synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cobalt(iii) complexes with pyridine-amide ligands.the ligands 2-(n-(x-pyridyl)carbamoyl)pyridine (x=2, 3 or 4 for hl1-hl3, respectively) and 2,6-bis(n-(y-pyridyl)carbamoyl)pyridine (y=2, 3 or 4 for h2l4-h2l6, respectively) in their mono- and di-deprotonated forms have been used to synthesize kinetically stable cobalt(iii) compounds [co(l1-3)3] (1-3) and na[co(l4-6)2] (4-6), respectively. the co(iii) ion is in octahedral environment and is surrounded by three bidentate ligands in complexes 1-3 and two tridentate ligands in complexes 4-6. ligands ...200817959275
[medication in infectious acute diarrhea in children].acute infectious diarrhea in children remain still a frequent cause of morbidity. 50 % of them are due to rotavirus. oral rehydration therapy and early realimentation have drastically reduced their mortality and morbidity. beside oral or eventually iv rehydration therapy no medication has proven its efficacy based on the main hmo criteria (reduction of over 30 % of the stool output) except racecadotril and loperamide which is contre-indicated for the last one in children less than 2 years old. o ...200717961811
crystal structure of an apo form of shigella flexneri arsh protein with an nadph-dependent fmn reductase activity.the arsh gene or its homologs are a frequent part of the arsenic resistance system in bacteria and eukaryotes. although a specific biological function of the gene product is unknown, the arsh protein was annotated as a member of the nadph-dependent fmn reductase family based on a conserved (t/s)xrxxsx(t/s) fingerprint motif common for fmn binding proteins. presented here are the first crystal structure of an arsh protein from shigella flexneri refined at 1.7 a resolution and results of enzymatic ...200717962405
[hemolytic and uremic syndrome in the child].hemolytic and uremic syndrome (hus) is characterized by the association of hemolytic anemia with sckizocytes, thrombopenia and renal involvement secondary to thrombotic microangiopathy. the typical form is the most frequent in children occurring after an episode of diarrhea caused by escherichia coli. other microorganisms may be responsible for hus such as shigella dysenteriae or streptococcus pneumoniae. acute renal failure is reversible in most cases, but long-term renal sequelae are seen in o ...200817964233
multilocus sequence typing analysis of shigella flexneri isolates collected in asian countries.the multilocus sequence typing scheme used previously for phylogenetic analysis of escherichia coli was applied to 107 clinical isolates of shigella flexneri. dna sequencing of 3423 bp throughout seven housekeeping genes identified eight new allele types and ten new sequence types among the isolates. s. flexneri serotypes 1-5, x and y were clustered together in a group containing many allelic variants while serotype 6 formed a distinct group, as previously established.200717965345
a new asset for pathogen informatics--the enteropathogen resource integration center (eric), an niaid bioinformatics resource center for biodefense and emerging/re-emerging infectious disease.eric (enteropathogen resource information center) is one of the national institute of allergy and infectious diseases (niaid) bioinformatics resource centers for biodefense and emerging/re-emerging infectious disease. eric serves as a comprehensive information resource for five related pathogens: yersinia enterocolitica, yersinia pestis, diarrheagenic e. coli, shigella spp., and salmonella spp. eric integrates genomics, proteomics, biochemical and microbiological information to facilitate the in ...200717966403
[application of the rapid test of glutamate decarboxylase for the confirmation of escherichia coli isolated from clinical samples].a rapid test was evaluated in the diagnosis of escherichia coli in different types of infectious samples, and a comparison with the biomedical methods of traditional identification was made. it has been reported that glutamate decarboxylase (gad) is very specific (97-99%) for the identification of escherichia coli; hovewer, its use is very limited nowadays. 461 clinical samples of different origin were analyzed in a children's hospital. in general, escherichia coli, was more frequently isolated ...200517969270
uspa of shigella of the strategies that bacteria utilize to combat environmental stress is to synthesize stress-responding proteins. in escherichia coli, adverse environmental factors, such as starvation, heat, and the presence of acid, oxidants, heavy metals, and antibiotics, trigger the expression of the universal stress protein (usp). the gene of the usp, uspa, in e. coli k-12 and e. coli o157:h7 has been identified and sequenced. in this study, the nucleotide sequence of uspa in a strain of shigella sonn ...200717969624
[rapid detection of three foodborne pathogenic bacteria by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector].a method for monitoring foodborne pathogenic bacteria by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr)--capillary electrophoresis (ce) with a laser induced fluorescence detector was developed. three sets of primers were designed to amplify the gene segments of uida gene in e. coli. o157:h7, inva gene in salmonella and ipah gene in shigella, individually. the multiple pcr system and the separation conditions of ce were optimized. using a capillary coated with linear polyacrylamide and sieving buffer ...200717970100
the pattern-recognition molecule nod1 is localized at the plasma membrane at sites of bacterial interaction.the pattern-recognition molecule nod1 is a critical sensor for bacterial derived diaminopimelic acid-containing peptidoglycan fragments which induces innate immune responses in epithelial cells. here we report the subcellular localization of this protein in human epithelial cells. nod1 is localized in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane in human cells. this membrane association is dependent on the integrity of the protein, on its signalling capacity and on an intact actin cytoskeleton. signal ...200817970764
[laboratory diagnosis of cholera during enterocolitis epidemic at dimitrovgrad in august and september 1989].epidemy of enterocolitis at dimitrovgrad started on the 15th of august 1989, and lasted for a whole month. 2018 persons became ill. bacteriological cholera tests were performed on 3054 samples of stools from 2558 patients, and of those who were in contact with the sick populations. stool samples were cultured on the alcal peptonic water, alcal agar, and tcbs agar for vibrio isolation. suspicious colonies identification was made by biochemical and serological tests. difference between cholera bio ...199117974375
antibacterial activity of some 3-(arylideneamino)-2-phenylquinazoline-4(3h)-ones: synthesis and preliminary qsar studies.synthesis of ten 3-(arylideneamino)-2-phenylquinazoline-4(3h)-ones is reported. all the compounds contained a common phenyl group at the 2-position, while the substituents on the arylideneamino group were varied. the compounds were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus 6571 and bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli k12 and shigella dysenteriae 6) using a turbidometric assay method. it was found that the incorpora ...200717978766
shigella: a sexually transmitted infection in men who have sex with men. 200717983823
the nlee/ospz family of effector proteins is required for polymorphonuclear transepithelial migration, a characteristic shared by enteropathogenic escherichia coli and shigella flexneri infections.enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) and shigella flexneri are human host-specific pathogens that infect intestinal epithelial cells. however, each bacterial species employs a different infection strategy within this environmental niche. epec attaches to the apical surface of small intestine enterocytes, causing microvillus effacement and rearrangement of the host cell cytoskeleton beneath adherent bacteria. in contrast, s. flexneri invades the large intestine epithelium at the basolateral m ...200817984206
epidemiology and clinical presentation of shigellosis in children less than five years of age in rural mozambique.rectal swabs were collected from 1354 children <5 years of age with diarrhea attending manhiça district hospital and from 227 healthy community controls. shigellosis incidence was high among children aged 12-47 months (488.4/10(5) child-years at risk). fever and dysentery were prominent clinical findings. shigella was more frequently isolated from cases than controls (6.7% versus 0.4%, p = 0.004), and from dysentery than nondysenteric diarrhea (24.1% versus 3.5%, p < 0.001). shigella flexneri 2a ...200717984817
increasing spectrum in antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in bangladesh: resistance to azithromycin and ceftriaxone and decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in bangladesh, during 2001-2002, was studied and compared with that of 1991-1992 to identify the changes in resistance patterns and trends. a significant increase in resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (from 52% to 72%, p < 0.01) and nalidixic acid (from 19% to 51%, p < 0.01) was detected. high, but unchanged, resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol, low resistance to mecillinam (resistance 3%, intermediate 3%), and to em ...200717985817
outbreaks of shigellosis in denmark and australia associated with imported baby corn, august 2007--final summary.the recently reported concurrent outbreaks of shigella sonnei infections in denmark and australia have been found to be linked to a common baby corn packing house in thailand via trace-back of the distribution chain. distribution records indicated that three additional countries received affected product from the implicated thai packing house during the period of potential contamination. these countries were notified through the world health organization's international food safety authorities n ...200717991373
cross-border investigation of a shigella sonnei outbreak in a group of norwegian tourists after a trip to early september 2006, the norwegian institute of public health was alerted to an outbreak of shigella sonnei infections (shigellosis) among 23 norwegian passengers who had taken a bus tour from kirkenes, norway to murmansk, russia. the trip lasted from 27 to 31 august, and the group stayed in various hotels and visited several restaurants in both kirkenes and murmansk during this period. stool samples from three ill passengers yielded s. sonnei; an additional 10 passengers had gastrointestina ...200717991389
acute gastrointestinal infection, respiratory illness, and noncombat injury among us military personnel during operation bright star 2005, in northern the fall 2005, approximately 7,500 us military personnel participated in an exercise in the egyptian desert. the epidemiology of disease and noncombat injury among deployed troops is important in the context of assessing current mitigation strategies and the development of future ones.200717995535
inactivation of shigella boydii 18 idph and listeria monocytogenes scott a with power ultrasound at different acoustic energy densities and temperatures.the effect of acoustic energy density (aed) on inactivation of shigella boydii 18 idph and listeria monocytogenes scott a in a cell suspension was studied at sublethal temperatures and at aeds of 0.49, 0.85, and 1.43 w/ml. the effect of temperature on ultrasonic inactivation of l. monocytogenes scott a at 35, 50, and 65 degrees c was examined at an aed of 1.43 w/ml. increasing aed increased the rate of inactivation for both s. boydii and l. monocytogenes. the destruction of s. boydii and l. mono ...200717995776
evaluating burkholderia pseudomallei bip proteins as vaccines and bip antibodies as detection agents.burkholderia pseudomallei is a biothreat agent and an important natural pathogen, causing melioidosis in humans and animals. a type iii secretion system (ttss-3) has been shown to be critical for virulence. because ttss components from other pathogens have been used successfully as diagnostic agents and as experimental vaccines, it was investigated whether this was the case for bipb, bipc and bipd, components of b. pseudomallei's ttss-3. the sequences of bipb, bipc and bipd were found to be high ...200817995960
bacterial and fungal infections among diagnostic laboratory workers: evaluating the risks.accidental infections acquired in the laboratory environment are not reportable in a formal forum outside the institution, and therefore, there is little opportunity to evaluate such occurrences and learn from them. we evaluated voluntary responses from 88 facilities, 53 large hospitals (>200 beds) or academic institutions, 32 smaller facilities (<200 beds), and 3 national reference diagnostic laboratories. thirty-eight of the laboratories (43%), 15 large and 23 small facilities, reported no kno ...200817997259
enteropathogen resource integration center (eric): bioinformatics support for research on biodefense-relevant enterobacteria.eric, the enteropathogen resource integration center (, is a new web portal serving as a rich source of information about enterobacteria on the niaid established list of select agents related to biodefense-diarrheagenic escherichia coli, shigella spp., salmonella spp., yersinia enterocolitica and yersinia pestis. more than 30 genomes have been completely sequenced, many more exist in draft form and additional projects are underway. these organisms are increasingly the focus of st ...200817999997
priming of cd4+ t cells with porin of shigella dysenteriae activates the cells toward type 1 polarization.macrophages treated with porin of shigella dysenteriae were potent stimulators of naive t(h) cells since the porin-pulsed macrophages strongly proliferated the t cells and up-regulated the activation molecules cd69 and cd25 on cd4(+) t cells in allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. immunization of c57bl/6 mice with porin selectively induced the intracellular expression and release of ifn-gamma and had no effect on il-4 expression. in parallel to the predominant release of the t(h)1 cytokine ifn-g ...200818003602
shiga toxin 1 induces apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in human monocytic cells.shiga toxins (stxs) expressed by the enteric pathogens shigella dysenteriae 1 and enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli are potent protein synthesis inhibitors. shiga toxins have also been shown to induce apoptosis in epithelial, endothelial and monocytic cells. the precise relationship between protein synthesis inhibition and induction of apoptosis is not known. we show that stimulation of the myelogenous leukaemia cell line thp-1 with purified stx1 induced the endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress r ...200818005243
type iii secretion effectors of the ipah family are e3 ubiquitin ligases.many bacteria pathogenic for plants or animals, including shigella spp., which is responsible for shigellosis in humans, use a type iii secretion apparatus to inject effector proteins into host cells. effectors alter cell signaling and host responses induced upon infection; however, their precise biochemical activities have been elucidated in very few cases. utilizing saccharomyces cerevisiae as a surrogate host, we show that the shigella effector ipah9.8 interrupts pheromone response signaling ...200718005683
microbial pathogen-induced necrotic cell death mediated by the inflammasome components cias1/cryopyrin/nlrp3 and asc.cryopyrin (cias1, nlrp3) and asc are components of the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex required for caspase-1 activation and cytokine il-1beta production. cias1 mutations underlie autoinflammation characterized by excessive il-1beta secretion. disease-associated cryopyrin also causes a program of necrosis-like cell death in macrophages, the mechanistic details of which are unknown. we find that patient monocytes carrying disease-associated cias1 mutations exhibit excessive necrosis-like dea ...200718005730
bacteriological and antigenic analysis of shigella paradysenteriae sonne isolated from 9 cases. 193218013462
relationship of shigella alkalescens to other members of the shigella group. 193418013950
comparative efficiency of plating media for the isolation of shigella dysenteriae. 194118015418
study of atypical enteric organisms of the shigella group. 194218015593
isolation of shigella paradysenteriae type p288 of boyd from a case of acute diarrhea. 194418016092
distribution of shigella in india as determined by spot agglutination with absorbed sera. 194518016276
occurrence of shigella types in the military population of the southeastern united states-1943 and 1944. 194618016293
observations concerning the growth of three species of shigella on bismuth sulfite agar. 194618016321
wartime army medical laboratory activities: development of shigella typing by antigenic analysis. 194718016561
contribution of the sitabcd, mnth, and feob metal transporters to the virulence of avian pathogenic escherichia coli o78 strain chi7122.the roles of sitabcd, mnth, and feob metal transporters in the virulence of avian pathogenic escherichia coli (apec) o78 strain chi7122 were assessed using isogenic mutants in chicken infection models. in a single-strain infection model, compared to chi7122, the deltasit strain demonstrated reduced colonization of the lungs, liver, and spleen. complementation of the deltasit strain restored virulence. in a coinfection model, compared to the virulent apec strain, the deltasit strain demonstrated ...200818025097
secretory iga mediates bacterial translocation to dendritic cells in mouse peyer's patches with restriction to mucosal addition to fulfilling its function of immune exclusion at mucosal surfaces, secretory iga (siga) ab exhibits the striking feature to adhere selectively to m cells in the mouse and human intestinal peyer's patches (pps). subsequent uptake drives the siga ab to dendritic cells (dcs), which become partially activated. using freshly isolated mouse dcs, we found that the interaction with siga was tissue and dc subtype dependent. only dcs isolated from pps and mesenteric lymph nodes interacted wit ...200718025221
[in process citation].oral delivery of vaccines results in these being taken up by specialised microfold epithelial cells covering peyer's patches of the gastrointestinal tract, therefore stimulating regulatory t cells and surface iga positive (siga+) b cells. t helper cells can be divided into 2 subsets, type 1 (t(h)1) and type 2 (t(h)2), according to their function and the cytokines they secrete. t(h)1 cytokines such as interleukin (il)-2, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-beta (tnfbeta) elicit activation ...199718031087
antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanisms in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world and infections with these organisms occur more frequently than do infections due to salmonella species, shigella species, or escherichia coli 0157:h7. the incidence of human campylobacter infections has increased markedly in both developed and developing countries worldwide and, more significantly, so has the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant campylobacte ...200718031331
the distribution of insertion sequences in the genome of shigella flexneri strain 2457t.shigella flexneri, which causes shigellosis in humans, evolved from escherichia coli. the sequencing of shigella genomes has revealed that a large number of insertion sequence (is) elements (over 200 elements) reside in the genome. although the presence of these elements has been noted previously and summarized, more detailed analyses are required to understand their evolutionary significance. here, the genome of s. flexneri strain 2457t is used to investigate the spatial distribution of is copi ...200718031340
saccharomyces boulardii interferes with shigella pathogenesis by postinvasion signaling events.saccharomyces boulardii is gaining in popularity as a treatment for a variety of diarrheal diseases as well as inflammatory bowel disease. this study was designed to examine the effect of this yeast on infection by shigella flexneri, a highly infectious and human host-adapted enteric pathogen. we investigated key interactions between the bacteria and host cells in the presence of the yeast in addition to a number of host responses including proinflammatory events and markers. although the presen ...200818032477
an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing shigella sonnei at a day care nursery in sakai city, 2006. 200718032848
treatment of reactive arthritis: a practical guide.abstractreactive arthritis follows infections of the urogenital or enteric tract with bacteriasuch as chlamydia, yersinia, shigella, salmonella or campylobacter. typically,one knee or ankle are affected for weeks to several months, with up to 20% ofpatients experiencing a chronic course of more than 1 year. the acute arthritis is treated nonspecifically with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatorydrugs (nsaids), local measures such as arthrocentesis, cold pads and rest of theaffected joint. if the trigge ...200018034510
antibacterial activity directed isolation of compounds from punica granatum.chemical investigation of the methanolic extract of pomegranate fruit following antibacterial activity directed isolation led to the isolation of pelargonidin-3-galactose, cyanidin-3-glucose, gallic acid, quercetin, and myricetin. all these compounds exhibited substantial activity against species of corynebacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, bacillus subtilis, shigella, salmonella, vibrio cholera, and escherichia coli. however, all these compounds were more active against gram-positive species ...200718034726
synthesis and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of novel quinazolinones.a simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology for regioselective alkylation of exocyclic nitrogen of cyclic amidines was developed and novel n-alkylated 3,4-dihydropyrazino [2,1-b] quinazolin-6-ones were prepared. although none of the molecules tested have any specific anti-quorum sensing (-qs) activity, our result validates the growth tests devised to control the bias of the anti-qs tests. among the molecules studied, compound 2b exhibits interesting activity against the gram-negative b ...200718035826
[characteristic of the etiologic structure of acute enteric infections in adults based on the data from infectious diseases hospital].study of the etiologic spectrum of sporadic cases of causative agents of acute enteric infections (aei) in 753 patients aged 15-85 years old using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was performed in the infectious diseases hospital during 12 months. it was shown that detection of the causative agents of aei by pcr was 2.2 times more effective than routine microbiologic diagnostics supplemented with test of feces on rotavirus by elisa method and allowed to detect etiologic agent in 54.3% of the pati ...200718038539
changing patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella serotypes isolated from children with acute diarrhea in manipal, south india, a 5 year study.this study was carried out to determine the current pattern of shigella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance in children with acute gastroenteritis in manipal, south india. a total of 1,200 stool samples were collected from april 2001 to may 2006 in children suffering from acute gastroenteritis attending the out-patient department of pediatrics at kasturba hospital, manipal, south india. these samples were cultured for enteric pathogens. the isolates were confirmed to be shigella by bio ...200718041303
environmental stress regulates shigella virulence: interplay between anerobiosis and iron acquisition. 200718041901
muramylpeptide shedding modulates cell sensing of shigella flexneri.bacterial infections trigger the activation of innate immunity through the interaction of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) with pattern recognition molecules (prms). the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (nod) proteins are intracellular prms that recognize muramylpeptides contained in peptidoglycan (pgn) of bacteria. it is still unclear how nod1 physically interacts with pgn, a structure internal to the gram-negative bacterial envelope. to contribute to the understanding of ...200818042252
parenteral long-acting amoxicillin reduces intestinal bacterial community diversity in piglets even 5 weeks after the administration.we investigated the long-term effects of a single intramuscular administration of amoxicillin (15 mg kg(-1)) 1 day after birth, on piglet intestinal microbiota. animals received no creep feed before weaning on day 28 of age. for the next 11 days, the piglets received a wheat-barley-based diet. colon digesta samples were collected on day 39 and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of pcr-amplified 16s rrna gene fragments. dgge fingerprint diversity indices differed between ...200718043627
culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of clostridiales in crohn's disease involving the ileum.intestinal bacteria are implicated increasingly as a pivotal factor in the development of crohn's disease, but the specific components of the complex polymicrobial enteric environment driving the inflammatory response are unresolved. this study addresses the role of the ileal mucosa-associated microflora in crohn's disease. a combination of culture-independent analysis of bacterial diversity (16s rdna library analysis, quantitative pcr and fluorescence in situ hybridization) and molecular charac ...200718043660
[acute and prolonged infectious diarrheas, of microbial and viral etiology: methods of clinical and microbiological diagnosis].the authors relate clinical-microbiological criteria for a rational diagnosis of acute and prolonged enteritis, distinguishing between home and imported diarrheas. during 2005, 381 subjects (192 children and 189 adults) with acute diarrhea and 110 subjects (16 children and 94 adults) with prolonged diarrhea were examined. in the first group salmonella prevailed in 11.1% of cases (10.9% among children and 11.1% among adults); campylobacter in 9.2% (respectively 8.9% and 9.5%); other bacteria were ...200718044404
cloning, expression, purification, characterization, crystallization and x-ray diffraction of bifunctional pyrimidine deaminase/reductase from shigella flexneri 2a.bifunctional pyrimidine deaminase/reductase (ribd) plays an important role during riboflavin biosynthesis in many microorganisms. the 40.4 kda ribd from shigella flexneri 2a has been cloned, expressed, purified and characterized. three crystals of ribd have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 291 k using peg 20k or nacl as precipitant. the ribd crystal using peg 20k as precipitant diffracted to 2.5a.200718045236
shiga toxin induces tubular membrane invaginations for its uptake into cells.clathrin seems to be dispensable for some endocytic processes and, in several instances, no cytosolic coat protein complexes could be detected at sites of membrane invagination. hence, new principles must in these cases be invoked to account for the mechanical force driving membrane shape changes. here we show that the gb3 (glycolipid)-binding b-subunit of bacterial shiga toxin induces narrow tubular membrane invaginations in human and mouse cells and model membranes. in cells, tubule occurrence ...200718046403
comparing invasive and non-invasive of isolated shigella flexneri by electron microscopy of cell culture, sds-page and congo red method.the aim of this study was to compare invasive and non-invasive strains of shigella flexneri isolated from tehran by a 120 kda protein band by sds-page, electron microscopy of cell culture and congo red dye methods.200718051704
the versatility of shigella effectors.when shigella infect the intestinal epithelium, they deliver several effectors through the type iii secretion system (t3ss) into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm, where they can mimic and usurp host cellular functions or subvert host-cell signalling pathways and the immune response. although bacterial strategies and mechanisms of infection vary greatly, recent studies of shigella effectors have revealed that shigella possess a highly evolved strategy for infection.200818059288
structural insights into the enzymatic mechanism of the pathogenic mapk phosphothreonine lyase.the ospf family of phosphothreonine lyase, including spvc from salmonella, irreversibly inactivates the dual-phosphorylated host mapks (pt-x-py) through beta elimination. we determined crystal structures of spvc and its complex with a phosphopeptide substrate. spvc adopts a unique fold of alpha/beta type. the disordered n terminus harbors a canonical d motif for mapk substrate docking. the enzyme-substrate complex structure indicates that recognition of the phosphotyrosine followed by insertion ...200718060821
[expression profile analysis of host hela cells invasived by shigella flexneri 2a].the changes of genes expression in hela cell during the invasion with shigella species for 1h and 3h were analyzed by cdna microarrays. the data showed that the expression levels of 752 genes were altered twice or greater as compared with the control 509 of them were up-regulated, and 306 were down-regulated. it was supposed that some signal pathways in hela cell were activated, then many genes were induced, and at last comprehensive cell responses were produced, so that hela cell could prevent ...200718062254
[construction of prophylactic recombinant hpv58-attenuated shigella vector live vaccine and evaluation of its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model].to construct the prophylactic recombinant hpv58-attenuated shigella vector live vaccine and evaluate its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model.200718062891
[identification of closely related bacteria via phylogenetic methods].to differentiate closely related pathogenic bacteria via phylogenetic method on the basis of gyrb gene sequences.200718067224
activities of the frog skin peptide, ascaphin-8 and its lysine-substituted analogs against clinical isolates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producing bacteria.extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing gram-negative bacteria are becoming increasingly prevalent and their antibiotic resistance necessitates novel therapeutic intervention. ascaphin-8 is a cationic alpha-helical peptide that shows broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but is also toxic to human erythrocytes (lc(50)= 55 microm). this study assesses the activity of ascaphin-8, and a series of l-lysine-substituted analogs, against a range of clinical isolates of esbl-producing bacteria ...200818068868
quinolone resistance among shigella spp. isolated from travellers returning from india.among 200 isolates of shigella from patients with travellers' diarrhoea, 12 isolates (four isolated in 1995-2000 and eight in 2001-2004) exhibited quinolone resistance. nine of these isolates originated from india. these resistant isolates had at least one amino-acid substitution in gyra. quinolone resistance is increasing in shigella spp. causing travellers' diarrhoea, and particularly among isolates causing diarrhoea in travellers returning from india.200818076667
effects of a human milk-derived human milk fortifier on the antibacterial actions of human compare the effects of a human breastmilk-derived fortifier on the antibacterial activity of milk obtained from lactating mothers delivering prematurely with the effects of a powdered fortifier on the same milk.200718081457
isolation and purification of enterocin e-760 with broad antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.strain nrrl b-30745, isolated from chicken ceca and identified as enterococcus durans, enterococcus faecium, or enterococcus hirae, was initially identified as antagonistic to campylobacter jejuni. the isolate produced a 5,362-da bacteriocin (enterocin) that inhibits the growth of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis, s. enterica serovar choleraesuis, s. enterica serovar typhimurium, s. enterica serovar gallinarum, escherichia coli o157:h7, yersinia enterocolitica, citrobacter freundii, klebs ...200818086839
systemic pharmacokinetics of rifaximin in volunteers with shigellosis.rifaximin is an oral antibiotic indicated for treatment of traveler's diarrhea. rifaximin pharmacokinetics were evaluated in individuals challenged with shigella flexneri. peak plasma rifaximin concentrations were low after nine consecutive doses, and no accumulation was observed. rifaximin serum levels were minimal and similar to those previously reported in studies of healthy volunteers.200818086855
antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella flexneri and s. dysenteriae isolated from stool specimens of patients with bloody diarrhoea in mwanza, tanzania.this study was conducted to determine frequency and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella species isolated from stool specimens collected from patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea in mwanza city, tanzania. the study was carried out from october 2004 to october 2005 and involved patients attending sekou toure regional hospital and butimba health centre. bacteriological cultures were done at the national institute for medical research laboratory. a total of 489 patients (median ...200718087897
characterization of probiotic escherichia coli isolates with a novel pan-genome microarray.microarrays have recently emerged as a novel procedure to evaluate the genetic content of bacterial species. so far, microarrays have mostly covered single or few strains from the same species. however, with cheaper high-throughput sequencing techniques emerging, multiple strains of the same species are rapidly becoming available, allowing for the definition and characterization of a whole species as a population of genomes--the 'pan-genome'.200718088402
antimicrobial activity of an endophytic xylaria sp.yx-28 and identification of its antimicrobial compound endophytic xylaria sp., having broad antimicrobial activity, was isolated and characterized from ginkgo biloba l. from the culture extracts of this fungus, a bioactive compound p3 was isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectrometry spectral data. the compound showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro against staphylococcus aureus [minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) ...200818092158
phenotypic and molecular characterization of tem-116 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase produced by a shigella flexneri clinical isolate from chickens.extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) produced by a clinical isolate of shigella flexneri from chickens were detected with confirmatory phenotypic tests of the clinical and laboratory standards institute, and minimum inhibitory concentrations of several antibacterial drugs against the isolate were determined by the twofold dilution method. the genotype and subtype of the esbl-producing s. flexneri isolate were identified by pcr amplifying of esbl genes and dna sequencing analysis. the result ...200818093137
microbial survey of selected ontario-grown fresh fruits and vegetables.recent produce-related outbreaks have been receiving heightened media coverage, which has increased public concern toward the safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. in response, the microbial contamination of ontario-grown fresh fruits and vegetables was evaluated by the ontario ministry of agriculture, food and rural affairs during the summer of 2004. prior to this survey, information specific to the microbial contamination of ontario-produced fruits and vegetables was limited. this nonregulato ...200718095445
effect of hand wash agents on controlling the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from hands to food.the goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of two hand wash regimens in reducing transient bacteria on the skin following a single hand wash and the subsequent transfer of the bacteria to a ready-to-eat food item, freshly cut cantaloupe melon. the number of bacteria recovered from hands and the quantity transferred to the melon were significantly less following the use of an antibacterial soap compared with plain soap. the antimicrobial soap achieved > 3-log reductions versus esc ...200718095447
a study of shigella isolated in india and burma, with special reference to two previously undescribed sero-types. 194818106197
outbreak of shigella schmitzii infection in men and apes. 194918109522
the specific antigens of variants of shigella has been shown that phase variation of sh. sonnei is accompanied by changes in morphology and antigenic structure. two mutants of the phase i organism (ii(s) and ii(r)), which were studied, elaborate somatic antigens which are immunologically identical. the purified lipocarbohydrate-protein antigens of the phase i and ii(s) microorganisms are chemically similar yet immunologically distinct and specific. by inference the same should hold true of the antigen of ii(r), but it has not yet been in ...194918110886
studies in dysentery vaccination; primary vaccination of children with polyvalent vaccines of shigella. 194918117857
studies in dysentery vaccination; response of children to booster injections of shigella vaccines. 194918117858
the relation of shigella type-specificity and susceptibility to antibiotic-producing strains of escherichia coli. 194918117864
the relationship between ph tolerance, virulence, and proteolytic enzymes in bacteria; shigella. 194918125676
[type-determination of shigella paradysenteriae (flexner) and how to distinguish them from similar bacteria]. 194818126933
a new type of phase variation in the 103 race of shigella paradysenteriae. 194918127625
[desoxycholate-citrate medium, leifsons medium, in the diagnosis of salmonella and shigella]. 194918128730
an antibiotic substance produced by a member of the shigella group. 194918133623
a field trial of shigella flexneri iii vaccine; serum agglutination studies. 194918137145
studies on bacteriophage; the relationship between the somatic antigens of shigella sonnei and their susceptibilitv to bacterial viruses.phase i and phase ii sh. sonnei exhibit differences in their susceptibility to the t series of bacteriophages. both microorganisms are lysed by t(2) and t(6), but only the phase ii bacillus is lysed by t(3), t(4), and t(7). lysis of the phase i or phase ii bacillus by t(2) or t(6) is not inhibited by the homologous type-specific antigen. in the presence of an appropriate cofactor, however, the lysis of phase ii sh. sonnei by t(3), t(4), and t(7) is specifically inhibited by the homologous somati ...194918137298
growth inhibitory effect on shigella dysenteriae which occurs with some batches of nutrient agar and is associated with the production of peroxide. 194918138171
study on toxins and antigens of shigella dysenteriae; active protection of rabbits with whole organisms and fractions of shigella dysenteriae. 194918139169
treatment of shigella enteritis with oral streptomycin; a report of 34 cases. 194918139543
the relationship of shigella dispar to certain coliform bacteria. 194918142351
identification of the nadler type (r. ettinger-tulczinska, 1943) with shigella sp. q 1167 (large-sachs) and the presence of shigella paradysenteriae boyd iii & v (flexner xi & xiii) in israel. 194918145345
field trial of shigella flexneri iii vaccine; background, scope, and organization of the program. 194918146106
study on toxins and antigens of shigella dysenteriae; toxicity and antigenicity of whole organisms and various fractions of shigella dysenteriae. 194918150948
shigella nomenclature. 194918150949
involvement of rna-binding protein hfq in the post-transcriptional regulation of inve gene expression in shigella sonnei.the temperature-dependent regulation of shigella virulence genes is believed to be accomplished at the transcriptional stage by the regulators virf and inve. several lines of evidence herein described indicate that post-transcriptional regulation of inve expression plays a key role in the temperature-dependent regulation of virulence gene expression: (i) a considerable amount of inve mrna continues to be transcribed under low temperature conditions, where the production of inve protein is tightl ...200818156173
[clinical characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing shigella sonnei infection outbreaked in chungju area.].an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing shigella sonnei enteritis, especially in pediatric populations, was unprecedented not only in korea, but also throughout the world in the past. this study was intended to devise a management guideline for shigellosis caused by an esbl-producing strain based on analysis of the clinical manifestations and response to therapy.200618156720
direct detection of shigella flexneri and salmonella typhimurium in human feces by real-time pcr.we have established a sybr green-based realtime pcr method using anydirect solution, which enhances pcr from whole blood, for direct amplification of the vira gene of shigella flexneri and the inva gene of salmonella typhimurium from human feces without prior dna purification. when we compared the efficiency of conventional or realtime pcr amplification of the vira and inva genes from the supernatant of boiled feces supplemented with s. flexneri and s. typhimurium in the presence or absence of a ...200718156776
outbreak of acute gastroenteritis of unknown etiology caused by contaminated drinking water in a rural village in austria, august august 2006 a physician from a rural village reported an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. an investigation was undertaken in order to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, the source of infection and to prevent further disease. this is the first published outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by contaminated drinking water in austria.200718157605
surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in salmonella, shigella and vibrio cholerae in latin america and the caribbean: a collaborative project. 200018159288
two or more enteropathogens are associated with diarrhoea in mexican children.diarrhoeal diseases constitute a major public health problem, particularly in the developing world, where the rate of mortality and morbidity is very high. the purpose of this study was to conduct a 2 years and 3 months study in order to determine the prevalence of five enteropathogen diarrheogenic agents in mexico city.200718162140
a comparative synteny map of burkholderia species links large-scale genome rearrangements to fine-scale nucleotide variation in prokaryotes.genome rearrangement events, including inversions and translocations, are frequently observed across related microbial species, but the impact of such events on functional diversity is unclear. to clarify this relationship, we compared 4 members of the gram-negative burkholderia family (burkholderia pseudomallei, burkholderia mallei, burkholderia thailandensis, and burkholderia cenocepacia) and identified a core set of 2,590 orthologs present in all 4 species (metagenes). the metagenes were orga ...200818162473
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