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introduction to united states department of agriculture vetnet: status of salmonella and campylobacter databases from 2004 through 2005.in 2003 the united states department of agriculture established usda vetnet. it was modeled after pulsenet usa, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. the objectives of usda vetnet are: to use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) to subtype zoonotic pathogens submitted to the animal arm of the national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system (narms); examine vetnet and pulsenet pfge patterns; and use the data for surveillance and investigation of suspe ...200717600492
risk areas and neighborhood-level risk factors for shigella dysenteriae 1 and shigella flexneri.annually, there are 165 million cases of shigellosis resulting in 1.1 million deaths in the developing world. two species of the causative agent, shigella dysenteriae 1 and shigella flexneri, are responsible for acute diarrheal illness. vaccines are being developed against both but many questions remain about the disease burden, distribution of species in space and time, and community-level risk factors. this study answers two questions. what are the differences in neighborhood-level risk factor ...200817602851
in vitro activity of cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefatrizine and cefpirome in presence of essential and trace elements.evidences supporting the introduction of metallic elements in several biological processes are rapidly accumulating. likewise, many drugs possess modified toxicological and pharmacological properties when in the form of metal complexes. in order to ascertain the role of various essential and trace element complexation on the antibacterial activity of various cephalosporins, the synergistic or antagonistic behavior of cefadroxil, cephalexin, cefatrizine and cefpirome in presence of essential and ...200717604254
rapid and simultaneous quantitation of escherichia coli 0157:h7, salmonella, and shigella in ground beef by multiplex real-time pcr and immunomagnetic separation.the objective of this study was to establish a multiplex real-time pcr for the simultaneous quantitation of escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, and shigella. genomic dna for the real-time pcr was extracted by the boiling method. three sets of primers and corresponding taqman probes were designed to target these three pathogenic bacteria. multiplex real-time pcr was performed with taqman universal pcr master mix in an abi prism 7700 sequence detection system. final standard curves were calculat ...200717612065
pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of brazil.oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from june 1998 to march 1999, in the cananéia estuary, on the south coast of são paulo, brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. aeromonas spp., plesiomonas shigelloides, vibrio cholerae o1, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (mpn) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. the ...200717613090
prevalence of enterotoxigenic staphylococcus aureus and shigella spp. in some raw street vended indian foods.in india, the street food trade is a growing sector with its expansion linked with urbanisation and the need of urban populations for both employment and food. however, the microbiological status of popularly consumed raw street foods, general hygienic and vending practices are not known. we visited 75 vendors (50 having fixed stalls and 25 with mobile stalls) operating in three major locations: mandi (open market place), bus terminus and railway station in new delhi and patiala city. a total of ...200717616871
differences in the electrostatic surfaces of the type iii secretion needle proteins prgi, bsal, and mxih.gram-negative bacteria use a needle-like protein assembly, the type iii secretion apparatus, to inject virulence factors into target cells to initiate human disease. the needle is formed by the polymerization of approximately 120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. we previously reported the structure of the bsal needle monomer from burkholderia pseudomallei by nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy and others have determined the crystal structure o ...200717617421
distribution of serogroups and serotypes of multiple drug resistant shigella isolates.summary200717622331
detection of the causative agent of furunculusis, aeromonas salmonicida in salmonids of the krka river.in this paper we describe the bacterial community associated with salmonids from the krka river. diversity analysis demonstrated that majority of the recovered bacteria were related to aeromonadaceae group. bacterial analysis also revealed the presence of shigella spp. and pseudomonas fluorescens. isolation of aeromonas salmonicida from trout, presents first isolation of this bacteria croatian rivers.200817624808
site-specific modification of shigella flexneri virf mrna by trna-guanine transglycosylase in vitro.shigella flexneri is an enteropathogen responsible for severe dysentery in humans. virf is a key transcriptional regulator that activates the expression of the downstream virulence factors required for cellular invasion and cell-to-cell spread of this pathogen. there are several environmental factors that induce the translation of virf including temperature, ph, osmolarity and post-transcriptional rna modification. durand and colleagues (vacc, a virulence-associated chromosomal locus of shigella ...200717626052
core-linked lps expression of shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 o-antigen in live salmonella typhi vaccine vector ty21a: preclinical evidence of immunogenicity and protection.shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (s. dysenteriae 1) causes severe shigellosis that is typically associated with high mortality. antibodies against shigella serotype-specific o-polysaccharide (o-ps) have been shown to be host protective. in this study, the rfb locus and the rfp gene with their cognate promoter regions were pcr-amplified from s. dysenteriae 1, cloned, and sequenced. deletion analysis showed that eight rfb orfs plus rfp are necessary for biosynthesis of this o-ps. a tandemly-linked ...200717629369
[prevention and treatment of acute diarrhea in infants].the prognosis of acute diarrhoea in infants is most often satisfactory in industrialized countries. however, it has been estimated that 10 to 15 children die every year in france from acute dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. in spite of an increasing use over the least few years, oral rehydration solutions (ors) are used in only 70% of infants presenting with acute diarrhoea. the use of homemade ors, plain water or fizzy drink should be strictly avoided. in case of acute diarrhoea there is no i ...200717629685
[prevalence of the bacteria causing diarrea in a rosario hospital, argentina].bacterial agents causing diarrea in patients attended in a hospital of rosario, argentina. the frequency of bacterial agents causing diarrhea can vary in patients of different areas, and through the time. in an epidemiological surveillance we studied 304 patients with diarrheal diseases looking for salmonella enterica, shigella spp, campylobacter spp, aeromonas spp, yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheogenic escherichia coli. c. jejuni was isolated in 30 patients (9,9 %), salmonella in 18 (5,9 % ...200617639815
study of predominant bacterial antigens triggering antibody response in salmonella reactive arthritis: apropos of a case.reactive arthritis (rea) is a sterile arthritis triggered by distal mucosal infection, which suggests a contribution from bacterial products. the pathogenesis of rea is unclear. there are no international standards for the serological methods used to confirm rea. in the present work, we analyzed the predominant bacterial component that triggered an immune response in a 24-year-old woman with acute rea. the candidate bacterial trigger was investigated by measuring the antibacterial antibodies (al ...200717642539
changing resistance pattern of shigella isolates in a delhi hospital: an alarming trend. 200417642737
diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli and other causes of childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study in children living in a wastewater-use area in hanoi, vietnam.a case-control study was conducted to identify the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in pre-school children in a suburban area of hanoi where the use of untreated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture is a common practice. stool specimens and clinical information were collected from 111 pairs of children with diarrhoea and healthy controls. a total of 73 cases (66 %) and 41 controls (36 %) had an enteric pathogen. the pathogens most often associated with diarrhoea were rotavirus (17 % of case ...200717644717
drastic decrease of salmonella enteritidis isolated from humans in belgium in 2005, shift in phage types and influence on foodborne outbreaks.in belgium, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are the two most frequently reported foodborne illnesses. during 2005, a 71% decrease of salmonella enteritidis infections compared with the average annual number cases in the period 2000-2004 was recorded by the belgian national reference centre for salmonella and shigella. after the peak of 1999, the total number of salmonellosis cases decreased gradually, with the exception of 2003 when an increase was again recorded due to the ri ...200817645812
high prevalence of ctx-m-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among contacts of patients with shigellosis due to shigella flexneri carrying ctx-m-15. 200717646198
report on a condition affecting foxes caused by shigella organisms. 195017648461
[study on molecular epidemiology of shigella in hangzhou district during 1998 to 2005]. 200717649701
the two-faced role of cad genes in the virulence of pathogenic escherichia coli.in enterobacteria, acid stress induces expression of the cad system which is involved in maintaining intracellular ph at levels compatible with cell survival. despite its crucial role, the cad operon is silenced in shigella and in other pathogenic escherichia coli. in the present review, we will address the question of why and how the cad locus has been sacrificed for the sake of optimal expression of virulence traits.200717656072
anaerobic regulation of shigella flexneri virulence: arca regulates fur and iron acquisition genes.invasion and plaque formation in epithelial monolayers are routinely used to assess the virulence of shigella flexneri, a causative agent of dysentery. a modified plaque assay was developed to identify factors contributing to the virulence of s. flexneri under the anaerobic conditions present in the colon. this assay demonstrated the importance of the ferrous iron transport system feo, as well as the global transcription factors fur, arca, and fnr, for shigella plaque formation in anoxic environ ...200717660284
identification of minor inner-membrane components of the shigella type iii secretion system 'needle complex'.type iii secretion systems (t3sss or secretons) are central virulence factors of many gram-negative bacteria, used to inject protein effectors of virulence into eukaryotic host cells. their overall morphology, consisting of a cytoplasmic region, an inner- and outer-membrane section and an extracellular needle, is conserved in various species. a portion of the secreton, containing the transmembrane regions and needle, has been isolated biochemically and termed the 'needle complex' (nc). however, ...200717660405
the acid-resistance pathways of shigella flexneri 2457t.the stationary-phase acid-resistance pathways of shigella flexneri 2457t have not previously been studied. the two acid-resistance systems, the glutamate-dependent acid-resistance (gdar) and the oxidative pathways, reported elsewhere for escherichia coli and s. flexneri 3136, were both detected in s. flexneri 2457t. however, s. flexneri 2457t cells grown overnight under fermentative conditions and acid-shocked in minimal media in the absence of glutamate, an acid test often described as a negati ...200717660423
shigella flexneri phagosomal escape is independent of invasion.infections with salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and shigella flexneri result in mucosal inflammation in response to epithelial cell invasion and macrophage cytotoxicity. these processes are mediated by type iii secretion systems encoded in homologous virulence loci in the two species, namely, salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (spi-1), carried in the genome, and the shigella entry region (ser), carried in a large virulence plasmid. here we show that spi-1 can functionally complement a del ...200717664266
prevalence of bacterial pathogens in biofilms of drinking water distribution systems.water for human consumption is required to be free from any bacteria that might pose a health risk. the presence of biofilms in the drinking water distribution system may play a role in the presence of potential pathogens in the drinking water supply. ninety-five biofilm samples from various parts of south africa were tested for the presence of escherichia coli, aeromonas, pseudomonas, salmonella, shigella and vibrio spp. members of these genera were quantified by the three-tube most probable nu ...200717674571
genes under positive selection in escherichia coli.we used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of escherichia coli and shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. we find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the e. coli genome, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. st ...200717675366
recent gene conversions between duplicated glutamate decarboxylase genes (gada and gadb) in pathogenic escherichia coli.escherichia coli have evolved adaptive systems to resist strongly acidic habitats in part through the production of 2 biochemically identical isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (gad), encoded by the gada and gadb genes. these genes occur in e. coli and other members of the genospecies (e.g., shigella spp.) and originated as part of a genomic fitness island acquired early in escherichia evolution. the present duplicated gad loci are widely spaced on the e. coli chromosome, and the 2 genes are 97 ...200717675652
serum sperm antibodies after diarrhoeal diseases.the origin of 'natural' anti-sperm antibodies found in fertile humans, virgin girls, and boys before puberty, is quite obscure. one hypothetical mechanism relates their existence to inflammatory gastrointestinal entities: as a result of the disease, cross-reactive antibodies produced against gastrointestinal flora bind spermatozoa. to test this assumption, we evaluated the level of serum sperm antibodies after diarrhoeal infections. serum samples from 17 patients with shigellosis and 12 patients ...200717683470
escherichia coli, shigella and salmonella species in acute diarrhoea in hamedan, islamic republic of iran.this study investigated the frequency of escherichia col, shigella and salmonella species in stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea presenting to health centres in hamedan province, islamic republic of iran. from 144 samples, shigella strains were isolated in 17 cases (11.8%): 10 sh. flexneri, 3 sh. sonnei, 2 sh. boydii and 2 untyped strains. no salmonella strains were isolated. using molecular diagnostic methods, diarrheogenic e. coli were detected in 37 cases (25.7%), the majority were e ...200717684844
outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. part 1. description of the problem, methods, and agents involved.food workers in many settings have been responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks for decades, and there is no indication that this is diminishing. the committee on control of foodborne illnesses of the international association for food protection was tasked with collecting and evaluating any data on worker-associated outbreaks. a total of 816 reports with 80,682 cases were collected from events that occurred from 1927 until the first quarter of 2006. most of the outbreaks reviewed were from ...200717685355
postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome: a long-term consequence of bacterial gastroenteritis.irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) is a commonly diagnosed disease characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms that may be associated with psychological illness and emotional problems. the prevalence rate worldwide for ibs ranges from 10 to 20% and is higher for women than for men. ibs imposes a substantial financial burden on both patients and employers because of increased medical costs and decreased work productivity. recent studies indicate that inflammatory processes involving the gastrointestin ...200717685356
reduced selection leads to accelerated gene loss in shigella.obligate pathogenic bacteria lose more genes relative to facultative pathogens, which, in turn, lose more genes than free-living bacteria. it was suggested that the increased gene loss in obligate pathogens may be due to a reduction in the effectiveness of purifying selection. less attention has been given to the causes of increased gene loss in facultative pathogens.200717686180
part ii. analysis of data gaps pertaining to shigella infections in low and medium human development index countries, 1984-2005.the global incidence of shigella infection has been estimated at 80-165 million episodes annually, with 99% of episodes occurring in the developing world. to identify contemporary gaps in the understanding of the global epidemiology of shigellosis, we conducted a review of the english-language scientific literature from 1984 to 2005, restricting the search to low and medium human development countries. our review yielded 11 population-based studies of shigella burden from seven countries. no pop ...200817686195
explaining unexplained diarrhea and associating risks and infections.gastrointestinal illnesses are common afflictions. however, knowledge of their etiology is often lacking. moreover, most cases of infections with reportable enteric pathogens (campylobacter jejuni, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, cryptosporidia and giardia) have sporadic modes of acquisition, yet control measures are often biased towards mitigation of risks discerned by outbreak analysis. to determine the etiology of unexplained diarrhea it is important to study populat ...200717692144
[ekiri syndrome complicating shigellosis]. 200717692219
[intrafamilial outbreak of shigella flexneri gastroenteritis in madrid]. 200717692266
use of the tna operon as a new molecular target for escherichia coli detection.a quantitative real-time pcr targeting the tnaa gene was studied to detect escherichia coli and distinguish e. coli from shigella spp. these microorganisms revealed high similarity in the molecular organization of the tna operon.200717693560
differential regulation of caspase-1 activation, pyroptosis, and autophagy via ipaf and asc in shigella-infected macrophages.shigella infection, the cause of bacillary dysentery, induces caspase-1 activation and cell death in macrophages, but the precise mechanisms of this activation remain poorly understood. we demonstrate here that caspase-1 activation and il-1beta processing induced by shigella are mediated through ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (nod)-like receptor (nlr) family, and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containin ...200717696608
effect of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg in persistent diarrhea in indian children: a randomized controlled trial.to evaluate the role of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (lgg) as probiotic in persistent diarrhea (pd) in children of north bengal, india.200717700424
antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (rosmarinus officinalis l. and salvia officinalis l., lamiaceae) essential oils.the essential oils of rosemary ( rosmarinus officinalis l.) and sage ( salvia officinalis l.) were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and 6 fungi, including candida albicans and 5 dermatomycetes. the most important antibacterial activity of both essential oils was expressed on escherichia coli, salmonella typhi, s. enteritidis, and shigella sonei. ...200717708648
brucella abortus requires the heme transporter bhua for maintenance of chronic infection in balb/c mice.the gene annotated bab2_1150 in the brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence is predicted to encode a homolog of the well-characterized heme transporter shua of shigella dysenteriae and accordingly has been given the designation bhua (brucella heme utilization). phenotypic analysis of an isogenic bhua mutant derived from b. abortus 2308 verified that there is a link between bhua and the ability of the parent strain to use heme as an iron source in in vitro assays. maximum expression of bhua in b. a ...200717709407
omptin proteins: an expanding family of outer membrane proteases in gram-negative enterobacteriaceae.the escherichia coli k-12 outer membrane protein ompt is a prototype of a unique family of bacterial endopeptidases known as the omptins. this family includes ompt and ompp of e. coli, sopa of shigella flexneri, pgte of salmonella enterica, and pla of yersinia pestis. despite their sequence similarities, the omptins vary in their reported functions. the ompt protease is characterized by narrow cleavage specificity defined by the extracellular loops of the beta-barrel protruding above the lipid b ...200717710644
first detection and sequence analysis of the bla-ctx-m-15 gene in lebanese isolates of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing shigella sonnei.the emergence in shigella species of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbl) that impart resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is a growing concern world-wide. so far, however, esbl-producing shigella have only been reported seven times, albeit from seven different countries. in lebanon, three esbl-producing clinical isolates of s. sonnei were recovered from 30 cases of shigellosis diagnosed between july 2004 and october 2005. all three were found to be resistant to amoxycillin, cefotax ...200717716434
a bacterial effector targets mad2l2, an apc inhibitor, to modulate host cell cycling.the gut epithelium self-renews every several days, providing an important innate defense system that limits bacterial colonization. nevertheless, many bacterial pathogens, including shigella, efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. here, we show that the shigella effector ipab, when delivered into epithelial cells, causes cell-cycle arrest by targeting mad2l2, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (apc) inhibitor. cyclin b1 ubiquitination assays revealed that apc undergoes unscheduled ...200717719540
spontaneous zygogenesis, a wide-ranging mating process in bacteria.spontaneous zygogenesis (or z-mating) in escherichia coli, unlike f-mediated conjugation, promotes formation of complete zygotes. most z-mating products have proven to be phenotypically unstable, losing part of the phenotype for which they were selected. persistent z-mating products appear as stable genetic recombinants or yield subclones of two types: either both parental types or one of them plus a recombinant type, and the ability to promote spontaneous zygogenesis can appear in all emerging ...200717720456
bacterial, fungal and parasitic contamination of cockroaches in public hospitals of hamadan, iran.to determine the possible role of cockroaches in dissemination of medically important microorganisms, a study was carried out in public hospitals and residential areas of hamadan city, west of iran. bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. the total number of blattella germanica collected from hospitals were 133 as the case group. the cockroaches collected from residential areas were 45 as the control group.200717722863
effect of the nonreducing end of shigella dysenteriae type 1 o-specific oligosaccharides on their immunogenicity as conjugates in mice.endemic and epidemic shigellosis, an acute invasive disease of the lower intestines, afflicts millions of people worldwide with an estimated one million fatalities per annum at a low infectious dose. our approach to vaccine development against shigella is based on the hypothesis that serum igg antibodies to the o-specific polysaccharide (o-sp) domains of the lps of these organisms confer protection to infection. the synthetic oligosaccharides corresponding to the tetrasaccharide repeating unit o ...200717726093
an inducible lambdoid prophage encoding cytolethal distending toxin (cdt-i) and a type iii effector protein in enteropathogenic escherichia coli.cytolethal distending toxins (cdts) are inhibitory cyclomodulins, which block eukaryotic cell proliferation and are produced by a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria, including escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. however, the mode of transmission of the toxin gene clusters among diverse bacterial pathogens is unclear. we found that cdt-i produced by enteropathogenic e. coli strains associated with diarrhea is encoded by a lambdoid prophage, whi ...200717726095
the significance of the number of submitted samples and patient-related factors for faecal bacterial diagnostics.the sensitivity of bacteriological testing of faecal samples from patients with diarrhoea has not been properly determined. the present study analysed the association between the results of stool sample examinations and the number of samples examined per patient and other patient-related factors. data concerning faecal specimens referred for culture for enteric bacterial pathogens (campylobacter, salmonella, shigella and yersinia) to the central microbiological laboratory in denmark between 1995 ...200717727686
role of u.s. military research programs in the development of u.s.-licensed vaccines for naturally occurring infectious diseases.u.s. military physicians and researchers have collaborated in the development of eight u.s.-licensed vaccines since 1934, when product efficacy requirements were added to product safety requirements mandated in 1902. these vaccines include influenza (1945), rubella (1969), adenovirus types 4 and 7 (1980), meningococcus a, c, y, w-135 (1981), hepatitis b (1981), oral typhoid (1989), japanese encephalitis (1992), and hepatitis a (1995). current efforts include new adenovirus and japanese encephali ...200717728025
detection of ctx-m-14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in shigella sonnei isolates from china.shigellosis is an important cause of acute diarrheal disease and multidrug-resistant phenotype has been reported in s. sonnei. in this study, we investigate the resistance and identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) gene in 37 s. sonnei isolates by agar dilution procedure and the modified three-dimensional test, respectively. the bla genes of esbl-producing isolates were detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequencing. more than 50% of these strains were resistant to tetrac ...200717767959
intracellular type iii secretion by cytoplasmic shigella flexneri promotes caspase-1-dependent macrophage cell death.the gram-negative bacterium shigella flexneri triggers pro-inflammatory apoptotic cell death in macrophages, which is crucial for the onset of an acute inflammatory diarrhoea termed bacillary dysentery. the mxi-spa type iii secretion system promotes bacterial uptake and escape into the cytoplasm, where, dependent on the translocator/effector protein ipab, caspase-1 [interleukin (il)-1beta-converting enzyme] and its substrate il-1beta are activated. here, we show that in the course of a macrophag ...200717768231
[total and specific iga in colostrum and milk of mothers of natal-rio grande do norte, brasil].to determine the concentration of total secretory iga and evaluate the repertoire of iga antibodies to enteropathogenic escherichia coli and shigella flexneri antigens in colostrums and milk from mothers in natal, rn.200517768806
antibody response in man to injection of the specific antigen of type v shigella paradysenteriae. 194417772139
raw hen egg white and the role of iron in growth inhibition of shigella dysenteriae, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae. 194417783793
concerted antibiotic effect of penicillin, methionine, threonine and methionine sulfoxide upon brucella, eberthella, salmonella, and shigella.penicillin susceptibility of highly refractory gramnegative organisms may be greatly enhanced upon addition of methionine, threonine and methionine sulfoxide. the action of amino acids appears to be synergistic rather than additive. methionine is essential for the enhancement. threonine and methionine sulfoxide facilitate the effect of methionine following a reciprocal quantitative relationship.194517802428
cross-species cluster co-conservation: a new method for generating protein interaction networks.co-conservation (phylogenetic profiles) is a well-established method for predicting functional relationships between proteins. several publicly available databases use this method and additional clustering strategies to develop networks of protein interactions (cluster co-conservation (ccc)). ccc has previously been limited to interactions within a single target species. we have extended ccc to develop protein interaction networks based on co-conservation between protein pairs across multiple sp ...200717803817
synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 7-(substituted)-aminomethyl-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives.gram-positive organisms have re-emerged as the major hospital pathogens, which make the unmet medical needs for antibacterial therapy even worse. in searching for potent agents against gram-positive pathogens, novel 7-(substituted)-aminomethyl-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities in vitro. many 7-monoarylaminomethyl derivatives exhibited high potency against gram-positive organisms compared to reference agents: vancomycin and p ...200717826097
identification of the mxih needle protein residues responsible for anchoring invasion plasmid antigen d to the type iii secretion needle tip.the pathogenesis of shigella flexneri requires a functional type iii secretion apparatus to serve as a conduit for injecting host-altering effector proteins into the membrane and cytoplasm of the targeted cell. the type iii secretion apparatus is composed of a basal body and an exposed needle that is an extended polymer of mxih with a 2.0-nm inner channel. invasion plasmid antigen d (ipad) resides at the tip of the needle to control type iii secretion. the atomic structures of mxih and ipad have ...200717827155
etiology of acute diarrhea in children and adults in tunis, tunisia, with emphasis on diarrheagenic escherichia coli: prevalence, phenotyping, and molecular epidemiology.a total of 271 stool specimens were collected from children (diarrheagenic, n = 115 and control, n = 54) and adults (diarrheagenic, n = 73 and control, n = 29) from tunis, tunisia, and processed to detect bacterial enteropathogens, parasites, and viruses. diarrheagenic escherichia coli (dec) were identified by their virulence genes (polymerase chain reaction) and adherence patterns (tissue culture assays). the most frequently isolated enteric pathogens from diarrheagenic children were enterotoxi ...200717827382
the detoxification by acetylation of soluble antigens from shigella dysenteriae (shiga) and e. typhosa. 194617832278
ants as probable agents in the spread of shigella infections. 194217840473
[analysis on the status of shigella spp antimicrobial resistance through data from the national shigellosis surveillance system in china, in 2005].the ministry of public health released the national surveillance project on shigellosis in august, 2005. this study was to reveal the antimicrobial resistance status of shigella isolates through the national shigellosis surveillance system in 2005 in china, so as to provide evidence for the development of surveillance, prevention and cure of shigellosis.200717850709
transcriptional profile induced by furazolidone treatment of shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for endemic shigellosis especially in developing countries. furazolidone, a nitrofuran derivative, is very effective against the infection with s. flexneri. to examine potential effects of furazolidone on this germ, a whole-genome dna microarray was constructed and transcriptional profiles of the responses to furazolidone were determined. the expressing data revealed adaptive responses of s. flexneri to oxidative stress induce ...200717851659
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and enteric bacterial pathogens among hospitalized hiv infected versus non-hiv infected patients with diarrhoea in southern india.a prevalence study on campylobacter jejuni and other enteric bacterial pathogens was carried out in 200 hiv infected and 200 non-hiv infected subjects with diarrhoeal symptoms at an aids hospital in southern india. diarrhoeal specimens were inoculated onto standard culture media as well as onto columbia and campylobacter blood agar media for c. jejuni isolation. all the c. jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using kirby-bauer's method. a significant difference in recover ...200717852888
isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of salmonella and shigella strains isolated from children in gaza, palestine from 1999 to 2006.diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis are among the leading causes of illnesses and death in infants and children throughout the world, especially in developing countries, globally, salmonella and shigella remain the major contributors to acute enteric infections and diarrhea.200817854424
on an invisible microbe antagonistic toward dysenteric bacilli: brief note by mr. f. d'herelle, presented by mr. roux. 1917. 200717855060
evaluation of shigellosis in a turkish children's hospital.the aim of the present study was to evaluate cases of shigella and determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of shigella species in central turkey.200717875081
close relation of the o-polysaccharide structure of escherichia coli o168 and revised structure of the o-polysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae type 4.the o-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of escherichia coli o168 and studied by chemical analyses and smith degradation along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopies. the following structure of the branched pentasaccharide repeating unit of the o-polysaccharide was established: [carbohydrate structure: see text] where 6-o-acetylation of glcnac is partial. reinvestigation of the o-polysaccharide of shigella dysenteriae type 4 established earlier showed it to have the same str ...200717880932
multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for molecular typing of shigella sonnei.a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (vntr) analysis (mlva) method was developed and evaluated for the subtyping of shigella sonnei isolates. a total of 26 vntr loci were identified by exploring the repeat sequence loci in the genomic sequences of s. sonnei strains ss046 and 53g and by testing 536 isolates that had previously been characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the discriminatory power of mlva (simpson's index of diversity [d], 0.9524; 95% confidence interval [ci ...200717881552
plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance conferred by qnrs1 in salmonella enterica serovar virchow isolated from turkish food of avian origin.to study the molecular characteristics of the quinolone and associated ampicillin resistance mechanisms present in salmonella enterica serovar virchow isolated from turkish foods.200717881633
a case of shigellosis with intractable septic shock and convulsions.although shigellosis is a potentially fatal disease that may cause a number of extra-intestinal manifestations, intractable septic shock is an unusual complication. here we describe a 6-month-old infant who developed severe septic shock and convulsions during an episode of dysentery caused by multidrug-resistant shigella dysenteriae. the case presentation demonstrates how shigellosis can lead to rare and potentially misleading complications such as septic shock when not treated adequately and pr ...200717881877
role of shigella infection in endometriosis: a novel hypothesis.endometriosis is the presence of endometrial cells and stroma at ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. the natural history of endometriosis is uncertain, its etiology unknown, the clinical presentation inconsistent, diagnosis difficult and the treatment poorly standardized. it causes significant morbidity due to pelvic pain and infertility among 15-25% of women during their reproductive age. the benign disease causes peritoneal inflammation, fibrosis, adhesions and ovarian cysts but displays ...200817888583
in vitro antimicrobial activity of rifaximin against enteropathogens causing traveler's diarrhea.the in vitro activity of rifaximin against 84 diarrheagenic escherichia coli and 11 shigella sonnei causing traveler's diarrhea was evaluated. the mic of rifaximin ranged between <0.007 and 32 mg/l; other agents tested had an mic of >256 mg/l in most cases. the results showed the potential use of rifaximin to treat these infections.200717889485
[modulation of virulence expression in escherichia coli and shigella spp. by environmental factors]. 200717891998
dynamic proteome changes of shigella flexneri 2a during transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.shigella flexneri is an infectious pathogen that causes dysentery to human, which remains a serious threat to public health, particularly in developing countries. in this study, the global protein expression patterns of s. flexneri during transition from exponential growth to stationary phase in vitro were analyzed by using 2-d page combined with maldi-tof ms. in a time-course experiment with five time points, the relative abundance of 49 protein spots varied significantly. interestingly, a puta ...200717893076
the type iii secretion system of proteus mirabilis hi4320 does not contribute to virulence in the mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.the gram-negative enteric bacterium proteus mirabilis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infections (utis) in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or with complicated urinary tracts. the recent release of the p. mirabilis strain hi4320 genome sequence has facilitated identification of potential virulence factors in this organism. genes appearing to encode a type iii secretion system (ttss) were found in a low gc-content pathogenicity island in the p. mirabilis chromosome. this islan ...200717893161
molecular characterization of antimicrobial compound produced by lactobacillus acidophilus aa11.approximately 63 strains of lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated from egyptian home-made cheese and examined for production of antagonism. only eight strains demonstrated inhibitory activity against spoilage microorganisms (i.e. staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus) and pathogens (i.e. e. coli, salmonella sp. and shigella sp.). lactobacillus acidophilus aa11 produced higher antimicrobial activity with a wide range of inhibition. the agent aa11 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and ret ...200717899791
an outbreak of multi-resistant shigella sonnei in australia: possible link to the outbreak of shigellosis in denmark associated with imported baby corn from thailand. 200717900420
clostridium difficile: an under-recognized cause of reactive arthritis?reactive arthritis usually presents as a sterile, inflammatory, asymmetric oligoarthritis, affecting large lower extremity joints. extra-articular features (conjunctivitis, uveitis, enthesopathy, urethritis, balanitis, keratoderma blenorrhagicum) may occur. common causes of enteric reactive arthritis are preceding infections attributable to salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and yersinia. in contrast, clostridium difficile is an uncommon cause of reactive arthritis, with only approximately 40 ...200817902012
potent inhibitors of trna-guanine transglycosylase, an enzyme linked to the pathogenicity of the shigella bacterium: charge-assisted hydrogen bonding. 200717902085
a new alpha-galactosyl-binding protein from the mushroom lyophyllum decastes.a new alpha-galactosyl binding lectin was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom lyopyllum decastes. it is a homodimer composed of noncovalently-associated monomers of molecular mass 10,276da. the lectin's amino acid sequence was determined by cloning from a cdna library using partial sequences determined by automated edman sequencing and by mass spectrometry of enzyme-derived peptides. the sequence shows no significant homology to any known protein sequence. analysis of carbohydrate ...200717904093
biochemical characterization of dtdp-d-qui4n and dtdp-d-qui4nac biosynthetic pathways in shigella dysenteriae type 7 and escherichia coli o7.o-antigen variation due to the presence of different types of sugars and sugar linkages is important for the survival of bacteria threatened by host immune systems. the o antigens of shigella dysenteriae type 7 and escherichia coli o7 contain 4-(n-acetylglycyl)amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-qui4nglyac) and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-qui4nac), respectively, which are sugars not often found in studied polysaccharides. in this study, we characterized the biosynthetic pathways for dtdp-d-q ...200717905981
o-antigen modal chain length in shigella flexneri 2a is growth-regulated through rfah-mediated transcriptional control of the wzy gene.shigella flexneri 2a 2457t produces lipopolysaccharide (lps) with two o-antigen (oag) chain lengths: a short (s-oag) controlled by wzzb and a very long (vl-oag) determined by wzz(phs-2). this study demonstrates that the synthesis and length distribution of the s. flexneri oag are under growth-phase-dependent regulation. quantitative electrophoretic analysis showed that the vl-oag increased during growth while the s-oag distribution remained constant. increased production of vl-oag correlated wit ...200717906147
identification of newly recognized serotype 1c as the most prevalent shigella flexneri serotype in northern rural vietnam.we investigated the identity of 37 shigella flexneri strains that had previously been isolated from northern rural vietnam (son tay province) and described as untypable. twenty-four isolates reacted with masf 1c, a monoclonal antibody specific for s. flexneri serotype 1c. a further ten untypable isolates were found to be rough mutants (no longer expressing o-antigen) that were derived from serotype 1c strains. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that these strains consisted of many dif ...200817922932
holo- and apo-bound structures of bacterial periplasmic heme-binding proteins.an essential component of heme transport in gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. we have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, shut from shigella dysenteriae and phut from pseudomonas aeruginosa. both share a common architecture typical of class iii periplasmic binding proteins. the heme binds in a narrow cleft between the n- and c-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a tyr residue. a comp ...200717925389
a role for nod-like receptors in autophagy induced by shigella infection.shigella infection, the cause of bacillary dysentery, induces caspase-1 activation and cell death in macrophages, but the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. in our recent study, we presented evidence that caspase-1 activation and il-1beta processing induced by shigella are mediated through ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (nod)-like receptor (nlr) family and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein contai ...200817932464
vinculin binding in its closed conformation by a helix addition mechanism.vinculin links integrin receptors to the actin cytoskeleton by binding to talin. vinculin is held in an inactive, closed-clamp conformation through hydrophobic interactions between its head and tail domains, and vinculin activation has long been thought to be dependent upon severing the head-tail interaction. talin, alpha-actinin, and the invasin ipaa of shigella flexneri sever vinculin's head-tail interaction by inserting an alpha-helix into vinculin's n-terminal four-helical bundle, provoking ...200717932491
[serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance rates of shigella spp. isolates in tehran, iran].in this study, antimicrobial resistance patterns and serotype distributions of shigella spp. isolated from pediatric and adult patients with diarrhea, inhabiting in tehran, were investigated. stool specimens of 1350 patients with diarrhea who were admitted to the seven different hospitals in tehran from november 2003 till march 2005 were taken into the study. antibacterial susceptibility patterns of shigella spp. isolates were determined by standard disk diffusion method. overall isolation rate ...200717933258
[viable but non-culturable form of bacteria].viable but non-culturable (vbnc) bacteria concept has been defined in 1982 when it has been shown that there exists bacteria whose metabolic activity continue and which can have the ability to reproduce in suitable conditions although they have lost their capability to reproduce in culture. recent studies have shown that most of the human pathogens (campylobacter spp., escherichia coli, francisella tularensis, helicobacter pylori, legionella pneumophila, listeria monocytogenes, mycobacterium tub ...200717933263
development of a tripartite vector system for live oral immunization using a gram-negative probiotic carrier.the mucosa represents the primary target site and thus the first barrier for most microbial pathogens. nevertheless, nearly all present-day vaccines are applied by an invasive route, target the systemic immune system, and do not confer efficient mucosal protection. currently, mucosal immunity can only be achieved by the delivery of antigens via the mucosal route. therefore, multiple efforts are under way to develop mucosal vaccines and particularly live oral vaccines as these would confer consid ...200817936683
safety and immunogenicity of cvd 1208s, a live, oral deltaguaba deltasen deltaset shigella flexneri 2a vaccine grown on animal-free media.a previous phase 1 trial demonstrated that shigella flexneri 2a deleted in guaba, sen and set (strain cvd 1208) is well-tolerated and immunogenic after a single oral dose of 10(8) or 10(9) cfu. to facilitate further clinical development, the strain was reconstructed using animal-free media to conform to regulatory guidelines, and designated cvd1208s. healthy inpatient volunteers were randomized (double-blind) to receive a single oral dose of either cvd 1208s (10(8) [n = 7] or 10(9) [n = 7] cfu) ...200717938573
[infectious aetiologies of travelers' diarrhoea].traveler's diarrhoea (td) occurs in 20 to 60% of european or north-american travelers in intertropical areas. following return from endemic zone, malaria must always be evocated in front of febrile diarrhoea. many causative infectious agents are involved in td and their frequency may vary according to destination and seasons. the main agents involved in td are escherichia coli pathovars (especially enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative e. coli) followed by enteroinvasive bacteria (campylobacter ...200717942257
transcription-termination-mediated immunity and its prevention in bacteriophage sfv of shigella flexneri.the temperate phage sfv encodes the genes responsible for the serotype conversion of shigella flexneri strains from serotype y to 5a. bacteriophages often encode proteins that prevent subsequent infection by homologous phages; the mechanism by which this is accomplished is referred to as superinfection immunity. the serotype conversion mediated following lysogenization of sfv is one such mechanism. another mechanism is the putative lambda-like ci protein within sfv. this study reports the charac ...200717947546
[acute gastroenteritis: the cost of an ambulatory care sensitive condition].acute gastroenteritis (age) has been defined as an ambulatory care sensitive condition. the recommended treatment consists of oral rehydration and rapid reintroduction of food. nevertheless, age remains an important cause of hospitalization. the objective of the present study was to analyze the patient characteristics, management, and costs associated with hospitalizations due to age in a pediatrics department.200717949647
wasp-interacting protein (wip): working in polymerisation and much more.the migration of cells and the movement of some intracellular pathogens, such as shigella and vaccinia, are dependent on the actin-based cytoskeleton. many proteins are involved in regulating the dynamics of the actin-based microfilaments within cells and, among them, wasp and n-wasp have a significant role in the regulation of actin polymerisation. the activity and stability of wasp is regulated by its cellular partner wasp-interacting protein (wip) during the formation of actin-rich structures ...200717949983
increasing antimicrobial resistance--an emerging problem in the treatment of shigellosis.shigellosis is a major cause of diarrhoea-related morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. effective antibiotic treatment reduces the average duration of illness by reducing faecal excretion of the bacterium and preventing further transmission and potentially lethal complications. treatment of shigellosis is currently limited by the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains of shigella. although fluoroquinolones are currently effective in treating adults, resistance to f ...200717953700
[dysentery in poland in 2005].the number of notified dysentery cases in the three last years (2003, 2004, 2005) is the lowest of all years since 1918 when notification started. only 80 cases were notified in the year 2005 (incidence rate 0.21 /100,000 population), while 74 cases in 2004 (incidence rate 0.19 /100,000 population. no one-death case was notified. the last three death cases were notified in 1999. all together 6 outbreaks were registered, one suspected. out of three dysentery outbreaks, due to s. flexneri 3a--two ...200717956039
[epidemiological analysis of campylobacteriosis reported by sanitary epidemiological station in bielsko-biala, silesia, in poland].the results of the epidemiological analysis of campylobacteriosis reported by regional laboratory of sanitary epidemiological station in bielsko-biala (psse bielsko-biala), silesia voivodeship in poland are presented. from august 2005 to july 2006, stool samples from 723 diarrhea cases were examined for the presence of campylobacter as well as salmonella, shigella, yersinia, enteropathogenic (epec) and enterohaemorrhagic (ehec) e. coli. from stool samples of 163 patients 170 bacterial etiologica ...200717956062
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