PMID(sorted descending)
molecular cloning and genetic analysis of the rfb region from shigella flexneri type 6 in escherichia coli k-12.the rfb gene cluster which determines the biosynthesis of the shigella flexneri serotype 6 o-antigen specificity has been cloned in phc79, generating plasmids ppm3115 and ppm3116. these plasmids mediate expression, in escherichia coli k-12, of lipopolysaccharides (lps) immunologically similar to the s. flexneri type 6 lps as judged by sds-page and western-immunoblot analysis using s. flexneri type 6 specific antisera. thus, unlike other s. flexneri serotypes, no additional loci are required for ...19911778433
optimal growth temperature for the isolation of plesiomonas shigelloides, using various selective and differential agars.the growth characteristics of known strains of plesiomonas shigelloides were compared with those of aeromonas species (the major competing species in environmental waters) on plesiomonas differential agar, inositol brilliant green bile salt, and modified salmonella-shigella agar at incubation temperatures of 37, 42, and 44 degrees c. using local isolates from clinical and environmental sources, optimal growth conditions, as determined by colony counts and the colony characteristics, plesiomonas ...19911777858
shigella in hiv infection. 19911777165
efficacy and safety of oral cefixime therapy in common infectious diseases in children.twenty-nine children, including 20 boys and 9 girls, were enrolled in an open trial of oral cefixime therapy for common pediatric infectious diseases. patients aged between 0.5 month and 12 years with a mean +/- standard deviation of 2.3 +/- 2.8 years. the diagnoses included 10 of acute otitis media, 2 of purulent rhinitis, 4 of acute enterocolitis, and 13 of urinary tract infection. most children received 6-12 mg/kg/day of cefixime granules, orally twice daily for more than five days. all 10 ca ...19911776438
outbreak of keratoconjunctivitis due to salmonella weltevreden in a guinea pig colony.the purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the ability to produce keratoconjunctivitis (kc) is a property found in salmonella weltevreden. this observation is contrary to previous reports that salmonella spp. do not produce kc. an outbreak of kc due to s. weltevreden occurred in a guinea pig colony, and the animals carried the organism in the intestinal tract. the same salmonella serotype that caused an epidemic of diarrhea in humans and a routine laboratory isolate also possessed the abi ...19911774327
detection of shiga toxin-producing shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli by using polymerase chain reaction with incorporation of digoxigenin-11-dutp.a technique has been developed for the detection of shiga toxin- and shiga-like toxin type i (sht/slt-i)-producing shigella dysenteriae type 1 and escherichia coli by using the polymerase chain reaction with the incorporation of digoxigenin-11-dutp. target dna liberated from whole cells was amplified, using primer pairs homologous to the a-subunit genes of sht/slt-i. the ttp analog digoxigenin-11-dutp was incorporated into the reaction mixture, permitting nonradioactive labeling of the amplified ...19911774316
evidence for long-term memory of the mucosal immune system: milk secretory immunoglobulin a against shigella lipopolysaccharides.although the common mucosal immune system has generally been considered to have only short-term memory, recent data suggest that long-term memory exists for shigella virulence plasmid antigens. because such antigens might cross-react with environmental antigens, we investigated milk for the persistence of antibodies to the specific shigella lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigens. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect secretory immunoglobulin a (siga) against shigella flexneri and shigella sonn ...19911774268
shigella dysenteriae 60r strain adheres to and invades tissue culture cells in the absence of virulence plasmid.evidence is presented that a high level shiga toxin-producing strain shigella dysenteriae 60r adheres to and invades the epithelial cell lines hct8 and henle 407. the invasive phenotype of s. dysenteriae 60r differs in four ways from the heretofore studied invasive shigella phenotypes. first, s. dysenteriae 60r lacks the virulence plasmid characteristic of other invasive shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli. second, hybridization studies show that the known ipa genes are neither pre ...19911769541
structure of the o-antigen of francisella tularensis strain 15.the o-specific polysaccharide, obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of francisella tularensis strain 15, contained 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-quinac), 4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-d-glucose (d-qui4nfm), and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galacturonamide (d-galnacan) in the ratios 1:1:2. tri- and tetra-saccharide fragments were obtained on treatment of the polysaccharide with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and partial hydrolysis with 0.1 m hydrochloric acid, respectively. on the b ...19911769021
[development of a rehydration therapy in diarrheic disease. 1980].intravenous rehydration is required only in patients with severe diarrhea due to v. cholerae who are in shock, with absent peripheral pulse and blood pressure; when the shock has been corrected, rehydration can be completed using an oral rehydration solution. the intravenous solution to be used is 5:4: 1 (5g of sodium chloride, 4g of sodium bicarbonate and 1g of potassium chloride per liter) or a comparable commercial alkaline solution. for oral rehydration a solution is used containing 3.5 g so ...19911767034
nucleotide sequence of the ipabcd structural genes of shigella dysenteriae.a 9 kb ecori and two psti fragments from the virulence plasmid of shigella dysenteriae cg097 were shown to contain all ipa genes by probing with shigella flexneri ipab, -c, -d and -a gene probes. the dna sequences of s. dysenteriae ipabc genes were very similar to those of s. flexneri m90t and s. flexneri ysh6000, but ipad differed by 22 codons from that of s. flexneri. the differences in ipad may account for the different in vitro host specificities shown by s. dysenteriae and s. flexneri. the ...19911766387
the pathogenic mechanisms of shiga toxin and the shiga-like is now well documented that some enteric bacteria which cause diarrhoeal and/or dysenteric disease produce, at high levels, one or more of a family of protein toxins referred to as shiga toxin and shiga-like toxins (slts; alternatively called verocytotoxins or vts). within the past few years, there have been considerable advancements made in our understanding of the biochemistry and molecular biology of shiga toxin and slts. however, the precise role of the toxins in mediating colonic disease ...19911766367
gastroenterological emergencies in the tropics.significant differences exist in the prevalence of most gastroenterological emergencies in tropical compared with temperate countries. both ethnic and environmental (often clearly defined geographically) factors are relevant. the major oesophageal lesions which can present acutely in tropical countries are varices and carcinoma; bleeding and obstruction are important sequelae. peptic ulcer disease (and its complications), often associated (not necessarily causally) with helicobacter pylori infec ...19911764626
quarterly communicable disease review april to june 1991. from the phls communicable disease surveillance centre. 19911764292
randomized clinical trial of norfloxacin for a randomized clinical trial, norfloxacin was compared with nalidixic acid in the treatment of acute invasive diarrhea, with particular reference to shigellosis in adults. of 104 patients studied, 40 were positive for shigella in stool cultures, of which 22 received norfloxacin and 18 received nalidixic acid. the patients in these two groups were comparable on admission. in the treatment of culture-positive shigellosis cases, the responses to therapy with both drugs were similar, except that t ...19911763794
plasmid-associated resistance to pivmecillinam in shigella flexneri and shigella boydii. 19911761454
antimicrobial resistance trends of shigellae isolates from calabar, nigeria.during a 3-year study (january 1986-december 1988), stools of 2200 diarrhoeal or dysenteric patients were examined by culturing and 108 (4.9%) were found positive for shigellae. shigella flexneri was the commonest species isolated (54.6%), followed by sh. dysenteriae (24.1%). patients aged less than or equal to 15 years accounted for 51.4% of cases. shigellae over the 3 years showed high and sometimes rising resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and cotrimoxazole and complete r ...19911758013
use of multiple markers for investigation of an epidemic of shigella sonnei infections in monroe county, new york.antibiotic susceptibility patterns, plasmid profiles, and endonuclease restriction analysis of plasmid dna were used in the investigation of an epidemic of shigella sonnei infections in monroe county, new york, in 1988 and 1989. the epidemic peaked during the winter, included the simultaneous transmission of the disease from person to person and from common food sources, and especially affected inhabitants of the poor, inner-city neighborhoods, young children of both sexes, and women. resistance ...19911757559
[bilateral chorioretinitis after infection with yersinia enterocolitica].we report a case of severe, bilateral panuveitis with disseminated chorioretinis. with systemic steroid therapy the inflammation resolved within 4 weeks, resulting in chorioretinal scarring. because the agglutination titer against yersinia enterocolitica type 3 was increased to 6 times over normal, we consider yersinia to be the most probable cause of the panuveitis. concomitantly, serology revealed evidence for recent infection with mumps and shigella. both can cause anterior uveitis. therefore ...19911757029
contact-haemolysin production by entero-invasive escherichia coli and shigellae.entero-invasive escherichia coli (eiec) and shigellae were tested for contact-haemolysin (ch) with red blood cells (rbcs) of guinea-pig, rabbit, rat, mouse, monkey, man, sheep and chicken; all bacteria showed the best lysis with guinea-pig rbcs. the best culture medium for ch activity of shigellae was tryptic soy broth, and for eiec it was casamino acid-yeast extract broth with 1 mm cacl2. ch production by all species was best at the slightly alkaline ph which is optimal for growth; it was also ...19911753390
[a study of kirby-bauer method of antimicrobial sensitivity test and resistant plasmid assay with 486 strains of shigella isolated clinically].486 cases of bacillary dysentery admitted to an army hospital during the peak season (july to september) from 1986 to 1988 were studied. the pathogens in 452 cases were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity with 14 kinds of antibiotics by using kirby-bauer method recommended by who. the results showed that the number of antibiotics to which the dysentery bacteria became resistant had increased. in 1986 the number was 9, while in 1987 and 1988 it increased to 12 and 13 respectively. among the resi ...19911752157
surveillance of patients attending a rural diarrhoea treatment centre in may 1983, a surveillance system was set up at a rural diarrhoea treatment centre of the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh (icddr,b) to study a 20% systematic sample of all admissions. between may 1983 and april 1984, 2,635 patients were studied. a recognized enteric pathogen was detected in 69% of the patients screened, 15% of whom had a mixed infection. vibrio cholerae 0: 1 was the most common enteropathogen detected (39%), followed by enterotoxigenic escherich ...19911750109
in vitro activity of ro 09-1428 compared to other cephalosporins.the in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a new catechol-type parenteral cephalosporin, was compared to that of ceftazidime, e-1040, cefpirome and cefepime against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. ro 09-1428 inhibited group a streptococci at less than or equal to 0.12 micrograms/ml, and group b, c and g streptococci and streptococcus pneumoniae at 0.5 micrograms/ml, whereas for staphylococcus aureus ro 09-1428 had mics of 8-16 micrograms/ml similar to ceftazidime and e-1040. against pseudom ...19911748124
molecular mimickry between hla b27 and yersinia, salmonella, shigella and klebsiella within the same region of hla alpha 1-helix.two new examples of amino acid homology between hla b27 and microbes triggering hla b27-associated diseases are described. an outer membrane protein yada (yersinia adhesin, previously called yop1) of yersinia enterocolitica and y. pseudotuberculosis shares a linear tetrapeptide with hla b27. a cationic outer membrane protein omph of salmonella typhimurium shares homology with five amino acids of hla b27 in a non-linear fashion. the four amino acids of yada are also notably included in the hexape ...19911747948
possible mechanisms underlying the slow lactose fermentation phenotype in shigella spp.a southern hybridization analysis revealed that the region homologous to escherichia coli lacz was present on the chromosomal dnas of beta-galactosidase-positive shigella strains, such as shigella dysenteriae serovar 1 and shigella sonnei strains, whereas this region was absent from chromosomal dnas of beta-galactosidase-negative strains of shigella flexneri and shigella boydii. we found that the lacy-a region was deficient in s. dysenteriae serovar 1 and believe that this is the reason for the ...19911746953
can isolation of aeromonas hydrophila from human feces have any clinical significance?a total of 27,480 stool specimens from 15,548 patients with gastroenteritis were analyzed for bacterial enteropathogens during a 4-year period between 1986-89 at a major referral center in saudi arabia. bacterial pathogens were isolated from 1,152 patients, salmonella being the most frequent, followed by campylobacter, shigella, and aeromonas hydrophila. the latter bacterium was found in 58 patients; seven of them were associated with other enteric pathogens, but a. hydrophila was the only organ ...19911744389
[molecular and cellular bases of shigella flexneri virulence].shigella flexneri, a gram negative bacillus, causes bacillary dysentery, an ulcerative disease of the human colon, by invading intestinal epithelial cells. entry into epithelial cells occurs via an induced phagocytic process which involves the actino-myosin complex. the host-cell receptor and the transmembrane signal which initiate reorganization of the cytoskeleton are under study. binding to integrins has recently been demonstrated in related models such as the entry of yersinia pseudotubercul ...19911742620
crystal structure of the cell-binding b oligomer of verotoxin-1 from e. coli.the shiga toxin family, a group of cytotoxins associated with diarrhoeal diseases and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome, includes shiga toxin from shigella dysenteriae type 1 and verotoxins produced by enteropathogenic escherichia coli. the family belongs to the a-b class of bacterial toxins, which includes the cholera toxin family, pertussis and diphtheria toxins. these toxins all have bipartite structures consisting of an enzymatic a subunit associated with a b oligomer which binds to specific c ...19921741063
the agrobacterium tumefaciens vir gene transcriptional activator virg is transcriptionally induced by acid ph and other stress stimuli.a set of agrobacterium tumefaciens operons required for pathogenesis is coordinately induced during plant infection by the vira and virg proteins. the intracellular concentration of virg increases in response to acidic media, and this response was proposed to be regulated at the level of transcription at a promoter (p2) that resembles the escherichia coli heat shock promoters. to test this hypothesis, we first constructed a virg-lacz transcriptional fusion. a strain containing this fusion had hi ...19921735712
reevaluation of the api 20e identification system versus conventional biochemicals for identification of members of the family enterobacteriaceae: a new look at an old product.the api 20e bacterial identification system has been used for 19 years, often as the standard with which other identification systems are compared. because the accuracy of this system compared with conventional biochemical tests has not been determined in many years, we evaluated the api 20e linear strip by using 291 typical and atypical strains of the family enterobacteriaceae taken from a culture collection. at 24 h, the api 20e correctly identified by genus and species 229 of 291 (78.7%) of t ...19921734043
the expression of virulence genes in listeria monocytogenes is thermoregulated.the expression of listeriolysin, a major virulence factor of the gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen listeria monocytogenes, is positively regulated by a transcriptional activator, the prfa gene product. we had previously shown that mutations within the prfa gene lead to loss of listeriolysin production. in this communication, the regulation of expression of listeriolysin by a specific environmental condition, namely, temperature, was studied in wild-type strains of listeria monocyt ...19921732227
clinical evaluations of the wellcolex colour shigella and salmonella tests.the wellcolex colour salmonella and shigella tests are rapid latex agglutination procedures for grouping salmonella and shigella using an antibody attached to multicolored latex particles. the tests correctly grouped 46 (100%) of 46 salmonella clinical isolates in groups a through e and g, 42 (100%) of 42 shigella clinical isolates, and seven (88%) of eight shigella stock cultures. the stock culture missed had been passed through many transfers and may have lost some of its antigenicity. the wel ...19921730182
shigella flexneri enters human colonic caco-2 epithelial cells through the basolateral pole.the commonly accepted view that enteroinvasive bacteria enter cells of the intestinal epithelial lining through the apical surface can be challenged in the case of shigellosis. this study is based on in vitro experiments that showed that the invasion of human colonic caco-2 cells by shigella flexneri occurred through the basolateral pole of these cells. in these experiments, the few bacteria that interacted with the apical surface either bound to microvilli of the cell dome without causing detec ...19921729185
repeated, childhood vaginal bleeding is not always precocious puberty. 19921728002
shigella and enteroinvasive escherichia coli infections in households of children with dysentery in bangkok.shigellae and enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) were identified in children with dysentery and their household contacts in bangkok. shigellae were isolated from 49% and eiec from 6% of 306 children with dysentery seen at the outpatient department of children's hospital on weekdays during january through june 1989 and october 1989 through october 1990. the same serotype infecting the index child was isolated from 21 (4%) of 522 household contacts of 151 index children with shigella infection ...19921727884
genetic analysis of the rfb region of shigella flexneri encoding the y serotype o-antigen specificity.the gene cluster (rfb region) which determines the biosynthesis of the shigella flexneri o-antigen of the y serotype specificity was cloned from a s. flexneri serotype 2a strain. two plasmids, ppm2212 and ppm2213, which conferred o-antigen biosynthesis were generated from separate cosmid clones by deletion with clal. these plasmids expressed o-antigen in escherichia coli k12 like that of the parental strain, as assessed by reactions to antisera in colony and western immunoblots, sensitivity to b ...19911724058
restriction fragment length polymorphisms in rrna operons for subtyping shigella sonnei.shigella sonnei is the most frequent cause of shigellosis in the united states. epidemiologic studies of this organism have been hampered by the lack of adequate typing procedures. ribosomal dna analysis (ribotyping), a method which analyzes restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the chromosomal genes that encode rrna, has recently been shown to be useful for microbial species identification and subtyping. to determine whether ribotyping could be used to distinguish between s. sonnei isola ...19911723069
[preparation of dried semiproduct in the manufacture of medicinal forms of bacteriophages].the authors have found the optimal regimen for dehydration by spraying the staphylococcus and shigella bacteriophage semiproducts. the semiproduct quality answers the requirements to such reagents. the spraying method is recommended for bacteriophage preservation in preparing some dosage forms (suppositoria, ointments).19911722856
the oac gene encoding a lipopolysaccharide o-antigen acetylase maps adjacent to the integrase-encoding gene on the genome of shigella flexneri bacteriophage sf6.lysogens of shigella flexneri harbouring the temperate bacteriophage, sf6, have been previously shown to undergo a serotype conversion due to o-acetylation of the o-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide. a partial physical map of the phage genome has been constructed. analysis of the phage dna suggests that the phage packages by a headful mechanism and that the mature dna molecules are terminally redundant. cloning of the psti fragments of sf6 enabled the region encoding the serotype conversion to b ...19911720755
[the immunogenic properties of the endotoxin protein: serum antibodies in animals and man].endotoxin protein or lipid a-associated protein (lap) from shigella sonnei was isolated and characterized earlier (zh. mikrobiol. epidemiol. immunobiol., 1991, no. 4, pp. 47-50). in this investigation serum antibodies against lap were studied in elisa anti-lap antibodies were detected in high titers in the sera of nonimmunized mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, monkeys and healthy adults. we suppose that normal anti-lap antibodies resulted from interaction between the immune system and environmental en ...19911719717
[the immunogenic and serological properties of the o-specific polysaccharide (l-hapten) in shigella].o-specific polysaccharide (l-hapten) was isolated earlier (zh. mikrobiol. epidemiol. immunobiol., 1989, no. 11, pp. 8-11). in this paper l-hapten was shown to be unable, even at high concentrations (up to 2,000 micrograms/ml), to sensitize sheep red blood cells for passive hemagglutination by o-antibodies. at the same time classical lps and heat-activated lps were active at concentrations ot 32 and 8 micrograms/ml respectively. the o-antibody-neutralizing activity of l-hapten was lower than that ...19911719715
relatedness of o-specific lipopolysaccharide side chain genes from strains of shigella boydii type 12 belonging to two clonal groups and from escherichia coli o7:k1.the o-specific lipopolysaccharide side chains of escherichia coli o7 and shigella boydii type 12 possess similar but not identical chemical structures. we investigated the genetic relatedness between the o-specific side chain genes in members of these two species. examination of outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide (lps) banding patterns demonstrated that five strains which had been identified as s. boydii type 12 fell into two clonal groups, sb1 and sb2. hybridizations with o7-specific ...19911718868
the putative role of members of the cea-gene family (cea, nca an bgp) as ligands for the bacterial colonization of different human epithelial tissues.immobilized purified cea (carcinoembryonic antigen), nca (non-specific crossreacting antigen) and bgp i (biliary glycoprotein i) bind strains of e. coli (including epec) and some salmonella species (including s. typhi, s. paratyphi a + b and s. java) while shigella-, yersinia- and bacteroides- strains showed no adhesion. the binding was of high avidity, heat sensitive, dose dependent, saturable and nearly completely abolished in the presence of 10 mm alpha-methylmannoside. from inhibition studie ...19911718301
evolution of the ferric enterobactin receptor in gram-negative bacteria.using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of iron-deficient and replete cell envelopes, 59fe-siderophore uptake studies, and western immunoblots and cytofluorimetric analyses with monoclonal antibodies (mabs), we surveyed a panel of gram-negative bacteria to identify outer membrane proteins that are structurally related to the escherichia coli k-12 ferric enterobactin receptor, fepa. antibodies within the panel identified fepa epitopes that are conserved among the majority ...19911717434
protective ribosomal preparation from shigella sonnei as a parenteral candidate vaccine.a parenteral shigella ribosomal vaccine (srv) was investigated in animals for safety, antibody-inducing capacity, and protective activity. ribosomal preparations from a shigella sonnei phase i avirulent strain were obtained and shown to possess chemical, sedimentation, and other properties typical of bacterial ribosomes. no endotoxin contamination was revealed by a ketodeoxyoctonate assay, although the presence of some kind of o antigen was evidenced by serological findings and the high activity ...19911716612
sensitivity of shigella strains to the bactericidal activity of human serum. iii. the diversity of activity variants of bactericidal serum factors against shigella flexneri serotypes.normal human serum is bactericidal for all studied shigella flexneri strains (38) belonging to nine serotypes. six variants of bactericidal activity of serum factors for these bacteria were determined.19901715646
sensitivity of shigella strains to the bactericidal activity of human serum. ii. shigella flexneri 3 a is killed by complement activated via the classical pathway, with participation of lysozyme.normal human serum is bactericidal for all studied strains (15) of shigella flexneri serotype 3a. the activity of the serum was similar irrespective of the invasiveness of the bacteria or its lack. the studied bacteria were susceptible to a single mechanism of bactericidal activity involving complement activated via the classical pathway, accompanied by the action of lysozyme.19901715645
sensitivity of shigella strains to bactericidal activity of human serum. i. participation of two independently active mechanisms in bactericidal action against shigella sonnei phase ii.normal human serum is strongly bactericidal for all studied shigella sonnei phase ii (10 strains). the studied bacteria were sensitive to two alternative mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of serum factors. the first mechanism involves the action of serum in which complement (c) is activated by the studied bacteria via the classical pathway. lysozyme did not participate in this reaction. the second mechanism involves the combined action of two factors: c activated via the alternative pathwa ...19901715644
sensitivity of shigella flexneri and escherichia coli bacteria to bacteriophages and to colicins, lost or established by the acquisition of r plasmids.lac+ recombinant of shigella flexneri 2a carrying r-factors of the standard set have been constructed. the r+ transconjugants obtained have been compared with the original strain with respect to their susceptibility to a set of bacteriophages recommended for phagetyping of shigella strains and to a set of colicins. it have been found that as a result of acquiring some r-factors the susceptibility to bacteriophages changes; presence of certain r-factors causes susceptibility, that of other r-fact ...19901715637
cytotoxic effects of children's faeces: relation to diarrhoea due to clostridium difficile and other enteric pathogens.cytotoxicity of faecal extracts was demonstrated in 47 of 88 children (54%) referred for microbiological investigation of stools. cytotoxic clostridium difficile and vertotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) were the pathogens identified most commonly but cytotoxicity was also found in association with campylobacter jejuni, salmonella spp, shigella sonnei, giardia lamblia, rotavirus, adenovirus and poliovirus type 1 which had been acquired by oral immunization. in two patients, one of whom had cyst ...19911715139
[antigenic polysaccharides of shigella bacteria. structure of the polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide from shigella boydii, type 11].on mild acid degradation of the shigella boydii, type 11 lipopolysaccharide, the corresponding o-specific polysaccharide composed of d-glucuronic acid, 2-acetylamino-2-deoxy-d-glucose, d-ribose and l-rhamnose residues in the ratio 1:1:1:3 was obtained. methylation, partial acid hydrolysis and 13c-nmr spectral data for the polysaccharide led to the structure of the oligosaccharide repeating unit as a branched hexasaccharide: [formula: see text]. numerous o-acetyl groups attached non-stoichiometri ...19911712200
the lipopolysaccharide of shigella bacteria as a virulence factor.the virulence factors of the lipopolysaccharide of shigella species bacteria include the endotoxic activities of the lipid a component of the molecule and the ability of the polysaccharide chain--the core and the o-antigenic polysaccharide--to provide the bacterium with resistance to host defense mechanisms such as opsonization, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing. structural features of the lipopolysaccharides of four shigella species-s. dysenteriae, s. flexneri, s. boydii, and s. sonnei--a ...19911710816
[a method of determining lipase in bacteria of the intestinal group].a method for detection of lipase in intestinal bacteria is suggested with fatty acid esters used as enzyme substrates. this modification not only allows the enzyme detection but is more rapid that the known procedures. preliminary cultivation of bacteria in the accumulation media rich in organic substances helps shorten the time of investigation and simplifies reading the reaction.19901710703
an o antigen can interfere with the function of the yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein.escherichia coli strains harbouring the yersinia pseudotuberculosis inv gene are able to enter cultured mammalial cells. we show here that this property is not shared by all enteric bacteria, since shigella flexneri 2a cured of its virulence-associated plasmid and harbouring the inv gene is unable to enter mammalian cells efficiently. mapping studies showed that the region of the chromosome responsible for this phenotype includes rfab, a locus involved in the production of o antigen. s. flexneri ...19911710312
characterization of an enterobacterial common antigen (eca) epitope recognized by anti-eca-tetanus toxoid conjugate serum.the antigenic reactivity of both native and chemically modified enterobacterial common antigen (eca) with anti-eca-tetanus toxoid (tt) conjugate serum was investigated. the results obtained suggest that reduction of the carboxyl group of the mannosaminuronic acid component of eca diminishes, but does not destroy its antigenic reactivity. each of the sugar components were found to contribute to its reactivity with anti-eca-tt conjugate serum, indicating that the trisaccharide repeating unit repre ...19911709894
physicochemical characteristics and flora of diarrhoeal and recovery faeces in children with acute gastro-enteritis in kenya.physiochemical characteristics and flora of diarrhoeal and recovery faeces were investigated in 14 kenyan children with acute gastro-enteritis. causative micro-organisms were shigella, campylobacter, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, rotavirus and unknown in 6, 2, 1, 2 and 3 patients, respectively. the mean values of the ph of the diarrhoeal specimens were significantly higher than those of the recovery specimens. large amounts of acetic acid and many other kinds of fatty acids were detected in ...19901708960
the structural basis of serological specificity in shigella flexneri o-antigens. 19901708342
[identification and characterization of the two promoters of plasmid pkym].plasmid pkym is a multicopy plasmid isolated from shigella sonnei and multiples stably in escherichia coli. the plasmid encodes rep protein which is essential for its multiplication and synthesizes cop ribonucleic acid (rna) which is a short rna complementary to the 5' region of rep m-rna. this rna controls the copy number and the incompatibility of the plasmid. the previous analysis located the promoters of rep m-rna rna (pr) and cop rna (pl) in the inc region. this report confirmed the presenc ...19901707096
prospective study of the association between serum antibodies to lipopolysaccharide o antigen and the attack rate of shigellosis.a means for determining immune status against shigellosis would significantly improve the design and evaluation of interventional and other epidemiologic studies. previous case-control studies have indicated the potential role of humoral antilipopolysaccharide antibodies. to test this proposition, 190 soldiers serving in a field unit were monitored prospectively for 2.5 months for shigellosis. blood samples were taken at the beginning of the follow-up period and tested for serological evidence o ...19911706731
polysaccharide nature of o antigen in protective ribosomal preparations from shigella: experimental evidence and implications for the ribosomal vaccine concept.shigella ribosomal vaccine (srv) was previously shown to be highly active in induction of mucosal and systemic o-antibody response and protection against shigella infection in guinea pigs and monkeys. in this study, the o-specific component (osc) was isolated from the srv by affinity chromatography using rabbit o antibodies coupled to cnbr-sepharose. the results of the reaction with carbocyanine dye as well as chemical data show that ribosomal osc is devoid of lipid a and kdo, which are characte ...19901704638
urinary tract infection caused by shigella sonnei: a case report.we report a case of severe urinary tract infection caused by shigella sonnei in a 3-year-old girl with vesico-ureteric reflux and no history of dysentery. treatment with co-trimoxazole in a dose of 48 mg/kg for 10 days was given and the infection was eradicated. possible sources of infection are discussed.19901703750
binding of enteric bacteria to hog gastric mucin.the binding features of enteric bacteria were studied using a model mucin of hog gastric origin. the time requirement of binding is short, it is temperature-independent, but dose-dependent. the binding effectiveness of escherichia coli, shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri, as well as salmonella minnesota had a narrow range: 1.5-9 germs pro pg of mucin. the bacterial ligand of the binding is certainly not a polysaccharide as proved by the uniform binding of the r-mutant series of s. sonnei and ...19901702253
demonstration of shared epitopes between bacterial proteins and hla class-i proteins using monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal antibodies were used to identify the presence of epitopes on bacterial proteins which are cross-reactive with hla-b27. anti-hla-b27 monoclonals, b27m2 and ye-2 reacted with a major protein of approximately 35 kda, which was found to be ompa. on some strains a 19 kda protein was also seen. anti-shigella flexneri monoclonals were also developed which reacted with a 36 kda protein and a 19 kda protein. the 36 kda protein was ompf. these antibodies also reacted with a synthetic peptide re ...19901701917
characterization of shigella dysenteriae serotypes 11, 12, and 13.we conducted serologic and biochemical studies on strains of three provisional shigella serotypes. included were 19 strains of serotype 3873-50 from three countries (1 from mexico, 1 from netherlands antilles, and 17 from the united states), 13 strains of serotype 3341-55 from three countries (1 from canada, 1 from bulgaria, and 11 from the united states), and 19 strains of serotype 19809-73 from two countries (16 from israel and 3 from the united states). reactions of these strains with homolog ...19901701447
[a method for determining specific circulating immune complexes in patients with acute sonne dysentery].the antigen-specific method for the determination of specific immune complexes in the blood serum of patients with acute sonne dysentery has been developed on the basis of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the use of reagents manufactured in the ussr. the possibility of the early prognostication of prolonged carrier state by using the proposed method for the determination of the level of specific circulating immune complexes has been shown.19901700565
role of plasmids in virulence-associated attributes and in o-antigen expression in shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains.the association of plasmids with virulence characters and o-antigen expression was studied in two virulent and seven avirulent mutant strains of shigella dysenteriae type 1. deletion of a 12-mda segment from a 140-mda plasmid in two smooth avirulent mutants made the derivatives avirulent in the sereny test and non-invasive in hela cells. the mutants were unable to bind congo red, and did not express the virulence marker antigen. mutants completely lacking the 140-mda plasmid also showed similar ...19901700125
[the rapid diagnosis of salmonellosis by a determination of the antigen in the biosubstrates of patients using the coagglutination reaction].the diagnostic potential of the coagglutination test was checked with the aim of improving the laboratory diagnosis of salmonella infections by the detection of salmonella specific antigen in different biological materials (feces, urine, saliva and immune complexes in blood sera). the study of all specimens resulted in the confirmation of the diagnosis in 78% of patients, often during the first days of the disease. the proportion of nonspecific reactions, as shown in the control groups of health ...19901699371
monoclonal antibodies against an hla-b27-derived peptide react with an epitope present on bacterial proteins.the role of molecular mimicry in the spondyloarthropathies was investigated with respect to the epitopes involved. mab were produced against a synthetic peptide whose sequence was derived from a polymorphic region of the hla-b27 molecule (amino acids 63-83). two antibodies (j7f2 and h2b6) were selected for study on the basis of their ability to react with bacterial envelope proteins (elisa) and b27-positive cells (immunofluorescence). j7f2 reacted preferentially with b27-positive cells and neith ...19901698856
[the significance of the o antigen for the diagnosis of acute sonne dysentery].the authors investigated the clinical importance of determination of the o-antigen in coprofiltrates of patients with acute sonne dysentery by means of immunoenzymatic analysis. it was found that use of immunoenzymatic analysis is justified for etiological diagnosis of dysentery as well as with the purpose of forecasting recurrence of the disease.19901697713
bacteria-infected fibroblasts have enhanced susceptibility to the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor.the susceptibility of bacteria-infected fibroblasts to the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor was investigated. l cells infected with shigella flexneri, salmonella typhimurium, or listeria monocytogenes, had an enhanced susceptibility to the cytotoxic activity of tnf-alpha. this enhanced susceptibility was dependent upon the challenge dose of bacteria, the concentration of tnf, and upon the exposure time of bacteria-infected cells to tnf. l cells infected with s. flexneri were susceptible ...19901694886
new invasive serotype of escherichia coli.a new invasive escherichia coli strain which presented delayed or variable reactions in lactose, mucate, and acetate tests is described. it did not agglutinate with antisera for all known e. coli and shigella groups a, b, c, d, and provisional shigella serovar. we propose the designation of e. coli bh until the situation of its 0 antigen is settled.19901694553
specific immunoglobulin a-secreting cells in peripheral blood of humans following oral immunization with a bivalent salmonella typhi-shigella sonnei vaccine or infection by pathogenic s. sonnei.the ability of bivalent salmonella typhi-shigella sonnei vaccine strain 5076-1c to stimulate an intestinal immunoglobulin a response in humans was evaluated by detecting gut-derived, trafficking antibody-secreting cells (asc) in peripheral blood. following vaccination, an immunoglobulin a-asc response to o antigens of s. typhi and s. sonnei was observed in 10 of 13 and 13 of 13 vaccine recipients, respectively. experimental challenge with pathogenic s. sonnei stimulated an asc response to the s. ...19901692813
sequence and molecular characterization of a multicopy invasion plasmid antigen gene, ipah, of shigella flexneri.a lambda gt11 expression library of tn5-tagged invasion plasmid pwr110 (from shigella flexneri serotype 5, strain m90t-w) contained a set of recombinants encoding a 60-kilodalton protein (designated ipah) recognized by rabbit antisera raised against s. flexneri invasion plasmid antigens (j. m. buysse, c. k. stover, e. v. oaks, m. m. venkatesan, and d. j. kopecko, j. bacteriol. 169:2561-2569, 1987). southern blot analysis of wild-type s. flexneri serotype 5 invasion plasmid dna (pwr100) digested ...19901690703
genetic analysis of an invasion region by use of a tn3-lac transposon and identification of a second positive regulator gene, inve, for cell invasion of shigella sonnei: significant homology of inve with parb of plasmid p1.we have previously cloned two distinct regions of the shigella sonnei form i plasmid pss120, a 37-kilobase-pair dna region and a virf region, which were found to be essential for cell invasion in escherichia coli k-12 (j. kato, k. ito, a. nakamura, and h. watanabe, infect. immun. 57:1391-1398, 1989). the 37-kilobase-pair dna region was randomly inserted by use of transposon tn3-lac. at least eight genes were found to be located within the region, as determined by analysis of tn3-lac-generated la ...19901688841
detection of lipopolysaccharides by ethidium bromide staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.a rapid and easy method for staining lipopolysaccharides with ethidium bromide is described. lipopolysaccharides could be visualized by ethidium bromide with almost the same sensitivity as found with the silver-staining method in less than 30 min. the ethidium bromide-staining method was particularly suitable for staining lipopolysaccharides possessing acidic o-specific polysaccharides, which were poorly visualized by silver staining.19901688839
interferon production by shigella flexneri-infected fibroblasts depends upon intracellular bacterial metabolism.the role of bacterial invasion and subsequent intracellular metabolism or replication, or both, in the induction of interferon (ifn) production in primary cultures of murine embryo fibroblasts (mefs) was examined. ifn production appeared to be dependent upon bacterial invasion. mefs that were challenged with shigella flexneri cultured at 30 degrees c to inhibit the temperature-dependent virulence gene expression that is essential for invasion failed to produce ifn. furthermore, inhibition of s. ...19901688826
comparison of colony and stool blots for detection of enteropathogens by dna probes.dna probes that identify genes coding for heat-labile type i (lt-i) and heat-stable type 1 (st-i) enterotoxins, enteropathogenic escherichia coli adherence factor (eaf), and shigella-like invasiveness (inv) are used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of stool blots in comparison with the sensitivity and specificity of colony blots in detecting enteropathogens. the sensitivities of the probes in stool blots are 91.7% for the lt-i probe, 76.9% for the st-i probes, 78.9% for the eaf probe, ...19911678983
reduction of transmission of shigellosis by control of houseflies (musca domestica)the effect of control of houseflies on the incidence of diarrhoea and shigellosis was evaluated in a prospective crossover intervention study at two military field bases several kilometers apart. in early summer, 1988, intensive fly control measures (mainly bait and trap strategy) were introduced on one base, while the other served as a control. after 11 weeks, as new cohorts arrived, the intervention was abruptly discontinued in the first base and instituted in the second for the next 11 weeks. ...19911673210
increasing incidence of resistance among shigellae to trimethoprim. 19911671982
molecular epidemiologic techniques in analysis of epidemic and endemic shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains.during 1988 the number of shigella dysenteriae type 1 infections reported in the united states increased fivefold. to determine if recent isolates from mexico were related to those that caused epidemics of dysentery worldwide, southern hybridization analysis was done with shiga toxin and ribosomal rna gene probes. western hemisphere and eastern hemisphere strains differed by the size of a single ecori fragment carrying the shiga toxin genes. three ribosomal dna (rdna) patterns were observed, whi ...19911671055
dysentery surveillance. 19911669861
[in vitro model for the analysis of the interaction between shigella flexneri and the intestinal epithelium].an in vitro study of the adhesion and invasion of shigella flexneri was implemented, by means of incubation of laminary cuts of cecal mucosa of dunkin-hartley guinea pigs in a suspension of shigella flexneri, which was isolated from a patient with bacillary dysentery. the laminae were placed in plastic chambers for two hours at 37%c. after this the bacterial suspension was discarded so as to eliminate the bacilli which were not adhered. the epithelium was washed with saline and was processed for ...19901669218
studies of bacterial, rotaviral and cryptosporidium etiology of acute diarrheal diseases in hospitalized children.657 hospitalized children with acute diarrheal disease were studied for bacterial and rotaviral etiology. cryptosporidium presence was followed in 123 children. intestinal pathogens were detected in 195 (29.6%) cases: 132 (20.3%) enterobacteria, 47 (7.1%) rotaviruses, 4 (3.2%) cryptosporidium sp. and 12 (1.8%) combined infections. among enterobacteria, e. coli was the most frequent (10% cases) with enteropathogenic (epec), enterotoxigenic (etec), enterohemorrhagic (ehec) and enteroinvasive (eiec ...19911666314
research priorities for diarrhoeal disease vaccines: memorandum from a who meeting.diarrhoeas caused by rotaviruses, shigella, vibrio cholerae, and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) represent a major health burden in developing countries, and have stimulated much effort towards vaccine development in order to protect against these four disease agents. this memorandum describes the state of the art and points the way to future research and test trials in this area.19911664785
in vitro activity and stability against novel beta-lactamases of investigational beta-lactams (cefepime, cefpirome, flomoxef, sce2787 and piperacillin plus tazobactam) in comparison with established compounds (cefotaxime, latamoxef and piperacillin).the therapeutic perspectives of flomoxef, sce 2787, cefpirome, cefepime, latamoxef, cefotaxime and of piperacillin plus tazobactam were comparatively evaluated by their in vitro activity against 1119 clinical isolates of 83 bacterial species. escherichia coli, klebsiella spp. enterobacter sakazakii, proteus spp. and shigella spp. were about equally susceptible to the cephalosporins (mic90: 0.06 to 0.5 mg/l), while the mic90 for piperacillin plus tazobactam was between 2 and 16 mg/l. enterobacter ...19911664418
the specificity of bacterial siderophore receptors probed by bioassays.the ability to utilize siderophores of bacterial and fungal origin has been studied in wild-type and mutant strains of the enterobacterial genera salmonella, escherichia, shigella, moellerella, klebsiella, enterobacter, hafnia, pantoea, ewingella, tatumella, yersinia, and in the non-enterics aeromonas, pseudomonas and aureobacterium. although only a few representative strains were tested, the results show characteristic genus-specific differences in the utilization of hydroxamate and catecholate ...19911663779
construction of a physical map of the chromosome of shigella flexneri 2a and the direct assignment of nine virulence-associated loci identified by tn5 establish the molecular basis of the chromosomal virulence genes of shigella flexneri 2a (ysh6000), a notl restriction map of the chromosome was constructed by exploiting notl-linking clones, partial notl digestion and dna probes from various genes of escherichia coli k-12. the map revealed at least three local differences in the placements of genes between ysh6000 and e. coli k-12. using the additional notl sites introduced by tn5 insertion, nine virulence loci identified previously by rando ...19911662762
[effect of sparfloxacin on fecal microflora and its fecal concentration in patients with bacillary dysentery].the effect of sparfloxacin (spfx) on fecal microflora and its fecal concentrations were examined in four patients and one carrier with bacillary dysentery. spex was administered to five cases with a daily dose of 200 mg, once a day, for five days after breakfast. the results were as follows: escherichia coli, a main bacterium in enterobacteriaceae, was not detected during the drug administration, except one from whose feces mucoid type of e. coli was found all the time, and the colony forming un ...19911662252
gene transfer in enteric bacteria through the formation of r-prime plasmids by an rp4: :mini-mu element.gene transfer in seven pathogenic enteric bacteria was studied using an rp4: :mini-mu element, the plasmid pulb113. from the e. coli k-12 host strain the plasmid could be efficiently transferred to these enteric bacteria, but its transfer back to e. coli k-12 was not as efficient, being detected only in shigella dysenteriae 1, s. flexneri and the 'smooth' variant of s. sonnei. in these three species, transposition of chromosomal fragments into the plasmid to produce r-prime plasmid was also dete ...19911661362
programmed translational frameshifting and initiation at an auu codon in gene expression of bacterial insertion sequence is911.the proteins expressed by insertion sequence is911, a member of the widespread is3 family of elements, have been analyzed. the results indicate that three major species are produced from two consecutive reading frames. a protein of mr 11,500, orfa, is synthesized from an upstream reading frame. a larger protein, orfab, uses the same initiation codon and is produced by a -1 programmed translational frameshift between orfa and a downstream frame, orfb, whose amino acid sequence shows significant h ...19911660923
presumptive identification of salmonella enterica using two rapid tests.two rapid test for early detection of salmonella enterica, the cytochrome oxidase test and a fluorescence test, were evaluated in 1,200 colonies which had been isolated from human feces and cultured on macconkey and salmonella-shigella media. using the fluorescence test there were no false negative results (sensitivity 100%) and of 205 positive cases 62 did not correspond biochemically to salmonella (specificity 94.1%); 44 of these 62 were positive in the cytochrome oxidase test, raising the spe ...19911660809
multiple copies of is10 in the enterobacter cloacae md36 chromosome.repetitive sequences were isolated and characterized as double-stranded dna fragments by treatment with s1 nuclease after denaturation and renaturation of the total dna of enterobacter cloacae md36. one repetitive sequence was identical to the nucleotide sequence of is10-right (is10r), which is the active element in the plasmid-associated transposon tn10. unexpectedly, 15 copies of is10r were found in the chromosomal dna of e. cloacae md36. one copy of the central region of tn10 was found in the ...19911660455
etiology of acute diarrhoea among children in developing countries: a multicentre study in five countries.a 2-year etiological survey of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0-35 months who were attending treatment facilities was carried out using a standardized protocol in five hospitals in china, india, mexico, myanmar, and pakistan. a total of 3640 cases of diarrhoea and 3279 age- and sex-matched controls were studied; about 60% of the patients were aged less than 1 year and 60% were male. an enteric pathogen was detected in 68% of the cases and in 30% of the controls. in all the study centres, the p ...19911659953
molecular typing of shigella strains using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and genome hybridization with insertion sequences.the genomes of 18 independent shigella isolates (9 shigella sonnei, 5 shigella dysenteriae and 4 shigella flexneri) as well as of 4 epidemic s. flexneri strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and by the distribution of insertion sequences (is1, is2 and is911). despite the close relatedness observed among the 9 independent s. sonnei, all of them could be differentiated from each other. the 4 independent s. flexneri isolates showed clearly distinguishable dna profiles. ne ...19911658885
presence of 5-methylcytosine in cc(a/t)gg sequences (dcm methylation) in dnas from different bacteria.the presence of cc(a/t)gg sequences with methylated internal cytosine (dcm methylation) was determined in dna from different genera of eubacteria. this methylation was studied by using restriction enzymes ecorii and bstni, which cleave unmethylated or methylated cc(a/t)gg sequences. dcm methylation was only detected in genera of the family enterobacteriaceae closely related to escherichia: shigella, citrobacter, salmonella, and klebsiella.19911657894
identification of a novel composite transposable element, tn5280, carrying chlorobenzene dioxygenase genes of pseudomonas sp. strain p51.analysis of one of the regions of catabolic plasmid pp51 which encode chlorobenzene metabolism of pseudomonas sp. strain p51 revealed that the tcba and tcbb genes for chlorobenzene dioxygenase and dehydrogenase are located on a transposable element, tn5280. tn5280 showed the features of a composite bacterial transposon with iso-insertion elements (is1066 and is1067) at each end of the transposon oriented in an inverted position. when a 12-kb hindiii fragment of pp51 containing tn5280 was cloned ...19911657878
diarrheal disease during operation desert shield.under combat conditions infectious disease can become a major threat to military forces. during operation desert shield, there were numerous outbreaks of diarrhea among the u.s. forces. to evaluate the causes of and risk factors for diarrheal disease, we collected clinical and epidemiologic data from u.s. troops stationed in northeastern saudi arabia.19911656260
[isolation of enteropathogenic microorganism from patients with infection of the digestive tract during 1976 to 1988 in tenri hospital].enteropathogenic microorganisms isolated from feces of 9,393 patients with diarrhea or enteritis in our hospital between 1976 and 1988 were analyzed. as the result of the examination of 5,443 outpatients, 1,811 strains of pathogens were isolated from 1,686 cases (31.0%). several species including salmonella spp., escherichia coli serotype, vibrio parahaemolyticus, were isolated before 1978, and the incidence of pathogens was low (14.8%). for the 10-year period since 1979, the incidence markedly ...19911655921
an outbreak of shigellosis aboard a cruise ship caused by a multiple-antibiotic-resistant strain of shigella flexneri.from october 23 to october 27, 1989, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred aboard a cruise ship in the caribbean. the 818 passengers and 518 crew members were surveyed for gastrointestinal symptoms; 72 (14%) of 512 passengers and 12 (3%) of 388 crew members who answered the survey reported having a diarrheal illness. multiple-antibiotic-resistant shigella flexneri 4a was isolated from 19 ill passengers and two ill crew members. thirteen people were hospitalized, and prolonged duration of illne ...19911652203
molecular cloning and characterization of form i antigen genes of shigella sonnei.sau3ai-generated dna fragments of the shigella sonnei large plasmid encoding the form i antigen were cloned into escherichia coli with cosmid vector phsg262. one resulting plasmid, designated pjk1137, was studied further. restriction endonuclease mapping and analysis of transposon tn3 insertion mutants demonstrated that the form i antigen genes were located within a region of about 12.6 kb consisting of the two contiguous hindiii fragments of 1.26 kb and 12.4 kb. the results of complementation s ...19911649891
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