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emergence of shiga toxin 1 genes within shigella dysenteriae type 4 isolates from travelers returning from the island of hispañola.shiga toxins are produced by shigella dysenteriae type 1 and certain strains of escherichia coli. three cases of shiga toxin-producing s. dysenteriae type 4 were identified among travelers to the island of hispañola between 2002 and 2005. clinical and public health practitioners should be aware of this newly identified strain.200717556630
clinical trials of shigella vaccines: two steps forward and one step back on a long, hard road.more than 50 years of research has yielded numerous shigella vaccine candidates that have exemplified both the promise of vaccine-induced prevention of shigellosis and the impediments to developing a safe and effective vaccine for widespread use, a goal that has yet to be attained. this review discusses the most advanced strategies for shigella vaccine development, the immune responses that are elicited following disease or vaccination, the factors that have accelerated or impeded shigella vacci ...200717558427
screening methods used to determine the anti-microbial properties of aloe vera inner gel.the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains is a growing problem and is an important concern for patients, physicians, healthcare managers, and policymakers as it results in poorer health and economic outcomes. this has led to an urgent global call for new antimicrobial drugs, particularly from natural resources. we have been studying the antimicrobial properties of the inner leaf gel component of aloe barbadensis miller and have used a number of different, simple in vitro assays to ...200717560318
the inner gel component of aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells.the present study was carried out to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the inner leaf gel component of aloe barbadensis miller. a simple in vitro assay was designed to determine the effect of the inner gel on bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, namely tnf-alpha and il-1 beta, from peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with shigella flexneri or lps. this report describes the suppression of both cytokines with a freeze-dried inner gel powder and a commercial health dri ...200717560326
novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in shigella sonnei. 200717561568
antimicrobial activity of a series of thiosemicarbazones and their zn(ii) and pd(ii) complexes.thirty-four thiosemicarbazones and s-alkyl thiosemicarbazones, and some of their zn(ii) and pd(ii) complexes were obtained and purified to investigate antimicrobial activity. mic values of the compounds were determined by the disc diffusion method against escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhi, shigella flexneri, staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, and candida albicans. the thiosemicarbazones show antibacterial and antifungal effec ...200717571790
preparation and characterization of translocator/chaperone complexes and their component proteins from shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri causes a severe form of bacillary dysentery also known as shigellosis. onset of shigellosis requires bacterial invasion of colonic epithelial cells which is initiated by the delivery of translocator and effector proteins to the host cell membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, by the shigella type iii secretion system (ttss). the shigella translocator proteins, ipab and ipac, form a pore complex in the host cell membrane to facilitate effector delivery; however, prior to their se ...200717571858
dna sequencing of a pathogenicity-related plasmid of an avian septicemic escherichia coli strain.a 43-mda conjugative plasmid isolated from an avian septicemic escherichia coli (apec) strain possessing genes related to the adhesion and invasion capacities of in vitro-cultured cells was sequenced. the results demonstrated that the 43-mda plasmid harbors bacterial pathogenicity-related sequences which probably allow the wild-type pathogenic strain to adhere to and invade tissues and to cause septicemia in poultry. the existence of homology sequences to sequences belonging to other human patho ...200717573664
serotyping, pcr, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of nepal.to study the occurrence and diversity of salmonella serovars in urban water supply systems of nepal.200717576218
tumor-specific colonization, tissue distribution, and gene induction by probiotic escherichia coli nissle 1917 in live mice.systemic administration of microorganisms into tumor-bearing mice revealed preferential accumulation in tumors in comparison to clearance in organs such as spleen and liver. here we compared the efficiency of tumor-specific colonization of pathogenic salmonella typhimurium strains 14028 and sl1344 to the enteroinvasive escherichia coli 4608-58 strain and to the attenuated salmonella flexneri 2a sc602 strain, as well as to the uropathogenic e. coli cft073, the non-pathogenic e. coli top10, and th ...200717448724
dna microarray-based identification of serogroups and virulence gene patterns of escherichia coli isolates associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and edema disease.escherichia coli strains causing postweaning diarrhea (pwd) and edema disease (ed) in pigs are limited to a number of serogroups, with o8, o45, o138, o139, o141, o147, o149, and o157 being the most commonly reported worldwide. in this study, a dna microarray based on the o-antigen-specific genes of all 8 e. coli serogroups, as well as 11 genes encoding adhesion factors and exotoxins associated with pwd and ed, was developed for the identification of related serogroups and virulence gene patterns ...200717449692
a deafness-associated mutant human connexin 26 improves the epithelial barrier in vitro.a large proportion of recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss is due to mutations in the gjb2 gene encoding connexin 26 (cx26), a component of a gap junction. within different ethnic groups there are specific common recessive mutations, each with a relatively high carrier frequency, suggesting the possibility of heterozygous advantage. carriers of the r143w gjb2 allele, the most prevalent in the african population, present with a thicker epidermis than noncarriers. in this study, we show that (r143w ...200717581693
genetic structure of the nada and nadb antivirulence loci in shigella spp.comparison of nada and nadb in 14 shigella strains and enteroinvasive escherichia coli versus e. coli showed that at least one locus is altered in all strains. these observations explain the characteristic nicotinic acid auxotrophy of shigella organisms and are consistent with the previously identified antivirulence nature of these genes for these pathogens.200717586625
[identification and characterization of diarrheal microorganisms].acute diarrhea belongs to group of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms - salmonella, shigella and pathogenic strains of e.coli. despite the prophylactic measurements morbidity rate of diarrheal diseases remains very high especially in children and in traveling persons. among the main causes of illness is emerging of new strains of microorganisms, new serological versions of already known pathogens or antibiotic resistant strains of these pathogens. struggle against the resistant forms o ...200717595460
[study of antibiotic sensitivity of diarrheal microorganisms].as it was shown previously, detailed bacteriological analyses of 159 strains, among them museum and newly isolated strains of diarrheal patients from various clinics and bacteriology laboratories of tbilisi was carried out. study of antibiotic susceptibility of 52 strains of salmonella groups a, b, c, d, e and 42 shigella strains, among them 30 shigella flexneri and 12 shigella sonnei strains to 20 antibiotics and 1 chemical preparation was performed. 63% of salmonella strains were susceptible t ...200717595461
analysis of the aerobactin and ferric hydroxamate uptake systems of yersinia pestis.yersinia pestis genomes contain genes homologous to the aerobactin receptor (iuta) and biosynthetic genes (iucabcd) as well as the ferric hydroxamate uptake system (fhucdb) of escherichia coli. however, iuca is disrupted by a frameshift mutation. an e. coli strain carrying the cloned y. pestis aerobactin region was unable to produce aerobactin, but could use the siderophore as an iron source. repair of the frameshift mutation in iuca did not allow aerobactin production in e. coli or y. pestis. i ...200717600077
nada and nadb of shigella flexneri 5a are antivirulence loci responsible for the synthesis of quinolinate, a small molecule inhibitor of shigella pathogenicity.the evolution of bacterial pathogens from commensal organisms involves virulence gene acquisition followed by pathoadaptation to the new host, including inactivation of antivirulence loci (avl). avl are core ancestral genes whose expression is incompatible with the pathogenic lifestyle. previous studies identified cada (encoding lysine decarboxylase) as an avl of shigella spp. in this study, avl of shigella were identified by examining a phenotypic difference from its non-pathogenic ancestor, es ...200717600080
introduction to united states department of agriculture vetnet: status of salmonella and campylobacter databases from 2004 through 2005.in 2003 the united states department of agriculture established usda vetnet. it was modeled after pulsenet usa, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. the objectives of usda vetnet are: to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system (narms); examine vetnet and pulsenet pfge patterns; and use the data for surveillance and investigation of suspe ...200717600492
genetic relatedness among isolates of shigella sonnei carrying class 2 integrons in tehran, iran, 2002-2003.shigella spp. are major cause of diarrhoeal disease in both developing and developed countries. shigella sonnei is the serogroup of shigella most frequently responsible for sporadic and epidemic enteritis in developed countries. in recent years the emergence and spread of s. sonnei biotype g carrying class 2 integron have been frequently reported in many countries. recently, s. sonnei has been reported as the prevalent serogroup of shigella in iran. the present study was carried out to investiga ...200717587439
site-specific modification of shigella flexneri virf mrna by trna-guanine transglycosylase in vitro.shigella flexneri is an enteropathogen responsible for severe dysentery in humans. virf is a key transcriptional regulator that activates the expression of the downstream virulence factors required for cellular invasion and cell-to-cell spread of this pathogen. there are several environmental factors that induce the translation of virf including temperature, ph, osmolarity and post-transcriptional rna modification. durand and colleagues (vacc, a virulence-associated chromosomal locus of shigella ...200717626052
core-linked lps expression of shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 o-antigen in live salmonella typhi vaccine vector ty21a: preclinical evidence of immunogenicity and protection.shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae 1) causes severe shigellosis that is typically associated with high mortality. antibodies against shigella serotype-specific o-polysaccharide (o-ps) have been shown to be host protective. in this study, the rfb locus and the rfp gene with their cognate promoter regions were pcr-amplified from s. dysenteriae 1, cloned, and sequenced. deletion analysis showed that eight rfb orfs plus rfp are necessary for biosynthesis of this o-ps. a tandemly-linked ...200717629369
[prevention and treatment of acute diarrhea in infants].the prognosis of acute diarrhoea in infants is most often satisfactory in industrialized countries. however, it has been estimated that 10 to 15 children die every year in france from acute dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. in spite of an increasing use over the least few years, oral rehydration solutions (ors) are used in only 70% of infants presenting with acute diarrhoea. the use of homemade ors, plain water or fizzy drink should be strictly avoided. in case of acute diarrhoea there is no i ...200717629685
in vitro activity of cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefatrizine and cefpirome in presence of essential and trace elements.evidences supporting the introduction of metallic elements in several biological processes are rapidly accumulating. likewise, many drugs possess modified toxicological and pharmacological properties when in the form of metal complexes. in order to ascertain the role of various essential and trace element complexation on the antibacterial activity of various cephalosporins, the synergistic or antagonistic behavior of cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefatrizine and cefpirome in presence of essential and ...200717604254
rapid and simultaneous quantitation of escherichia coli 0157:h7, salmonella, and shigella in ground beef by multiplex real-time pcr and immunomagnetic separation.the objective of this study was to establish a multiplex real-time pcr for the simultaneous quantitation of escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, and shigella. genomic dna for the real-time pcr was extracted by the boiling method. three sets of primers and corresponding taqman probes were designed to target these three pathogenic bacteria. multiplex real-time pcr was performed with taqman universal pcr master mix in an abi prism 7700 sequence detection system. final standard curves were calculat ...200717612065
pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of brazil.oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from june 1998 to march 1999, in the cananéia estuary, on the south coast of são paulo, brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. aeromonas spp., plesiomonas shigelloides, vibrio cholerae o1, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (mpn) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. the ...200717613090
prevalence of enterotoxigenic staphylococcus aureus and shigella spp. in some raw street vended indian foods.in india, the street food trade is a growing sector with its expansion linked with urbanisation and the need of urban populations for both employment and food. however, the microbiological status of popularly consumed raw street foods, general hygienic and vending practices are not known. we visited 75 vendors (50 having fixed stalls and 25 with mobile stalls) operating in three major locations: mandi (open market place), bus terminus and railway station in new delhi and patiala city. a total of ...200717616871
differences in the electrostatic surfaces of the type iii secretion needle proteins prgi, bsal, and mxih.gram-negative bacteria use a needle-like protein assembly, the type iii secretion apparatus, to inject virulence factors into target cells to initiate human disease. the needle is formed by the polymerization of approximately 120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. we previously reported the structure of the bsal needle monomer from burkholderia pseudomallei by nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy and others have determined the crystal structure o ...200717617421
distribution of serogroups and serotypes of multiple drug resistant shigella isolates.summary200717622331
[study on molecular epidemiology of shigella in hangzhou district during 1998 to 2005]. 200717649701
the two-faced role of cad genes in the virulence of pathogenic escherichia coli.in enterobacteria, acid stress induces expression of the cad system which is involved in maintaining intracellular ph at levels compatible with cell survival. despite its crucial role, the cad operon is silenced in shigella and in other pathogenic escherichia coli. in the present review, we will address the question of why and how the cad locus has been sacrificed for the sake of optimal expression of virulence traits.200717656072
anaerobic regulation of shigella flexneri virulence: arca regulates fur and iron acquisition genes.invasion and plaque formation in epithelial monolayers are routinely used to assess the virulence of shigella flexneri, a causative agent of dysentery. a modified plaque assay was developed to identify factors contributing to the virulence of s. flexneri under the anaerobic conditions present in the colon. this assay demonstrated the importance of the ferrous iron transport system feo, as well as the global transcription factors fur, arca, and fnr, for shigella plaque formation in anoxic environ ...200717660284
identification of minor inner-membrane components of the shigella type iii secretion system 'needle complex'.type iii secretion systems (t3sss or secretons) are central virulence factors of many gram-negative bacteria, used to inject protein effectors of virulence into eukaryotic host cells. their overall morphology, consisting of a cytoplasmic region, an inner- and outer-membrane section and an extracellular needle, is conserved in various species. a portion of the secreton, containing the transmembrane regions and needle, has been isolated biochemically and termed the 'needle complex' (nc). however, ...200717660405
the acid-resistance pathways of shigella flexneri 2457t.the stationary-phase acid-resistance pathways of shigella flexneri 2457t have not previously been studied. the two acid-resistance systems, the glutamate-dependent acid-resistance (gdar) and the oxidative pathways, reported elsewhere for escherichia coli and s. flexneri 3136, were both detected in s. flexneri 2457t. however, s. flexneri 2457t cells grown overnight under fermentative conditions and acid-shocked in minimal media in the absence of glutamate, an acid test often described as a negati ...200717660423
shigella flexneri phagosomal escape is independent of invasion.infections with salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and shigella flexneri result in mucosal inflammation in response to epithelial cell invasion and macrophage cytotoxicity. these processes are mediated by type iii secretion systems encoded in homologous virulence loci in the two species, namely, salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (spi-1), carried in the genome, and the shigella entry region (ser), carried in a large virulence plasmid. here we show that spi-1 can functionally complement a del ...200717664266
prevalence of bacterial pathogens in biofilms of drinking water distribution systems.water for human consumption is required to be free from any bacteria that might pose a health risk. the presence of biofilms in the drinking water distribution system may play a role in the presence of potential pathogens in the drinking water supply. ninety-five biofilm samples from various parts of south africa were tested for the presence of escherichia coli, aeromonas, pseudomonas, salmonella, shigella and vibrio spp. members of these genera were quantified by the three-tube most probable nu ...200717674571
genes under positive selection in escherichia coli.we used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of escherichia coli and shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. we find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the e. coli genome, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. st ...200717675366
recent gene conversions between duplicated glutamate decarboxylase genes (gada and gadb) in pathogenic escherichia coli.escherichia coli have evolved adaptive systems to resist strongly acidic habitats in part through the production of 2 biochemically identical isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (gad), encoded by the gada and gadb genes. these genes occur in e. coli and other members of the genospecies (e.g., shigella spp.) and originated as part of a genomic fitness island acquired early in escherichia evolution. the present duplicated gad loci are widely spaced on the e. coli chromosome, and the 2 genes are 97 ...200717675652
serum sperm antibodies after diarrhoeal diseases.the origin of 'natural' anti-sperm antibodies found in fertile humans, virgin girls, and boys before puberty, is quite obscure. one hypothetical mechanism relates their existence to inflammatory gastrointestinal entities: as a result of the disease, cross-reactive antibodies produced against gastrointestinal flora bind spermatozoa. to test this assumption, we evaluated the level of serum sperm antibodies after diarrhoeal infections. serum samples from 17 patients with shigellosis and 12 patients ...200717683470
escherichia coli, shigella and salmonella species in acute diarrhoea in hamedan, islamic republic of iran.this study investigated the frequency of escherichia col, shigella and salmonella species in stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea presenting to health centres in hamedan province, islamic republic of iran. from 144 samples, shigella strains were isolated in 17 cases (11.8%): 10 sh. flexneri, 3 sh. sonnei, 2 sh. boydii and 2 untyped strains. no salmonella strains were isolated. using molecular diagnostic methods, diarrheogenic e. coli were detected in 37 cases (25.7%), the majority were e ...200717684844
outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. part 1. description of the problem, methods, and agents involved.food workers in many settings have been responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks for decades, and there is no indication that this is diminishing. the committee on control of foodborne illnesses of the international association for food protection was tasked with collecting and evaluating any data on worker-associated outbreaks. a total of 816 reports with 80,682 cases were collected from events that occurred from 1927 until the first quarter of 2006. most of the outbreaks reviewed were from ...200717685355
postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: a long-term consequence of bacterial gastroenteritis.irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) is a commonly diagnosed disease characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms that may be associated with psychological illness and emotional problems. the prevalence rate worldwide for ibs ranges from 10 to 20% and is higher for women than for men. ibs imposes a substantial financial burden on both patients and employers because of increased medical costs and decreased work productivity. recent studies indicate that inflammatory processes involving the gastrointestin ...200717685356
reduced selection leads to accelerated gene loss in shigella.obligate pathogenic bacteria lose more genes relative to facultative pathogens, which, in turn, lose more genes than free-living bacteria. it was suggested that the increased gene loss in obligate pathogens may be due to a reduction in the effectiveness of purifying selection. less attention has been given to the causes of increased gene loss in facultative pathogens.200717686180
study of predominant bacterial antigens triggering antibody response in salmonella reactive arthritis: apropos of a case.reactive arthritis (rea) is a sterile arthritis triggered by distal mucosal infection, which suggests a contribution from bacterial products. the pathogenesis of rea is unclear. there are no international standards for the serological methods used to confirm rea. in the present work, we analyzed the predominant bacterial component that triggered an immune response in a 24-year-old woman with acute rea. the candidate bacterial trigger was investigated by measuring the antibacterial antibodies (al ...200717642539
diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli and other causes of childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study in children living in a wastewater-use area in hanoi, vietnam.a case-control study was conducted to identify the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in pre-school children in a suburban area of hanoi where the use of untreated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture is a common practice. stool specimens and clinical information were collected from 111 pairs of children with diarrhoea and healthy controls. a total of 73 cases (66 %) and 41 controls (36 %) had an enteric pathogen. the pathogens most often associated with diarrhoea were rotavirus (17 % of case ...200717644717
cross-species cluster co-conservation: a new method for generating protein interaction networks.co-conservation (phylogenetic profiles) is a well-established method for predicting functional relationships between proteins. several publicly available databases use this method and additional clustering strategies to develop networks of protein interactions (cluster co-conservation (ccc)). ccc has previously been limited to interactions within a single target species. we have extended ccc to develop protein interaction networks based on co-conservation between protein pairs across multiple sp ...200717803817
synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 7-(substituted)-aminomethyl-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives.gram-positive organisms have re-emerged as the major hospital pathogens, which make the unmet medical needs for antibacterial therapy even worse. in searching for potent agents against gram-positive pathogens, novel 7-(substituted)-aminomethyl-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities in vitro. many 7-monoarylaminomethyl derivatives exhibited high potency against gram-positive organisms compared to reference agents: vancomycin and p ...200717826097
identification of the mxih needle protein residues responsible for anchoring invasion plasmid antigen d to the type iii secretion needle tip.the pathogenesis of shigella flexneri requires a functional type iii secretion apparatus to serve as a conduit for injecting host-altering effector proteins into the membrane and cytoplasm of the targeted cell. the type iii secretion apparatus is composed of a basal body and an exposed needle that is an extended polymer of mxih with a 2.0-nm inner channel. invasion plasmid antigen d (ipad) resides at the tip of the needle to control type iii secretion. the atomic structures of mxih and ipad have ...200717827155
etiology of acute diarrhea in children and adults in tunis, tunisia, with emphasis on diarrheagenic escherichia coli: prevalence, phenotyping, and molecular epidemiology.a total of 271 stool specimens were collected from children (diarrheagenic, n = 115 and control, n = 54) and adults (diarrheagenic, n = 73 and control, n = 29) from tunis, tunisia, and processed to detect bacterial enteropathogens, parasites, and viruses. diarrheagenic escherichia coli (dec) were identified by their virulence genes (polymerase chain reaction) and adherence patterns (tissue culture assays). the most frequently isolated enteric pathogens from diarrheagenic children were enterotoxi ...200717827382
[analysis on the status of shigella spp antimicrobial resistance through data from the national shigellosis surveillance system in china, in 2005].the ministry of public health released the national surveillance project on shigellosis in august, 2005. this study was to reveal the antimicrobial resistance status of shigella isolates through the national shigellosis surveillance system in 2005 in china, so as to provide evidence for the development of surveillance, prevention and cure of shigellosis.200717850709
transcriptional profile induced by furazolidone treatment of shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for endemic shigellosis especially in developing countries. furazolidone, a nitrofuran derivative, is very effective against the infection with s. flexneri. to examine potential effects of furazolidone on this germ, a whole-genome dna microarray was constructed and transcriptional profiles of the responses to furazolidone were determined. the expressing data revealed adaptive responses of s. flexneri to oxidative stress induce ...200717851659
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and enteric bacterial pathogens among hospitalized hiv infected versus non-hiv infected patients with diarrhoea in southern india.a prevalence study on campylobacter jejuni and other enteric bacterial pathogens was carried out in 200 hiv infected and 200 non-hiv infected subjects with diarrhoeal symptoms at an aids hospital in southern india. diarrhoeal specimens were inoculated onto standard culture media as well as onto columbia and campylobacter blood agar media for c. jejuni isolation. all the c. jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using kirby-bauer's method. a significant difference in recover ...200717852888
on an invisible microbe antagonistic toward dysenteric bacilli: brief note by mr. f. d'herelle, presented by mr. roux. 1917. 200717855060
evaluation of shigellosis in a turkish children's hospital.the aim of the present study was to evaluate cases of shigella and determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of shigella species in central turkey.200717875081
close relation of the o-polysaccharide structure of escherichia coli o168 and revised structure of the o-polysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae type 4.the o-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of escherichia coli o168 and studied by chemical analyses and smith degradation along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopies. the following structure of the branched pentasaccharide repeating unit of the o-polysaccharide was established: [carbohydrate structure: see text] where 6-o-acetylation of glcnac is partial. reinvestigation of the o-polysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae type 4 established earlier showed it to have the same str ...200717880932
multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for molecular typing of shigella sonnei.a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (vntr) analysis (mlva) method was developed and evaluated for the subtyping of shigella sonnei isolates. a total of 26 vntr loci were identified by exploring the repeat sequence loci in the genomic sequences of s. sonnei strains ss046 and 53g and by testing 536 isolates that had previously been characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the discriminatory power of mlva (simpson's index of diversity [d], 0.9524; 95% confidence interval [ci ...200717881552
plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance conferred by qnrs1 in salmonella enterica serovar virchow isolated from turkish food of avian origin.to study the molecular characteristics of the quinolone and associated ampicillin resistance mechanisms present in salmonella enterica serovar virchow isolated from turkish foods.200717881633
a case of shigellosis with intractable septic shock and convulsions.although shigellosis is a potentially fatal disease that may cause a number of extra-intestinal manifestations, intractable septic shock is an unusual complication. here we describe a 6-month-old infant who developed severe septic shock and convulsions during an episode of dysentery caused by multidrug-resistant shigella dysenteriae. the case presentation demonstrates how shigellosis can lead to rare and potentially misleading complications such as septic shock when not treated adequately and pr ...200717881877
explaining unexplained diarrhea and associating risks and infections.gastrointestinal illnesses are common afflictions. however, knowledge of their etiology is often lacking. moreover, most cases of infections with reportable enteric pathogens (campylobacter jejuni, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, cryptosporidia and giardia) have sporadic modes of acquisition, yet control measures are often biased towards mitigation of risks discerned by outbreak analysis. to determine the etiology of unexplained diarrhea it is important to study populat ...200717692144
[ekiri syndrome complicating shigellosis]. 200717692219
[intrafamilial outbreak of shigella flexneri gastroenteritis in madrid]. 200717692266
use of the tna operon as a new molecular target for escherichia coli detection.a quantitative real-time pcr targeting the tnaa gene was studied to detect escherichia coli and distinguish e. coli from shigella spp. these microorganisms revealed high similarity in the molecular organization of the tna operon.200717693560
differential regulation of caspase-1 activation, pyroptosis, and autophagy via ipaf and asc in shigella-infected macrophages.shigella infection, the cause of bacillary dysentery, induces caspase-1 activation and cell death in macrophages, but the precise mechanisms of this activation remain poorly understood. we demonstrate here that caspase-1 activation and il-1beta processing induced by shigella are mediated through ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (nod)-like receptor (nlr) family, and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containin ...200717696608
effect of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg in persistent diarrhea in indian children: a randomized controlled trial.to evaluate the role of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (lgg) as probiotic in persistent diarrhea (pd) in children of north bengal, india.200717700424
antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (rosmarinus officinalis l. and salvia officinalis l., lamiaceae) essential oils.the essential oils of rosemary ( rosmarinus officinalis l.) and sage ( salvia officinalis l.) were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and 6 fungi, including candida albicans and 5 dermatomycetes. the most important antibacterial activity of both essential oils was expressed on escherichia coli, salmonella typhi, s. enteritidis, and shigella sonei. ...200717708648
brucella abortus requires the heme transporter bhua for maintenance of chronic infection in balb/c mice.the gene annotated bab2_1150 in the brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence is predicted to encode a homolog of the well-characterized heme transporter shua of shigella dysenteriae and accordingly has been given the designation bhua (brucella heme utilization). phenotypic analysis of an isogenic bhua mutant derived from b. abortus 2308 verified that there is a link between bhua and the ability of the parent strain to use heme as an iron source in in vitro assays. maximum expression of bhua in b. a ...200717709407
omptin proteins: an expanding family of outer membrane proteases in gram-negative enterobacteriaceae.the escherichia coli k-12 outer membrane protein ompt is a prototype of a unique family of bacterial endopeptidases known as the omptins. this family includes ompt and ompp of e. coli, sopa of shigella flexneri, pgte of salmonella enterica, and pla of yersinia pestis. despite their sequence similarities, the omptins vary in their reported functions. the ompt protease is characterized by narrow cleavage specificity defined by the extracellular loops of the beta-barrel protruding above the lipid b ...200717710644
first detection and sequence analysis of the bla-ctx-m-15 gene in lebanese isolates of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing shigella sonnei.the emergence in shigella species of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbl) that impart resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is a growing concern world-wide. so far, however, esbl-producing shigella have only been reported seven times, albeit from seven different countries. in lebanon, three esbl-producing clinical isolates of s. sonnei were recovered from 30 cases of shigellosis diagnosed between july 2004 and october 2005. all three were found to be resistant to amoxycillin, cefotax ...200717716434
a bacterial effector targets mad2l2, an apc inhibitor, to modulate host cell cycling.the gut epithelium self-renews every several days, providing an important innate defense system that limits bacterial colonization. nevertheless, many bacterial pathogens, including shigella, efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. here, we show that the shigella effector ipab, when delivered into epithelial cells, causes cell-cycle arrest by targeting mad2l2, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (apc) inhibitor. cyclin b1 ubiquitination assays revealed that apc undergoes unscheduled ...200717719540
spontaneous zygogenesis, a wide-ranging mating process in bacteria.spontaneous zygogenesis (or z-mating) in escherichia coli, unlike f-mediated conjugation, promotes formation of complete zygotes. most z-mating products have proven to be phenotypically unstable, losing part of the phenotype for which they were selected. persistent z-mating products appear as stable genetic recombinants or yield subclones of two types: either both parental types or one of them plus a recombinant type, and the ability to promote spontaneous zygogenesis can appear in all emerging ...200717720456
bacterial, fungal and parasitic contamination of cockroaches in public hospitals of hamadan, iran.to determine the possible role of cockroaches in dissemination of medically important microorganisms, a study was carried out in public hospitals and residential areas of hamadan city, west of iran. bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. the total number of blattella germanica collected from hospitals were 133 as the case group. the cockroaches collected from residential areas were 45 as the control group.200717722863
effect of the nonreducing end of shigella dysenteriae type 1 o-specific oligosaccharides on their immunogenicity as conjugates in mice.endemic and epidemic shigellosis, an acute invasive disease of the lower intestines, afflicts millions of people worldwide with an estimated one million fatalities per annum at a low infectious dose. our approach to vaccine development against shigella is based on the hypothesis that serum igg antibodies to the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) domains of the lps of these organisms confer protection to infection. the synthetic oligosaccharides corresponding to the tetrasaccharide repeating unit o ...200717726093
an inducible lambdoid prophage encoding cytolethal distending toxin (cdt-i) and a type iii effector protein in enteropathogenic escherichia coli.cytolethal distending toxins (cdts) are inhibitory cyclomodulins, which block eukaryotic cell proliferation and are produced by a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria, including escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. however, the mode of transmission of the toxin gene clusters among diverse bacterial pathogens is unclear. we found that cdt-i produced by enteropathogenic e. coli strains associated with diarrhea is encoded by a lambdoid prophage, whi ...200717726095
the significance of the number of submitted samples and patient-related factors for faecal bacterial diagnostics.the sensitivity of bacteriological testing of faecal samples from patients with diarrhoea has not been properly determined. the present study analysed the association between the results of stool sample examinations and the number of samples examined per patient and other patient-related factors. data concerning faecal specimens referred for culture for enteric bacterial pathogens (campylobacter, salmonella, shigella and yersinia) to the central microbiological laboratory in denmark between 1995 ...200717727686
role of u.s. military research programs in the development of u.s.-licensed vaccines for naturally occurring infectious diseases.u.s. military physicians and researchers have collaborated in the development of eight u.s.-licensed vaccines since 1934, when product efficacy requirements were added to product safety requirements mandated in 1902. these vaccines include influenza (1945), rubella (1969), adenovirus types 4 and 7 (1980), meningococcus a, c, y, w-135 (1981), hepatitis b (1981), oral typhoid (1989), japanese encephalitis (1992), and hepatitis a (1995). current efforts include new adenovirus and japanese encephali ...200717728025
detection of ctx-m-14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in shigella sonnei isolates from china.shigellosis is an important cause of acute diarrheal disease and multidrug-resistant phenotype has been reported in s. sonnei. in this study, we investigate the resistance and identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) gene in 37 s. sonnei isolates by agar dilution procedure and the modified three-dimensional test, respectively. the bla genes of esbl-producing isolates were detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequencing. more than 50% of these strains were resistant to tetrac ...200717767959
intracellular type iii secretion by cytoplasmic shigella flexneri promotes caspase-1-dependent macrophage cell death.the gram-negative bacterium shigella flexneri triggers pro-inflammatory apoptotic cell death in macrophages, which is crucial for the onset of an acute inflammatory diarrhoea termed bacillary dysentery. the mxi-spa type iii secretion system promotes bacterial uptake and escape into the cytoplasm, where, dependent on the translocator/effector protein ipab, caspase-1 [interleukin (il)-1beta-converting enzyme] and its substrate il-1beta are activated. here, we show that in the course of a macrophag ...200717768231
serotonin, inflammation, and ibs: fitting the jigsaw together?unexplained diarrhoea is a frequent indication for gastroenterologic referral, and after full investigation the most common final diagnosis is irritable bowel syndrome (ibs). some patients with ibs describe an acute onset of symptoms following infective gastroenteritis. postinfective ibs affects 7% to 31% of individuals infected, and appears to be a nonspecific response to injury which has been reported following salmonella-, campylobacter-, and shigella-related ibs. the strongest risk factor fo ...200718185071
direct detection of shigella flexneri and salmonella typhimurium in human feces by real-time pcr.we have established a sybr green-based realtime pcr method using anydirect solution, which enhances pcr from whole blood, for direct amplification of the vira gene of shigella flexneri and the inva gene of salmonella typhimurium from human feces without prior dna purification. when we compared the efficiency of conventional or realtime pcr amplification of the vira and inva genes from the supernatant of boiled feces supplemented with s. flexneri and s. typhimurium in the presence or absence of a ...200718156776
outbreak of acute gastroenteritis of unknown etiology caused by contaminated drinking water in a rural village in austria, august 2006.in august 2006 a physician from a rural village reported an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. an investigation was undertaken in order to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, the source of infection and to prevent further disease. this is the first published outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by contaminated drinking water in austria.200718157605
an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing shigella sonnei at a day care nursery in sakai city, 2006. 200718032848
[effects of huoxiang zhengqi liquid on enteric mucosal immune responses in mice with bacillus dysenteriae and salmonella typhimurium induced diarrhea].to explore the effects of huoxiang zhengqi liquid (hxzq) on enteric mucosal immune responses in mice with bacillus dysenteriae and salmonella typhimurium induced diarrhea (bsd).200718257268
two or more enteropathogens are associated with diarrhoea in mexican children.diarrhoeal diseases constitute a major public health problem, particularly in the developing world, where the rate of mortality and morbidity is very high. the purpose of this study was to conduct a 2 years and 3 months study in order to determine the prevalence of five enteropathogen diarrheogenic agents in mexico city.200718162140
parenteral long-acting amoxicillin reduces intestinal bacterial community diversity in piglets even 5 weeks after the administration.we investigated the long-term effects of a single intramuscular administration of amoxicillin (15 mg kg(-1)) 1 day after birth, on piglet intestinal microbiota. animals received no creep feed before weaning on day 28 of age. for the next 11 days, the piglets received a wheat-barley-based diet. colon digesta samples were collected on day 39 and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of pcr-amplified 16s rrna gene fragments. dgge fingerprint diversity indices differed between ...200718043627
culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of clostridiales in crohn's disease involving the ileum.intestinal bacteria are implicated increasingly as a pivotal factor in the development of crohn's disease, but the specific components of the complex polymicrobial enteric environment driving the inflammatory response are unresolved. this study addresses the role of the ileal mucosa-associated microflora in crohn's disease. a combination of culture-independent analysis of bacterial diversity (16s rdna library analysis, quantitative pcr and fluorescence in situ hybridization) and molecular charac ...200718043660
[acute and prolonged infectious diarrheas, of microbial and viral etiology: methods of clinical and microbiological diagnosis].the authors relate clinical-microbiological criteria for a rational diagnosis of acute and prolonged enteritis, distinguishing between home and imported diarrheas. during 2005, 381 subjects (192 children and 189 adults) with acute diarrhea and 110 subjects (16 children and 94 adults) with prolonged diarrhea were examined. in the first group salmonella prevailed in 11.1% of cases (10.9% among children and 11.1% among adults); campylobacter in 9.2% (respectively 8.9% and 9.5%); other bacteria were ...200718044404
cloning, expression, purification, characterization, crystallization and x-ray diffraction of bifunctional pyrimidine deaminase/reductase from shigella flexneri 2a.bifunctional pyrimidine deaminase/reductase (ribd) plays an important role during riboflavin biosynthesis in many microorganisms. the 40.4 kda ribd from shigella flexneri 2a has been cloned, expressed, purified and characterized. three crystals of ribd have been obtained by the hanging-drop technique at 291 k using peg 20k or nacl as precipitant. the ribd crystal using peg 20k as precipitant diffracted to 2.5a.200718045236
shiga toxin induces tubular membrane invaginations for its uptake into cells.clathrin seems to be dispensable for some endocytic processes and, in several instances, no cytosolic coat protein complexes could be detected at sites of membrane invagination. hence, new principles must in these cases be invoked to account for the mechanical force driving membrane shape changes. here we show that the gb3 (glycolipid)-binding b-subunit of bacterial shiga toxin induces narrow tubular membrane invaginations in human and mouse cells and model membranes. in cells, tubule occurrence ...200718046403
comparing invasive and non-invasive of isolated shigella flexneri by electron microscopy of cell culture, sds-page and congo red method.the aim of this study was to compare invasive and non-invasive strains of shigella flexneri isolated from tehran by a 120 kda protein band by sds-page, electron microscopy of cell culture and congo red dye methods.200718051704
structural insights into the enzymatic mechanism of the pathogenic mapk phosphothreonine lyase.the ospf family of phosphothreonine lyase, including spvc from salmonella, irreversibly inactivates the dual-phosphorylated host mapks (pt-x-py) through beta elimination. we determined crystal structures of spvc and its complex with a phosphopeptide substrate. spvc adopts a unique fold of alpha/beta type. the disordered n terminus harbors a canonical d motif for mapk substrate docking. the enzyme-substrate complex structure indicates that recognition of the phosphotyrosine followed by insertion ...200718060821
[expression profile analysis of host hela cells invasived by shigella flexneri 2a].the changes of genes expression in hela cell during the invasion with shigella species for 1h and 3h were analyzed by cdna microarrays. the data showed that the expression levels of 752 genes were altered twice or greater as compared with the control 509 of them were up-regulated, and 306 were down-regulated. it was supposed that some signal pathways in hela cell were activated, then many genes were induced, and at last comprehensive cell responses were produced, so that hela cell could prevent ...200718062254
[construction of prophylactic recombinant hpv58-attenuated shigella vector live vaccine and evaluation of its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model].to construct the prophylactic recombinant hpv58-attenuated shigella vector live vaccine and evaluate its protective efficacy and immunogenicity in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model.200718062891
[identification of closely related bacteria via phylogenetic methods].to differentiate closely related pathogenic bacteria via phylogenetic method on the basis of gyrb gene sequences.200718067224
antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella flexneri and s. dysenteriae isolated from stool specimens of patients with bloody diarrhoea in mwanza, tanzania.this study was conducted to determine frequency and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility of shigella species isolated from stool specimens collected from patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea in mwanza city, tanzania. the study was carried out from october 2004 to october 2005 and involved patients attending sekou toure regional hospital and butimba health centre. bacteriological cultures were done at the national institute for medical research laboratory. a total of 489 patients (median ...200718087897
characterization of probiotic escherichia coli isolates with a novel pan-genome microarray.microarrays have recently emerged as a novel procedure to evaluate the genetic content of bacterial species. so far, microarrays have mostly covered single or few strains from the same species. however, with cheaper high-throughput sequencing techniques emerging, multiple strains of the same species are rapidly becoming available, allowing for the definition and characterization of a whole species as a population of genomes--the 'pan-genome'.200718088402
effects of a human milk-derived human milk fortifier on the antibacterial actions of human milk.to compare the effects of a human breastmilk-derived fortifier on the antibacterial activity of milk obtained from lactating mothers delivering prematurely with the effects of a powdered fortifier on the same milk.200718081457
microbial survey of selected ontario-grown fresh fruits and vegetables.recent produce-related outbreaks have been receiving heightened media coverage, which has increased public concern toward the safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. in response, the microbial contamination of ontario-grown fresh fruits and vegetables was evaluated by the ontario ministry of agriculture, food and rural affairs during the summer of 2004. prior to this survey, information specific to the microbial contamination of ontario-produced fruits and vegetables was limited. this nonregulato ...200718095445
effect of hand wash agents on controlling the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from hands to food.the goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of two hand wash regimens in reducing transient bacteria on the skin following a single hand wash and the subsequent transfer of the bacteria to a ready-to-eat food item, freshly cut cantaloupe melon. the number of bacteria recovered from hands and the quantity transferred to the melon were significantly less following the use of an antibacterial soap compared with plain soap. the antimicrobial soap achieved > 3-log reductions versus esc ...200718095447
uspa of shigella sonnei.one of the strategies that bacteria utilize to combat environmental stress is to synthesize stress-responding proteins. in escherichia coli, adverse environmental factors, such as starvation, heat, and the presence of acid, oxidants, heavy metals, and antibiotics, trigger the expression of the universal stress protein (usp). the gene of the usp, uspa, in e. coli k-12 and e. coli o157:h7 has been identified and sequenced. in this study, the nucleotide sequence of uspa in a strain of shigella sonn ...200717969624
[rapid detection of three foodborne pathogenic bacteria by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detector].a method for monitoring foodborne pathogenic bacteria by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr)--capillary electrophoresis (ce) with a laser induced fluorescence detector was developed. three sets of primers were designed to amplify the gene segments of uida gene in e. coli. o157:h7, inva gene in salmonella and ipah gene in shigella, individually. the multiple pcr system and the separation conditions of ce were optimized. using a capillary coated with linear polyacrylamide and sieving buffer ...200717970100
[medication in infectious acute diarrhea in children].acute infectious diarrhea in children remain still a frequent cause of morbidity. 50 % of them are due to rotavirus. oral rehydration therapy and early realimentation have drastically reduced their mortality and morbidity. beside oral or eventually iv rehydration therapy no medication has proven its efficacy based on the main hmo criteria (reduction of over 30 % of the stool output) except racecadotril and loperamide which is contre-indicated for the last one in children less than 2 years old. o ...200717961811
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