PMID(sorted descending)
simultaneous infection with multiple serotypes of shigellae in a patient.we isolated three different serotypes of shigella on admission from a patient with dysentery as well as a shigella-like organism and campylobacter jejuni upon follow-up. the patient produced serum antibodies to all three serotypes of shigellae.19911889185
[an immunomorphological study of the lymphoid organs in the experimental administration of virulent and avirulent shigella flexneri 2a strains]. 19911887717
[the determination in saliva of iga antibodies to shigella ribosomes for the diagnosis of dysentery].the levels of antiribosomal antibodies to shigella ribosomes in serum and saliva samples from 38 dysentery patients (15 s. sonnei cases and 23 s. flexneri cases), 14 patients with salmonellosis and 136 healthy adults were determined in elisa with ribosomes from s. sonnei r-mutant used as solid-phase antigen. high levels of "normal" antiribosomal iga, igg and igm antibodies were revealed in the sera of healthy persons while the level of salivary iga antibodies was very low. in dysentery infection ...19911887713
ompb (osmo-regulation) and icsa (cell-to-cell spread) mutants of shigella flexneri: vaccine candidates and probes to study the pathogenesis of shigellosis.genetic and molecular data now available on the pathogenic properties of shigella flexneri allow rational design of live attenuated vaccine strains. the genes required at given steps of the infection process can be selectively mutated to impair the bacterium's capacity to interact with intestinal epithelial cells and/or survive within intestinal tissues in general. we have tested two mutations in s. flexneri serotype 5a (m90t) which, alone or in combination, have yielded promising results when e ...19911887672
[pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with reactive arthritis and its possible role in the pathogenesis of the disease]. 19911887410
[use of immunofluorescence method in the diagnosis and study of pathogenesis of acute dysentery]. 19911887317
genetic basis of virulence in shigella species.shigella species and enteroinvasive strains of escherichia coli cause disease by invasion of the colonic epithelium, and this invasive phenotype is mediated by genes carried on 180- to 240-kb plasmids. in addition, at least eight loci on the shigella chromosome are necessary for full expression of virulence. the products of these genes can be classified as (i) virulence determinants that directly affect the ability of shigellae to survive in the intestinal tissues, e.g., the aerobactin sideropho ...19911886518
trabulsiella guamensis, a new genus and species of the family enterobacteriaceae that resembles salmonella subgroups 4 and 1985 the vernacular name enteric group 90 was coined for a small group of strains that had been referred to our laboratory as probable strains of salmonella but did not agglutinate in salmonella typing antisera. by dna-dna hybridization (hydroxyapatite method, 32p), seven strains of enteric group 90 were found to be closely related (98 to 100% at 60 degrees c and 94 to 100% at 75 degrees c) to the first strain received (0370-85). the relatedness of enteric group 90 to 62 strains of other spec ...19911885744
gastrointestinal infections in singapore children.acute gastroenteritis is the commonest gastrointestinal disorder in children. it accounted for about 10% of the admissions to a general paediatric unit in singapore. about 5% of total paediatric admissions to all the government hospitals in singapore were due to acute gastroenteritis. some 50% of the cases had no identifiable organism in the stools. most of the remaining cases were due to bacterial or viral infections. the commonest bacteria responsible for acute gastroenteritis nowadays is salm ...19911883188
[the action of ribosomal preparations on nonspecific resistance to bacterial infection and on early tolerance to endotoxic shock].ribosomal preparations from shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei, introduced parenterally into mice, enhance their resistance to infection with the causative agents of typhoid fever and staphylococci. this effect is considerably less pronounced than that produced by the preparation of homologous lipopolysaccharide isolated by boivin's method. after the administration of ribosomes nonspecific resistance to bacterial infective agents lasts for a short time. ribosomal preparations do not enhance t ...19911882607
[shigella endotoxin protein--its electrophoretic and serological properties].the electrophoretic analysis of lipid a-associated protein (lap), obtained from s. sonnei, in polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea has revealed the heterogeneity of the preparation; it has found to contain three main components with molecular weights of 43, 38 and 18 kd and some minor components with molecular weights of 49, 45 35, 30, 29, 27, 5, 21 and 14 kd. the electrophoretic mobility of the main protein components in the isolated preparation of lap coincides ...19911882599
[shigella endotoxin protein--its isolation and physicochemical characteristics].the scheme of the isolation of endotoxic protein from s. sonnei 9090 is presented. the isolation procedure includes the 10-minute hot (at 68 degrees c) extraction of protein from endotoxin with 45% aqueous phenol, the precipitation of protein from phenolic extract with 9.5 volumes of 95% ethanol, the purification of protein from lipid material and pigments by multiple extraction with the mixture of chloroform and ethanol in the proportion 2:1 by volume. the yield of protein obtained with the use ...19911882598
a case of shigellosis caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri type 5b.shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri type 5b strains were isolated as causative agents of bacterial dysentery in a patient having visited south-east asia. both strains are a rare finding for bulgaria. s. dysenteriae 1 strains have not been isolated since 1962, and there were only single isolates of s. flexneri 5b. the strains were of the same antibiotic resistance patterns. conjugation experiments showed that resistance is determined by transferrable r-plasmids having identical char ...19911880406
distribution of the inva, -b, -c, and -d genes of salmonella typhimurium among other salmonella serovars: inva mutants of salmonella typhi are deficient for entry into mammalian cells.invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is an essential virulence factor of salmonellae. a group of genes, invabc and invd, that allow salmonella typhimurium to penetrate cultured epithelial cells have previously been characterized (j. e. galán and r. curtiss iii, proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 86:6383-6387, 1989). the distribution of these genes among salmonella isolates belonging to 37 different species or serovars was investigated by southern and colony blot hybridization analyses. regions of hig ...19911879916
potentials of shigella flexneri y strain tsf21 as a candidate vaccine against shigellosis: safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy in bonnet monkeys.a thymine-requiring and temperature-sensitive mutant of shigella flexneri y was tested in bonnet monkeys for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy. a dose of 10(11) cells when fed orally mimicked natural infection in having invaded epithelial cells, but was otherwise clinically non-reactogenic. animals immunized with two oral doses, each dose consisting of 1 x 10(11) mutant bacteria, were fully protected when challenged, with respect to the lack of any clinical symptoms or detectable hi ...19911878259
an evaluation of three commercial fecal transport systems for the recovery of enteric pathogens.twenty-five isolates, including six strains of shigella species, six strains of salmonella species, five strains of yersinia enterocolitica, six strains of campylobacter jejuni, and two strains of vibrio parahaemolyticus, were inoculated at a concentration of 1.5 x 10(4) colony-forming units/ml into the following transport systems: fekal enteric plus (trend scientific, inc., st. paul, mn), cary blair transport medium (remel, inc., lenexa, ks), and para-pak c & s (meridian diagnostics, inc., cinc ...19911877533
a rapid fluorogenic method for the detection of escherichia coli by the production of beta-glucuronidase.a medium containing the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-glucuronide was developed for the isolation and identification of escherichia coli within 7.5 h and was based on the detection of beta-glucuronidase. optimum conditions for the rapid development of fluorescent colonies were determined. the optimum temperature was 41.5 degrees c. development of fluorescence was delayed when carbohydrates were incorporated into the medium. water samples were used to evaluate the medium by su ...19911874684
antigen sharing of salmonella typhi non-flagellar proteins with other salmonellae and some shigellae and escherichia coli.cathodal moving protein components were identified in agarose gel electrophoresis of the veronal buffer extract of a non-motile strain of s. typhi (8393, colindale). rabbit antiserum was raised against these cationic proteins; it had both agglutinating and precipitating activity. a total of 80 salmonella strains belonging to serogroups a, b, c1, c2, d, e1 and e2 including 26 s. typhi and 10 s. paratyphi a were tested against this antiserum in a slide agglutination test; all strains were agglutin ...19911874550
virulence phenotype and genetic characteristics of the t32-istrati shigella flexneri 2a vaccine strain.the t32-istrati strain, which has been used as an oral attenuated shigella flexneri 2a vaccine, has lost the invasive phenotype due to a spontaneous deletion in the shigella virulence plasmid. this deletion has eliminated three plasmid loci (ipabcda, inva and virg) that are necessary for production of a positive sereny test by shigella species. virulence in the sereny test was reconstituted in the t32-istrati strain by the conjugal transfer of an intact 140 m da virulence plasmid from s. flexner ...19911872021
effect of prior infection with virulent shigella flexneri 2a on the resistance of monkeys to subsequent infection with shigella sonnei.all virulent shigellae have large plasmids. plasmid-associated genes encode the expression of membrane-associated proteins (map), some of which correlate with the ability to invade susceptible epithelial cells. these map are serologically related in all of the shigella serotypes and evoke an antibody response after infection. to determine whether the map have a significant role in protection, 24 monkeys were infected with virulent shigella flexneri 2a. after recovery, one group (with controls) w ...19911869840
hemolytic uremic syndrome in children in northern india.we observed 73 patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) in 9 years (1980-1988), comprising 34% of patients with acute renal failure treated over the same period. there were 53 boys and 20 girls; 59% were below the age of 2 years and 33% between 2 and 5 years. acute, usually severe dysentery, responding poorly to various antibiotics, was the prodromal illness in 80%, whereas 12% had watery diarrhea. most patients had severe renal involvement with anuria in 56% and oliguria in 30%. a poly ...19911867981
[contacts between the cells in bacterial colonies].the interaction of cells in microbial colonies has been studied by electron-microscopic techniques. two types of contacts between cells have been found to exist in the colonies of gram-negative bacteria of the genera escherichia, shigella and salmonella: close cell adhesion due to the fusion of cell-wall outer membranes and the formation of intersections consisting of membranous tubules. at the sites of close adhesion the fusion of cytoplasmic and outer membranes have been found to occur in baye ...19911867039
[the determination of the dates of seasonal upsurges in morbidity by a computational method]. 19911867032
[two biotin-labeled probes of gentamicin resistance genes].a 2.0 kb bamhi-hindiii fragment of pdg0103 from australia containing gentamicin 2"-o-adenylytransferase [ant(2")] gene and a 4.9 kb psti-ecori fragment of pby102 were recovered from low-temperature-melting agarose by the slot method. both fragments were labeled with biotin-7-datp by nick translation with a commercial kit. the result of colony and southern hybridization was that: the 2.0 kb probe from australia hybridized with that containing ant(2") from america, while no hybridization occurred ...19911866941
microbiological status of egyptian prawn.a total of 110 prawn individuals were collected from different markets at cairo and giza governorates. the average counts of aerobes, psychrophiles, enterobacteriaceae, coliforms and staphylococci were 5 x 10(3), 3 x 10(2), less than 2 x 10(2), less than 3 and 2 x 10(2) organisms per gram newly caught prawn sample, respectively. such counts were significantly increased in samples collected from markets including raw prawn in shell, raw peeled samples and frozen samples either peeled or in shell. ...19911865888
high frequency of coinfecting enteropathogens in aeromonas-associated diarrhea of hospitalized peruvian infants.rectal swabs from 391 infants less than 18 months of age who were hospitalized with acute diarrhea and from 138 similarly aged healthy infants were examined for the etiologic agents of diarrhea. aeromonas spp. were recovered from 205 of 391 (52.4%) diarrheic patients, whereas they were recovered from 12 of 138 (8.7%) controls (p less than 10(-11). among the 205 aeromonas-positive diarrheic patients, 118 (57.6%) were found to be coinfected with other common enteropathogens. of the 164 aeromonas-p ...19911864933
use of quinolones in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections.bacterial enteropathogens are responsible for between 40% and 80% of diarrheal illness depending upon the age of the persons affected and geographic areas where illness occurs. antibacterial agents will shorten the illness associated with enteric infection caused by enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, shigella spp. and campylobacter jejuni. these drugs also are effective in the therapy of certain clinical conditions (presumably because they are due to the same agents) which are characterized by mo ...19911864292
haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children.of the 4070 children admitted in the department of paediatrics, 830 (24%) presented with diarrhoea. eleven of these had haemolytic ureamic syndrome (hus) characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. only 3 had positive stool cultures (e. coli 2, shigella dysenteriae 1). two children expired while the rest recovered with conservative management and peritoneal dialysis. thus hus should be remembered as a complication of diarrhoea and a cause of ac ...19911861343
surveillance of shigellosis in rural bangladesh: a 10 years review.over a period of 10 years 35,620 patients, admitted from a defined surveillance area, had a rectal swab culture done at a rural diarrhoea treatment centre in bangladesh. shigella spp. were isolated from 3,440 (9.7%) cases. marked year to year variations were observed in isolation rates of shigella spp. ranging from 5.7% to 16.7%. sh. flexneri was the predominant isolate between 1978 to 1982 (56%-67%), sh. dysenteriae type 1 predominated from 1983 to 1985 (45%-50%), and again sh. flexneri became ...19911861342
shigellosis. 19911861289
intestinal obstruction during shigellosis: incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and determine the incidence and outcome of intestinal obstruction during shigellosis, the authors assessed 1211 consecutive patients with shigellosis admitted during a 15-month period to a diarrhea treatment center in dhaka, bangladesh. obstruction was identified in 30 (2.5%) patients. ten (33.3%) of these patients died, compared with 97 (8.2%) of the 1181 patients without obstructions (p less than 0.001; rr = 4.1). in a case-control study, patients with obstructions were compared with 30 control ...19911860627
temperature-regulated expression of invasion genes in shigella flexneri is controlled through the transcriptional activation of the virb gene on the large plasmid.the invasion phenotype of shigellae is subject to thermoregulation that is known to be expressed through activation of some invasion (inv) genes such as ipab, ipac, and ipad encoded by the large virulence plasmid of shigella flexneri. the expression of ipa genes is regulated positively by virf through the activation of virb on the plasmid. to identify the mediator for the thermoregulation of the large plasmid, we have studied the effect of temperature on the transcription of virf and virb genes ...19911857209
enteropathogens associated with acute diarrheal disease in urban infants in são paulo, determine the prevalence and epidemiology of enteropathogens in acute infantile diarrhea, 500 infants less than or equal to 12 months of age with diarrhea and 500 age-matched control subjects coming to a são paulo emergency room were studied. enteropathogens were identified in 55% of case infants and 10% of controls; enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) of classic epec serotypes producing epec adherence factor (eaf) (26% of case infants), rotavirus (14%), salmonella species (8%), enteroto ...19911856482
prospective hospital based study on persistent diarrhoea.a total of 383 children aged less than 5 years suffering from acute watery diarrhoea or dysentery were studied in hospital to determine the rate of persistent diarrhoea. altogether 335 (87.5%) recovered within 13 days. only in 48 (12.5%) did the diarrhoea continue for 14 days or more, and they were considered as having persistent diarrhoea. children aged between 7 and 18 months had a significantly increased incidence of persistent diarrhoea. children suffering from grade ii-iv malnutrition const ...19911855686
is200 is not a member of the is600 family of insertion sequences. 19911851557
virulence-associated chromosomal loci of shigella flexneri identified by random tn5 insertion mutagenesis.shigellae are the causative agents of bacillary dysentery and are capable of invading epithelial cells, multiplying therein and spreading into adjacent cells. to identify genes on the chromosome associated with the virulence phenotype, 9114 independent tn5 insertion mutants were isolated in a virulent strain of shigella flexneri. by using an in vitro assay for intercellular spread or an animal infection model, the serény test, 50 chromosomal tn5 mutants with reduced virulence were identified. th ...19911849606
four types of is1 with differences in nucleotide sequence reside in the escherichia coli k-12 chromosome.the escherichia coli k-12 chromosome contains six copies of insertion element is1 at loci is1a-is1f. we determined their nucleotide (nt) sequences and found that they were classified into four types. two copies of is1 which flank a chromosomal segment containing the argf gene (is1b and is1c) have identical nt sequences. another identical pair are is1a and is1e. comparison of their nt sequences with the is1 in plasmid r100 revealed seven nt mismatches for is1a (or is1e), two for is1b (or is1c), f ...19911849492
vaccines and milk immunoglobulin concentrates for prevention of infectious diarrhea.considerable progress has been made in the last decade in developing vaccines against the most important enteric infections. two new, widely licensed vaccines (oral ty21a and parenteral vi) are available against typhoid fever, and new attenuated salmonella typhi strains are ready for testing. an engineered live orally administered cholera vaccine, cvd 103-hgr, is undergoing clinical trials for safety, immunogenicity, and transmissibility in children in areas where cholera is endemic. multiple ca ...19911848888
molecular epidemiology of shigella infections: plasmid profiles, serotype correlation, and restriction endonuclease analysis.plasmid isolation was used to refine the epidemiologic analysis for 168 shigellosis cases in pima county, ariz. plasmids of less than 20 kb were used for comparison of plasmid profiles. plasmid patterns for each species were distinct. a total of 57 of 74 (77%) shigella flexneri strains could be placed into seven plasmid patterns, 70 of 79 (89%) shigella sonnei strains could be placed into seven patterns, 12 shigella boydii strains could be placed into six patterns, and each of 3 shigella dysente ...19911847148
genetic analysis of the enterobactin gene cluster in shigella flexneri.the genes for transport and synthesis of the phenolate siderophore enterobactin are present on the chromosomes of both ent+ and ent- clinical isolates of shigella flexneri. to determine why ent- s. flexneri isolates fail to express a functional enterobactin system, the structure and expression of enterobactin genes were examined. several alterations may be responsible for the inability of s. flexneri to express enterobactin. (i) the mrna levels produced from the entc and fepb genes were not dere ...19911846151
multiply-resistant shigella sonnei from recent outbreaks in canada. 19911843661
antimicrobial susceptibilities of shigella species isolated in ontario in 1990. 19911843660
genetic analysis of homology between the virulence plasmids of salmonella dublin and yersinia pseudotuberculosis.two segments within the virulence region of salmonella dublin plasmid psdl2 that were homologous to regions on yersinia pseudotuberculosis plasmid pib1 were located with regard to the four known genes (vsda, vsdb, vsdc, and vsdd) of psdl2. one segment mapped upstream of vsda within an insertion element related to is630 of shigella sonnei; the second was confined to a 45-bp sequence containing an inverted repeat between vsdc and vsdd. on pib1, both areas were located in an intergenic region upstr ...19911840573
[public health problems in relation to refugees].in hessen, obligatory health examination of refugees includes the following: clinical examination, faecal bacteriological examination for salmonella and shigella, chest x-ray of persons aged 3 years and older, lues- and hepatitis b serology in case of persons of 16 years of age and older. the results obtained with 3453 refugees were analysed: there were remarkable differences according to country of origin. in connection with public health, only two diseases are important: tuberculosis and lues. ...19911837866
[the structure of the population morbidity with specific intestinal infections in areas with different intensities in the development of the epidemic process and an evaluation of its manifestations].the authors analyze the morbidity structure in five enteric infections (typhoid fever, dysentery caused by shigella flexneri and shigella sonnei, hepatitis a, and hepatitis e (non a, non b) with the fecal/oral mechanism of the agent transmission) in three towns of turkmenia and in the town of novomoskovsk, tula province. the incidence of s. sonnei dysentery was found higher in novomoskovsk and that of the rest enteric infections under study in turkmenia. the incidence of typhoid fever and hepati ...19911836925
oral enteric vaccines--clinical trials.oral enteric vaccines are reviewed with particular reference to cholera and typhoid. enterotoxigenic e. coli, shigella and rotavirus vaccines are also considered. clinical trials of those potentially useful vaccines are surveyed.19911836466
[the epidemiological characteristics of dysentery outbreaks caused by infected milk]. 19911835232
[the manifestations of the epidemic process in shigellosis and their theoretical interpretation].this work, based on the retrospective analysis of shigellosis morbidity among organized groups of adults, as well as the whole population of the city, demonstrates the manifestations of the epidemic process. water supply was common in the city, while water consumption was autonomous. the organized groups of adults did not use the products of the local milk-processing factory. the following facts were established. the dynamics of morbidity in flexner's dysentery showed the change of dominating va ...19911830443
synthesis and siderophore and antibacterial activity of n5-acetyl-n5-hydroxy-l-ornithine-derived siderophore-beta-lactam conjugates: iron-transport-mediated drug delivery.n5-acetyl-n5-hydroxy-l-ornithyl-n5-acetyl-n5-hydroxy-l-ornithyl-n5-acety l- n5-hydroxy-l-ornithine, the functionally instrumental component of the albomycins and ferrichromes, has been incorporated as a "carrier" substructure into both carbacephalosporin and oxamazin type beta-lactam antibiotics. the previously synthesized protected version of this tripeptide (14) was coupled with various beta-lactam analogues 17, 19, 24, and 25 to give protected conjugates 21, 22, 26, and 27. final deprotection ...19911825850
synthesis and siderophore activity of albomycin-like peptides derived from n5-acetyl-n5-hydroxy-l-ornithine.n5-acetyl-n5-hydroxy-l-ornithine (1), the key constituent of several microbial siderophores, has been synthesized in 23% yield overall from n-cbz-l-glutamic acid 1-tert-butyl ester (6) derived from l-glutamic acid. reduction of 6 to 7 and treatment with n-[(trichloroethoxy)carbonyl]-o-benzylhydroxylamine (8), and diethyl azodicarboxylate and triphenylphosphine followed by deprotection produced the protected n5-acetyl-n5-hydroxy-l-ornithine derivatives 11 and 12 in large quantities (10-20 g). fol ...19911825849
bacterial endotoxins: comparison of mitogenic, polyclonal, antibody-inducing and toxicity activities.the mitogenic effects on mouse spleen lymphocytes were determined in a large series of commercially available and laboratory-prepared lipopolysaccharides (lps) obtained from escherichia, salmonella, serratia and shigella species; part of these lps preparations was chemically modified prior to testing. in order to establish whether the degree of mitogenic activity corresponds with other biological effects of these preparations, polyclonal activity, capability to induce specific antibody formation ...19911823655
expression of virulence and antibiotic resistance in an escherichia coli transconjugant carrying a large plasmid pcat120 of shigella dysenteriae type i and its spontaneous fragmentations.the role of a 120-kb plasmid in relation to virulence and drug resistance factor in shigella dysenteriae was studied. for characterization of plasmids, the mating system is a useful and efficient means of transferring both large and small plasmids to a new host. the conjugative transfer of a 120-kb (pcat120) ampicillin-resistant plasmid of s. dysenteriae to e. coli k-12 was not successful. introduction of an e. coli fertility factor plasmid f, did not help to mobilize the plasmid. low transfer f ...19911823646
[epidemiology of shigellosis and colicin typing of shigella sonnei. a 14-year study].to study the most important epidemiologic features of shigellosis and the application of colicinotyping as an epidemiologic marker for shigella sonnei. a total of 44.818 stoll-cultures were performed. we classify, using colicinotyping, 156 shigella sonnei strains isolated from different patients. the incidence of shigellosis in our media is low (1.08% of all stool-cultures). it is more frequent in pediatric population and increases on late summer and fall. we had been able to show an increasing ...19911822704
beta-d-glucuronidase (bdg) activity of gram-negative bacteria.bdg is an inducible enzyme that is encoded by the uida gene in escherichia coli. genetic sequences of this gene are present in most if not all e. coli strains regardless of the bdg phenotype. expression of bdg activity can be influenced by lactose-induced catabolite repression or genetic mutations. salmonella, shigella and yersinia strains frequently exhibit positive bdg reaction. bdg activity of strains belonging to genus edwardsiella, serratia, yersinia, vibrio, erwinia, alcaligenes, acinetoba ...19911817425
mucosal immunity and vaccination.the gut mucosal immune system is a critical component of the body's defense against pathogenic organisms, especially those responsible for enteric infections associated with diarrhoeal disease. attempts to vaccinate against infections of mucosal tissues have been less successful than vaccination against systemic infections, to a large extent reflecting a still incomplete knowledge about the most efficient means for inducing protective local immune responses at these sites. secretory iga (siga) i ...19911815705
[bacteria of the genus yersinia in chickens for human consumption and in balanced bird food].yersinia was investigated in 50 skin samples of chicken carcasses from retail shops and 65 samples of balanced food for domestic fowl. enrichments were performed in saline phosphate buffer 0.067 m, ph 7.6 and post-enriched in 0.5% koh. subcultures were performed in salmonella-shigella agar and macconkey agar. isolates were identified through biochemical, serological and lysotyping methods. the following biovar (b), serovar (o) and phagovar (lis) were isolated from chickens: y. enterocolitica (fi ...19911815265
[antigenic analysis and identification of serotype for an arguable strain of shigella].a strain of shigella, 51331, was isolated abroad in 1935, and stored in the center for medical culture collection, beijing. since the serotype of this strain was arguable in china. it was identified as sh. flexneri var. x with antigenic analysis. as agglutinin absorption technic was used in preparing diagnostic factor serum, it appears that the culture of strain 51331 could be agglutinated by shigella antiserum flexner type 3 (sh. flexneri) made in china and england. the present author suggested ...19911814048
[cloning and expression of shiga-toxin gene from shigella dysenteriae type i].the chromosomal dna of s. dysenteriae type i w30864 was isolated and digested by ecori. the 3-7 kb dna fragments were recovered and ligated with vector puc-19. after transformation, the recombinants were screened by slt gene probe. the positive clones were obtained. the cloned ecori fragment containing both st-a and st-b subunit gene was about 4.5 kb. the cloned st strain was also detected by hela-s3 cell for cytotoxicity, and detected by rabbit ileal loop test for enterotoxicity. besides, the c ...19911814045
salmonella and shigella gastroenteritis at a public teaching hospital in nairobi, measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with salmonella and shigella species.19911813577
[the fibronectin binding of salmonellae studied by a passive hemagglutination method].the study has shown that the fibronectin-binding properties of different salmonella species can be tested by means of passive hemagglutination with fibronectin-sensitized formulated sheep red blood cells (srbc). s. enteritidis and s. typhimurium isolated from foodstuffs, as well as the representatives of the species s. kottbus, s. anatum, s. tshiongwe and s. newlands, are capable of binding fibronectin. fibronectin-binding properties have also been detected in shigella sonnei, as well as in eubi ...19911811395
[the correction of disorders in the cytoenzymatic status of the immunocytes in shigella infection by using taktivin].cytoenzymatic and morphological methods were used to reveal local and general immunity disorders in patients with lingering and chronic dysentery. in this connection the therapeutic effect of the immunomodulator t-activin was estimated. 51 patients with the above forms of dysentery were examined. the patients were distributed into basic groups given t-activin and control groups not on the drug. the function of immune cells was evaluated by the enzymic status--the ratio of the activity of the fol ...19911810056
[the functional status of the endocrine pancreas in patients with acute intestinal infections].ria was used to measure the content of insulin, c-peptide and glucagon in blood plasma of 84 patients with acute dysentery and food toxicoinfections. the studies were carried out in the acute disease period and before the discharge from hospital. the data obtained indicate that despite the appreciable differences in the disease pathogenesis, the pathophysiological mechanisms influencing pancreatic function are similar in many respects. the changes are characterized by an increase in plasma insul ...19911810055
[humoral and cellular immunity in patients with acute dysentery]. 19911810054
[the treatment of protracted forms of flexner dysentery].the clinical efficacy of sodium nucleinate (sn) combined with splenin and quercetin given for lingering flexner's dysentery in a group of 43 patients was compared with that of routine therapy used in a group of the same number of patients. it has been established that the above drug combination favours the elimination of the pathological symptoms of dyspepsia, the arrest of bacterial isolation and normalization of the immune status. provided the effect of the combined drug treatment is insuffici ...19911810053
[the role of a secondary immunodeficiency in the pathogenesis of different forms of dysentery]. 19911810052
milk secretory iga related to shigella virulence antigens.20 mexico city and 23 houston, texas colostrum samples, and 21 mexican and 25 houston mature milk samples were analyzed by elisa and western blot, respectively, for antibodies against the virulence plasmid of shigella flexneri serotype 5 strain m9ot. the method involved comparing water extracts of milk in elisa and western blot determinations of antigens against shigella flexneri strain m9ot which is fully virulent, to those against m9ot a2 which lacks the virulence plasmid. while there are at ...19911809012
association of human milk siga antibodies with maternal intestinal exposure to microbial antigens. 19911808998
neonatal shigellosis. 19911808054
changing antibiotic sensitivity patterns in shigellosis.over five and a half months stool cultures were performed in 154 patients admitted with suspected bacillary dysentery to the professorial paediatric unit of the teaching hospital, galle. thirty one patients had a positive stool culture; shigella dysenteriae type 1 was isolated in 23 patients, and s flexneri in 8. in both groups the antibiotic sensitivity pattern was uniform, the only difference being s dysenteriae type 1 being resistant to nalidixic acid while s flexneri was sensitive. this anti ...19911807844
[clinical effect and laboratory observation of ofloxacin in the treatment of typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery and gonorrhea].ofloxacin was used in the treatment of 20 cases of typhoid fever, 32 cases of bacillary dysentery and 50 cases of gonococcal infection. altogether 102 cases were treated, 53 being male and 49 female. the daily dosage was 400 mg to 600 mg, divided into two times. the result showed that the clinical effective rate for typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery and gonococcal infections was 100%, 97% and 94% respectively, while the bacterial eradication rate was 100%, 100% and 94% respectively. the bacteri ...19911806341
what is the diagnostic value of beta-d-glucuronidase (bdg) activity of bacteria using fluorocult ecd agar for their cultivation?a total of 1510 strains from 15 genera of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were studied. more than 94% of 327 escherichia coli strains showed beta-d-glucuronidase (bdg) activity. seventeen serotypes from 170 e. coli o serogroup representatives were negative. relationship between the existence of bdg positive and negative e. coli strains in the same serogroup or serotype has not been observed. the rate of bdg positivity was 42% among salmonella arizonae strains and 42.2% among shigella st ...19911805501
technological aspect of the production of live dysentery vaccines for oral experimental technology for the production of live freeze-dried vaccines prepared from attenuated shigella flexneri 2a and shigella sonnei i strains was developed. it is based on the cultivation of bacterial strains in a fermentor under conditions which ensure high yields. the strains grow in s-form, their antigenic structure is preserved and they remain non-virulent. the attenuating markers are stable. the freeze-dried vaccines retain good immunogenicity when applied intra-intestinally to ra ...19911805499
a fatal case associated with shigellosis and vibrio fluvialis bacteremia. 19911802539
correlation between congo red binding as virulence marker in shigella species and sereny test.six variants of nutrient agar were tested in order to chose the suitable media for congo red binding test. trypto-soy eiken, t.s.a - cantacuzino institute and b.t.s.d. (a medium prepared with difco ingredients) are appropriate to distinguish between virulent crb+ and avirulent crb- strains. congo red binding was compared with sereny test using 25 shigella strains. the strains were inoculated onto trypto-soy agar eiken plates with 0.01% congo red, incubated 24 hours at 37 degrees c. a number of e ...19911802051
[the adhesive properties of bacteria of intestinal origin].differences between strains of nonpathogenic escherichia and lactobacilli, as well as some pathogenic bacteria of enteric origin (escherichia, shigella, campylobacter), in their capacity to adhesion to rat enteric and colonic cells have been shown in vitro. the strains under study have been found to possess more pronounced adhesiveness with respect to colonic cells, which is indicative of their higher receptive capacity in comparison with enteric cells. in the absence of normal microflora lactob ...19911801491
[shigella sonnei. an epidemic in a day-care institution].epidemics caused by dysentery bacteria among children and adults in day-institutions are rare in denmark. the course of an epidemic of this type is reviewed. thirty children and six adults went on holiday to a deserted farmer's cottage under primitive conditions in the southern swedish woods. immediately prior to this holiday, two of the adults had had serious gastrointestinal infections during a hiking trip in south america. shigella sonnei was subsequently demonstrated in the stools from a tot ...19911801384
serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of shigella isolates in singapore.serogrouping of 506 shigella strains isolated in singapore from 1986 to 1990 showed that shigella flexneri (60.3%) was the most common, followed by s. sonnei (33.6%), s. boydii (3.2%) and s. dysenteriae (3%). of the 23 shigella serotypes identified, the predominant ones were s. flexneri types 2a and 1b, s. boydii types 1 and 5, and s. dysenteriae types 1 and 3. more than 80% of the shigella species were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug, and the incidence of multiresistance was partic ...19911800565
campylobacter and enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) associated gastroenteritis in turkish children.from may 1989 to april 1990, stool specimens of 677 children less than 15-years old who were admitted to the hacettepe university outpatient department of pediatrics with acute enteritis were collected to search for four common enteric pathogens: salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec). at least one of the three bacteria was detected in 107 (15.8%) of the patients. campylobacter was found in 72 (10.6%) of the samples. shigella and salmonella spp. were ...19911800562
a study of the bacterial and parasitic causes of acute diarrhoea in northern jordan.the prevalence of bacterial and parasitic diarrhoeagenic agents in 200 patients suffering from acute diarrhoea and reporting to hospitals and health centres in northern jordan, and in controls was determined. one or more bacterial or parasitic enteropathogens was isolated from 79 patients (39.5%). prevalence rates for these pathogens was as follows: enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, 9%; enteropathogenic e. coli, 9%; salmonella spp. 7%; campylobacter spp, 5.5%; yersinia enterocolitica, 4.5%; shig ...19911800560
an epidemic of waterborne shigella gastroenteritis in kibbutzim of western galilee in an epidemic of shigella sonnei gastroenteritis, probably waterborne, 1216 people were affected within three weeks, 302 of them members of communal settlements, the kibbutzim. a descriptive study of the epidemic in six affected kibbutzim in the area showed that the highest rates of diarrhoea occurred in a kibbutz that received its drinking water solely from the allegedly contaminated well. people at high risk within the kibbutzim were temporary visitors from europe and the us (the volunteers), ...19911800407
prognostic indicators and risk factors for increased duration of acute diarrhoea and for persistent diarrhoea in identify the prognostic indicators and risk factors for increased duration of acute diarrhoea and for occurrence of persistent diarrhoea (i.e. acute episodes lasting longer than 14 days) in children under three years, a systematic sample (3690) of patients attending a large treatment centre in bangladesh was analysed using multiple regression, logistic regression and stratified (mantel-haenszel) analysis. significant prognostic indicators or risk factors for increase in duration of acute diar ...19911800405
role of faecal leucocytes in the diagnostic evaluation of acute diarrhoea.the value of faecal leucocyte examination was assessed in 400 infants with acute diarrhoea and 40 normal healthy infants. enteropathogens were isolated from 28.75%. escherichia coli was the commonest (16.5%) followed by salmonella typhimurium (7%), vibrio cholerae (3.25%) and shigella flexneri (1.5%). exudative response was observed in 57.1% of stools with salmonella and 66.6% each with shigella and e.i.e.c. infections. 81.3%, 89.5% and 87.7% of stools from which epec and etec and no enteropatho ...19911797652
[bacillary dysentery--1989]. 19911796165
[plasmid analysis of antibiotic resistant shigella isolates].a correlation between the multiple drug resistance patterns and the plasmid profiles given by 70 clinical isolates of shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri was investigated in this study. the most common plasmids were purified from different isolates by electroelution and characterized via restriction endonuclease digestions.19911795658
[the characteristics of the course of typhoid-paratyphoid diseases combined with acute dysentery]. 19911792774
sequence variation in two ipah genes of shigella flexneri 5 and homology to the lrg-like family of proteins.oligonucleotide primers derived from the ipah7.8 sequence have been used to determine the boundaries of dna sequence homology among five ipah genes on the invasion plasmid (pwr100) of shigella flexneri 5, strain m9ot-w. the primary structure of ipah4.5 has been established from dna sequence analysis. the first 197 amino acids in ipah7.8 were replaced in ipah4.5 by a unique set of 251 amino acids, generating two related proteins with variable and conserved sequences. the amino-terminal region of ...19911791758
synthesis, antimicrobial, and antitumor activity of a series of palladium(ii) mixed ligand complexes.mixed ligand complexes of cisdichloromethioninepalladium(ii) with 2-mercaptopyrimidine and 2-aminopyrimidine were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity data, infrared, and 1h nmr and 13c nmr spectra. in these mixed ligand complexes methionine coordinates to palladium through amino nitrogen and sulphur, thus leaving a free carboxylic acid group. the pyrimidine ligand coordinates to metal ion through n3. mixed ligand complexes of cisdichloroethioninepalladium(ii) with c ...19911791468
a possible role of crows in the spread of diarrhoeal diseases in aden.the indian house crow (corvus splendens) has increased dramatically in number in aden. these birds pollute the environment by dropping their faecal material all over the city. they may accordingly be related to important public health problems. the present work aimed at investigating the possibility that they play a role in the spread of diarrheal diseases. one hundred and fifty crows were collected and their liver, intestine and cloaca examined bacteriologically for enterobacteriaceae and vibri ...19911791416
[in vitro antimicrobial activity of rokitamycin, a macrolide antibacterial agent, against clinically isolated strains of campylobacter and other enteritis-causing bacteria].we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of rokitamycin (tms-19-q, rkm), a macrolide antimicrobial agent, against strains of various bacterial species isolated from enteritis patients, and compared them with those of josamycin (jm), erythromycin (em) and ofloxacin (oflx). mic90 of rkm against 147 strains of campylobacter jejuni, and each 25 strains of shigella spp., salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic escherichia coli were 1.56, 200, 800 and 200 micrograms/ml, respectively. there ...19911791330
evaluation of an intervention program in the control of an urban outbreak of outbreaks of shigellosis are a persistent public health problem. we evaluated the effect of a household-based intervention program on the control of an urban outbreak of s. sonnei gastroenteritis. during the intervention we attempted to contact all households with culture-confirmed s. sonnei and provide education in methods to prevent spread of shigella. subsequently we conducted a survey of intervention (n = 43) and nonintervention (n = 33) households. we also conducted a serosur ...19911790035
["the modern theoretical and practical concepts of the epidemiology of shigellosis" and the culture of discussions]. 19911789045
[the culture of discussions and a little bit on the epidemiology of intestinal infections]. 19911789044
[the effect of the synergistic action of enterotoxin on the specific protective complex of shigella sonnei].the study has first established that enterotoxin enhances the protective potency of s. sonnei specific protective complex. this effect has been revealed both in experiments of the oral immunization of mice and in experiments of the conjunctival immunization of guinea pigs and depends on the dose of enterotoxin used in the experiment. the increase of protection has a specific character. these observations open prospects for further enhancement for the protective properties of s. sonnei specific p ...19911789032
childhood diarrhoea in a low-income urban community in bangkok: incidence, clinical features, and child caretaker's behaviours.a one-year surveillance study of childhood diarrhoea in a low-income urban community in bangkok revealed an annual incidence of 2.2 episodes per child among infants, and that the overall annual incidence among children under five years of age was 0.9 per child. rotavirus, salmonella and campylobacter jejuni were common aetiologic agents. in children less than one year, diarrhoea was caused mostly by rotavirus and salmonella. in 1-2 year old children, the major causative agent was rotavirus while ...19911787280
[latex test used for diagnosis of dysentery caused by shigella sonnei].the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of latex reagent coated with immunoglobulins specific for antigens of phase i and ii of s. sonnei for detection of these antigens in primary, mixed bacterial cultures. the study was performed on 919 fecal samples from individuals with clinical symptoms of dysentery, convalescents and from contact individuals. material used for the test was bacterial suspension collected from mcconkey or ss agars and a culture from selenite f broth heated at 10 ...19911784135
diarrhoeal disease in children less than one year of age at a children's hospital in guangzhou, people's republic of china.we performed a case-control study of diarrhoea to determine its causes in children less than 1 year old in guangzhou, people's republic of china, in april to september 1989. stools were cultured for salmonella, shigella, campylobacter and vibrios by standard techniques; rotavirus (rv) was identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; and specific deoxyribonucleic acid probes were used to identify escherichia coli containing genes coding for shiga-like toxin i and ii, enteropathogenic e. coli ...19911781004
effect of duration of diarrhoea and predictive values of stool leucocytes and red blood cells in the isolation of different serogroups or serotypes of shigella.diarrhoeal stools from 11,358 patients were microscopically examined for the presence of white and red blood cells (wbc and rbc) and cultured for enteric pathogens. of the 3895 patients who had shigella as sole pathogens, 2681 (72.3%) showed the presence of both wbc and rbc and the remainder had only wbc (p less than 0.001). the presence of both wbc and rbc was as good a predictor of shigellosis as the presence of greater than 25 wbc per high power field (hpf) of the microscope with or without r ...19911781003
molecular pathogenesis of shigellosis: a review. 19911779886
regulation of toxa and rega by the escherichia coli fur gene and identification of a fur homologue in pseudomonas aeruginosa pa103 and pa01.a multicopy plasmid containing the escherichia coli fur gene was introduced into pseudomonas aeruginosa strain pa103c. this strain contains a toxa-lacz fusion integrated into its chromosome at the toxa locus. beta-galactosidase synthesis in this strain is regulated by iron, as is seen for exotoxin a production. beta-galactosidase synthesis and exotoxin a production in pa103c containing multiple copies of e. coli fur was still repressed in low iron conditions. the transcription of rega, a positiv ...19911779768
environmental signals induce major changes in virulence of shigella spp.growth conditions play a major role in expression of virulence by shigella spp. both in vitro (adherence and internalization in eukaryotic host cells) and in vivo (keratoconjunctivitis). optimized expression of virulence required anaerobic growth to log phase in particular media such as brain heart infusion broth. kinetic studies of guinea pig eye infections showed that as few as 2 x 10(5) s. dysenteriae cg097 or s. flexneri m90t, grown under these optimized conditions, produced keratoconjunctiv ...19911778444
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