the role of the vacb gene in the pathogenesis of brucella abortus.brucella species are important zoonotic pathogens affecting a wide variety of mammals. therefore, the identification of new brucella virulence factors is of great interest in understanding bacterial pathogenesis and immune evasion. in this study, we have identified brucella abortus vacb gene that presents 2343 nucleotides and 781 amino acids and it shows 39% identity with shigella flexneri vacb gene that encodes an exoribonuclease rnase r involved in bacterial virulence. further, we have inactiv ...200717306588
h-ns antagonism in shigella flexneri by virb, a virulence gene transcription regulator that is closely related to plasmid partition factors.the virb protein of shigella flexneri is a positive regulator of the major virulence operons of this enteroinvasive intracellular pathogen. virb resembles no other transcription factor but is strongly homologous to plasmid partition proteins. we found that the binding of the virb protein to the promoter region of the icsb virulence gene induced hypersensitivity to cleavage by dnase i over a region to which the h-ns repressor protein binds and completely abolished the protection of this sequence ...200717307842
heme inhibits the dna binding properties of the cytoplasmic heme binding protein of shigella dysenteriae (shus).heme uptake and utilization by pathogenic bacteria are critical for virulence and disease, since heme and heme proteins are a major source of iron within the host. although the role of outer membrane heme receptors in this process has been extensively characterized at the genetic and biochemical level, the role of the cytoplasmic heme binding proteins is not yet clear. the shigella dysenteriae cytoplasmic heme binding protein, shus, has previously been shown to promote utilization of heme as an ...200717323920
conformational stability and differential structural analysis of lcrv, pcrv, bipd, and sipd from type iii secretion systems.diverse gram-negative bacteria use type iii secretion systems (t3ss) to translocate effector proteins into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. the type iii secretion apparatus (t3sa) consists of a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and an external needle. a sensor protein lies at the needle tip to detect environmental signals that trigger type iii secretion. the shigella flexneri t3sa needle tip protein, invasion plasmid antigen d (ipad), possesses two independently folding domains in v ...200717327391
a method for fast and simple detection of major diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli in the routine diagnostic laboratory.a multiplex pcr was developed for the detection of the following genes characteristic of diarrhoeagenic escherichia coli (dec): verocytotoxins 1 (vtx1) and 2 (vtx2), characteristic of verocytotoxin-producing e. coli (vtec); intimin (eae), found in enteropathogenic e. coli (epec), attaching and effacing e. coli and vtec; heat-stable enterotoxin (esta) and heat-labile enterotoxin (elta), characteristic of enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec); and invasive plasmid antigen (ipah), characteristic of entero ...200717331124
occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria in children under 5 years with diarrhoea in south tehran.this study was carried out on 1600 rectal swabs from children under 5 years of age admitted at the health centre in islamshahr, tehran province, islamic republic of iran, during 1998-99. the specimens were examined for various bacterial pathogens. isolation rates were: enteropathogenic escherichia coli 6.8%, shigella spp. 3.4%, salmonella spp. 2.9%, campylobacter spp. 0.9%, yersinia spp. 0.7%. the isolation rate was highest in the summer, except for yersinia spp., which was predominantly isolate ...200617333824
the use of clinical profiles in the investigation of foodborne outbreaks in restaurants: united states, 1982-1997.improving the efficiency of outbreak investigation in restaurants is critical to reducing outbreak-associated illness and improving prevention strategies. because clinical characteristics of outbreaks are usually available before results of laboratory testing, we examined their use for determining contributing factors in outbreaks caused by restaurants. all confirmed foodborne outbreaks reported to the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) from 1982 to 1997 were reviewed. clinical pro ...200817335632
expression level of heterologous tat genes is crucial for in vivo reconstitution of a functional tat translocase in escherichia coli.the tat system has the remarkable capacity of exporting proteins in folded conformation across the cytoplasmic membrane. the functional tat translocase from gram-negative bacteria consists of tata, tatb and tatc proteins. to gain information about the species specificity of the tat translocase, we cloned tat genes from gram-negative pathogens shigella flexneri 2a str. 301, vibrio cholerae el tor n16961, pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1, thermophilic sulfolobus solfataricus p2, thermus thermophilus hb ...200717336443
shigella flexneri inhibits staurosporine-induced apoptosis in epithelial cells.shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular organism that causes bacillary dysentery. the shigella ipab protein activates caspase 1 in macrophages, which eventually leads to apoptosis. in contrast, epithelial cells infected with shigella undergo a stress response but do not die. therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if shigella has the ability to inhibit apoptosis in epithelial cells. a modified gentamicin protection assay was used to investigate if hela cells infected wit ...200717339354
genetic characterization of the escherichia coli o66 antigen and functional identification of its wzy gene.escherichia coli is a clonal species, and occurs as both commensal and pathogenic strains, which are normally classified on the basis of their o, h, and k antigens. the o-antigen (o-specific polysaccharide), which consists of a series of oligosaccharide (o-unit) repeats, contributes major antigenic variability to the cell surface. the o-antigen gene cluster of e. coli o66 was sequenced in this study. the genes putatively responsible for the biosynthesis of dtdp-6-deoxy-l-talose and gdp-mannose, ...200717342059
rapid identification of escherichia coli safety and laboratory strain lineages based on multiplex-pcr.escherichia coli k-12, b, c and w strains are the most frequently used bacterial safety and laboratory strains. lineage-specific dna fragments were detected by microplate subtractive hybridization and utilized to create a fast differentiation method using a single pcr reaction to differentiate clearly the four lineages and separate them from pathogenic variants. the method has been evaluated on a comprehensive selection of widely used laboratory strains and a variety of pathogenic e. coli repres ...200717343689
[shigella flexneri modulates host cell epigenetic information as a strategy to shape the transcriptional response]. 200717349276
luminex detection of fecal indicators in river samples, marine recreational water, and beach sand.research to understand and remediate coastal pollution is moving toward a multitiered approach in which traditional enumeration of fecal indicators is accompanied by molecular analysis of a variety of targets. technology that rapidly detects multiple microbial contaminants would benefit from such an approach. the luminex 100 system is a suspension array that assays multiple analytes rapidly in a single well of a microtiter plate. the ability of the system to simultaneously detect multiple fecal ...200717350051
characterization of sulphonamide resistance genes and class 1 integron gene cassettes in enterobacteriaceae, central african republic (car).the aim of this study was to characterize genes encoding sulphonamide resistance and gene cassettes associated with class 1 integrons in trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole resistant enterobacteriaceae recovered from bangui, central african republic (car).200717350987
[risk of hospitalisation due to foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis--secondary publication].in a matched cohort study we estimate the risk of hospitalisation due to gastroenteritis, complications and sequelae after infections with zoonotic salmonella, campylobacter spp., yersinia enterocolitica, e. coli and shigella infections. out of 52,783 patients, 7,524 (14.4%) were hospitalized with gastroenteritis, 647 (1.2%) with complications and 865 (1.7%) with long-term sequelae. in denmark in 2005 there were 6,010 registered episodes of infections with bacteria that are usually foodborne, co ...200717355849
chromosomal-gene-mediated inhibition of intestinal and foodborne pathogens by lactobacillus acidophilus aa11.approximately 63 strains of lactobacillus acidophilus were isolated from egyptian home-made cheese and examined for production of antagonism. only eight strains demonstrated inhibitory activity against spoilage microorganisms (i.e. staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus) and pathogens (i.e. e. coli, salmonella sp. and shigella sp.). lactobacillus acidophilus aa11 produced a more antimicrobial activity with a wide range of inhibition. the agent aa11 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and ret ...200617357571
campylobacter reactive arthritis: a systematic review the literature on the epidemiology of campylobacter-associated reactive arthritis (rea).200717360026
shigella sonnei bacteremia: two adult cases and review of the literature.shigella sonnei bacteremia in adult patients is rare. we present 2 cases from our center, and 7 others from the literature are reviewed in detail. diabetes mellitus and malignancy are frequent predisposing conditions. despite severe illness at presentation, our patients achieved good outcomes with prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy.200717366038
the type iii secretion system needle tip complex mediates host cell sensing and translocon insertion.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) are essential virulence determinants of many gram-negative bacterial pathogens. the shigella t3ss consists of a cytoplasmic bulb, a transmembrane region and a hollow 'needle' protruding from the bacterial surface. physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to assembly of a pore, formed by ipab and ipac, in the host cell membrane, through which proteins that facilitate host cell invasion are translocated. as the needle is implicated in host c ...200717367391
elimination by ozone of shigella sonnei in shredded lettuce and water.several outbreaks of shigellosis have been attributed to the consumption of contaminated fresh-cut vegetables. the minimal processing of these products make it difficult to ensure that fresh produce is safe for consumer. chlorine-based agents have been often used to sanitize produce and reduce microbial populations in water applied during processing operations. however, the limited efficacy of chlorine-based agents and the production of chlorinated organic compounds with potential carcinogenic a ...200717367682
low molecular weight proteins of outer membrane of salmonella typhimurium are immunogenic in salmonella induced reactive arthritis revealed by patients with reactive arthritis (rea)/undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (uspa), synovial fluid mononuclear cells (sfmc) show proliferation to bacterial antigens that trigger rea, i.e. chlamydia, yersinia, campylobactor, shigella and salmonella species. we have shown previously that sfmc proliferate significantly to outer membrane proteins of s typhimurium in salmonella induced rea. in the present study we characterized the immunoreactive fractions of outer membrane protein (omp) of s typh ...200717376200
inactivation of foodborne pathogens using a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma.this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (oaugdp) for inactivation of foodborne pathogens and to evaluate the influence of growth temperature, ph, and culture age on their inactivation. escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, salmonella enteritidis, vibrio parahaemolyticus, yersinia enterocolitica, and shigella flexneri were evaluated. three-strain mixtures of each bacterium were inocula ...200717378708
antimicrobial activity of bacillus subtilis and bacillus pumilus during the fermentation of african locust bean (parkia biglobosa) for soumbala examine predominant isolates of bacillus subtilis and b. pumilus isolated from soumbala for their antimicrobial activity against indicator microorganisms as micrococcus luteus, staphyloccocus aureus, bacillus cereus, enterococus facium, listeria monocytogenes, escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, shigella dysenteriae, yersinia enterocolitica, aspergillus ochraceus and penicillium roqueforti.200717381739
l-sorbose utilization by virulent escherichia coli and shigella: different metabolic adaptation of pathotypes.the frequency of l-sorbose utilization differs significantly between pathotypes of escherichia coli and shigella from 93% to 0%. among 266 strains tested, this frequency increased in the order shigella, enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec), enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), shiga toxin-producing e. coli (stec), enteroaggregative e. coli, enteropathogenic e. coli (epec), and neonatal bacterial meningitis (nbm) e. coli. this suggests an association of pathomechanism with the capability to degrade l-sorbose ...200717382590
in vitro activity of garenoxacin tested against a worldwide collection of ciprofloxacin-susceptible and ciprofloxacin-resistant enterobacteriaceae strains (1999-2004).garenoxacin is a novel des-f(6)-quinolone with a chemical structure that lacks the c6 position fluorine and has a unique difluoromethoxy substitution at position c8. this study evaluated the in vitro activity of garenoxacin tested against a large collection of enterobacteriaceae collected worldwide. the bacterial isolates were consecutively collected from more than 70 medical centers from bloodstream, respiratory, urinary tract, and skin and soft tissue infections. the isolates were tested again ...200717383140
small rnas controlling iron metabolism.iron is one of the most important metals in the metabolism of many organisms, including bacteria, in which it serves as a cofactor in multiple enzymatic reactions. most of the earlier research on iron regulation in bacteria has focused on the transcriptional regulator fur and its effect on the many genes involved in iron uptake. more recent work demonstrates the essential role of a small regulatory rna, ryhb, in iron metabolism. ryhb downregulates a large number of transcripts encoding iron-usin ...200717383226
assessment and interpretation of bacterial viability by using the live/dead baclight kit in combination with flow cytometry.the commercially available live/dead baclight kit is enjoying increased popularity among researchers in various fields of microbiology. its use in combination with flow cytometry brought up new questions about how to interpret live/dead staining results. intermediate states, normally difficult to detect with epifluorescence microscopy, are a common phenomenon when the assay is used in flow cytometry and still lack rationale. it is shown here that the application of propidium iodide in combinatio ...200717384309
[molecular characterization of the strain causing a shigellosis outbreak in a madrid school].the aim of this study is to describe a shigella sonnei outbreak in a school.200717386220
characterization of the outer membrane receptor shua from the heme uptake system of shigella dysenteriae. substrate specificity and identification of the heme protein ligands.shigella dysenteriae, like many bacterial pathogens, has evolved outer membrane receptor-mediated pathways for the uptake and utilization of heme as an iron source. as a first step toward understanding the mechanism of heme uptake we have undertaken a site-directed mutagenesis, spectroscopic, and kinetic analysis of the outer membrane receptor shua of s. dysenteriae. purification of the outer membrane receptor gave a single band of molecular mass 73 kda on sds-page. initial spectroscopic analysi ...200717387178
detecting low concentrations of shigella sonnei in environmental water samples by pcr.outbreaks of shigella sonnei associated with contaminated water have been reported and methods for the simultaneous detection of shigellae and enteroinvasive escherichia coli in water samples have been developed with detection limits of 10(1)-10(2) cfu ml(-1) of water. because 10(1)-10(2)shigellae can cause disease, a more sensitive detection method as an addition to the existing methods for detection of shigella sonnei in water samples is reported here. initially, 33 shigella sonnei and 72 non- ...200717391373
vitamin a deficiency in patients with diarrhea and hiv infection in ethiopia.diarrhea, micronutrient deficiencies and hiv/aids are major public health problems in developing countries, especially in sub-saharan africa. this study was aimed to investigate serum levels of vitamin a in diarrheic patients with and without hiv co-infection compared to healthy controls. two hundred eleven diarrheic patients (110 hiv infected), 87 apparently healthy controls and 41 asymptomatic hiv seropositive blood donors who visited the university of gondar hospital, in gondar, ethiopia were ...200717392128
a new antibacterial compound produced by an indigenous marine bacteria--fermentation, isolation, and biological activity.the use of microorganisms for biological purpose has become an effective alternative to control pathogens. a marine bacterium pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from eal fish of baluchistan coast of pakistan. this strain produced a bactericidal antibiotic against environmental and clinical isolates. in this study, we purified bactericidal antibiotic from the ethyl acetate extract of the cells of p. aeruginosa and analyzed its chemical structure. based on spectrometric analysis, this compound 1 ...200617393659
structural relation of the antigenic polysaccharides of escherichia coli o40, shigella dysenteriae type 9, and e. coli k47.o-polysaccharides were isolated from the lipopolysaccharides of escherichia coli o40 and shigella dysenteriae type 9 and studied by chemical analyses along with (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy. the following new structure of the o-polysaccharide of e. coli o40 was established: -->2)-beta-d-galp-(1-->4)-beta-d-manp-(1-->4)-alpha-d-galp-(1-->3)-beta-d-glcpnac-(1--> theo-polysaccharide structure of s. dysenteriae type 9 established earlier was revised and found to be identical to the reported struc ...200717395169
altered expression of muc2 and muc5ac in response to shigella infection, an in vivo study.infection of mucosal epithelial cells by shigella species leads to an intense and acute inflammatory bowel disease that is characterized by watery diarrhea and purulent discharge. mucin production is a common defense mechanism to protect the underlying mucosa against pathogens. the molecular mechanism(s) underlying mucin induction is unknown in shigellosis. in this study, we have evaluated the relationship between shigella infection, the expression of muc2 and muc5ac and the participation of sig ...200717395379
detection and identification of bacterial enteropathogens by polymerase chain reaction and conventional techniques in childhood acute gastroenteritis in gaza, palestine.acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea are common and costly problems that cause significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. in palestine, diarrhea is one of the major causes of outpatient visits and hospitalizations.200717398132
[shigellosis or bacillary dysentery].shigellosis, commonly known as bacillary dysentery, is an enterobacterial disease caused by the shigella genus, which now belongs to the escherichia tribe, because of their genetic and phenotypic similarities. s. sonnei, flexneri, boydii and dysenteriae differ in their epidemiologic and pathogenic characteristics. s. sonnei is predominant in industrialized countries and causes the mildest disease. s. dysentery is especially dangerous because it occurs in outbreaks, sometimes in catastrophic situ ...200717399943
rotavirus disease in young children from hanoi, vietnam.pathogen prevalences and antimicrobial susceptibilities are essential for the rational development of preventive strategies for diarrheal diseases, but little recent information from vietnam is available. we prospectively studied the prevalence of enteric pathogens in children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea and in nondiarrhea controls in a city hospital in hanoi, vietnam for 1 year.200717414396
[rapid simultaneous detection of salmonella and shigella using modified molecular beacons and real-time pcr].dual detection of salmonella and shigella using modified molecular beacons and real-time pcr was developed. the established method was applied to rapid diagnosis of salmonella and shigella' food poisoning, and for routine monitoring programs.200617415984
shigella flexneri type 2 infection in captive nonhuman primates. 198517422604
survival of shigella sonnei on smooth tomato surfaces, in potato salad and in raw ground beef.this study investigated the survival of a five-strain shigella sonnei cocktail on smooth tomato surfaces, in potato salad and in raw ground beef. all inocula were resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin to allow simple detection of the target culture among the indigenous microflora of the food samples. inoculated tomatoes were stored at 13 degrees c/85% relative humidity, the standard holding conditions for mature, green tomatoes. inoculated potato salad and ground beef samples were stored at 2.5 ...200717428565
preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--10 states, 2006.foodborne illnesses are a substantial health burden in the united states. the foodborne diseases active surveillance network (foodnet) of cdc's emerging infections program collects data from 10 u.s. states regarding diseases caused by enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. foodnet quantifies and monitors the incidence of these infections by conducting active, population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed illnesses. this report describes preliminary surveillance data for 20 ...200717431379
plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrs1 found in salmonella enterica strains isolated in the determine the prevalence of qnr genes in selected salmonella enterica and escherichia coli isolated in the uk.200717434878
ryhb, an iron-responsive small rna molecule, regulates shigella dysenteriae virulence.regulation of bacterial gene expression by small rna (srna) molecules is an increasingly recognized phenomenon but one that is not yet fully understood. we show that the srna ryhb suppresses several virulence-associated phenotypes of shigella dysenteriae, a causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. the virulence genes repressed by s. dysenteriae ryhb include those encoding the type iii secretion apparatus, its secreted effectors, and specific chaperones. suppression of shigella virulence ...200717438026
dipstick for rapid diagnosis of shigella flexneri 2a in stool.shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. in the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease.200717440606
a novel serovar of shigella dysenteriae from patients with diarrhoea in bangladesh.every year, around 3 % of isolates from patients with diarrhoea at dhaka hospital, icddr,b, are identified as shigella-like organisms (slos) based on their activity in biochemical tests. these isolates do not react with any of the current shigella antisera including all existing and provisional serotypes. among these slos, a unique cluster of seven isolates with an identical plasmid profile was found and these isolates were further characterized by phenotypic and genotypic techniques. all were n ...200717446289
effect of intensive handwashing in the prevention of diarrhoeal illness among patients with aids: a randomized controlled study.patients with aids frequently develop diarrhoeal illness. in this randomized, controlled study, 260 patients were screened for those who had not had diarrhoea in the preceding 3 months and who had received a stable highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen for at least 6 weeks prior to the study enrollment. a total of 148 patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled: 75 patients were randomly assigned to an intensive handwashing intervention (i.e. handwashing after defecation, after ...200717446290
antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts of combretum traditional medical practices of ethiopia the aqueous extracts obtained from the stem bark of combretum molle (r. br. ex. g. don.) engl & diels (combretaceae) have a longstanding reputation for the treatment of liver diseases malaria and tuberculosis. owing to the widespread traditional uses of this plant, the studyinvestigated the antimicrobial activity the bark extract of this plant against gram positive and and gram negative bacteria.200617447394
tumor-specific colonization, tissue distribution, and gene induction by probiotic escherichia coli nissle 1917 in live mice.systemic administration of microorganisms into tumor-bearing mice revealed preferential accumulation in tumors in comparison to clearance in organs such as spleen and liver. here we compared the efficiency of tumor-specific colonization of pathogenic salmonella typhimurium strains 14028 and sl1344 to the enteroinvasive escherichia coli 4608-58 strain and to the attenuated salmonella flexneri 2a sc602 strain, as well as to the uropathogenic e. coli cft073, the non-pathogenic e. coli top10, and th ...200717448724
dna microarray-based identification of serogroups and virulence gene patterns of escherichia coli isolates associated with porcine postweaning diarrhea and edema disease.escherichia coli strains causing postweaning diarrhea (pwd) and edema disease (ed) in pigs are limited to a number of serogroups, with o8, o45, o138, o139, o141, o147, o149, and o157 being the most commonly reported worldwide. in this study, a dna microarray based on the o-antigen-specific genes of all 8 e. coli serogroups, as well as 11 genes encoding adhesion factors and exotoxins associated with pwd and ed, was developed for the identification of related serogroups and virulence gene patterns ...200717449692
outbreak of dysentery is kenya due to multi-resistant polyclonal strain of shigella dysenteriae type 1.sixty-eight strains of multi-drug resistant shigella dysenteriae type 1 were isolated from outbreaks of severe dysentery in three areas of kenya, namely, kisumu, mombassa and nairobi. the strains were tested for their susceptibility to seven antibiotics. plasmids were extracted to study their variety and conjugated with escherichia coli k12 to identify the plasmid coding for the resistance gese. all the strains were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (s-t), tetracyciine and c ...199617451306
[current status of multi-drug resistant bacteria in infectious diarrheal diseases and its control]. 200717455674
ubiquitin trafficking to the lysosome: keeping the house tidy and getting rid of unwanted guests.bacterial killing by autophagic delivery to the lysosomal compartment has been shown for mycobacteria, streptococcus, shigella, legionella and salmonella, indicating an important role for this conserved trafficking pathway for the control of intracellular bacterial pathogens.(1-5) in a recent study we found that solubilized lysosomes isolated from bone marrow-derived macrophages had potent antibacterial properties against m. tuberculosis and m. smegmatis that were associated with ubiquitin and u ...200717457035
erythema nodosum associated with shigella colitis in a 7-year-old boy. 200717459754
sensitivity of escherichia albertii, a potential food-borne pathogen, to food preservation treatments.escherichia albertii is a potential food-borne pathogen because of its documented ability to cause diarrheal disease by producing attachment and effacement lesions. its tolerances to heat (56 degrees c), acid (ph 3.0), and pressure (500 mpa [5 min]) were evaluated and found to be significantly less than those of wild-type e. coli o157:h7.200717468283
rotavirus mortality confirmed by etiologic identification in venezuelan children with studies to determine the etiology of deaths from diarrhea are scarce. in this study, we specifically analyzed deaths due to rotavirus to assess the rotavirus impact on diarrhea mortality.200717468648
effects of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice.this study was designed to investigate the effect of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice and its bacteriocidal activity against common human pathogens. antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice was tested against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus hemolyticus b, s. hemolyticus a, klebsiella sp., shigella dysenteriae, and candida albicans using the disc method. the dilution method was performed by addition of garlic juice to ...200717472490
protective role of lactobacilli in shigella dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats.studies on lactic acid bacteria exemplify their use against various enteropathogens in vitro. nevertheless, in vivo effects of lactobacillus during shigella infection have not been evaluated. the present study evaluated the effect of lactobacillus rhamnosus and lactobacillus acidophilus on neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation during shigella dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats.200717483010
mutations in the gyra subunit of dna gyrase and the parc subunit of topoisomerase iv in clinical strains of fluoroquinolone-resistant shigella in anhui, this research 26 shigella isolates were examined by pcr and direct nucleotide sequencing for genetic alterations in the quinolone-resistance determining regions (qrdrs). we tested for the presence of qnr genes by pcr in 91 strains, but no qnr genes were found. the results did show, however, some novel mutations at codon 83 of gyra (ser-->ile) and codon 64 of parc (ala64-->cys, ala64-->asp), which were related to fluroquinolone resistance.200717483803
[pfge of shigella flexneri 4c isolates from food-poisoning outbreaks and sporadic diarrhea patients].to know the molecular characteristic of shigella flexneri 4c isolates from patients in two food-poisoning outbreaks and one sporadic diarrhea case in hangzhou, china.200717484212
[analysis about epidemic situation of dysentery near upon fourteen years in beijing].to realize the epidemiological and drug-resistance characteristics of dysentery during 1990 to 2003 in beijing.200717484213
[bacillary dysentery shigellosis]. 200717491367
metal-based antibacterial and antifungal agents: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of co(ii), cu(ii), ni(ii), and zn(ii) complexes with amino acid-derived compounds.a series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(ii), copper(ii), nickel(ii), and zinc(ii) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and ir, and electronic spectral measurements. ligands (l(1))-(l(5)) were derived by condensation of beta-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc) via the ...200617497020
[pathogens trapped in neutrophils nets]. 200717502056
relationships between bacteroides 16s rrna genetic markers and presence of bacterial enteric pathogens and conventional fecal indicators.occurrence and prevalence of different bacterial enteric pathogens as well as their relationships with conventional (total and fecal coliforms) and alternative fecal indicators (host-specific bacteroides 16s rrna genetic markers) were investigated for various water samples taken from different sites with different degrees of fecal contamination. the results showed that a wide range of bacterial pathogens could be detected in both municipal wastewater treatment plant samples and in surface water ...200717507075
immunogenicity and protective efficacy offered by a ribosomal-based vaccine from shigella flexneri 2a.shigellosis is a major form of bacillary dysentery caused by shigella infection. shigella ribosome-based vaccines (srv), considered among the potent vaccine candidates, are composed of o-antigen and ribosome isolated from s. flexneri 2a. to investigate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of srv, mice were vaccinated with srv via the intranasal (i.n.) route. interestingly, robust levels of shigella-derived lps-specific igg and iga abs and antibody-forming cells were elicited in systemic an ...200717507120
epidemiology and evolution of genotype and antimicrobial resistance of an imported shigella sonnei clone circulating in central taiwan.shigella sonnei replaced shigella flexneri to become the predominant species for shigellosis in 2001 to 2003 in central taiwan. a total of 425 s. sonnei isolates collected from 1996 to 2004 were available for characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), inter-is1 spacer typing (ist), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. the results showed that at least 21 ist clones had emerged for the s. sonnei infections in 1996 to 2004. most ist clones lasted for a short time; some circul ...200717509797
identification of a group of shigella-like isolates as shigella boydii 20.infections by shigella species are an important cause of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. of 4198 shigella isolates received by the french national reference centre for escherichia coli and shigella, 180 from patients with diarrhoea and dysentery in 2000-2004 did not react with any available polyclonal rabbit antisera used to identify the established shigella serogroups. this study describes the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of these isolates in seroagglutination tests, molecular serotyp ...200717510258
etiologic agents of diarrhea in solid organ recipients.after transplantation, diarrhea may be caused by infectious agents, drug-specific effects, metabolic conditions, or mechanical complications of surgery. determining the cause helps to determine whether to initiate antimicrobial therapy and the duration of treatment. in this study we aimed to determine the causes of diarrhea in kidney or liver recipients. fifty-two diarrhea episodes among 43 solid organ recipients were evaluated. the cause of diarrhea was detected in 43 patients (82.6%). infectio ...200717511817
bacterial reduction of selenate to elemental selenium utilizing molasses as a carbon source.selecting an inexpensive and effective organic carbon source is the key to reducing the cost in selenium (se) remediation. five bacteria were screened based on their ability in using molasses as an organic carbon source to reduce selenate [se(vi)] in drainage water. efficiency of se removal differed in the molasses-added drainage water containing different bacteria, with an order of enterobacter taylorae>pantoea sp. sss2>klebsiella sp. wrs2>citerobacter freundii>shigella sp. dw2. by using e. tay ...200817512724
rapid engineering of bacterial reporter gene fusions by using red recombination.reporter gene fusions are essential tools for the investigation of gene regulation. such fusions are traditionally generated by transposon mutagenesis and identified by a suitable selection procedure. alternatively, specific reporter fusions can be generated by cloning of dna fragments containing promoters or other regulatory elements in reporter plasmids. here, we describe a novel approach for the rapid generation of reporter gene fusions in single copies at defined positions in bacterial genom ...200717513596
[mathematical modeling and prognosis of incidence of enteric anthroponoses with aqueous route of transmission].using data on long-term dynamics of epidemic process of acute enteric infections enteric with aqueous route of transmission (typhoid fever, shigellosis caused by shigella flexneri, hepatitis a, rotavirus gastroenteritis, etc.)the equation of regression was developed with the help of chebyshev's polynoms. predicted incidences of these infections for 2005 were on 61.2-99.5% in agree with the real ones on two territories of north region of west siberia. predicted incidence for 2006 is reflecting te ...200717523473
[shigellosis in karachaevo-cherkes republic in 1996-2005].incidence and etiologic structure of shigellosis in karachaevo-cherkes republic for 10 years are analyzed and compared with same characteristics in russia overall. sharp rise of shigellosis cases number is detected in 2003-2005 as well as predominance of shigella sonnei represented by biovar ilg. it was shown that shigella strains with different resistance to tetracycline and chloramphenicol circulate in karachaevo-cherkes republic.200717523488
crystal structures of trna-guanine transglycosylase (tgt) in complex with novel and potent inhibitors unravel pronounced induced-fit adaptations and suggest dimer formation upon substrate binding.the bacterial trna-guanine transglycosylase (tgt) is a trna modifying enzyme catalyzing the exchange of guanine 34 by the modified base preq1. the enzyme is involved in the infection pathway of shigella, causing bacterial dysentery. as no crystal structure of the shigella enzyme is available the homologous zymomonas mobilis tgt was used for structure-based drug design resulting in new, potent, lin-benzoguanine-based inhibitors. thorough kinetic studies show size-dependent inhibition of these com ...200717524419
icsa surface presentation in shigella flexneri requires the periplasmic chaperones degp, skp, and sura.a shigella flexneri degp mutant, which was defective for plaque formation in henle cell monolayers, had a reduced amount of icsa detectable on the bacterial surface with antibody. however, the mutant secreted icsa to the outer membrane at wild-type levels. this suggests that icsa adopts an altered conformation in the outer membrane of the degp mutant with reduced exposure on the cell surface. icsa is, therefore, unlikely to be accessible to actin-nucleating proteins within the eukaryotic cell cy ...200717526712
plasmids derived from gifsy-1/gifsy-2, lambdoid prophages contributing to the virulence of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium: implications for the evolution of replication initiation proteins of lambdoid phages and enterobacteria.gifsy-1 and gifsy-2 are lambdoid prophages which contribute to the virulence of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. the nucleotide sequence of the replication region of both prophages is identical, and similar in organization to the replication region of bacteriophage lambda. to investigate the replication of the gifsy phages and the relationship between gifsy and host chromosome replication, a plasmid which contained all the genes and regulatory sequences required for autonomous replicatio ...200717526845
a comparative assessment of the antimicrobial effects of garlic (allium sativum) and antibiotics on diarrheagenic organisms.antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out on escherichia coli, shigella sp, salmonella sp, and proteus mirabilis using standard procedures. significant differences (p < 0.01) were seen in the effect of the antimicrobial agents (garlic, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin), and in the sensitivities of the microbial species (p < 0.01) to the antimicrobial agents were observed. the gram-negative diarrheagenic pathogens from the stool samples were highly sensitive to garlic, while ciprofloxacin (cpx ...200717539285
[using neosmectin in the complex therapy of patients with acute intestinal infections]. 200717539357
different probiotic properties for lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from swine and poultry.systematic procedures were used to evaluate the probiotic properties of lactobacillus fermentum (l. fermentum) strains isolated from swine and poultry. the major properties included their capabilities to adhere to the intestinal epithelium of swine and poultry, the inhibition on pathogenic bacteria, and their tolerance to the gastric juice and bile salts. results showed that l. fermentum strains from poultry digestive tract showed better adherence to the swine intestine and chicken crop epitheli ...200717544731
control and regulation of kple1 prophage site-specific recombination: a new recombination module analyzed.kple1 is one of the 10 prophage regions of escherichia coli k12, located at 2464 kb on the chromosome. kple1 is defective for lysis, but it is fully competent for excisive recombination. in this study, we have mapped the binding sites of the recombination proteins, namely ints, tori, and ihf on attl and attr, and the organization of these sites suggests that the intasome is architecturally different from the lambda canonical form. we also measured the relative contribution of these proteins to b ...200717545146
genetic flux over time in the salmonella lineage.dna sequences that are shared between closely related organisms while being absent from their common ancestor and from sister lineages of that ancestor are likely to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. over time, the composition of those sequences tends to become more similar to the compositional signature of their host (amelioration).200717547764
ctx-m extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, washington state. 200717552121
emergence of shiga toxin 1 genes within shigella dysenteriae type 4 isolates from travelers returning from the island of hispañola.shiga toxins are produced by shigella dysenteriae type 1 and certain strains of escherichia coli. three cases of shiga toxin-producing s. dysenteriae type 4 were identified among travelers to the island of hispañola between 2002 and 2005. clinical and public health practitioners should be aware of this newly identified strain.200717556630
clinical trials of shigella vaccines: two steps forward and one step back on a long, hard road.more than 50 years of research has yielded numerous shigella vaccine candidates that have exemplified both the promise of vaccine-induced prevention of shigellosis and the impediments to developing a safe and effective vaccine for widespread use, a goal that has yet to be attained. this review discusses the most advanced strategies for shigella vaccine development, the immune responses that are elicited following disease or vaccination, the factors that have accelerated or impeded shigella vacci ...200717558427
screening methods used to determine the anti-microbial properties of aloe vera inner gel.the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains is a growing problem and is an important concern for patients, physicians, healthcare managers, and policymakers as it results in poorer health and economic outcomes. this has led to an urgent global call for new antimicrobial drugs, particularly from natural resources. we have been studying the antimicrobial properties of the inner leaf gel component of aloe barbadensis miller and have used a number of different, simple in vitro assays to ...200717560318
the inner gel component of aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells.the present study was carried out to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the inner leaf gel component of aloe barbadensis miller. a simple in vitro assay was designed to determine the effect of the inner gel on bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, namely tnf-alpha and il-1 beta, from peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with shigella flexneri or lps. this report describes the suppression of both cytokines with a freeze-dried inner gel powder and a commercial health dri ...200717560326
novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in shigella sonnei. 200717561568
antimicrobial activity of a series of thiosemicarbazones and their zn(ii) and pd(ii) complexes.thirty-four thiosemicarbazones and s-alkyl thiosemicarbazones, and some of their zn(ii) and pd(ii) complexes were obtained and purified to investigate antimicrobial activity. mic values of the compounds were determined by the disc diffusion method against escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhi, shigella flexneri, staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, and candida albicans. the thiosemicarbazones show antibacterial and antifungal effec ...200717571790
preparation and characterization of translocator/chaperone complexes and their component proteins from shigella flexneri.shigella flexneri causes a severe form of bacillary dysentery also known as shigellosis. onset of shigellosis requires bacterial invasion of colonic epithelial cells which is initiated by the delivery of translocator and effector proteins to the host cell membrane and cytoplasm, respectively, by the shigella type iii secretion system (ttss). the shigella translocator proteins, ipab and ipac, form a pore complex in the host cell membrane to facilitate effector delivery; however, prior to their se ...200717571858
dna sequencing of a pathogenicity-related plasmid of an avian septicemic escherichia coli strain.a 43-mda conjugative plasmid isolated from an avian septicemic escherichia coli (apec) strain possessing genes related to the adhesion and invasion capacities of in vitro-cultured cells was sequenced. the results demonstrated that the 43-mda plasmid harbors bacterial pathogenicity-related sequences which probably allow the wild-type pathogenic strain to adhere to and invade tissues and to cause septicemia in poultry. the existence of homology sequences to sequences belonging to other human patho ...200717573664
serotyping, pcr, phage-typing and antibiotic sensitivity testing of salmonella serovars isolated from urban drinking water supply systems of study the occurrence and diversity of salmonella serovars in urban water supply systems of nepal.200717576218
emerging resistance to newer antimicrobial agents among shigella isolated from finnish foreign finland, most cases of shigellosis are related to travel abroad. antimicrobial drug resistance of 1814 shigella strains isolated from finnish patients during 1990-2005 was studied using discs of 12 antimicrobial agents. since 2000, the e-test has been performed to determine ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations of nalidixic acid-resistant isolates. the proportion of multi-resistant strains (resistant to >or =4 antimicrobials) was highest among isolates from china and india, but is i ...200817578602
a deafness-associated mutant human connexin 26 improves the epithelial barrier in vitro.a large proportion of recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss is due to mutations in the gjb2 gene encoding connexin 26 (cx26), a component of a gap junction. within different ethnic groups there are specific common recessive mutations, each with a relatively high carrier frequency, suggesting the possibility of heterozygous advantage. carriers of the r143w gjb2 allele, the most prevalent in the african population, present with a thicker epidermis than noncarriers. in this study, we show that (r143w ...200717581693
genetic structure of the nada and nadb antivirulence loci in shigella spp.comparison of nada and nadb in 14 shigella strains and enteroinvasive escherichia coli versus e. coli showed that at least one locus is altered in all strains. these observations explain the characteristic nicotinic acid auxotrophy of shigella organisms and are consistent with the previously identified antivirulence nature of these genes for these pathogens.200717586625
shigella flexneri bacteriuria in a saudi child. 199217587005
genetic relatedness among isolates of shigella sonnei carrying class 2 integrons in tehran, iran, 2002-2003.shigella spp. are major cause of diarrhoeal disease in both developing and developed countries. shigella sonnei is the serogroup of shigella most frequently responsible for sporadic and epidemic enteritis in developed countries. in recent years the emergence and spread of s. sonnei biotype g carrying class 2 integron have been frequently reported in many countries. recently, s. sonnei has been reported as the prevalent serogroup of shigella in iran. the present study was carried out to investiga ...200717587439
etiology of bacterial diarrhea in a major referral center in saudi arabia.a total of 34, 856 stool specimens from 19, 437 patients with symptoms of gastroenteritis were analyzed for bacterial enteropathogens during the period of january 1, 1985, to december 31, 1989, at a major tertiary care referral hospital in saudi arabia. bacterial pathogens were isolate from 1426 (7.3%) patients, with salmonella being the most frequent (3.8%), followed by campylobacter (2.0%), shigella (1.1%), and aeromonas hydrophila (0.34%). salmonella serogroups b and c and shigella b and d co ...199117590814
[identification and characterization of diarrheal microorganisms].acute diarrhea belongs to group of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms - salmonella, shigella and pathogenic strains of e.coli. despite the prophylactic measurements morbidity rate of diarrheal diseases remains very high especially in children and in traveling persons. among the main causes of illness is emerging of new strains of microorganisms, new serological versions of already known pathogens or antibiotic resistant strains of these pathogens. struggle against the resistant forms o ...200717595460
[study of antibiotic sensitivity of diarrheal microorganisms].as it was shown previously, detailed bacteriological analyses of 159 strains, among them museum and newly isolated strains of diarrheal patients from various clinics and bacteriology laboratories of tbilisi was carried out. study of antibiotic susceptibility of 52 strains of salmonella groups a, b, c, d, e and 42 shigella strains, among them 30 shigella flexneri and 12 shigella sonnei strains to 20 antibiotics and 1 chemical preparation was performed. 63% of salmonella strains were susceptible t ...200717595461
analysis of the aerobactin and ferric hydroxamate uptake systems of yersinia pestis.yersinia pestis genomes contain genes homologous to the aerobactin receptor (iuta) and biosynthetic genes (iucabcd) as well as the ferric hydroxamate uptake system (fhucdb) of escherichia coli. however, iuca is disrupted by a frameshift mutation. an e. coli strain carrying the cloned y. pestis aerobactin region was unable to produce aerobactin, but could use the siderophore as an iron source. repair of the frameshift mutation in iuca did not allow aerobactin production in e. coli or y. pestis. i ...200717600077
nada and nadb of shigella flexneri 5a are antivirulence loci responsible for the synthesis of quinolinate, a small molecule inhibitor of shigella pathogenicity.the evolution of bacterial pathogens from commensal organisms involves virulence gene acquisition followed by pathoadaptation to the new host, including inactivation of antivirulence loci (avl). avl are core ancestral genes whose expression is incompatible with the pathogenic lifestyle. previous studies identified cada (encoding lysine decarboxylase) as an avl of shigella spp. in this study, avl of shigella were identified by examining a phenotypic difference from its non-pathogenic ancestor, es ...200717600080
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