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[microbial ecology of the digestive tract in patients with acute intestinal infections]. 19921324548
distribution of insertion sequence is1 in multiple-antibiotic resistant clinical enterobacteriaceae strains.the presence of insertion sequence is1 in 70 multiple-antibiotic resistant clinical strains was determined. this 70-strain collection comprised 46 escherichia coli, 18 salmonella and 6 shigella strains. the presence of is1 was detected in the chromosome and plasmids of 73% and 63% of the strains, respectively, and 51% of the strains carried is1 in both. the frequency of is1 was higher in salmonella than in e. coli and shigella strains. a total of 31 strains carried large plasmids with is1; 10 of ...19921324200
environmental regulation of shigella virulence. 19921324135
shiga toxin: biochemistry, genetics, mode of action, and role in pathogenesis. 19921324134
enrofloxacin treatment of long-tailed macaques with acute bacillary dysentery due to multiresistant shigella flexneri iv.thirty-four cases of acute bacillary dysentery occurred within 90 days among macaques housed at the california regional primate research center. cases were identified by depression, diarrhea with blood and leukocytic exudate, and/or leukocytosis with a left shift. antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enteric isolates and plasmid profile analyses established an etiologic diagnosis of multiple antibiotic resistant shigella flexneri iv infection. when standard therapies were invalidated by high ...19921320152
lactoferrin-binding proteins in shigella flexneri.the ability of shigella flexneri to interact with lactoferrin (lf) was examined with a 125i-labeled protein-binding assay. the percent binding of human lactoferrin (hlf) and bovine lactoferrin (blf) to 45 s. flexneri strains was 19 +/- 3 and 21 +/- 3 (mean +/- standard error of the mean), respectively. 125i-labeled hlf and blf binding to strain m90t reached an equilibrium within 2 h. unlabeled hlf and blf displaced the 125i-hlf-bacteria interaction in a dose-dependent manner. the lf-bacterium co ...19921319403
in vitro activity of lomefloxacin and other antimicrobials against bacterial enteritis pathogens.lomefloxacin is a new, difluoroquinolone. in this study, the in vitro activity of lomefloxacin against clinical isolates of a variety of bacterial species associated with acute diarrheal disease was determined and compared with that of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. bacterial isolates were obtained from different geographical areas, including western europe and the united kingdom, southern europe, africa, the middle east ...19921319301
coxsackie b1 virus-induced changes in cell membrane-associated functions are not responsible for altered sensitivity to bacterial invasiveness.to analyze the possible mechanisms by which coxsackie b1 virus infection affects the invasiveness of shigella flexneri, we have studied the influence of intracellular levels of na+ and k+, atpase activity, cytoplasmic membrane potential, camp level and cell communication through gap junctions. 3h after adsorption of viable or uv-inactivated coxsackie b1 virus the na(+)-k+ gradient of the cell collapsed, atpase activity decreased, the cytoplasmic membranic potential-dependent tetraphosphonium ion ...19921318709
the evolution of insertion sequences within enteric bacteria.to identify mechanisms that influence the evolution of bacterial transposons, dna sequence variation was evaluated among homologs of insertion sequences is1, is3 and is30 from natural strains of escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria. the nucleotide sequences within each class of is were highly conserved among e. coli strains, over 99.7% similar to a consensus sequence. when compared to the range of nucleotide divergence among chromosomal genes, these data indicate high turnover and rapid ...19921317318
detection of porin antigen in serum for early diagnosis of mouse infections with salmonella typhimurium.the monoclonal antibodies to porin, an outer membrane protein isolated from salmonella typhimurium and sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has made possible the detection of porin from sera of s. typhimurium-infected mice. the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies was ascertained based on their cross-reactivity with porins isolated from s. typhi, shigella flexneri and escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharide (lps) of s. typhimurium and e. coli. serum samples were found to be pos ...19921315558
correlation between coxsackie b1 virus replication and enhanced invasiveness of shigella flexneri.coxsackie b1 virus infection enhances the susceptibility of cultured hep-2 cells to shigella flexneri invasiveness. this can be reproduced partially with uv-inactivated virus, particularly the effect observed shortly after viral inoculation. the following phases of viral multiplication were correlated with the enhancing effect: uncoating of viral particles, synthesis of viral rna and proteins, and assembly of newly produced virus particles. uncoating of virus particles was completed within 60 mi ...19921314061
outbreaks of human enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41 in houston day care centers.human enteric adenovirus (ead) types 40 and 41 cause diarrhea in young children, but little is known about their association with outbreaks of diarrhea in the child care setting. this study evaluated ead as a cause of outbreaks of diarrhea among infants and toddlers in day care centers.19921313095
surface presentation of shigella flexneri invasion plasmid antigens requires the products of the spa locus.an avirulent, invasion plasmid insertion mutant of shigella flexneri 5 (phs1059) was restored to the virulence phenotype by transformation with a partial hindiii library of the wild-type invasion plasmid constructed in pbr322. western immunoblot analysis of phs1059 whole-cell lysates revealed that the synthesis of the invasion plasmid antigens virg, ipaa, ipab, ipac, and ipad was similar to that seen in the corresponding isogenic s. flexneri 5 virulent strain, m90t. ipab and ipac, however, were ...19921312536
in vitro repair of double-strand breaks accompanied by recombination in bacteriophage t7 dna.a double-strand break in a bacteriophage t7 genome significantly reduced the ability of that dna to produce viable phage when the dna was incubated in an in vitro dna replication and packaging system. when a homologous piece of t7 dna (either a restriction fragment or t7 dna cloned into a plasmid) that was by itself unable to form a complete phage was included in the reaction, the break was repaired to the extent that many more viable phage were produced. moreover, repair could be completed even ...19921309515
spontaneous insertion of an is1-like element into the virf gene is responsible for avirulence in opaque colonial variants of shigella flexneri 2a.colonial variation of shigella flexneri serotype 2a from the translucent (2457t) to the opaque form (2457o) occurs spontaneously once in 10(4) cell divisions, with concomitant loss of ipa gene expression and virulence. the appearance of 2457o was associated with the insertional inactivation of virf, an invasion plasmid-encoded positive regulator of ipa gene expression. plasmid pwr110, a tn5-tagged invasion plasmid that restores the invasive phenotype to plasmid-cured shigella derivatives, was co ...19921309511
[comparative activities in vitro of 4 quinolones (nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin) on 13 bacterial species].nalidixic acid and three fluoroquinolones were tested on 389 strains belonging to 13 bacterial species, all isolated in algeria. ofloxacin, norfloxacin and pefloxacin have the same activities on e. coli, acinetobacter and s. aureus. norfloxacin has the best activity on proteus, enterobacter, shigella and klebsiella. norfloxacin and ofloxacin have the same activities on s. typhi, salmonella and choleric vibrio. norfloxacin has the same activity than pefloxacin on p. aeruginosa. it is necessary to ...19921309146
antimicrobial resistance of 100 serial gram-negative isolates in two intensive care units.to determine antimicrobial resistance pattern among gram-negative bacteria isolated from suspected sources of infections in patients hospitalized in two intensive care units (icus) at siriraj hospital from september 1991 to december 1991, minimal inhibitory concentrations of one-hundred consecutive gram-negative isolates for various antimicrobials were performed using the microbroth dilution method. of all gram-negative bacterial isolates, 25 per cent were pseudomonas aeruginosa, 22 per cent aci ...19921308536
a 4-kilobase congo red binding plasmid dna fragment of shigella dysenteriae 1 suppresses the growth and cell differentiation in escherichia coli.a 4-kilobase congo red binding plasmid dna fragment of pcat 120 of shigella dysenteriae 1 was transferred to an escherichia coli k12 strain by transformation. transformants were unable to grow in any liquid broth medium. electron microscopic studies revealed that the transformants grown on tryptic soy agar were associated in clusters after cell division. normal cell separation among the transformants in comparison with recipient e. coli k12 was only observed when the growth medium was supplement ...19921307443
hygiene habits and carriers in families with a child who has had typhoid fever.the relationship between asymptomatic shedding of bacterial enteropathogens and the hygiene habits of families who have had a child with typhoid fever (tf) are investigated. the sample was made up of 80 families: 40 families in which one child had had tf (group a) and 40 in which no children or either of the parents had had a history of tf (group b). in each group 20 families belonged to a low socioeconomic status (ses) and 20 to a high ses. a structured interview was used to evaluate the ses an ...19921307431
composition of lipid a in the s and r forms of shigella dysenteriae serovar 1.a chemical analysis was performed of lipid a, isolated by acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide from the s and r forms of shigella dysenteriae serovar 1. differences in the moiety of both lipids and sugars were compared. the lipid portion consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids ranging from c12:0 to c18:0 (predominant homologues, c12:0, c14:0 and c16:0) and the homologous series of 3-hydroxy acids ranging from c12:0 to c16:0 (predominant homologue, 3-oh-c14:0). the major sugar portio ...19921303686
a critical appraisal of 98.6 degrees f, the upper limit of the normal body temperature, and other legacies of carl reinhold august wunderlich.to evaluate critically carl wunderlich's axioms on clinical thermometry.19921302471
extracellular export of shiga toxin b-subunit/haemolysin a (c-terminus) fusion protein expressed in salmonella typhimurium aroa-mutant and stimulation of b-subunit specific antibody responses in mice.the shiga toxin b-subunit has been fused to the 23-kd c-terminus of escherichia coli haemolysin a (hlya) and exported from attenuated antigen carrier strain of salmonella typhimurium aroa (sl3261). the expression of the gene fusion under the control of a synthetic modified beta-lactamase promoter (constitutive expression) and under the iron-regulated aerobactin promoter showed that the fusion protein could be stably expressed and exported out of the bacterial cell in significant amounts so long ...19921302285
[the clinical assessment of macrophage functional activity in patients with protracted dysentery and its correction with lysozyme and vitamin e].prospects for the correction of disturbances in the macrophagal system with a combination of lysozyme and vitamin e in patients with a protracted course of dysentery caused by shigella flexneri 1b were studied. the phagocytic activity of macrophages (pam) was found to be suppressed as early as at the beginning of the disease. out of 38 persons repeatedly found to release shigellae 24 were administered polychemotherapy. pam indices in patients treated with lysozyme and tocopherol acetate were lik ...19921301666
fraction of spleen cells responsible for suppression of cellular immune response to srbc in mice treated with outer membrane proteins of shigella.effect of splenocytes isolated from mice immunized with suppressive dose of omp from shigella on delayed hypersensitivity, induced in mice with sheep red blood cells was investigated. only the population of t lymphocytes was found to suppress the delayed hypersensitivity, as measured by the footpad reaction. the results suggest that omp of shigella are able to induce in the spleens of animals active t cells which are responsible for the suppression of cellular response induced by srbc.19921299172
effect of outer membrane proteins from shigella on humoral immunity induced in mice by srbc.shigella flexneri outer membrane proteins (omp) which had been earlier found to exert immunomodulatory effect on cell mediated immune response were also found to act as immunomodulator of the humoral immune response. effects of omp were investigated in the experiments in vitro and in vivo, where the level of humoral immune response, measured as the number of plaque-forming cells (pfc) to srbc in the spleen was evaluated. we demonstrate that small doses of omp (1-5 micrograms) stimulate, whereas ...19921299171
study of strains agglutinable with enteroinvasive anti e. coli polyvalent sera isolated from ill and healthy subjects for optimizing the laboratory diagnosis of diarrhoea.369 e. coli strains that are agglutinated in a or b anti e. coli enteroinvasive (eiec) polyvalent sera and inducing no keratoconjunctivitis in the guinea pig's eye have been selected. the biochemical reactions of e. coli strains that can be agglutinated in a or b eiec polyvalent sera occupy an intermediary position between those of shigella genus and the classical features of escherichia, i.e.; 87% are motile bacteria, 88%--ferment lactose, 81% form acid from sodium mucate and lysine is not deca ...19921297466
bacterial endotoxins as potential antitumor agents. tumor mass loss in mice treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides of shigella dysenteriae serovar 1.natural and modified preparations of lipopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes isolated from the s- and r-form of shigella dysenteriae serovar 1 were found to markedly inhibit the initial growth of mouse solid tumors derived from németh-kellner lymphoma, gardner 6c3hed lymphoma, an ill-defined syngeneic lymphoma of dba mice (skalsky lymphoma) and lp-2 plasmacytoma. the biopreparations were given intraperitoneally, most frequently at a dose range from 50 to 200 micrograms per m ...19921296928
prevalence of plesiomonas shigelloides among diarrhoeal patients in bangladesh.the incidence of plesiomonas shigelloides among diarrhoeal patients attending the dhaka treatment centre of the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh (icddr, b) from january through december 1987, has been reported. using bile peptone broth (ph 8.8) as an enrichment medium and salmonella-shigella agar to isolate the organism, p. shigelloides was isolated from 838 (6.4%) of 13,142 patients, 523 (4.0%) of whom had no other pathogen isolated. the percentage of isolation w ...19921296610
campylobacter jejuni in acute diarrhoea in infancy and its relation to faecal leucocytic count.a prospective study was carried out to identify the relative risk of campylobacter jejuni infection in 50 infants with acute diarrhoea, 24 infants with acute resistant diarrhoea and 25 healthy normal infants as a matching control group. faecal samples were collected from the three groups and were cultured on both selective media for campylobacter and other media for isolation of other organisms. direct stool smears, stained with methylene blue, were examined for detection of faecal leucocyte in ...19921295942
[shigella flexneri strains having a new type antigen 89-141].two shigella strains (89-141 and 89-11) isolated from the stool of patients returning from abroad (both from india) in tokyo in 1989 showed an atypical serologic reaction of agglutination with only polyvalent antiserum to s. flexneri prepared commercially. these strains had the typical biochemical characteristics of s. flexneri and were biochemically identical. both strains were positive for serény test in guinea pig eye and cell-invasion test in hela cells. the strains also had virulence-plasmi ...19921294667
[research on sterilization of pathogens by high electrostatic voltage method].an experimental research has been carried out on the sterilization of four kinds of pathogens by high electrostatic method along with an inquiry into the influence of voltage waveform and the treated time on sterilization. it is concluded that pathogens can be killed efficiently by corona discharge field.19921294177
[the intoxication syndrome in acute dysentery]. 19921293830
[bacteriological study of traveller's diarrhoea. 4) isolation of enteropathogenic bacteria from patients with traveller's diarrhoea at osaka airport quarantine station during 1984-1991].during the last 8 years (1984 to 1991), 16,639,233 overseas travellers were quarantined at osaka airport quarantine station and 38,326 travellers reported that they were (or had been) suffering from diarrhoea. bacteriological examination of stools from 12,573 persons revealed the following results. 1) various enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated from 3,669 cases (29.2%) examined. the predominant species of bacteria isolated were as follows: salmonella, 1049 cases; plesiomonas shigelloides, 10 ...19921293222
persistent diarrhea in children: epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, nutritional impact, and management.a review of data on the morbidity and mortality caused by persistent diarrhea (more than 14 days' duration) was undertaken from studies in several geographic areas, including bangladesh, brazil, ethiopia, india, indonesia, and peru, over the last 3 decades. an estimated 3-5 billion diarrheal illnesses and 5-10 million diarrhea-related deaths occur annually among 3 billion people in africa, asia, and latin america. mostly the 338 million to 1 billion episodes and 4.6 million deaths annually. a ...19921289113
multiresistant shigella species from african aids patients: antibacterial resistance patterns and application of the e-test for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration.the antibacterial resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) of 25 shigella flexneri, 5 s. boydii, 8 s. sonnei, and 3 strains of s. dysenteriae type 2 isolated from kenyan prostitutes with bacillary dysentery and aids were determined, and the applicability of the e-test for mic determination evaluated. all strains were resistant to > or = 3 of 9 different antibacterial agents tested. all strains were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, 95% to trimethoprim/sulfonamide, ...19921287807
an outbreak of foodborne shigella sonnei infection. 19921285187
dysentery due to shigella infection. 19921285156
characterization of a lipopolysaccharide encoded by a recombinant shigella sonnei plasmid in escherichia coli k-12.the genetic information to synthesize the s-specific region of shigella sonnei phase i lipopolysaccharide (lps) is localized on a 180 kb plasmid which is lost quite readily. a recombinant plasmid derivative remaining stable in the bacteria was shown to determine the s-specific region of the lps which is completely identical with that of a s. sonnei phase i strain following transfer in escherichia coli k-12. however, the length control in polysaccharide biosynthesis is lost at least partially.19921284653
computer-assisted analysis of the structure of regular branched polysaccharides containing 2,3-disubstituted rhamnopyranose and mannopyranose residues on the basis of 13c nmr data.a computer-assisted approach to the analysis of the structure of branched polysaccharides that contain 2,3-di-o-glycosylated alpha-rhamnopyranose and alpha-mannopyranose residues is based on evaluation of the 13c nmr spectra, using glycosylation effects and their deviations from additivity (delta delta values) at the branch points. this approach, in combination with monosaccharide and methylation analysis data, has been verified on a series of bacterial polysaccharides of known structure.19921284111
differentiation of shigella flexneri strains by rrna gene restriction patterns.we studied the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of rrna genes (ribotypes) of 72 clinical isolates of shigella flexneri representing eight serotypes to determine whether ribotyping could be used to distinguish s. flexneri strains and to compare the discriminating ability of the method with that of serotyping. by using a cloned escherichia coli rrna operon as the probe, southern blot hybridization of restriction endonuclease-digested total dna was carried out. ribotyping of the isolates ...19921280647
acetylation of o-specific lipopolysaccharides from shigella flexneri 3a and 2a occurs in escherichia coli k-12 carrying cloned s. flexneri 3a and 2a rfb genes.most of the shigella flexneri o-specific serotypes result from o-acetyl and/or glucosyl groups added to a common o-repeating unit of the lipopolysaccharide (lps) molecule. the genes involved in acetylation and/or glucosylation of s. flexneri lps are physically located on lysogenic bacteriophages, whereas the rfb cluster contains the biosynthesis genes for the common o-repeating unit (d.a.r. simmons and e. romanowska, j. med. microbiol. 23:289-302, 1987). using a cosmid cloning strategy, we have ...19921280255
monoclonal antibodies against salmonella porins: generation and characterization.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated against porins, one of the major outer membrane proteins of salmonella typhi. six clones, designated mp1, mp2, mp3 (igg2ak), mpn4, mpn6 (igg1k) and mpn5 (igg2bk) were characterized by enzyme immunoassay (elisa) for their reactivity to porins from s. typhi, salmonella paratyphi a, s. paratyphi b, s. paratyphi c, salmonella choleraesuis, salmonella enteritidis, salmonella krefeld, salmonella panama, salmonella typhimurium, escherichia coli b, shigella fl ...19921280248
effect of natural and synthetic immunomodulators on the synthesis of interferon by peritoneal cells of mice.the effect of different natural and synthetic immunomodulators on the spontaneous interferon (ifn) synthesis by freshly isolated resident peritoneal cells of balb/c, nzb and c3h mice was investigated. actinomycetal glycolipids isolated from curtobacterium betae, faenia rectivirgula, rothia dentocariosa and saccharopolyspora hirsuta at the concentration 1-20 micrograms/ml were found to potentiate the ifn synthesis by the peritoneal cells of balb/c mice. similar results were obtained when dsrna, l ...19921279963
[the effect of shigella sonnei strains opposite in their virulence on different links in the immune system].for the first time different action of s. sonnei strains, opposite in their virulence, on hematopoiesis and the functional activity of t- and b-lymphocytes has been shown. the hematopoiesis-disturbing action of virulent shigellae is manifested by their capacity, more pronounced than similar capacity of an avirulent (vaccine) strain, for stimulating the processes of endo- and exocolony formation, the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and their migration to the blood. the effect produced b ...19921279912
[detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria by polymerase chain reaction with primers from dna sequence of ribosomal rna].applicability of the polymerase chain reaction method for identification of pathogenic bacteria was examined with the primers synthesized from the ribosomal rna gene sequence containing both homologous and species-specific regions of bacterial species from mycoplasma to mycobacteria. two out of the nine sets of promoters prepared, each covering about 650 nucleotides spanning from 16s rna to 23s rna regions, produced the corresponding dna fragments from all the strains tested, and another set did ...19921279233
absolute configuration of 3-hydroxy fatty acids present in lipopolysaccharides from various bacterial groups.the absolute configuration of 3-hydroxy fatty acids has been studied, which are present in the lipopolysaccharides of the following bacteria: phodopseudomonas gelatinosa, rh. viridis, rhodospirillum tenue, chromobacterium violaceum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, bordetella pertussis, vibrio metchnikovii, vibrio cholerae, salmonella spp., escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, proteus mirabilis, yersinia enterocolitica and fusobacterium nucleatum. the 3-hydroxy acids were liberated by strong alkaline hyd ...19761278168
an "experimental" epidemic of reiter's syndrome revisited. follow-up evidence on genetic and environmental factors.the relation between a specific infective event (shigellosis), a specific disease entity (reiter's syndrome), and a specific histocompatibility antigen (hl-a b27) is documented by follow-up study of an epidemic of post-shigella reiter's syndrome. five of the original 10 patients have been traced, hl-a typed, and clinically assessed 13 years after the initial episode. one of the 5 has minimal disease, remains symptom-free, and is hl-a b27-negative. the remaining 4 have followed a chronic course, ...19761275358
antimicrobial susceptibilities of shigellae isolated in houston, texas, in 1974.one hundred seventy-three strains of shigellae (113 shigella sonnei, 56 s. flexneri, and four others) isolated in houston during 1974 were tested for susceptibility to commonly used and newer antimicrobial agents. forty-five percent of s. sonnei strains were susceptible to ampicillin, whereas 93% of s. flexneri strains were susceptible to that agent. s. sonnei and s. flexneri strains were equally susceptible to tetracycline (35 and 33%, respectively). all 173 strains were uniformly susceptible t ...19761267426
a previously undescribed gram-negative bacillus causing septicemia and meningitis.this report describes a case of septicemia and meningitis secondary to dog bites by two different dogs on two consecutive days. the case is noteworthy because of the unusual characteristics of the etiologic agent and the inability to place the etiologic agent into any currently defined genus or to identify it by the existing systems of classification. the organism is a small, thin, gram-negative bacillus after 24 hours of incubation on blood agar; after prolonged incubation, it becomes filamento ...19761266816
morphologic homogeneity of bacteriophages and their biological activity.lytic activity of morphologically homogeneous phage lysates, obtained from lysates containing morphologically inhomogeneous virions, was studied. five series of phage lysates found to contain morphologically inhomogeneous virions were investigated. by selecting suitable hosts from each series, two or three lines were obtained which reproduced morphologically homogeneous virions. morphologic homogeneity of these phage lines was determined by electron microscopy. in the course of this study it was ...19761259534
drug resistance and distribution of r factors in salmonella strains.drug resistance and the distribution of r factors in salmonella strains were surveyed using 1,980 strains isolated in japan from 1955 to 1973. resistances were mostly restricted to sulfanilamide (sa), tetracycline (tc), and streptomycin (sm), and combinations thereof. the demonstrated frequency of strains resistant to chloramphenicol (cm) was very low as compared with that in escherichia coli and shigella strains. in relation to resistance to tc, cm, sm and sa, the frequency of isolation of sing ...19761259392
salmonellosis and shigellosis in togo (west africa), 1971-1973. i. carrier rates in the rural population.carrier rates of salmonella and shigella in the rural population of togo were investigated between october 1971 and january 1973. a total of 6051 stool specimens from 5075 persons living in 13 rural communities of all regions of togo was examined. each village was investigated twice, i.e. in the dry and rainy season, respectively. the overall carrier rate was 7.2% (salmonella 6.6%, shigella 0.6%). there was no significant difference in carrier rates of males and females. there was a higher preva ...19761258137
temperature-dependent cultural and biochemical characteristics of rhamnose-positive yersinia enterocolitica.clinical isolates of rhamnose-positive yersinia enterocolitica (y.e.rh+) were compared with typical rhamnose-negative y. enterocolitica (y.e.rh-) and with yersinia pseudotuberculosis. the y.e.rh+ differed from the y.e.rh- and y. pseudotuberculosis in their ability to ferment raffinose and lactose, utilize citrate and in their inability to grow on hektoen enteric agar at 22 or 37 c, on salmonella-shigella agar at 37 c, and scant on xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar at 37 c. an extensive temperature ...19761254709
[hygenic quality of the cream sold by mobile markets in the federal district of mexico. study of 95 samples]. 19751243203
[comparative evaluation of the methods of treatment of acute dysentery]. 19751231016
[salmonella and shigella findings in a large city (1968-1972)]. 19751226913
[possibility of using preservatives and media enrichment for the simultaneous isolation of vibrios, shigella and salmonella]. 19751221721
[classification and nomenclature of large--sachs dysentery bacteria]. 19751221688
a method for concentrating bacteriophages using polyethylene glycol. 19751217972
[nutrition and taxonomy of "enterobacteriaceae" and related bacteria. iii. nutritional characters and differentiation of the taxonomic groups (author's transl)].a batch of 186 strains belonging to the families enterobacteriaceae or vibrionaceae has been studied by determination, for each strain, of the "versatility" towards 146 organic substrates tested as sole source of carbon and energy. this study allowed to work out a classification of these strains into the 32 classes which have been previously described. in the present paper the nutritional characters of these classes are reported. on the basis of these characters, the 32 classes may be regrouped ...19751217784
[nutrition and taxonomy of "enterobacteriaceae" and related bacteria. ii. general results and classification (author's transl)].a study of 186 strains belonging to eleven genera of the family enterobacteriaceae and to three genera of the family vibrionaceae has been carried out in order to determine their "versatility" towards 146 organic substrates tested as sole source of carbon and energy. glucose was the only substrate used by all the strains; gluconate and glycerol were used by respectively 184 and 185 strains; 55 substrates were used by no one strains. the 90 substrates which were used by a fraction of the strains ...19751217783
[some controversial questions on the epidemiology of intestinal infections. report i. significance of the dose and the biological properties of the causative agent in the epidemiology and the clinical picture of salmonelloses and dysentery].on the basis of analysis of literature and personal observations and studies the authors explain a number of epidemiological and clinical peculiarities of intestinal infections with various pathogenic doses of the causative agents; under the term pathogenic dose is understood the minimal amount of microbes necessary for the onset of the disease with the natural mechanism of transmission of the infection. regularities of the effect of the pathogenic dose of the causative agent on the epidemic pro ...19751217345
[shigellosis in the province of seville]. 19751215811
the effect of macrophage hydrolytic enzyme levels on the uptake and degradation of antigen and immune complexes. 19751214262
[shigella in seawater and in an estuary. ii. tentative inhibition of adsorption of shigaphages and studies of shigella in a selective milieu]. 19751211729
[shigella in seawater and in an estuary. i. frequency of bacteriophages in polluted water]. 19751211728
four hour-test for the identification of enterobacteriaceae.a set of 12 rapid biochemical tests--lysinedecarboxylase, ornithinedecarboxylase, beta-galactosidase, urease, hydrogensulphide, indole, acetoin, deoxyribonuclease, esculin, mannitol, raffinose and sorbitol--were selected from an original set of 13 tests and were found to give 98% accurate reactions within 4 hrs of incubation for the identification of bacteria belonging to enterobacteriaceae. this set permits identification on the genus and/or species level for escherichia, shigella, citrobacter, ...19751196260
discriminant analysis of antibiotic susceptibility as a means of bacterial identification.this study shows that antibiotic susceptibility data can be used effectively in the presumptive identification of bacteria. using 12 antibiotics and determining the zone sizes for each, 82% of the isolates considered were correctly identified without any other information. if the inability to distinguish between escherichia coli and shigella is disregarded, the percentage of correct identification is 92%. the method involves determining a set of discriminant functions and defining each taxon by ...19751194406
effect of temperature on transport and plating media for enteric pathogens.the effect of wide variations in incubation temperatures and long periods of incubation on transport and enrichment broths and plating media was determined by exhaustive analysis of 132 diarrheal stools for salmonellae and shigellae. homogenized stools were streaked onto eosin methylene blue (emb), salmonella-shigella (ss), and xylose lysine deoxycholate (xld) agar plates, and into saline, cary-blair (cb) transport medium, and selenite f and gram-negative (gn) enrichment broths. incubation tempe ...19751184731
motility-indole-lysine-sulfide medium.a medium designed for the detection of motility, indole, lysine decarboxylase and deaminase reactions, and h2s production was devised and evaluated. results, using 157 strains of enteric pathogens, were in agreement with reference methods. when 300 isolates from fecal cultures were screened using this medium, shigella was easily differentiated from escherichia and more of the proteus species, especially p. morganii, could be eliminated from further study.19751176633
motility-indole-lysine medium for presumptive identification of enteric pathogens of enterobacteriaceae.detection of lysine decarboxylase activity is a useful supplement to reactions on triple sugar-iron (tsi) and urea agars in the initial examination of suspected pathogenic isolates from fecal cultures. owing to the added value of motility and indole production in the differentiation of enteric pathogens, we prepared and evaluated a motility-indole-lysine (mil) medium. the following 890 organisms were tested: 264 shigella, 2 edwardsiella, 182 salmonella enteritidis, 235 s. typhi, 3 arizona, 32 ye ...19751176632
use of bile-esculin agar for rapid differentiation of enterobacteriaceae.bile-esculin agar has been used for several years for the presumptive identification of group d streptococci. all members of the enterobacteriaceae family will also grow on this medium, but only certain ones can hydrolyze esculin to 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, which reacts with iron to produce a characteristic blackening of the medium. one thousand and six cultures from clinical specimens representing 20 genera were isolated and identified. heavy inocula from fresh pure culture isolates on heart infu ...19751176613
release of prostaglandin-like substances by shigella endotoxin and its inhibition by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds.1. the effects of intravenous and intraocular injections of shigella endotoxin on the inflammatory response, the release of prostaglandin-like substances into the aqueous humour, and the effects of indomethacin on the inflammatory response were studied in the rabbit eye. 2. both intravenous and intraocular injection of endotoxin released 12.8 ng to 72 ng of prostaglandin-like substances per ml of aqueous humour and increased the permeability of the blood-aqueous barrier as shown by the rise in a ...19751174763
antimicrobial activities of 81.723 hfu, a new pleuromutilin derivative.the new pleuromutilin derivative 81.723 hfu is extremely active against gram-positive organisms such as streptococci, staphylococci, and against mycoplasmas. a number of shigella, klebsiella, and escherichia coli strains were also found to be quite susceptible to this new agent, whereas other gram-negative organisms like pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus species, and alcaligenes faecalis proved to be naturally resistant to 81.723 hfu. the new compound acts bacteriostatically. bactericidal effects ...19751170807
comparative evaluation of desoxycholate citrate medium and xylose lysine desoxycholate medium in the isolation of shigellae.studies of the relative efficacies of different modes of transport of fecal specimens intended for culture for the isolation of shigellae have been carried out. when the delay between collection and culture was long, transportation in liquid nitrogen was slightly but not significantly better than transportation on ice. when the delay was short (10 hours or less) transportation at ambient temperature was as satisfactory as that on ice. a comparative study of the efficacies of three media for the ...19751163491
[selection, among children in early infancy, of patients or carriers of salmonella and shigella, by means of coproculture at the time of admission to the hospital]. 19751160853
xylose lysine deoxycholate agar: a useful enrichment subculture medium for salmonellae. 19751160817
[sanitary-bacterial study of the effectiveness of decontamination of the waste water of voroshilovgrad in agricultural field irrigation]. 19751158158
antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolated in new york city in 1973.one hundred and two shigella sonnei and fourteen s. flexneri strains isolated from individual patients in new york city hospitals were investigated for antibiotic resistance. the s. sonnei showed 60% resistance to ampicillin and 58% to tetracycline and streptomycin. s. flexneri showed no ampicillin resistance but 50% resistance to tetracycline. there were marked differences in resistance of s. sonnei between hospitals which were not explainable by ethnic or socio-economic differences in the pati ...19751155925
systemic aspirin and indomethacin do not prevent the response of the monkey eye to trauma.the stability of the blood-aqueous barrier of the monkey eye was challenged by three different methods: anterior chamber paracentesis, intravitreal shigella endotoxin, and subconjunctival arachidonic acid. systemic aspirin and indomethacin were ineffective in stabilizing the blood-aqueous barrier in all three of these systems.19751150400
[influence of tetracycline on the antibiotic sensitivity of aerobic enteric bacteria]. 19751144980
ocular responses and the release of prostaglandin-like substances by shigella endotoxin. 19751142255
the incidence and antibiotic sensitivity of shigella bacteria isolated from newly imported macaque monkeys. 19751137805
serum factors capable of opsonizing shigella for phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear neutrophils.twenty-five shigella strains were tested for their susceptibility to phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (pmn). the studies identified several serum factors that could participate in opsonization. the strains varied remarkably in their susceptibility to killing when heat-stable opsonins were employed, but all strains were killed when exposed to heat-labile opsonins and pmn. the heat-stable opsonin was shown to be igg, whereas igm was ineffective in the absence of complement ...19751132888
subdividing of phage types of shigella flexneri by means of bacteriocins. 19751108842
[prodigiosin in the overall therapy of dysentery and in the prevention of intrahospital viral respiratory infection in children].prodigiozan was tested in complex therapy of children with acute dysentery. comparison of clinical symptoms, specific immunogenesis and child sanation periods from shigella in the child groups treated (80) and non-treated (74) with prodigiozan showed that prodigiozan lowered the rate of intrahospital acute respiratory virus infection, provided more favourable dysentery progression, more tensed specific immunity and the patient clearance from shigella.19751108774
[shigella in seawater and in an estuary. iii. determination in vitro of the survival time of s. sonnei ycd in seawater]. 19751108731
changes in the biochemical properties of shigella flexneri la as a result of recombination with escherichia coli k12.the fermentative properties of recombinants obtained after conjugation between e. coli k12 hfec and s. flexneri la lac phe mutant were investigated. the recombinants showed the antigenic structure of s. flexneri but their biochemical characteristics differed from the properties typical for this genus. the recombinants were found to acquire the ability to ferment several carbohydrates not degraded by the s. flexneri recipient strain.19751108604
[preparation and properties of some derivatives of methyl-6-amino-6,8 dideoxy-1-thio-d-erythro-alpha-d-galacto octopyranoside]. 19751108598
[characteristics of serological group o144:k? escherichia isolated in acute intestinal diseases].a study of 14 strains of e. coli belonging to serological group o144: k? isolated in clinical dysentery (bacteriologically unconfirmed), from contacts in the foci of clinical dysentery and acute enteric disease of unknown etiology, and also in prophylactic examination, was made. among these cultures there were strains with shigella characteristics. along with the serological type o144: k?: h--described earlier there was determined serological type o144: k?: h4 differing in the enzymatic activity ...19751108539
[biological characteristics of biochemical variants of sh. sonnei]. 19751108532
[genetic control of the capacity of sh. flexneri to exert a lethal effect on macrophages. ii. mapping of the cyt-determinant on the shigella chromosome].crossing experiments showed independence of the genetic determinants controlling the capacity of sh. flexneri to synthesize the primary s-specific side chains (antigen 3,4) and to produce a lethal action on macrophages cultivated in vitro. cytotoxicity was restored only in transmission to the r-strain of shigellae of the capacity to synthesize the antigenic factor 3,4 from the cyt+, but not from the cyt-- donor of sh. flexneri. the determinant responsible for the synthesis of cytotoxin designate ...19751108529
[adjuvant action of nonspecific inflammation in immunizing guinea pigs vis the keratoconjunctival sac with shigella sonnei somatic antigens]. 19751108517
[biochemical and genetic characteristics of enteropathogenic escherichia coli and shigella. v. the biological properties of auxotrophic mutants of shigella flexneri 2a and of escherichia coli serogroup 0124:k72]. 19751108515
[an analysis of meat products as possible factors responsible for transmission of dysenterial toxic infections].the paper carries experimental data derived from a bacteriological analysis of infected minced meat products for the presence of shigella sonnei and for ascertaining technological stages non-compliance with whose proper course presents the greatest epidemiological hazards. the procedures employed in analyzing infected meat products are shown to be sufficiently sensitive, for they enable one to count shigella dysenteriae in numbers of 102-106/g, depending upon the degree of total bacterial contam ...19751108439
[antimicrobial and antineoplastic properties of alkaloids of greater celandine and their thiophosphamide derivatives]. 19751107767
observations on environmental contamination in a microbiological laboratory.contamination of a laboratory environment with pathogenic or non-pathogenic micro-organisms may be relevant to safety of technicians and quality of technical performance. two widely separated incidents in 1968 and 1974 initiated a study of aspects of the laboratory environment. water-baths, water of syneresis and portions of salmonella cultures spurting out of the sterilizing flame were examined. the water of water-baths was shown to be contaminated from the fluid cultures incubated in them. thi ...19761107415
pathogenesis of shigella diarrhea. serum anticytotoxin antibody response produced by toxigenic and nontoxigenic shigella dysenteriae 1.the serum antitoxin response to the cytotoxin contained in preparations of shigella dysenteriae 1 (shiga's bacillus) exotoxin was studied in natural and experimental infections of man. natural infection resulted in the rapid appearance of toxin-neutralizing antibody, which disappeared some time between 9 and 18 mo after infection. experimental infection of human volunteers provided the opportunity to study immunoglobulin class of the antibody in sera obtained serially from 7 to 50 days after inf ...19761107354
[morphologic characteristics of lysogenic phages with conversion activity in shigella flexneri].the morphology of three lysogenic bacteriophages which induce antigenic conversion in various shigella flexneri serotypes (ii and v type antigen and 7.8 group antigen) has been investigated. a quite different morphology appeared with respect to that of salmonella.19751107127
colicin typing of shigella sonnei isolated in northern taiwan.eighty-eight strains of shigella sonnei isolated in northern taiwan during the period of 1970-1974, were studied for their colicin types by a modified method of abbott and shannon. as a result, 67(76%) typable and 21(24%) non-typable strains were found. the prevalent colicin types of s. sonnei in northern taiwan were types 15(52%) and 6(15%), followed by types 8(3%), 11(3%) and 12(3%). other types were not found.19751106960
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