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evaluation of the role of shiga and shiga-like toxins in mediating direct damage to human vascular endothelial cells.infection with shiga toxin- and shiga-like toxin-producing strains of shigella dysenteriae and escherichia coli, respectively, can progress to the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. it has been hypothesized that circulating shiga toxin, shiga-like toxins, and endotoxins may contribute to the disease by directly damaging glomerular endothelial cells. the effects of these toxins on hela, vero, and human vascular endothelial cells (ec) were examined. confluent ec were sensitive to shiga toxin but were at l ...19911649877
[surveillance study on bacteriological etiology of 8371 children with diarrhea].the results of stool cultures from 8371 children of 0-13 years old with diarrhea during the years of january 1981 to december 1989 in shanghai area are reported. 2906 strains of enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated, with total detection rate of 34.72%. shigella were still the most common pathogens in 1981-1984, and campylobacter jejuni took second place, whereas from 1985 on campylobacter exceeded shigella as the first pathogenic bacteria of children's diarrhea. except in 1987 and 1988 shigel ...19911647837
the differential leukocyte count in adults with acute gastroenteritis.the total and differential leukocyte count of 4 groups of patients, admitted to the hospital because of acute gastroenteritis was evaluated. the 4 groups included: (a) 131 adult patients with positive stool culture for shigella; (b) 23 children (age less than 15 years) with positive stool culture for shigella; (c) 52 adult patients with positive stool culture for salmonella; (d) 43 adult patients with negative stool culture for bacterial pathogens. the total leukocyte count did not contribute to ...19921641598
from the centers for disease control. shigellosis in child day care centers--lexington-fayette county, kentucky, 1991. 19921640601
construction of stable lamb-shiga toxin b subunit hybrids: analysis of expression in salmonella typhimurium aroa strains and stimulation of b subunit-specific mucosal and serum antibody responses.the complete shiga toxin b subunit and two n-terminal segments of the b subunit have been inserted into a cell surface exposed loop of the lamb protein, and expression of the hybrid proteins from three different promoter systems, i.e., (i) an in vitro-inducible tac promoter that provides high-level expression, (ii) the iron-regulated aerobactin promoter presumably induced in vivo under the iron-limiting conditions of the intestinal mucosal environment, and (iii) a synthetic, modified beta-lactam ...19921639503
mxia of shigella flexneri 2a, which facilitates export of invasion plasmid antigens, encodes a homolog of the low-calcium-response protein, lcrd, of yersinia pestis.the plasmid-encoded invasion plasmid antigen (ipa) export accessory locus of shigella flexneri 2a, mxia, was cloned, and the complete dna sequence of the gene was determined. the mixa open reading frame was found to encode a polypeptide of 74.03 kda with a pi of 5.02. a hydropathy analysis of the predicted protein revealed a hydrophilic c terminus and an extremely hydrophobic n terminus without a cleavable signal sequence but with several potential membrane-spanning regions. while a homology sea ...19921639496
[studies of bacterial indicators for water pollution--growth of escherichia coli and enterococci in limited nutrient conditions].bacteria, that would be an ideal indicator for fecal contamination in environmental water, should not proliferate but at the same time should survive a little longer than enteropathogenic bacteria in the environmental water. while conventional methods have recommended escherichia coli as an indicator, enterococci is recommended as a preferable indicator for the estimation of fecal contamination based on the following observation. the relationship between the specific growth rate of organism and ...19921638040
the protective effect of alcohol on the occurrence of epidemic oyster-borne hepatitis a.limited data indicate that drinking alcoholic beverages along with eating food contaminated with shigella or salmonella decreases the risk and/or the severity of illness. no such study has been reported following exposure to a viral pathogen. during an oyster-borne outbreak of hepatitis a, we studied the effect of ingestion of alcoholic beverages concomitant with consumption of contaminated oysters. the analysis was restricted to 51 cases and 33 controls who had consumed the implicated raw oyste ...19921637901
epidemiological survey of an outbreak of gastroenteritis in a rural community in oyo state.this report documents the investigation and control of an outbreak of gastro-enteritis in lagun, oyo state, nigeria. prior to the outbreak which occurred in 1981, there had been epidemics of gastro-enteritis, suspected to be cholera, in various parts of nigeria. the investigations carried out included personal interviews of patients and their contacts, laboratory investigations of faecal specimens and analysis of water samples obtained from the village wells and stream. available evidence indica ...19921637741
shigella-type pathomechanism in the "mouse model".a strain of escherichia coli k-12 carrying the 140-megadalton virulence plasmid of the enteroinvasive e. coli--j53(pspl)--showed high virulence in the "mouse model", in chick embryos, but not in the serény test. it expresses the outer membrane proteins thermoregulatedly, encoded also by the virulence plasmid. in orally infected streptomycin-pretreated mice this strain infects only the large bowel, shows adherence to the epithelial surface, but in its first step preferentially to the mucus excret ...19921632198
antibodies to shiga holotoxin and to two synthetic peptides of the b subunit in sera of patients with shigella dysenteriae 1 dysentery.acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 18 thai patients and convalescent-phase sera from two israeli patients and one bangladeshi patient with shigella dysenteriae 1 (shiga) dysentery were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies that bind s. dysenteriae lipopolysaccharide (lps), shiga holotoxin, or two synthetic peptides representing epitopes from the b subunit of shiga toxin. paired sera from 24 maryland adults with shigella flexneri 2a or shigella sonnei diarrhea serv ...19921629317
the virf protein from shigella flexneri is a member of the arac transcription factor superfamily and is highly homologous to rns, a positive regulator of virulence genes in enterotoxigenic escherichia coli. 19921625585
aida-i, the adhesin involved in diffuse adherence of the diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli strain 2787 (o126:h27), is synthesized via a precursor molecule.the adherence mechanisms of enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) to epithelial cells are still not understood. to study the molecular basis of the diffuse adherence (da) phenotype exhibited by diarrhoeagenic e. coli expressing classical epec serotypes we investigated strain 2787 (o126:h27) isolated from a case of infantile diarrhoea. a 6.0 kb plasmid-derived dna fragment mediates the da phenotype and encodes the 100 kda adhesin protein aida-i (adhesin involved in diffuse adherence). sequenci ...19921625582
[shigella flexneri strains having a new type antigen].five shigella strains isolated from stool cultures of two domestic dysentery cases and three imported cases in tokyo in 1986-1989 had an atypial serotype that agglutinated with only antiserum to s. flexneri group 6 factor antigen. these strains showed typical biochemical reactions of s. flexneri and were biochemically identical. four of the strains were positive for serény test with guinea pig eye and the cell-invasion test with hela cells. the strains also had the virulence-plasmid encoding out ...19921624844
[rapid differentiation method for shigella and escherichia coli--application of indole (tryptophanase), pgua (beta-glucuronidase) and onpg (beta-galactosidase) tests].for the differentiation of shigella from escherichia coli, indole (tryptophanase), pgua (beta-glucuronidase) and onpg (beta-galactosidase) tests were used. a total of 377 shigella and 124 e. coli strains was examined for each sero- and biosero-type by using these tests. the results were as follows. 1) there were no shigella strains showing positive reactions for both indole and onpg tests. 2) no e. coli strains with shigella-like characteristics (negative for lysine-decarboxylase, motility and l ...19921624838
molecular epidemiology of trimethoprim-resistant shigella boydii serotype 2 strains from bulgaria.in 1990 an increased number of strains of shigella boydii serotype 2 were isolated from different regions of bulgaria. strains were reported as sporadic, although they showed identical phenotypic characteristics, including resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, tetracycline, ticarcillin, and trimethoprim. the objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of the strains and the mechanism of their antimicrobial resistance. plasmid fingerprinting show ...19921624559
molecular and functional characterization of the salmonella invasion gene inva: homology of inva to members of a new protein family.one of the earliest steps in the pathogenic cycle of the facultative intracellular pathogen salmonella spp. is the invasion of the cells of the intestinal epithelium. we have previously identified a genetic locus, inv, that allows salmonella spp. to enter cultured epithelial cells. inva is a member of this locus, and it is the first gene of an operon consisting of at least two additional invasion genes. we have constructed strains carrying nonpolar mutations in inva and examined the individual c ...19921624429
virulence phenotypes of shigella flexneri 2a avirulent mutant 24570 can be complemented by the plasmid-coded positive regulator virf gene.avirulent mutation of an opaque colony variant of shigella flexneri 2a designated 24570 has been believed to be linked with the glpk locus of the chromosome. however, avirulent phenotypes of the 24570 strain could be complemented by the invasion plasmid-coded virf gene, a positive regulator for invasion genes. the 24570 strain had a dna structural alteration upstream of the virf gene.19921624118
empiric treatment of acute diarrheal disease with norfloxacin. a randomized, placebo-controlled study. swedish study group.to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of norfloxacin for acute diarrhea.19921616214
structural and functional features of cis-acting sequences in the basic replicon of plasmid colib-p9.we have structurally and functionally analyzed the cis-elements essential for colib-p9 plasmid dna replication. the putative oriv region encompassed a region of 172 base pairs (bp) located 152 bp downstream of the repz gene. a typical dnaa box found in this region proved nonessential for the dna replication of colib-p9. the ssi signal of colib-p9 is a homologue of the g-sites of r1 and r100 plasmids. deletion of the g-site led to 1.5-fold reduction of the copy number, suggesting that although th ...19921614857
shigella flexneri induces apoptosis in infected macrophages.the gram-negative bacterial pathogen shigella flexneri causes dysentery by invading the human colonic mucosa. bacteria are phagocytosed by enterocytes, escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm and spread to adjacent cells. after crossing the epithelium, shigella reaches the lamina propria of intestinal villi, the first line of defence. this tissue is densely populated with phagocytes that are killed in great numbers, resulting in abscesses. the genes required for cell invasion and macrophage ...19921614548
adhesion of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri to guinea-pig colonic epithelial cells in vitro.adhesion of bacteria to guinea-pig colonic epithelial cells in vitro was inhibited by fucose with all the four strains tested (two of shigella dysenteriae type 1 and two of s. flexneri). n-acetyl neuraminic acid and n-acetyl mannosamine also caused inhibition, suggesting a multiplicity of receptors on the epithelial cell. congo-red binding of the strains correlated with their adhesive ability, whereas haemagglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by the bacteria did not.19921613779
characterization of the shigella serotype d (s. sonnei) o polysaccharide and the enterobacterial r1 lipopolysaccharide core by use of mouse monoclonal antibodies.in the course of developing a live vaccine, we generated three murine monoclonal antibodies (mab) specific for shigella sonnei. the specificities of these mab were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analyses with whole cells or purified lipopolysaccharides (lpss) as antigens. two of them are specific for the shigella serotype d o-polysaccharide determinant, whereas one specifically binds to the core hexose region of r1-type lpss. with these mab, it was possible to ana ...19921612742
fluorescent antibody staining test for rapid diagnosis of shigella dysenteriae 1 infection.an indirect fluorescent antibody test for rapid detection of shigella dysenteriae 1 in diarrheal stools was developed. a diagnosis could be made within 90 min of submission of specimens to the laboratory. on comparison with culture results, the test had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 93%, and positive and negative predictive values of 94% and 92%, respectively.19921611852
in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new cephalosporin, compared with other cephalosporin antibiotics.the in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a c-3 bicyclic pyridinium group, was compared with ceftazidime, cefpirome, and cefepime. cefquinome inhibited members of the enterobacteriaceae at less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml for escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, citrobacter diversus, salmonella shigella, proteus mirabilis, morganella, and providencia. although most citrobacter freundii and enterobacter cloacae were inhibited by less than 2 ...19921611848
use of a commercial double-test tablet (rosco pgua/indole) for screening of escherichia coli.a commercial double-test tablet (rosco pgua/indole) for detection of beta-glucuronidase (beta-gur) activity and indole production was evaluated on a collection of 393 isolates of enterobacteria. both beta-gur and indole were positive on 96.6% of escherichia coli strains. beta-gur, only, was also detected in 25 shigella spp., four enterobacter cloacae, eight citrobacter freundii, and five salmonella enteritidis strains, none of which were indole producers. an additional 261 consecutive clinical i ...19921611844
shigellosis in child day care centers--lexington-fayette county, kentucky, 1991.in january 1991, the lexington-fayette county (kentucky) health department (lfchd) received three reports of shigella sonnei infections from the university of kentucky microbiology laboratory. the infections occurred in children aged 2-3 years, each of whom attended a different child day care center in lexington-fayette county (population: 200,000). this report summarizes the findings of an investigation by the lfchd and the kentucky department for health services to assess the impact of day car ...19921608391
age-specific prevalence of serum antibodies to the invasion plasmid and lipopolysaccharide antigens of shigella species in chilean and north american populations.shigella species have virulence plasmids that encode outer membrane proteins (invasion plasmid antigens, ipa) associated with pathogenicity. western blots were used to detect antibodies to ipa in sera from 390 chilean children, and these responses were compared with those of a us population of infants and adults. antibodies to lipopolysaccharide (lps) of plesiomonas shigelloides and shigella flexneri 2a were measured by elisa. among the chileans, there was an age-related acquisition of ipa antib ...19921607690
bacteriological quality of infant feeding bottle-contents and teats in addis abeba, ethiopia.bacteriological quality of 244 infant feeding-bottles and 61 teats were studied from january 1989 to november 1989. samples were collected from feeding-bottles of babies who were brought by nursing mothers to clinics and hospitals for varying complaints. of the 244 bottle-content samples, 144 (59%) harboured more than 2 x 10(6) colonies of bacteria per ml. of samples. the predominant bacterial isolates both from bottle-contents and teat-swabs were the coliform group of bacteria, such as e. coli, ...19921606947
phosphorylation of icsa by camp-dependent protein kinase and its effect on intracellular spread of shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri, a gram-negative bacillus belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae, causes bacillary dysentery in humans by invading colonic epithelial cells. processes by which epithelial cells, which are not professional phagocytes, may limit the spread of the invading microorganisms are poorly understood. this paper shows that icsa (virg), a 120 kda bacterial outer membrane protein responsible for intracellular and cell-to-cell spread through polymerization of actin, is a major substrate ...19921602963
antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in bangladesh, 1983-1990: increasing frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid.the susceptibility to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smz) was determined for 15,824 isolates of shigella obtained from patients attending a treatment center in dhaka, bangladesh, from 1983 through 1990 and for 520 isolates obtained during community surveys from 1988 through 1990. susceptibility to nalidixic acid was determined for isolates obtained after 1985. in 1983 13% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, 23.5% to tmp-smz, and 0.8% to both drugs. by 1990 51.2% of isola ...19921600006
safety and immunogenicity of the live oral auxotrophic shigella flexneri sfl124 in volunteers.the live, aromatic dependent shigella flexneri y vaccine strain sfl124, with a deleted arod gene, was tested for safety and immunogenicity in 21 healthy adult volunteers. a single dose of 2 x 10(9) live bacteria was given orally to ten volunteers, whereas 11 received three doses every other day. the vaccine was excreted for 4.2 days and was well tolerated by 90.5% of the vaccinees. only 2 of 21 (9.5%) after the first dose had a self-limiting diarrhoea lasting 1 day; of volunteers given one dose ...19921598788
live oral auxotrophic shigella flexneri sfl124 vaccine with a deleted arod gene: characterization and monkey protection studies.shigella flexneri sfl124, with a deletion encompassing all, or nearly all, of the coding sequence of gene arod was obtained after selection on a fusaric acid medium supplemented with 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid for tetracycline-sensitive mutants of s. flexneri sfl114 which is an arod::tn10 transductant. two of 20 tetracycline-sensitive mutants tested in colony hybridization with a 32p-labelled dna probe of approximately 1400 base pairs (comprising all except the 75 n-terminal base pairs of the cod ...19921598787
constitutive mutations of agrobacterium tumefaciens transcriptional activator virg.the virulence (vir) genes of agrobacterium tumefaciens ti plasmids are positively regulated by virg in conjunction with vira and plant-derived inducing molecules. a procedure that utilizes both genetic selection and a genetic screen was developed to isolate mutations in virg that led to elevated levels of vir gene expression in the absence of vira and plant phenolic inducers. mutants were isolated at a frequency of 1 in 10(7) to 10(8). substitution mutations at two positions in the virg coding r ...19921597431
cross-reactive proteins of borrelia burgdorferi.the specificity of serological tests for lyme borreliosis is impaired by cross-reacting antibodies. in order to select antigens for more specific tests, specific and cross-reactive proteins of borrelia burgdorferi must be identified. therefore, to analyze cross reactions of borrelia burgdorferi with other bacteria, rabbit immune sera against heterologous bacteria (borrelia hermsii, treponema pallidum, treponema phagedenis, leptospira interrogans (serogroup grippotyphosa), neisseria meningitidis, ...19921597198
lethal toxic encephalopathy due to childhood shigellosis in a developed country.shigellosis results in considerable morbidity in endemic areas, but mortality is rare in developed countries. all pediatric deaths (n = 15) in israel following shigellosis in the past 10 years were reviewed. the patients' ages ranged from 5 months to 11 years; there were eight boys and seven girls. three were institutionalized mentally retarded patients, 11 were healthy children. twelve had definite clinical signs of brain death within 48 hours of onset of disease. cause of death in all patients ...19921594376
induction of beta-lactamase from shigella flexneri ucsf-129: purification by affinity chromatography and some properties.lincomycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was an excellent inductor of beta-lactamase, and its total activity and specific activity were increased 2.5- and 3.6-fold respectively. the beta-lactamase produced by shigella flexneri ucsf-129 was purified by affinity chromatography on phenylboronic acid-agarose with a type b column using an hydrophobic spacer arm (6-aminohexanoic acid activated with succinimide). the yield and specific activity were 96% and 29,283 u/mg, respectively. these were 1 ...19921593966
ru 29 246, the active compound of the cephalosporin-prodrug-ester hr 916. i. antibacterial activity in vitro.the aminothiazolyl-cephalosporin ru 29 246 is the active metabolite of the prodrug-pivaloyl-oxyethyl-ester hr 916. ru 29 246 in vitro activity includes a wide range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. against methicillin-sensitive staphylococci ru 29 246 (mic90 of 0.25 approximately 2 micrograms/ml) was clearly more active than cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefixime and ceftibuten, but slightly less active than cefdinir. ru 29 246 inhibited hemolytic streptococci of the serogroups a ...19921592683
hla-b27 expression modulates gram-negative bacterial invasion into transfected l cells.the mechanism by which hla-b27 confers genetic susceptibility to the seronegative spondyloarthropathies ankylosing spondylitis, reiter's syndrome, and reactive arthritis, is not well understood. the current concept of an extraarticular bacterial infection functioning as the triggering event in a genetically susceptible host suggests the possibility of direct microbial-mhc interaction. we have addressed the role of hla-b27 in microbial-host cell interaction by examining invasion by putatively art ...19921588045
novel invasion determinant of enteropathogenic escherichia coli plasmid plv501 encodes the ability to invade intestinal epithelial cells and hep-2 cells.an escherichia coli k-12 transformant carrying 96.5-kb plasmid plv501 from enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) strain k798 is able to produce the same characteristic attaching-effacing lesions in a rabbit ileal biopsy explant model as its parent strain. cloned ecori-sali dna restriction fragments from this plasmid failed to reproduce the attaching-effacing lesions, but one recombinant plasmid, plv527, containing 4.5 kb of plv501 dna, conferred on e. coli dh1 transformants the ability to invade enter ...19921587591
safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in monkeys and humans of invasive escherichia coli k-12 hybrid vaccine candidates expressing shigella flexneri 2a somatic antigen.a live, oral shigella vaccine, constructed by transfer of the 140-mda invasiveness plasmid from shigella flexneri 5 and the chromosomal genes encoding the group- and type-specific o antigen of s. flexneri 2a to escherichia coli k-12, was tested in humans. designated ecsf2a-1, this vaccine produced adverse reactions (fever, diarrhea, or dysentery) in 4 (31%) of 13 subjects who ingested a single dose of 1.0 x 10(9) cfu, while at better-tolerated doses (5.0 x 10(6) to 5.0 x 10(7) cfu), it provided ...19921587589
characterization of aeromonas caviae antigens which cross-react with shigella boydii 5.live and boiled cells of 16 strains of aeromonas caviae, isolated from patients with diarrhea, agglutinated with shigella boydii 5 antiserum in a slide test. further studies with seven selected strains showed agglutination with boiled cells in a tube test. lipopolysaccharide antigen extracted from one of these strains cross-reacted with s. boydii 5 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot studies. either all or the majority of the seven strains possessed properties deemed to be diarrh ...19921583145
ipab of shigella flexneri causes entry into epithelial cells and escape from the phagocytic vacuole.by creating mutations within the shigella flexneri ipab gene, we have demonstrated that the invasion of epithelial cells is a three-step process encompassing adhesion on the cell surface, entry and lysis of the phagocytic vacuole allowing subsequent access to the cytoplasm. sc403, an insertion mutant which lacks expression of ipab but still expresses downstream genes, has been particularly studied. it is non-invasive, does not elicit actin polymerization, but binds to hela cells indicating that ...19921582426
trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole remains active against enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and shigella species in guadalajara, mexico.bacterial isolates obtained from fecal cultures of u.s. adults in guadalajara, mexico, with diarrhea developing during the summers of 1987, 1988, and 1989 were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. no resistance was seen among 220 enterotoxigenic escherichia coli isolates nor among 89 shigella strains to aztreonam, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or furazolidone. high level (greater than 1000 micrograms/ml) resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/smx) was found in 7% ...19921580315
bacterial lipopolysaccharide in synovial fluid cells in shigella triggered reactive arthritis. 19921578474
occurrence of a large plasmid in a strain of plesiomonas shigelloides with cross-reactivity against shigella sonnei.the plasmid profile of p. shigelloides svc 01, strain with cross-reactivity with sh. sonnei, (obtained from dr alf lindberg, stockholm university, sweden), was assayed and compared with other local isolates of plesiomonas spp. and also with sh. sonnei. diversity in occurrence of plasmids among different strains of p. shigelloides were observed. further, the svc 01 strain and sh. sonnei differ in their plasmid profile.19921577514
bioactive polymers: in vitro and in vivo study of controlled release neomycin.neomycin is coupled on xanthan-a polysaccharide of microbial biosynthesis produced by xanthomonas campestris-through ionic complexation. the kinetics of neomycin release, in vitro, at ph = 8.2 is studied. a controlled release of neomycin, following a zero order kinetics is observed, regardless of the eluent flow. neomycin complexed on xanthan, administered in a unique daily dose to patients suffering from dysentery in the 100 cases taken in study, has shown a high clinical efficiency as compared ...19921573555
campylobacter enteritis in portugal: epidemiological features and biological markers.from 1984 to 1989, stool samples from 2811 gastroenteritis cases were examined for the presence of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli, salmonella, shigella and yersinia species. isolation rates were: campylobacter jejuni and c. coli, 5.3%, salmonella spp., 14.8%, shigella spp., 4.6% and yersinia enterocolitica, 1.1%. age group distribution analysis shows a higher campylobacter isolation rate in children under one year of age. seasonal distribution revealed a peak incidence in winter as in other me ...19921572427
diarrheal disease in cambodian children at a camp in thailand.the etiology of acute diarrhea (less than or equal to 3 days duration) and persistent diarrhea (greater than or equal to 14 days duration) was determined in cambodian children under age 5 years in a refugee camp on the thai-cambodian border between may and october 1989; potential risk factors associated with persistent diarrhea were examined in an age-matched case-control study. specimens collected from children and environmental sources were examined by standard microbiologic methods; escherich ...19921570820
comparison of hektoen and salmonella-shigella agar on 6033 stools of human origin submitted for routine isolation of salmonella sp. and shigella sp.from 1989 through 1991, 6033 stool specimens from patients at orleans hospital (france), were cultured for enteric pathogens. hektoen agar (he) was compared with salmonella-shigella agar (ss) after direct streaking and after overnight enrichment in mueller-kauffmann broth. yersinia strains were not computed. seven strains of salmonella serotype typhi were isolated, on both media, and excluded from computations for discussed reasons. out of a total of 9 shigella strains, he isolated 9 and ss isol ...19921570178
childhood shigellosis in saudi arabia.in this study 234 children with shigellosis were evaluated during a 6-year period. the ages ranged from 2 days to 13 years (mean, 3.4 years). sixty percent of the children were in the 1- to 4-year age group. one hundred four children were hospitalized and 130 were outpatients. most cases of shigellosis presented during the months of april-may and september-november. shigella flexneri accounted for 44% and shigella sonnei for 43% of the isolates. susceptibility testing showed that 54% were resist ...19921565538
shigellosis in thai children: epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features.two hundred thirty cases of shigellosis in children managed at chulalongkorn hospital from 1984 to 1988 were reviewed. the most common presentation included diarrhea, most frequently with mucus and blood, and fever. there were no deaths. the most common species was shigella flexneri (83.5%) which showed increasing resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.19921565537
a one-year study of enteric campylobacter infections in singapore.a total of 7344 inpatients with diarrhoea were investigated for campylobacter infections in singapore over one year. campylobacter species were recovered from 1.2% of diarrhoeal stools; 70.3% of the 91 campylobacters were from children under 5 years of age. further identification of these isolates showed that 89% were campylobacter jejuni and 10.9% were c. coli, and a high level of resistance to erythromycin was observed among them. concomitant isolation of salmonella species or shigella species ...19921560479
auxotrophic live oral shigella flexneri vaccine protects monkeys against challenge with s. flexneri of different serotypes.the aromatic-dependent live shigella flexneri y strain sfl114, attenuated by a tn10-inactivated arod gene, was given as an oral vaccine to 14 macaca fascicularis monkeys. a significant clinical attenuation of sfl114 was seen (p = 0.0058) as all vaccinated monkeys tolerated 2 x 10(10)-1 x 10(11) bacteria of sfl114, whereas four out of seven monkeys orally given 1 x 10(11) of the virulent parent strain sfl1 developed shigellosis. the average excretion time for sfl114 and sfl1 were 2 and 18 days, r ...19921557932
[molecular and cellular bases of the virulence of shigella flexneri].shigella flexneri, a gram negative bacillus, causes bacillary dysentery, an ulcerative disease of the human colon, by invading intestinal epithelial cells. entry into epithelial cells occurs via an induced phagocytic process which involves the actino-myosin complex. the host-cell receptor and the transmembrane signal which initiate reorganization of the cytoskeleton are under study. binding to integrins has recently been demonstrated in related models such as the entry of yersinia pseudotubercul ...19921554236
natural immunity to shigellosis in two groups with different previous risks of exposure to shigella is only partly expressed by serum antibodies to lipopolysaccharide. 19921552217
bacteriophage lytic patterns for identification of salmonellae, shigellae, escherichia coli, citrobacter freundii, and enterobacter cloacae.a series of bacteriophages specific for escherichia coli (e-1, e-2, e-3, and e-4), citrobacter freundii (phi i, phi ii, and phi iii), enterobacter cloacae (ent), and shigella spp. (sh) have been isolated from hospital sewage. these bacteriophages, in combination with felix salmonella phage o-i, were used as a diagnostic phage typing set which included seven phage preparations: o-i, c (phi i and phi iii), sh, e (e-1 and e-2), ce (phi ii and e-3), e-4, and ent. after 20,280 cultures of 27 species ...19921551974
shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: combined cytotoxic effects of shiga toxin and lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on human vascular endothelial cells in vitro.this study explores the in vitro relationship between shiga toxin-producing shigella spp. and escherichia coli and the development of vascular complications in humans following bacillary dysentery. we propose that lipopolysaccharide (lps; endotoxin) may combine with shiga toxin to facilitate vascular damage characteristic of hemolytic uremic syndrome. we have examined the direct cytotoxic effects of shiga toxin and lps on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvec) in culture. shiga toxin alo ...19921548077
drug resistance and plasmid profile of shigellae in taiwan.one hundred and twenty-eight shigella strains isolated from newborn and infant human faecal specimens at kaohsiung medical college hospital in taiwan were serogrouped, serotyped and examined for drug-resistance patterns and for the presence of plasmids. forty-seven per cent of the isolates were found to belong to the shigella sonnei serogroup, 41% to the s. flexneri group, 9% to the s. boydii group and 3% to the s. dysenteriae group. the serotype with the greatest number of strains was s. sonnei ...19921547844
shigella-specific iga in saliva of children with bacillary dysentery.to study the secretory immune response after shigella infection, the anti-lipopolysaccharide and anti-shiga-toxin response in saliva, obtained from children with confirmed shigellosis and healthy children, were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by western blot. children with infection showed high titers compared to healthy controls. after shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection a significant change in titer could be observed in a large number of cases, in contrast to shigella fle ...19921547024
nucleotide sequence and transcriptional regulation of a positive regulatory gene of shigella dysenteriae.a 1,937 bp psti-hindiii fragment containing the ipar locus was cloned from the large invasion plasmid of shigella dysenteriae cg097, and its nucleotide sequence was completely determined. the ipar protein (35 kda, calculated from the dna sequence) was synthesized in escherichia coli chi 1411 minicells containing the 1,937-bp psti-hindiii fragment. to determine the regulatory role of ipar for ipa genes, we applied genetic complementation experiments using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) a ...19921541532
movement along actin filaments of the perijunctional area and de novo polymerization of cellular actin are required for shigella flexneri colonization of epithelial caco-2 cell monolayers.shigella flexneri invades eucaryotic cells and grows in the cytoplasm. lysis of the phagosomal membrane is a prerequisite for both intracellular multiplication and movement of the bacteria that gain direct access to the host cell actin. in hela cells, bacteria generate their own movement essentially by inducing actin polymerization. polymerization of actin enables them to move rapidly and randomly in the cytoplasm and to spread from one cell to another through protrusions of the host cell membra ...19921541518
modification of the methodology of stool culture for salmonella detection.a total of 4,284 h2s-positive colonies isolated on salmonella-shigella agar and 4,350 isolated on hektoen agar were flooded with 5 microliters of a reagent (mucap test; biolife italiana s.r.l., milan, italy) and observed after 3 to 5 min for the development of fluorescence produced in the presence of the c8 esterase enzyme. all of the 794 colonies isolated on salmonella-shigella agar and the 752 isolated on hektoen agar and identified as positive for salmonella spp. with conventional biochemical ...19921537931
are intestinal bacteria involved in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis? review article.observations in bowel-related joint diseases give support to this hypothesis. in crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the bowel wall inflammation is complicated in about 20% of the patients by joint inflammation. bowel infection by salmonella, shigella and yersinia can provoke joint inflammation and supports an etiological link between bowel bacteria and arthritis. the arthropathic properties of the most abundant group of intestinal bacteria, i.e. the obligate anaerobic bacteria, were studied ...19921536716
[evaluation of the wellcolex agglutination test for group identification of salmonellae and shigellae].color agglutination test wellcolex for rapid group identification of salmonella and shigella species was evaluated. the test revealed high specificity and gave information on presence of salmonella and shigella species in biological material in 24 hours. the test is suitable for standard diagnostic laboratories.19921534522
[a 2-year study of the incidence of campylobacteriasis in the district of liptovský mikulás].the authors investigated the incidence of campylobacteriosis in the population of the district during 1989-1990. during the above period by cultivation 723 cases of the disease were confirmed, i.e. the incidence in 1989 was 319, the number of cases 428, in 1990 the corresponding figures were 220 and 295. the incidence of campylobacteriosis is significantly higher than that of other investigated bacterial diseases. the authors did not find a significant difference in the incidence of campylobacte ...19921534519
transferrins and heme-compounds as iron sources for pathogenic bacteria.the low concentration of free iron in body fluids creates bacteriostatic conditions for many microorganisms and is therefore an important defense factor of the body against invading bacteria. pathogenic bacteria have developed several mechanisms for acquiring iron from the host. siderophore-mediated iron uptake involves the synthesis of low molecular weight iron chelators called siderophores which compete with the host iron-binding glycoproteins lactoferrin (lf) and transferrin (tf) for iron. ot ...19921532495
enteropathogens associated with acute and persistent diarrhea in bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age.a longitudinal study of diarrhea was carried out from may 1988 to april 1989 by household surveillance of 705 children less than 5 years old in rural bangladesh. stool samples were examined for enteric pathogens at the beginning of each diarrheal episode. for persistent episodes, stool examination was repeated on days 15-17 of the illness. for each case of persistent diarrhea, stool samples from age-matched acute diarrheal and healthy controls were examined. compared with healthy controls, cases ...19921527413
in vitro activity of cefodizime.cefodizime is a bactericidal cephem with the typical broad spectrum activity of an aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: its mic90 is 0.125 mg/l for streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes and other streptococci; and 0.05 mg/l for haemophilus spp., neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae and moraxella catarrhalis; while beta-lactamase positive strains of m. catarrhalis require 1 mg/l. less than 1 mg/l is needed for escherichia coli, ...19921526673
solid phase enzyme immunoassays for the quantification of serum amyloid p (sap) and complement component 3 (c3) proteins in acute-phase mouse sera.simple, reliable and sensitive enzyme immunoassays have been developed for the quantification of the mouse acute-phase sap and c3 proteins. the elisa systems were validated using sera from mice injected with s. dysenteriae endotoxin, and detected 500 pg protein/ml. the assays use 96-well microtitre plates permitting rapid processing of a large number of samples.19921526624
efficacy of bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after shigella flexneri challenge.the protective efficacy of oral bovine immunoglobulin concentrates derived from colostrum against challenge with shigella flexneri was studied in healthy adult volunteers in a randomized, double-blind fashion. volunteers were given a product consisting of hyperimmune immunoglobulin concentrate with a high titer of anti-s. flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (lps) with sodium bicarbonate or a control preparation with sodium bicarbonate three times a day for seven days. on the third day of treatment, v ...19921524140
ceftibuten and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for treatment of shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli disease.in a prospective randomized study at two clinical sites, ceftibuten was compared with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smx), both given orally for a period of 5 days, for the treatment of dysentery. twenty-two children were found to have bacillary dysentery caused by shigella and/or enteroinvasive escherichia coli. all organisms isolated were susceptible to ceftibuten; 6 of 20 shigella strains and 4 of 5 enteroinvasive e. coli were resistant to tmp-smx. the diarrhea persisted for a mean (+/- s ...19921523076
titres of class-specific antibodies against shigella and salmonella lipopolysaccharide antigens in colostrum and breast milk of costa rican, swedish and vietnamese mothers.enzyme immunoassays (eia) were used to estimate titres of class-specific antibodies against purified and chemically defined phenol-water-extracted lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigens of salmonella serogroup b (bo), shigella dysenteriae type i, plesiomonas shigelloides (the same o-antigen as shigella sonnei) and shigella flexneri y. titres in colostrum and breast milk of swedish, vietnamese and costa rican mothers from various socioeconomic conditions were compared. the antibodies were mainly of th ...19921522329
single-dose ciprofloxacin for shigellosis in adults. 19921522320
community-based evaluation of the effect of breast-feeding on the risk of microbiologically confirmed or clinically presumptive shigellosis in bangladeshi children.to assess the association between breast-feeding and the risk of microbiologically confirmed or clinically presumptive shigellosis, the authors performed a case-control analysis of bangladeshi children younger than 3 years of age who were followed up for 1 month after exposure to shigella in their residential neighborhoods. two hundred sixty-nine cases with culture-confirmed shigellosis (n = 119) or clinically presumptive shigellosis (culture-negative dysentery, n = 150) were compared with 819 c ...19921518697
[sensitivity of shigella to antibiotics].three hundred and twenty two shigella cultures isolated from dysentery patients within 1986-1989 were tested with the use of standard paper disks for their sensitivity to levomycetin, streptomycin, tetracycline, monomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, carbenicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, methicillin and doxycycline. the number of the cultures belonging to shigella sonnei amounted to 85.1 per cent of the total number of the strains studied. 91.9, 89.5, 87.3, 87.3, 80.1 and 80.1 ...19921514848
polymerase chain reaction for detection of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli isolated from animal and food sources.animals and their by-products have been implicated as important sources of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) associated with disease in humans. vtec comprise a wide range of serotypes and produce a variety of closely related verocytotoxins (vt). a pair of oligonucleotide primers, targeting conserved sequences found in vt1, vt2 and vte genes, was used to develop a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure to detect all types of vtec. supernatants of boiled broth cultures of vtec (223 stra ...19921513344
survival of bacterial enteric pathogens in traditional fermented foods.the survival of strains of bacterial enteric pathogens was investigated in two traditional fermented foods (mahewu and sour porridge) and in unfermented porridge. the foods were inoculated with cell suspensions of salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, aeromonas species and pathogenic escherichia coli which had a final concentration of 10(6)-10(7) cfu/ml of food. none of the strains of aeromonas and campylobacter were detected in mahewu and sour porridge 20 min after inoculation. the salmonellas w ...19921512176
bacterial enteric infections and vaccine development.there is a great need for effective vaccines against the major bacterial enteropathogens. bacterial enteric infections resulting in diarrhea, dysentery, or enteric fever constitute a huge public health problem, with more than a billion episodes of disease and several million deaths annually in developing countries. diarrhea caused by a bacterial enteric infection is also the commonest illness experienced by international travellers. studies of pathogenesis have established the importance of spec ...19921512046
[management of patients with traveler's diarrhea].traveler's diarrhea starts 5 to 15 days after arrival with 3 or more watery bowel movements daily in 4 to more than 50% of travelers depending on geographical regions. enterotoxin producing strains of e. coli are isolated in 20 to 50% of patients, followed by shigella, salmonella, campylobacter and vibrio spp. rarely giardia lamblia, entamoeba histolytica and cryptosporidia are causative organisms. the cornerstone of treatment is oral rehydration. the efficacy of anti-diarrhetics is not convinci ...19921509861
[the correspondence theory and etiological structure of shigella infections]. 19921509850
[etiological structure of dysentery in the republic of armenia].in this work materials on the etiological structure of shigella infections at different territories of armenia are presented. four shigella species have been found to circulate in armenia. the dominating etiological agent is s. flexneri with s. sonnei also playing an important role. the serological picture of s. flexneri is characterized by the prevalence of subserovar 2a.19921509848
the relative importance of shigella in the aetiology of childhood gastroenteritis in saudi arabia.the role of shigella infection in childhood gastroenteritis was studied over a 2-year period. shigella species were found in the faecal specimens of 70 (1%) of 7369 children with gastroenteritis, but in only 1 (0.1%) of 1130 controls. s. flexneri was the commonest isolate (51%), followed by s. sonnei (37%). most shigella species were isolated during the winter. the prevalence of shigellosis was highest for children 1-5 years of age but equal for both sexes. fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and ...19921509239
stool electrolytes in acute dehydrating gastroenteritis.stool electrolytes were studied in 100 cases of gastroenteritis. the duration of illness was 24-48 hours in 32% and 72-96 hours in 28% of the cases. on stool culture, 43% children had no growth, 23% had enteropathogenic e. coli and 10% had cholera and rotavirus each. the stool sodium loss was more in cholera and shigella cases, diarrhea of shorter duration and in children between 24-30 months of age. potassium loss in the stool was more in shiegella cases, diarrhea of short duration and in child ...19921506098
the large virulence plasmid of shigella. 19921505205
molecular and cellular biology of shigella flexneri invasiveness: from cell assay systems to shigellosis. 19921505204
conjugal transferability of multiple antibiotic resistance in three genera of enterobacteriaceae in nigeria.ninety-eight enteric bacteria were isolated from stool samples of 3,000 diarrhoeal patients during 1988-1989 in ibadan, nigeria. the isolates were: 20 salmonella, 28 shigella and 50 escherichia coli. s. typhi and s. flexneri were most prevalent while serotypes 055, 026 and 0128 were most common among the e. coli. eight resistance patterns to ampicillin (ap), streptomycin (sm), tetracycline (tc) and chloramphenicol (cm), the four commonly used drugs in this environment were observed in the isolat ...19921500645
antigenic homology of endotoxin with a coliform mastitis vaccine strain, escherichia coli o111:b4 (j5).this study examined recognition of heterologous gram-negative endotoxin by antibodies recognizing common lipopolysaccharide core antigens. gram-negative endotoxins from 11 heterologous bacterial strains were tested for recognition by antibodies against common lipopolysaccharide core antigens. serum was harvested from a calf immunized with the rc mutant, escherichia coli o111:b4 (j5), and affinity purified against endotoxin derived from an ra mutant, salmonella typhimurium, producing an antibody ...19921500577
evaluation of two colored latex kits, the wellcolex colour salmonella test and the wellcolex colour shigella test, for serological grouping of salmonella and shigella species.two colored latex kits (the wellcolex colour salmonella test [wct-salmonella] and the wellcolex colour shigella test [wct-shigella]; division diagnostics, laboratories wellcome s.a., paris, france), which allow identification of the most frequently encountered salmonella serogroups and shigella species, respectively, were evaluated. wct-salmonella and wct-shigella yielded sensitivities of 98.4 and 98%, respectively, and a specificity of 100% when they were tested on pure cultures received at a r ...19921500531
presence of specific immunoglobulin a-secreting cells in peripheral blood after natural infection with shigella sonnei.the appearance of antigen-specific immunoglobulin a (iga) antibody-secreting cells (ascs) following natural infection with shigella sonnei during a common-source outbreak caused by this organism was evaluated in a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elispot). a mean iga asc value of 2,131.6/10(6) cells against homologous s. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (lps) was detected in blood samples obtained from patients with bacteriologically proven s. sonnei shigellosis 5 and 10 days after the onset ...19921500527
gut mucosal lymphocyte subpopulations in the host-defence of shigella infected guinea-pigs.lymphocyte subpopulations from the gut mucosa were studied in shigella-susceptible guinea-pigs to evaluate their role in mucosal immune responses to such organisms. four weeks after infection, isolated lymphocytes were characterised by an immunofluorescent technique. the increase in the t cell intra-epithelial population was less (48%) in comparison to that in normal uninfected animals (74%). on the other hand, ig bearing b cells in the lamina propria showed an increased incidence and more than ...19921500085
[territorial differences in the nature of the etiological structure of shigellosis--a pattern or chance?]. 19921496882
icsb: a shigella flexneri virulence gene necessary for the lysis of protrusions during intercellular spread.shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery by invading epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. we have characterized the icsb gene which is located on the virulence plasmid pwr100. after inactivation of icsb, the mutant strain remained invasive, but formed abnormally small plaques on hela cell monolayers, colonized only the peripheral cells of caco-2 islets, and was unable to provoke a keratoconjunctivitis in guinea-pigs. examination of infected hela cells showed that the icsb mutant was able ...19921495389
in vitro studies on the growth of shigella sonnei by lactobacillus casei and lact. acidophilus.the inhibitory effect of lactobacilli on growth of shigella sonnei was studied. the effect was not due to ph alone, as addition of hydrochloric, lactic or acetic acids to culture media did not inhibit the normal growth of the shigellas. the degree of inhibition was measured by disc assay and showed that the inhibitory substance(s) can be extracellular and diffusible, varying the degrees of inhibition depending on the media tested. when broth was inoculated with mixed cultures of lactobacillus an ...19921490909
bacterial agents protect against autoimmune disease. i. mice pre-exposed to bordetella pertussis or mycobacterium tuberculosis are highly refractory to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.infectious agents have often been implicated in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. here we show that bacteria may also play a role in resistance to autoimmune diseases. sjl/j and (sjl/j x balb/c)f1 mice are genetically susceptible to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eae), a murine model for human demyelinating autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. we studied the effect of several bacteria on the development of eae and found that exposure of sjl/j or (sjl/j x ba ...19921489483
isolation of yersinia enterocolitica from foods.many selective enrichment and plating media for the isolation of yersinia enterocolitica from foods are described. however, at present no single isolation procedure is available for the recovery of all pathogenic strains of yersinia enterocolitica. cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline plus 1% sorbitol and 0.15% bile salts (pbssb) and two-step enrichment with tryptone soy broth (tsb) and bile oxalate sorbose (bos) broth are very efficient methods for the recovery of a wide spectrum of ser ...19921486026
novobiocin-brilliant green-glycerol-lactose-agar: further routine evaluation on 5554 human stools and 982 veterinary samples.in order to provide a wider evaluation of "novobiocin-brilliant green-glycerol-lactose" (nbgl) agar, dishes of this medium were added to standard media: hektoen (h), salmonella-shigella agar (ss), at all plating steps for 5554 stool cultures of human medical routine (280 isolates) and 982 samples of veterinary routine (133 isolates). nbgl expectedly missed lactose-glycerol positive strains of the serotype senftenberg (n = 4), h2s negative strains (n = 1), and strains of the typhi serotype (n = 7 ...19921484738
the mode of action of cfad of escherichia coli and virf of shigella flexneri and other members of the arac family of positive regulators. 19921484494
[chemical and serological study of lipopolysaccharide isolated from shigella flexneri 88-893 possessing a new type-antigen].the o-specific polysaccharide chain which represents a new type-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (lps) of shigella flexneri 88-893 was investigated. the o-polysaccharide chain was found to be composed of repeating units comprising rhamnose, n-acetylglucosamine and glucose (3:1:2). in the passive hemolysis test, group-6 antiserum of s. flexneri exhibited a high hemolytic titer (50% hemolysis titer: 7,900) against sheep red blood cells (srbc) sensitized with intact 893 lps, but virtually no hemolytic ...19921484404
[multiyear observations of the dynamic epidemic process in sonne dysentery in a small district of vladimir province].on the basis of the epidemiological analysis of morbidity data for several years the many-sided dynamic characterization of the epidemic process of sonne dysentery in a small district is presented. as revealed by this analysis, the epidemic process developed in the presence of residual activity of the water factor; this activity was mediated by transmission of this infection through milk products contaminated in the course of their manufacture and distribution. the possibility of appearance of a ...19921481603
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