimurium, and escherichia coli. it was estimated that the qpcr method had a 94% confidence, and a detection limit as 2.7 e. coli cells per sample in undiluted dna extracts. the qpcr method was applied for the bacteriolo ...200918931927
the isolation and properties of specific antigens from variants of shigella sonnei. 194818932531
diversity of tight junctions (tjs) between gastrointestinal epithelial cells and their function in maintaining the mucosal barrier.the gastrointestinal epithelium, which is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, including enterocytes, intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells, microfold cells, and dendritic cells, serves as a protective barrier separating luminal contents from the underlying tissue compartments. the epithelium plays an important role in the first line of host defense against a variety of pathogens, as well as maintaining the homeostasis in gastrointestinal tract. all these epithelial cells express j ...200918938254
a pilot sheds light on secretin assembly. 200818940600
structural characterization of the type-iii pilot-secretin complex from shigella flexneri.assembly of the type-iii secretion apparatus, which translocates proteins through both membranes of gram-negative bacterial pathogens into host cells, requires the formation of an integral outer-membrane secretin ring. typically, a small lipidated pilot protein is necessary for the stabilization and localization of this ring. using nmr spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the c-terminal residues 553-570 of the shigella flexneri secretin mxid encompass the minimal binding domain for its cognate pilo ...200818940609
antimicrobial activity of endemic crataegus tanacetifolia (lam.) pers and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells.up to now an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been reported and thus new natural therapeutic agents are needed in order to eradicate these pathogens. through the discovery of plants such as crataegus tanacetifolia (lam.) pers that have antimicrobial activity, it will be possible to discover new natural drugs serving as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of nosocomial pathogens and take these antibiotic-resistant bacteria under control. the objective of the present s ...200818946875
detection of protozoan and bacterial pathogens of public health importance in faeces of corvus spp. (large-billed crow).parasites and bacteria are reported in the faeces of birds in the current study. fresh faecal samples of the large-billed crow (corvus spp.) were collected from the study site at bangsar, an urban setting in kuala lumpur, malaysia. these samples were transported to laboratory and analysed for parasites and bacteria. pre-prepared xld agar plates were used for culturing the bacteria in the laboratory. using the api 20etm test strips, 9 different species of bacteria were identified belonging to the ...200818948884
analysis of immune responses and serological cross reactivities among vibrio cholerae o1, shigella flexneri 2a and haemophilus influenzae b.antigenic determinants expressed on the bacterial cell surface are of importance in the serological characterization and microbiological diagnosis. the bacterial strains carrying these identical or similar antigenic epitopes might react with antibodies produced against other strains. in this study, strong immunogenicity and antigenic cross reactivity were demonstrated among v. cholerae o1, s. flexnerii 2a and h. influenzae b surface components. the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) resul ...200818954564
the elucidation of the structure of the core part of the lps from plesiomonas shigelloides serotype o17 expressing o-polysaccharide chain identical to the shigella sonnei o-chain.plesiomonas shigelloides o17 lps contains the same o-antigenic polysaccharide chain as a causative agent of dysentery, shigella sonnei. this polysaccharide can be used as a component of a vaccine against dysentery. core part of the p. shigelloides o17 lps was studied using nmr and mass spectrometry and the following structure was proposed: [structure : see text]. significant similarity of the p. shigelloides o17 lps core with the structure of the p. shigelloides o54 core was observed.200818954864
novel chimeric beta-lactamase ctx-m-64, a hybrid of ctx-m-15-like and ctx-m-14 beta-lactamases, found in a shigella sonnei strain resistant to various oxyimino-cephalosporins, including ceftazidime.the plasmid-mediated novel beta-lactamase ctx-m-64 was first identified in shigella sonnei strain uih-1, which exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (mic, 1,024 microg/ml) and ceftazidime (mic, 32 microg/ml). the amino acid sequence of ctx-m-64 showed a chimeric structure of a ctx-m-15-like beta-lactamase (n- and c-terminal moieties) and a ctx-m-14-like beta-lactamase (central portion, amino acids 63 to 226), suggesting that it originated by homologous recombination between the corresponding genes. ...200918955524
a genomic distance based on mum indicates discontinuity between most bacterial species and genera.the fundamental unit of biological diversity is the species. however, a remarkable extent of intraspecies diversity in bacteria was discovered by genome sequencing, and it reveals the need to develop clear criteria to group strains within a species. two main types of analyses used to quantify intraspecies variation at the genome level are the average nucleotide identity (ani), which detects the dna conservation of the core genome, and the dna content, which calculates the proportion of dna share ...200918978054
the temporal dynamics of slightly deleterious mutations in escherichia coli and shigella spp.the shigella are recently emerged clones of escherichia coli, which have independently adopted an intracellular pathogenic lifestyle. we examined the molecular evolutionary consequences of this niche specialization by comparing the normalized, directional frequency profiles of unique polymorphisms within 2,098 orthologues representing the intersection of five e. coli and four shigella genomes. we note a surfeit of at-enriching changes (gc-->at), transversions, and nonsynonymous changes in the sh ...200918984902
detection of escherichia coli, salmonella spp., shigella spp., yersinia enterocolitica, vibrio cholerae, and campylobacter spp. enteropathogens by 3-reaction multiplex polymerase chain reaction.the magnitude of bacterial diarrhea in developing countries is largely unknown because affordable detection methods are not available. we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay for use in areas with limited resources to screen for diarrheogenic strains from clinical isolates. to simplify the assay and minimize reagents, our method implemented the use of plasmids rather than bacteria as template controls and the use of bacterial suspensions or crude dna preparations rather t ...200918990527
small-molecule type iii secretion system inhibitors block assembly of the shigella type iii secreton.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are essential virulence devices for many gram-negative bacteria that are pathogenic for plants, animals, and humans. they serve to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic host cells. t3sss are composed of a large cytoplasmic bulb and a transmembrane region into which a needle is embedded, protruding above the bacterial surface. the emerging antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens urges the development of novel strategies to fight b ...200918996990
structure of the shigella t3ss effector ipah defines a new class of e3 ubiquitin ligases.ipah proteins are e3 ubiquitin ligases delivered by the type iii secretion apparatus into host cells upon infection of humans by the gram-negative pathogen shigella flexneri. these proteins comprise a variable leucine-rich repeat-containing n-terminal domain and a conserved c-terminal domain harboring an invariant cysteine residue that is crucial for activity. ipah homologs are encoded by diverse animal and plant pathogens. here we demonstrate that the ipah c-terminal domain carries the catalyti ...200818997778
structure of a shigella effector reveals a new class of ubiquitin ligases.bacterial pathogens have evolved effector proteins with ubiquitin e3 ligase activities through structural mimicking. here we report the crystal structure of the shigella flexneri type iii effector ipah3, a member of the leucine-rich repeat (lrr)-containing bacterial e3 family. the lrr domain is structurally similar to yersinia pestis yopm and potentially binds to substrates. the structure of the c-terminal e3 domain differs from the typical ring- and hect-type e3s. ipah3 synthesizes a lys48-link ...200818997779
the molecular evolutionary history of shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli.shigellosis, which caused by shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec), was still a threat to public health. compelling evidence indicates that shigella species and eiec are derived from multiple origins of e. coli and form a single pathovar. eiec strains are regarded as precursors of 'full-blown'shigella evolved from e. coli. by gain and loss of functions, shigella and eiec became successful human pathogens through convergent evolution from diverse genomic backgrounds.200919000785
[antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains in paediatric infections: there are resistance and resistance!].isolation of a bacterial strain at the infectious site and determination of the susceptibility profile may help to guide appropriate antibiotic treatment. however technical difficulties justify interpretative reading to recognize interfering resistance mechanisms from resistance phenotypes. the aim of this article is to give some examples showing interpretative reading of routine sensitivity test data.200819000854
ceramide and cerebrosides from the octocoral sarcophyton ehrenbergi.chemical investigation of the octocoral sarcophyton ehrenbergi, collected at the dongsha islands, taiwan, has led to the isolation of a known ceramide (1) and two new cerebrosides, sarcoehrenosides a (2) and b (4), along with three known cerebrosides (3, 5, and 6). the structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. sarcoehrenoside a (2) differs from previously known marine cerebrosides in that it possesses a rare alpha-glucose moiety. compounds 1-6 were e ...200919006372
biometric fingerprinting for visa application: device and procedure are risk factors for infection transmission.biometric fingerprint identity verification is currently introduced in visa application and entry screening at border control. the system implies physical contact between the skin and the surface of the fingerprint-capturing and reading devices.200819006507
functional nanoparticle-based proteomic strategies for characterization of pathogenic bacteria.although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (maldi ms) can be employed to rapidly characterize pathogenic bacteria, bacterial cultures are generally required to obtain sufficient quantities of the bacterial cells prior to maldi ms analysis. if this time-consuming step could be eliminated, the length of time required for identification of bacterial strains would be greatly reduced. in this paper, we propose an effective means of rapidly identifying bacteria--one that do ...200819007241
repression of galp, the galactose transporter in escherichia coli, requires the specific regulator of n-acetylglucosamine metabolism.soupene et al. [j. bacteriol. (2003) 185 5611-5626] made the unexpected observation that the presence of a mutation, in the gene for the n-acetylglucosamine repressor, nagc, increased the growth rate of escherichia coli mg1655 on galactose, an unrelated sugar. we have found that nagc, binds to a single, high-affinity site overlapping the promoter of galp (galactose permease) gene and that expression of galp is repressed by a combination of nagc, galr and gals. in addition to the previously ident ...200919007420
genotypic and phenotypic diversity among induced, stx2-carrying bacteriophages from environmental escherichia coli strains.shiga toxin 2 (stx(2)) gene-carrying bacteriophages have been shown to convert escherichia coli strains to shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec). in this study, 79 e. coli strains belonging to 35 serotypes isolated from wastewaters of both human and animal origin were examined for the presence of stx(2)-carrying bacteriophages in their genomes. the lytic cycle of the bacteriophages was induced by mitomycin, and the bacteriophage fraction was isolated and used for morphological and geneti ...200919011056
tlr4 and myd88 control protection and pulmonary granulocytic recruitment in a murine intranasal rsv immunization and challenge intranasal vaccine composed of toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) ligand neisseria meningitidis outer membrane proteins and toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) ligand shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide (lps) (protollin) and enriched respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) proteins (ersv) has been demonstrated to promote balanced th1/th2 responses without eosinophil recruitment and to protect against challenge in mouse models. we used tlr2, tlr4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) knock-out (-/-) mice ...200919013492
is escherichia coli o157:h7 a common pathogen in children with bloody diarrhea in shiraz, iran?escherichia coli (e. coli) o157:h7 is a common cause of bloody diarrhea in developed countries. the aim of this study was to determine whether e. coli o157:h7 is a possible pathogen of bloody diarrhea in southern iran. out of 719 children with diarrhea, 243 (34%) patients with positive occult blood took part in our study. the polyclonal antibody test and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were used to identify e. coli o157:h7. stool cultures showed enteropathogens in 107 patients (44%). shigella (3 ...200819014048
inferring genomic flux in bacteria.acquisition and loss of genetic material are essential forces in bacterial microevolution. they have been repeatedly linked with adaptation of lineages to new lifestyles, and in particular, pathogenicity. comparative genomics has the potential to elucidate this genetic flux, but there are many methodological challenges involved in inferring evolutionary events from collections of genome sequences. here we describe a model-based method for using whole-genome sequences to infer the patterns of gen ...200919015321
espt triggers formation of lamellipodia and membrane ruffles through activation of rac-1 and cdc42.subversion of the eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton is a virulence strategy employed by many bacterial pathogens. due to the pivotal role of rho gtpases in actin dynamics they are common targets of bacterial effector proteins and toxins. ipgb1, ipgb2 (shigella), sifa, sifb (salmonella) and map and espm (attaching and effacing pathogens) constitute a family of type iii secretion system effectors that subverts small gtpase signalling pathways. in this study we identified and characterized espt from cit ...200919016787
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