PMID(sorted descending)
hla-b27/microbial mimicry: an in vivo analysis.the association between three major spondyloarthritic diseases, ankylosing spondylitis, reiter's syndrome, and reactive arthritis, and the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class 1 antigen hla-b27 is well documented. the hypothesis of cross-reactivity between hla-b27 and the antecedent infection-causing gram-negative pathogens such as salmonella, shigella and yersinia has been suggested by in vitro studies employing monoclonal antibodies. we have examined the possibility of such cross-react ...19921478690
[bacillary dysentery--1990]. 19921475396
serological diagnosis of infection by shigella dysenteriae-1 in patients with bacillary dysentery.a total of 192 samples of serum from 113 sri lankan patients with clinical dysentery was examined for antibodies of the igm class to the lipopolysaccharides (lpss) of shigella dysenteriae-1 and escherichia coli o157:h7. by means of elisa and immunoblotting, 59 patients were found to have serum antibodies to the lps of s. dysenteriae-1 only. four samples from one patient were found to contain serum antibodies to the lpss of both s. dysenteriae-1 and e. coli o157:h7. antibodies to the lps of s. dy ...19921474263
determinants of pathogenicity in xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria are related to proteins involved in secretion in bacterial pathogens of of the model systems investigated for studying plant bacterial pathogenesis is xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato. genes necessary for both basic pathogenicity and the induction of the hypersensitive response in resistant plants (hrp genes) were previously isolated from x. c. pv. vesicatoria and characterized genetically. as a first step toward functional analysis, part of the hrp gene cluster, making up several loci, was se ...19921472717
synthetic approaches to vaccines for infectious and autoimmune diseases.the development is outlined of some synthetic vaccines against infectious diseases, in particular cholera, shigella and influenza. in the last case, use of the synthetic adjuvant mdp in combination with a haemagglutinin peptide has led to a synthetic vaccine with built-in adjuvanticity. the production of vaccines both by chemical synthesis and genetic engineering is described. the successful use of the synthetic amino acid copolymer cop-1 as an immunomodulatory vaccine to suppress the onset of a ...19921471429
high level resistance to trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole and other antimicrobial agents among clinical isolates of shigella species in ontario, canada--an update.a total of 598 isolates of shigella species (24 s. dysenteriae, 254 s. flexneri, 30 s. boydii, 290 s. sonnei) submitted to the ontario public health laboratories in 1990 were tested for their susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method. overall 79.6% of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents and 52.0% were resistant to four or more. trimethoprim resistance ranged from 26.7% among isolates of s. boydii to 39.4% among s. flexneri strains. the majority ...19921468530
[new hybrid proteins--potential immunosuppressive agents]. 19921468359
[the characteristics of the colonization resistance of the intestines in conventional animals with a history of clinical death].after modeling the terminal state caused by the acute loss of blood in rats their intestinal microflora was studied, as was their resistance to colonization. decreased resistance to colonization was registered early after resuscitation (up to 3 days), which was confirmed by the translocation of bacteria into internal organs, decreased number of lactobacilli in the contents of the small intestine and elevated level of enterobacteria in the intestine. disturbances in resistance to colonization was ...19921466180
[the theoretical and practical interpretations of the basic manifestations of the epidemic process in shigellosis]. 19921466177
[the effect of a ribosomal shigella sonnei vaccine on cellular immune reactions].the influence of s. sonnei ribosomal vaccine on hematopoiesis, t- and b-cell-mediated immune reactions has been studied in the course of the development of experimental vaccinal process. the vaccine stimulated hematopoiesis, that was characterized by a dose-dependent increase in colony-forming units in the spleen (cfus), a rise in cfus in the blood and bone marrow and an increase in the pool of proliferating stem cells in bone marrow, shortly after injection. a pronounced immunostimulating effec ...19921466169
[bacterial pathogens in diarrhea: demonstration of verotoxin-producing escherichia coli using the polymerase chain reaction].in 23% of 576 diarrhea patients we were able to demonstrate putative bacterial pathogens. not included in this number is clostridium difficile which was found in 8 of 48 (8.3%) specimens analyzed. in addition to salmonella (8.2%), campylobacter (6.0%), aeromonas (2.7%), shigella (1.9%) and yersinia (0.8%) we identified verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) in 10 patients (1.9%). vtec were found as frequently as shigella (occurring exclusively in patients returning from the tropics) and we ...19921465595
[diagnosis of acute diarrheal infections]. 19921460834
protection from shigella sonnei infection by immunisation of rabbits with plesiomonas shigelloides (svc 01).plesiomonas shigelloides, an organism commonly found in water, is only rarely associated with diarrhoea in man. p. shigelloides serotype o:17 (svc o1), which is antigenically similar to shigella sonnei, was found to be neither virulent nor toxic for rabbits. rabbits immunised by feeding with p. shigelloides (svc o1) were completely protected against an oral challenge with 10(10) cells of s. sonnei but non-immunised rabbits were not. p. shigelloides (svc o1) may be a useful vaccine strain for shi ...19921460657
serum antibodies to verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) strains in patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome.serological evidence of infection with verotoxin-producing escherichia coli (vtec) was sought in 28 patients suffering from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus) and 25 age- and sex-matched controls. elisa was used to detect anti-lipopolysaccharide (lps) antibodies to e. coli strains o157, o111, o26 and nctc 10418, a non-vtec strain, and shigella dysenteriae o1. sera from 19 of the hus patients but from none of the 25 controls had significant antibody levels to the verotoxin-producing bacteria. sera ...19921460654
in vitro antimicrobial activity of cefodizime, a third generation cephalosporin.cefodizime is one of the new broad-spectrum cephalosporins. it is an aminothiazolyl iminomethoxy cephalosporin which is metabolically stable and has a prolonged serum half life. cefodizime was primarily active against gram-negative bacilli and at the concentration of 0.5 mg/l, it inhibited 90 per cent of enterobacteriaceae. p. mirabilis was the most susceptible species tested (mic90 of 0.02 mg/l). e.coli, k.pneumoniae, salmonella spp., shigella spp. and m. morganii were also very sensitive to ce ...19921460409
loose stools in the early neonatal period.during a two-year period, the various factors associated with loose stools in the early neonatal period were studied among hospital born babies. low birth weight babies had a lower incidence of non-infective loose stools when compared to neonates with a birth weight of more than 2500 g (p < 0.001). newborns delivered by cesarean section (p < 0.001) and those born to women with more than two children (p < 0.02) had a greater frequency of loose stools. initiation of supplementary feeding and admin ...19921459697
purification and partial characterization of two azoreductases from shigella dysenteriae type 1.two azoreductases (i and ii) were purified to homogeneity from extracts of shigella dysenteriae (type 1). azoreductase i was a dimer of identical subunits of m(r) 28,000, whereas azoreductase ii was a monomer of 11,000 m(r). both were flavoproteins, each containing 1 mol of fmn per mol enzyme. both nadh and nadph functioned as electron donors for the azoreductases. azoreductase i used ponceau sx, tartrazine, amaranth and orange ii as substrates. azoreductase ii utilized all the dyes except amara ...19921459414
[the clinical assessment of the immune status of patients with acute flexner shigellosis].a total of 192 patients with flexner's dysentery 1 have been examined. as a result, sharply pronounced unbalance of cell-mediated and humoral immunity factors has developed in the acute period of dysentery, reaching its maximal manifestations in severe course of the disease. in case of a tendency to a prolonged course of dysentery at the period of convalescence, essential shifts in immunological characteristics persist and the infective agent is repeatedly isolated.19921455972
[an increase in the immunogenicity of bacterial antigens under the influence of one of the derivatives of muramyl dipeptide].as revealed in animal experiments, glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide (gmdp), the synthetic analog of muramyl dipeptide, when introduced intraperitoneally in a single injection or orally, exhibits adjuvant activity with respect to citrobacter 0-antigens, shigella flexneri and enhances the protective properties of dysentery and pertussis vaccines. the stimulating properties of gmdp depend on its dose, the route of its administration, the time elapsed after its administration, its ratio to the concomit ...19921455969
[the etiological structure of shigellosis in the former ussr--an indicator of the activity of the main routes of infection transmission].the data on the etiological structure of shigella infections in the ussr in 1988-1989 are presented. the study showed the dominating role of s. flexneri with s. sonnei also retaining great importance in shigella infections. the process of the liquidation of s. dysenteriae and s. boydii infections began in some large cities. the domination of dysentery caused by s. flexneri and a high typhoid rate, particularly in central asia, were due to poor water supply of the population. the spread of dysent ...19921455964
[the excretion of shigella antigens in persons recovering from dysentery].shigella antigens can be detected in the excreta of convalescents after dysentery for a long time. most frequently these antigens occur in feces, less frequently in urine and rarely in saliva. according to indirect data, s. flexneri 1-6 antigens can be detected in excreta for a longer period after convalescence than s. sonnei antigens. when antigen indication is used for the diagnosis of dysentery and epidemiological analysis is carried out, one should bear in mind the length of the agent persis ...19921455962
[the immunocorrective therapy of patients with acute dysentery]. 19921455821
prevalence of bacterial agents of diarrhoeal disease at the national university hospital, singapore and their resistance to antimicrobial agents.over a 50-month period, 4,508 stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea were bacteriologically examined at the national university hospital, singapore. salmonella serotypes other than the typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli were the most common finding, being isolated in 10.8% of cases. campylobacter jejuni was unexpectedly infrequent (1.9%); aeromonas hydrophila was found in 1.8%. no other aerobic pathogen occurred in more than 1% of cases. clostridium difficile was sought only when requested, a ...19921455527
detection of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri in feces by immunomagnetic isolation and polymerase chain reaction.a combination of immunomagnetic separation (ims) and a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure was used for direct isolation and identification of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri from feces. immunomagnetic particles were coated with monoclonal antibody masfb, which is specific for a common epitope of the o polysaccharides of s. dysenteriae type 1 and s. flexneri. bacteria bound to the beads were boiled in water, and target dna was amplified with a primer pair specific for a g ...19921452650
pathogenesis of providencia alcalifaciens-induced diarrhea.providencia alcalifaciens is a member of the family enterobacteriaceae. there are reports that p. alcalifaciens can cause diarrhea, but the mechanism(s) by which it causes diarrhea is known. we studied p. alcalifaciens isolated from a child and two adults with diarrhea for enteropathogenicity. the three isolates did not exhibit any characteristic adherence to cultured hep-2 cell monolayers, and they did not produce enterotoxins, cytotoxins, or keratoconjunctivitis in the sereny test. two isolate ...19921452332
shigellosis in children: a prospective hospital based study.from 1985 to 1988, fecal samples of 950 hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea or dysentery were screened for shigella species using standard methods. shigella species were isolated as sole pathogen from 192 (20.2%) cases and s. flexneri type 2 was the predominant serotype. shigella infection was prevalent throughout the year with high isolation rate during the summer and early monsoon months. shigella strains isolated during the period were resistant to most of the commonly used drugs fo ...19921452309
study of bacterial pathogens causing diarrhoeal disease in bombay with special reference to their antibiotic sensitivity pattern.diarrhoeal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially among children. in a study of 720 faecal samples from acute diarrhoeal patients various bacterial pathogens were isolated. an account is given of their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. many of the e. coli, salmonella and shigella strains were found to be multidrug resistant. this resistance was transferable and plasmid mediated. a few of the e. coli strains isolated from healthy controls also s ...19921452230
[bacteremia caused by shigella flexneri]. 19921450269
concentration of milk secretory immunoglobulin a against shigella virulence plasmid-associated antigens as a predictor of symptom status in shigella-infected breast-fed infants.we conducted a prospective, community-based study of healthy breast-fed mexican infants to determine the protective effects of anti-shigella secretory iga antibodies in milk. milk samples were collected monthly, and stool culture specimens were obtained weekly and at the time of episodes of diarrhea. nineteen breast-fed infants were found to have shigella flexneri, shigella boydii, or shigella sonnei in stool samples. ages of the 10 infants with symptomatic infection and the nine with asymptomat ...19921447644
cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from bordetella avium and expression of the gene in salmonella typhimurium.three gene libraries of bordetella avium 197 dna were prepared in escherichia coli le392 by using the cosmid vectors pcp13 and pya2329, a derivative of pcp13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. the cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-b. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against b. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. one e. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kda protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with b. avium 197. i ...19921447140
inhibition of shigella sonnei by lactobacillus casei and lact. acidophilus.the protective effect of feeding milk fermented with a mixture of lactobacillus casei and lact. acidophilus against shigella sonnei was studied. there was a 100% survival rate in mice fed for 8 d with fermented milk and then dosed orally with sh. sonnei. the survival rate in control mice was approximately 60% after 21 d. colonization of the liver and spleen with sh. sonnei was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with fermented milk. differences in cell counts of 2-3 log units between treated and ...19921447056
beta-lactamases in shigella.the occurrence of resistance and production of beta-lactamases was investigated in 60 shigella strains. ampicillin resistance was found in 28 (47%) of the isolates, the resistance being more frequent in sh. flexneri than in sh. sonnei. all strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, mecillinam, and ciprofloxacin. the beta-lactamases produced by shigella were similar to tem-1, oxa-1, or the low-level chromosomally mediated cephalosporinase produced by escherichia coli. the beta-lactamases produced by ...19921445702
activities of newer fluoroquinolones against shigella sonnei.the activities of six fluoroquinolones were determined for 117 separate strains of shigella sonnei. the order of increasing activity (mics for 90% of strains tested) was enoxacin (0.25 micrograms/ml), temafloxacin (0.032 micrograms/ml), sparfloxacin (0.016 micrograms/ml), ci-960 (0.008 micrograms/ml), ciprofloxacin (0.008 micrograms/ml), and pd-131628-2 (0.008 micrograms/ml). these data, along with results of killing and mutational rate studies, showed that all six fluoroquinolones were highly i ...19921444317
[lipopolysaccharide changes in smooth-type avirulent shigella in comparison with initial virulent strains].the comparative study of the lipopolysaccharides (lps) of virulent and avirulent strains of s. sonnei, phase i (smooth colonies), has been made. electrophoresis of lps and subsequent densitometry of electrophoregrams have revealed the increase of the fraction of long 0-chains with a considerable number of recurring elements in 2 out of 3 lps preparations obtained from avirulent shigellae. in mice immunized with these lps preparations a considerably greater number of antibody-producing cells can ...19921441805
genotypic and phenotypic characterization of an arod deletion-attenuated escherichia coli k12-shigella flexneri hybrid vaccine expressing s. flexneri 2a somatic antigen.the construction and characterization of ecsf2a-2, an arod-deleted escherichia coli-shigella hybrid vaccine carrying chromosomal and plasmid genes from shigella flexneri and expressing s. flexneri 2a somatic antigen in association with e. coli k12 core are described. expression of hybrid lipopolysaccharide and deletion of arod resulted in the attenuation of phenotypic characteristics associated with pathogenicity. the addition of an arod deletion results in a requirement for an aromatic precurso ...19921441732
microbial flora in gut of culex quinquefasciatus breeding in cess pits.the number and types of microorganisms in the gut of culex quinquefasciatus larvae varied considerably from one site of collection to another. larval gut, in general, contained enormous number of bacteria, a few fungi and negligible number of actinomycetes which belonged to 15 bacterial, 6 fungal and 4 actinomycete genera, respectively. bacillus sp., staphylococcus sp. and pseudomonas sp. among bacteria, aspergillus among fungi and streptomyces sp. among actinomycetes were frequently encountered ...19921439987
[the characteristics of cryptosporidiosis prevalence in nizhni novgorod province].a total of 4070 patients with acute intestinal diseases were tested for cryptosporidiosis in 1989, 1806 of these without diarrhea (controls), 286 of them working at slaughter houses, milk-packing plants and dairy plants, 192 subjects with a history of contacts with cryptosporidiosis patients in the focus of the disease, and 7 animals. cryptosporidiosis was responsible for 3.2% of acute intestinal conditions in children; cryptosporidia oocysts were not detected in adults or healthy subjects. the ...19921435583
[bacteriological examination of paper money].bacteriological survey of one hundred twenty currency notes was done. aerobic spore-forming bacilli (91%), staphylococcus epidermidis (63.3%), staphylococcus aureus (4.2%), enterococcus (24.1%), alpha-hem. streptococcus (4.1%), streptococcus pneumoniae (1.7%), corynebacterium (7.5%), lactobacilli (10.8%), klebsiella pneumoniae (31.7%), enterobacter (19.2%), e. coli (17.5%), proteus (1.7%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.8%), shigella flexneri (0.8%) were isolated from paper money samples. currency no ...19921435365
effect of ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and transferrin on the growth of some bacterial strains in vitro.the ability of some bacterial strains to obtain iron from ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (edda) or iron-free transferrin, and accordingly grow in their presence, was studied. growth of staphylococcus aureus and yersinia pseudotuberculosis was inhibited by edda or by iron-free transferrin. growth of streptococcus faecalis, however, was inhibited by iron-free transferrin, but not by edda. the other bacterial strains, i.e.; escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium and shigella dysent ...19921435350
an international foodborne outbreak of shigellosis associated with a commercial determine the source of an international outbreak of shigellosis associated with consumption of food served by a minnesota-based airline.19921433760
impact of zinc supplementation on intestinal permeability in bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea syndrome.zinc has been shown to enhance intestinal mucosal repair in patients suffering from acrodermatitis enteropathica; but the impact on mucosal integrity during acute (ad) or persistent (pd) diarrhoea is unknown. one hundred eleven children with ad and 190 with pd aged between 3 and 24 months received, randomly and blind to the investigators, either an elemental zinc supplement of 5 mg/kg body wt/day or placebo in multivitamin syrup for 2 weeks while intestinal permeability and, biochemical and anth ...19921432467
[shigella dysenteriae strains having a provisional serovar isolated from imported diarrheal cases in tokyo].two bacterial strains (me448 and me474) isolated from stool cultures of imported cases in tokyo in 1987 had typical biochemical characteristics of shigella dysenteriae. the results of antigenic analyses showed that they were serologically identical to each other, but did not belong to any of the established shigella serovars. these strains were positive for serény test in guinea pig eye and cell-invasion test in hela cells. the strains also had virulence-plasmid encoding outer membrane proteins, ...19921431369
efficacy of norfloxacin for shigellosis: a double-blind randomised clinical a double-blind, randomised, clinical trial on 122 adults with acute shigella dysentery, 60 patients were treated with norfloxacin and 62 with nalidixic acid. of these, 32 patients in the norfloxacin group and 28 patients in the nalidixic acid group had shigella in their stool. patients of the two treatment groups were clinically comparable on admission. no significant differences in clinical responses were observed in the two groups among the shigella-positive cases, shigella-negative cases a ...19921430968
regulation of the slt-1a toxin operon by a ferric uptake regulatory protein in toxinogenic strains of shigella dysenteriae type 1.the regulation of shiga toxin expression in a clinical isolate of s. dysenteriae 1 by the fe-fur (iron-ferric uptake regulatory protein) repressor complex was investigated. the presence of an endogenous fur repressor protein capable of binding to either a fur binding consensus sequence or the regulatory region of slt-1a was determined in toxinogenic strains of s. dysenteriae. plasmid constructs bearing fur binding sites fused to readily assayable reporter genes were used. plasmid psc27.1 contain ...19921430967
decreased food intake in children with severe dysentery due to shigella dysenteriae 1 infection.factors that affect food intake in acute shigellosis were studied in 82 children aged 24-59 months. children were offered an energy-dense milk-cereal-oil-based diet every 2 h. food intake was compared between children with shigella dysenteriae 1 infection and those infected with other shigella spp (predominantly s. flexneri). mean energy intake in the first 48 h was 435 kj/kg.d in children infected with s. dysenteriae 1 and 536 kj/kg.d in children infected with other shigella spp (p < 0.001). fe ...19921425537
epidemiology of persistent diarrhea and etiologic agents in mirzapur, determine the epidemiology and etiologic agents of persistent diarrhea we carried out an intensive diarrhea surveillance on children less than six years old in rural bangladesh. from march 1987 to february 1989 we examined 363 children through diarrhea recall interviews and analyzed stool samples of all diarrhea cases for potential pathogens. results showed that children had an average of two episodes per year and the incidence rate of diarrheal episodes defined as acute (< 14 d) and persiste ...19921421936
in vitro activity of mc-352, a new 16-membered macrolide.the in vitro activity of mc-352, 3,4'-dideoxy-5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide, was compared with those of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin. the mc-352 mic90 (mic for 90% of isolates) for erythromycin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis was less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, similar to those of the other agents. the mc-352 mic50 for erythromycin-resistant s. aureus was 2 micrograms/ml, similar to that of rokitamycin. the mc-352 mic90 (0.12 micrograms/ml) for ...19921416853
treatment of shigellosis: iii. comparison of one- or two-dose ciprofloxacin with standard 5-day therapy. a randomized, blinded determine whether a single dose, or 2 doses, of ciprofloxacin are as effective as 5-day, 10-dose therapy for the treatment of shigellosis in adult men who are moderately to severely ill.19921416574
novobiocin, brilliant green, glycerol, lactose agar: a new medium for the isolation of salmonella strains.we describe a medium, novobiocin, brilliant green, glycerol, lactose (nbgl) agar, for the routine isolation of salmonella strains from stool samples. the nbgl agar principle involved the use of the antisaprophytic effect of brilliant green and novobiocin. glycerol and lactose were added in order to distinguish between citrobacter and salmonella. nbgl was used in parallel with salmonella-shigella (ss) and hektoen (h) agar for culturing 2,853 stool samples, of which 184 were confirmed to be salmon ...19921410796
shigella and gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal central african girls. 19921408494
identification and characterization of virk, a virulence-associated large plasmid gene essential for intercellular spreading of shigella virulence loci have been identified by tn5 insertion mutagenesis on the large 230 kb plasmid (pmysh6000) of shigella flexneri 2a. in this study, we used tn10 insertion mutagenesis and identified a novel virulence locus on pmysh6000 responsible for bacterial spread. characterization of the invading bacteria of the tn10 insertion mutants in the epithelial cells revealed that the bacteria were capable of at least some intracellular spreading but not intercellular spreading. immunoblot analysi ...19921406277
temperature regulation of shigella virulence: identification of the repressor gene virr, an analogue of hns, and partial complementation by tyrosyl transfer rna (trna1(tyr)).virr is the central regulatory locus required for coordinate temperature-regulated virulence gene expression in the human enteric pathogens of shigella species. detailed characterization of virr+ clones revealed that virr consisted of a 411 bp open reading frame (orf) that mapped to a chromosomally located 1.8kb ecori-acci dna fragment from shigella flexneri. insertional inactivation of the virr orf at a unique hpai restriction site resulted in a loss of virr+ activity. the virr orf nucleotide s ...19921406252
[genetic analysis of shigella pathogenesis and rapid detection method of shigella virulence gene by the polymerase chain reaction]. 19921404924
[in vitro antimicrobial activity of dr-3355, a new quinolone antibacterial agent, against clinical isolates of enteritis-causing bacteria].we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of dr-3355, a newly developed quinolone-derivative antibacterial agent, against clinical isolates of various bacterial species from enteritis patients, and compared them with those of ofloxacin (oflx), ciprofloxacin (cpfx), nalidixic acid (na), ampicillin (abpc), kanamycin (km). mic90 of dr-3355 against 94 strains of shigella spp. and 5 strains of escherichia coli, 36 strains of salmonella spp., 22 strains of vibrio cholerae, 5 strains of ...19921402063
an analysis of the quantitative relationship between oral temperature and severity of illness in experimental shigellosis.the relationship between oral temperature and other parameters of illness was examined in 139 adult volunteers infected experimentally with shigella sonnei. in subjects developing clinical disease, peak temperature correlated positively with total number of signs and symptoms other than fever (rxy = .71, p < .001), stool volume (rxy = .41, p < .001) and number of stools produced during the illness (rxy = .46, p < .001). peak temperature correlated negatively with incubation period (rxy = -.34, p ...19921402032
selective criteria for the microbiological examination of faecal assess the effectiveness of predetermined investigation criteria for the examination of faecal samples from inpatients, cultured stool specimens were prospectively examined for salmonella spp, shigella spp, campylobacter spp and clostridium difficile, and screened microscopically for intestinal parasites. out of a total of 505 specimens, 421 (83%) fulfilled the criteria for examination for c difficile, 254 (50%) for salmonella spp, shigella spp, and campylobacter spp, and 87 (17%) for intesti ...19921401225
specific detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.development of a routine detection assay for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). an oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaa gene of c. coli vc167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by pcr. the primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of c. coli and 47 strains of c. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of campylobacter fetus, campylobacter lari, campylobacter upsaliensis, cam ...19921400961
altered-function mutations of the transcriptional regulatory gene virg of agrobacterium tumefaciens.three point mutations were isolated in the agrobacterium tumefaciens virg gene by screening for vir gene expression in the absence of added phenolic inducing compounds. all three mutations were localized in the predicted amino-terminal phosphoryl receiver domain of the protein. one mutant (n54d) bypasses the requirement for vira and phenolic inducers both for transcriptional activation of all tested vir promoters and for plant tumorigenesis. this mutant also activates vir gene expression efficie ...19921400254
functional roles assigned to the periplasmic, linker, and receiver domains of the agrobacterium tumefaciens vira protein.vira and virg activate the agrobacterium tumefaciens vir regulon in response to phenolic compounds, monosaccharides, and acidity released from plant wound sites. vira contains an amino-terminal periplasmic domain and three cytoplasmic domains: a linker, a protein kinase, and a phosphoryl receiver. we constructed internal deletions of vira that truncate one or more domains and tested the ability of the resulting proteins to mediate environmentally responsive vir gene activation in vivo. the perip ...19921400253
molecular analysis of the glpfkx regions of escherichia coli and shigella flexneri.we have identified a new gene, glpx, belonging to the glp regulon of escherichia coli, located directly downstream of the glpk gene. the transcription of glpx is inducible with glycerol and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and is constitutive in a glpr mutant. glpx is the third gene in the glpfkx operon. the function of glpx remains unknown. glpx has an apparent molecular weight of 40,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. in addition to determining the e. coli glpx sequence, we also sequence ...19921400248
identification of a b subunit gene promoter in the shiga toxin operon of shigella dysenteriae 1.the shiga toxin operon (stx) is composed of a and b subunit genes which are transcribed as a bicistronic mrna from a promoter which lies 5' to the stxa gene. northern (rna) blot and primer extension analyses revealed the existence of a second stxb gene transcript. recombinant plasmids which carried the stxb gene without the stx operon promoter and with the influence of a vector promoter abrogated produced stx b polypeptides, suggesting that the stxb gene mrna was transcribed from an independent ...19921400202
vacb, a novel chromosomal gene required for expression of virulence genes on the large plasmid of shigella flexneri.shigellae, the causative agents of bacillary dysentery, are capable of adhering to and invading epithelial cells and spreading into adjacent cells. a chromosomal mutant of shigella flexneri 2a ysh6000 with reduced invasive capacity was isolated by tn5 insertion mutagenesis. the linkage of the mutant phenotype to the tn5 insertion was determined by p1 phage transduction. the site of the tn5 insertion was assigned to a noti chromosomal restriction map, confirming that the virulence-associated locu ...19921400189
specific lung mucosal and systemic immune responses after oral immunization of mice with salmonella typhimurium aroa, salmonella typhi ty21a, and invasive escherichia coli expressing recombinant pertussis toxin s1 subunit.pertussis toxin (pt) is considered an essential protective component for incorporation into new generation vaccines against bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. traditionally, antipertussis vaccination has employed an intramuscular route. an alternative to this approach is to stimulate mucosal and systemic immune responses by oral immunization with live vaccine carrier strains of salmonella spp. or escherichia coli. recombinant s1 subunit of pertussis toxin was expressed ...19921398937
unipolar reorganization of f-actin layer at bacterial division and bundling of actin filaments by plastin correlate with movement of shigella flexneri within hela cells.shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery, an invasive disease of colonic epithelial cells in humans. the capacity of bacteria, once they have entered into a cell and escaped the phagocytic vacuole, to spread intracellularly and directly to adjacent cells without further extracellular passage is a key factor in invasion of the epithelial layer. movement of intracellular bacteria is dependent upon the polymerization of actin; concentration of the formed filaments to one end of the bacterium is ...19921398922
[plasmid analysis and antibiotic resistance pattern measurement of shigella in chengdu].a total of 81 strains of shigella isolated from sporadic cases and cases in an outbreak of shigella sonnei infection was analysed by plasmid profiles and antibiotic resistance patterns. the strains had a high resistance patterns. the strains had a high resistance of ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol; while 97.2% of the strains were susceptible to gentamicin, kanamycin. the results showed that 50% of the strains harbored plasmid patterns within each speci ...19921398620
[changes in specific reaction of erythrocytes to the antigen after administration of methylene blue and sodium azide]. 19921398187
monitoring of antibiotic resistance in shigellae isolated in the netherlands 1984-1989.during surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in shigella strains isolated in the netherlands from 1984 to 1989 and forwarded to the national institute of public health and environmental protection for typing, sensitivity to twelve antimicrobial agents was assessed. high rates of resistance to the older drugs of choice in treating shigellosis were found, i.e. ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. ampicillin resistance varied from 33 to 53% among shigella flexneri strains and from 10 to ...19921396730
comparative aetiology of childhood diarrhoea in kakamega and kiambu districts, kenya.two hundred diarrhoea specimens collected during january to february 1988, from rural children aged 0 to 60 months in kakamega district were examined for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus. the results were compared with a sample of 184 diarrhoea specimens matched for month of collection, taken from data collected in the same manner from children in kiambu district. the mean ages of children in the 2 samples did not differ significantly. there were significant differences in the prevalence of spe ...19921396210
role of escherichia coli k-12 rfa genes and the rfp gene of shigella dysenteriae 1 in generation of lipopolysaccharide core heterogeneity and attachment of o antigen.the rfp gene of shigella dysenteriae 1 and the rfa genes of escherichia coli k-12 and salmonella typhimurium lt2 have been studied to determine their relationship to lipopolysaccharide (lps) core heterogeneity and their role in the attachment of o antigen to lps. it has been inferred from the nucleotide sequence that the rfp gene encodes a protein of 41,864 da which has a structure similar to that of rfag protein. expression of this gene in e. coli k-12 results in the loss of one of the three ba ...19921385388
structural basis of antigenic specificity and design of new vaccines.this manuscript describes the design of new vaccines based on synthetic peptides. to this end, we first analyze the structural basis of antigenic reactivity and specificity and the various types of epitopes that form the mosaics of macromolecular antigens, as well as the regulatory mechanisms involved in immune recognition. a distinction is made between sequential or continuous epitopes, and discontinuous or conformational ones, which are the majority of epitopes in globular proteins. in this co ...19921385242
induction of a humoral immune response to a shiga toxin b subunit epitope expressed as a chimeric lamb protein in a shigella flexneri live vaccine strain.shigella flexneri vaccine strain (sfl124) given orally, evokes humoral immune response in human volunteers. such a strain, expressing antigenic epitope of b subunit of shiga toxin, would also provide immunity to the toxin produced by some species of shigella. a synthetic oligonucleotide, specifying an epitope [13-26 amino acids (aa)] of the b subunit of shiga toxin, was inserted into the lamb gene of escherichia coli and expressed in the s. flexneri vaccine strain. the chimeric lamb protein func ...19921381804
hypothesis for vaccine development: protective immunity to enteric diseases caused by nontyphoidal salmonellae and shigellae may be conferred by serum igg antibodies to the o-specific polysaccharide of their lipopolysaccharides.immunoprophylaxis for bacterial enteric diseases is hindered because the protective immune mechanism(s) against nontyphoidal salmonellae or shigellae in humans are not established. on the basis of the similarities between the clinical signs, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and pathology of as well as protective immunity to salmonellae and shigellae, we propose that serum igg antibodies to the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) of their lipopolysaccharides (lpss) will confer protective immunity to thes ...19921381621
stereoselective syntheses of a di-, tri-, and tetra-saccharide fragment of shigella dysenteriae type 1 o-antigen using 3,4,6-tri-o-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl chloride as a glycosyl donor.methyl 2,4-di-o-benzoyl-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) furnished a crystalline 3-o-bromoacetyl derivative that was treated with the dichloromethyl methyl ether-zncl2 reagent to give 2,4-di-o-benzoyl-3-o-bromoacetyl-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl chloride (3). compounds 1 and 3 were condensed under the conditions of base-deficient, silver trifluoromethanesulfonate-mediated glycosylation to give a fully protected rhamnobioside, which on o-debromoacetylation afforded the disaccharide nucleophile 10. similar ...19921381283
immunoblot analysis of antibody responses to shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection.immunoblot analysis was used to identify the antigenic components of the outer membrane protein (omp) extract from sh. dysenteriae type 1 that may be relevant in protection against infection. the omps were extracted by ultrasonic disruption followed by sarkosyl extraction. the macromolecular bands were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), electroeluted to a nitrocellulose matrix and complexed with peroxidase conjugated antibodies in human convalesce ...19921380491
shigella lipopolysaccharide: structure, genetics, and vaccine development. 19921380416
pathogenesis and immunology in shigellosis: applications for vaccine development. 19921380415
immunochemical characterization of citrobacter strain pcm 1487 o-specific polysaccharide- and core oligosaccharide-protein conjugates.o-specific-polysaccharide and core oligosaccharide were isolated from citrobacter strain pcm 1487 lipopolysaccharide and purified. the polysaccharide was selectively devoid of 4-deoxy-d-arabinohexose residues. covalent conjugates of the modified o-specific polysaccharide and of the core oligosaccharide with tetanus toxoid were prepared. immunochemical characterization of these conjugates proved that they are strong immunogens. using monospecific rabbit antisera raised against the conjugates, the ...19921376131
identification and characterization of b-cell epitopes of ipac, an invasion-associated protein of shigella flexneri.invasion plasmid antigen c (ipac) is a 43-kda plasmid-encoded protein associated with the ability of shigellae to invade epithelial cells. this protein is consistently strongly recognized by sera from convalescent patients and monkeys experimentally infected with shigellae. the strong immunogenicity of ipac in the course of natural infection makes it a good candidate as a potentially protective antigen. to map the b-cell epitopes of this protein, the gene encoding ipac was cloned and expressed a ...19921373401
myosin-cross-reactive epitope of shigella flexneri invasion plasmid antigen b.ipab, invasion plasmid antigen b, of shigella flexneri is a 62-kda protein required for invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. ipab is also one of several major protein antigens recognized by the humoral immune systems of most humans and monkeys after infection with shigellae. computer analysis of the deduced ipab amino acid sequence indicates that an alpha-helical structure is likely through much of the molecule. homology searches with protein data banks show that one alpha-helical domain bet ...19921370431
dna sequence of a salmonella-specific dna fragment and the use of oligonucleotide probes for salmonella detection.hybridization specificity of a 1.8-kb hindiii dna fragment isolated from salmonella typhimurium by a molecular cloning technique was confirmed by colony hybridization with 327 salmonella isolates of various serotypes and 56 non-salmonella isolates including enterobacteriaceae closely related to salmonella, such as escherichia coli, klebsiella, citrobacter and shigella. it was found that this 1.8-kb dna fragment was highly specific for all the salmonella isolates tested. the dna sequence of this ...19911367316
[effects of nifuroxazide (ercefuryl), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and bactisubtil in acute diarrhea].the clinical effects of nifuroxasid (n), trimetoprim sulphametoxasol (ts) and bactisubtil (b) on bacillar dysentery and alimentary toxicoinfections in the patients treated at the clinic from january 1984 to the end of december 1989 have been analysed. according to the clinical signs, patients have been divided in ten categories of light, mild and heavy forms. in total, 329 cases of bacillar dysentery and 89 cases of alimentary toxicoinfections have been analysed. the following was established: a ...19911366328
effect of enterovirus infection on susceptibility of hela cells to shigella flexneri invasivity.invasiveness of shigella flexneri m90t in hela cells was significantly increased when cells were preinfected with poliovirus 1, coxsackievirus b3 and echovirus 6. this effect was dependent on the dose of virus used, evident at early stages of viral infection and lasted hours before the appearance of a cytopathic effect. an increase of bacterial invasion ability was also noticed when hela cells were incubated with uv-inactivated enteroviruses. this enhancing effect obtained with both viable and u ...19921364020
[occurrence of p.fimbrii in strains from selected genera of enterobacteriaceae].this study was aimed at recognition of frequency of occurrence of p fimbriae in strains of escherichia coli isolated from samples of feces of children with symptoms of diarrhoea and at search of these adhesions in strains representing other than escherichia genera of enterobacteriaceae strains. one hundred forty laboratory strains were investigated. they belonged to genus citrobacter, enterobacter, hafnia, klebsiella, morganella, proteus, providencia, salmonella, shigella, and yersinia. also wer ...19921363960
salmonella, campylobacter and shigella in hiv-seropositive study the incidence, clinical features, treatment and outcome of patients with salmonella, shigella or campylobacter infection.19921362879
studies on novel pili from shigella flexneri. i. detection of pili and hemagglutination activity.pili were detected using electron microscopy in clinical isolates of shigella flexneri which had been continuously subcultivated in liquid media. morphologically, the pili appeared as thin, flexible, cylindrical structures of up to 2-5 microns in length and about 3-5 nm in diameter. two strains showed mannose-resistant (mr) hemagglutination to fresh fowl erythrocytes (type 4), and one to tannic acid-treated horse erythrocyte (type 3) pili. these pili are novel and different from the mannose-sens ...19921361958
pyrizinostatin: a new inhibitor of pyroglutamyl peptidase. 19921361487
molecular epidemiology of shigella infections in israel.the dnas of shigella sonnei or shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated in outbreaks of shigellosis or in sporadic cases were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp). southern blots of the dnas of 36 s. sonnei isolates digested by 8 restriction enzymes were hybridized with an escherichia coli rrna probe. the s. sonnei strains were unexpectedly diverse in their rflp. antibiotypes of the same isolates showed clusters of strains corresponding to the various outbreaks. on the ...19921356821
a model of interaction between entamoeba histolytica and shigella flexneri.the establishment of a relationship between entamoeba histolytica and certain bacteria may contribute to the expression and/or enhancement of the pathogenicity of this parasite. recent experiments have shown that bacteria expressing mannose-binding lectins on their surface could attach to mannose-containing molecules on the surface of amoebae. in this study, we established a model of interaction between. e. histolytica and shigella flexneri. using well-characterized mutants of s. flexneri, we st ...19921353632
molecular probe analysis of shigella dysenteriae type 1 isolates from 1940 to 1987.fourteen strains of shigella dysenteriae type 1 (shiga bacillus) isolated from people in diverse locations from 1940 to 1987 were studied. southern hybridization with three cloned escherichia coli genes, shiga-like toxin i (slti), frd, and ompf, was used to determine restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of the genomic dna of these strains. digestion with each of four restriction endonucleases generated fragments of identical size to which the frd and ompf hybridized for each of the 14 ...19921353066
identification of enteropathogens in infantile diarrhea in a study performed in the city of posadas, misiones, república argentina].the following work informs of the results of isolation, frequency and distribution of enteropathogens in children under five years old, without previous antibiotic treatment, less than seven days with diarrhoea, ambulatory or in hospital "dr. ramón madariaga" de posadas, misiones, república argentina, from june 1986 to may 1989. from a total of 972 children with diarrhoea, 78% required to be hospitalized. the greatest number of cases were found during spring and summer in children from 1 to 11 m ...19921345313
[bacteriology of shigella isolated in a tropical zone chu].from 1981 to 1991, five hundred eighty one shigella's strains were isolated in the laboratories of the chu fann of dakar. they represent 24.8 per cent of enteropathogen agents and 4.3 per cent of diarrhoeae causative agents. shigella flexneri was predominant (71%), following by shigella dysenteriae (14.5%), shigella sonnei (11.4%) and shigella boydii (2.5%). in pediatric hospital 90 per cent of strains were isolated between 1 and 5 years age; in adults, the pic was found from 20 to 30 years. fiv ...19921345084
antibodies against invasion plasmid coded antigens of shigellae in human colostrum and milk.colostral and milk samples of swedish, vietnamese and costa rican mothers living under various socioeconomic conditions were tested for the presence of shigella invasion plasmid coded antigen (ipa) specific antibodies. iga antibodies of this specificity were found in significantly higher titres in samples of vietnamese (600 +/- 338) than in samples of swedish or high income costa rican mothers (190 +/- 224 and 290 +/- 241, respectively; p < 0.05). specific iga titres in the low income group of c ...19921343940
[shigellosis in children of the ix region of chile: clinical and epidemiologic aspects and antibiotic sensitivity].ninety four children with diarrhea and a positive stool culture for shigella, hospitalized at the hospital regional de temuco, were studied. forty six percent of patients were less than two years old. forty two percent of microorganisms were resistant to ampicillin, 45% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 8% to tetracycline and none to chloramphenicol. isolated species were shigella flexneri 83% and shigella sonnei 17%. seventy nine percent of patients had fever, 60% dysentery and 21.3% seizures. ...19921340946
[toxic megacolon due to shigella: a report of a new case].a new case of shigella-caused megacolon is described in detailed form. some considerations are made about frequency, pathology, clinic and prognostic features.19921340679
[survey of bacterial resistance in shanghai district].the data on bacterial resistance monitoring of 5,457 clinical isolates in 1990 against 21 antimicrobial agents showed that most isolates were highly resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents, such as penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and gentamicin, with a resistant rate of around 50% or more. strains resistant to some newer agents, such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, amikacin and norfloxacin, have appeared and are increasing in number. multi-resistant strain ...19921338505
susceptibility of recent clinical isolates to temafloxacin (a-63004) and other antimicrobial vitro susceptibility of 1008 strains of recent clinical isolates was determined against the new aryl fluoroquinolone temafloxacin (t-167, a-63004) ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ampicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, amikacin, oxacillin and vancomycin. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of temafloxacin in micrograms/ml required for > or = 90% isolates were 0.13-0.5 for enterobacter, 0.03-0.25 for escherichia coli, 0.12-0.5 for klebsiella, 0.5-1.0 for ...19921338041
mxij, a lipoprotein involved in secretion of shigella ipa invasins, is homologous to yscj, a secretion factor of the yersinia yop proteins.shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery by invading epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. the invasion process requires the synthesis and secretion of the virulence plasmid-encoded ipa proteins. using tnphoa mutagenesis, we have identified two virulence plasmid genes, mxij and mxim, that encode proteins exported by the general export pathway. analysis of the mxij and mxim deduced amino acid sequences suggested that mxij and mxim might encode lipoproteins, which was confirmed by [3h]palmit ...19921332940
regulation of virulence-associated plasmid genes in enteroinvasive escherichia coli.the transposon tnphoa was used for construction of gene fusions and for studies of gene regulation in an enteroinvasive strain of escherichia coli. several plasmid-encoded virulence genes (e.g., the ipab and virg operons) of such enteroinvasive strains are subject to coordinated thermoregulation involving both operon-specific (the virb and virf activators) and global regulators. the nucleoid-associated e. coli protein h-ns was shown to be a negative regulator as judged by studies using h-ns gene ...19921332938
interferon treatment reduced adherence, invasiveness and intracellular multiplication of shigella flexneri in coxsackie b1 virus-infected cells.the effect of interferon treatment on interaction of shigella flexneri with in vitro cultured cells was investigated. pretreatment of hep-2 cells with human interferons had no effect on the susceptibility of cells to s. flexneri, measured by invasiveness and adhesiveness. human leukocyte interferon and human recombinant interferon-alpha-a reduced adhesiveness, intracellular multiplication and invasiveness of s. flexneri in hep-2 cells preinfected with coxsackie b1 virus. also non-receptor mediat ...19921329437
[epidemiological investigation on pathogens of acute infectious diarrhea in ning xia].an epidemiological investigation on pathogens of diarrhoeal diseases in ning xia was reported. eight genus of agents were found in all stool specimens of persons with detectable rate of 41.16%. moreover, the most prevalent pathogens were shigella (19.59%), followed by rotaviruses (10.07%), salmonella (4.76%), and entero-pathogenic escherichia coli (4.20%). four of them accounted for 93.85% of detectable agents. in addition, in shigella b group made up 80.44%, and 2a was the predominant agent. si ...19921327534
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