PMID(sorted descending)
a nonvirulent mutant of listeria monocytogenes does not move intracellularly but still induces polymerization of actin.listeria monocytogenes has the capacity to penetrate and multiply within professional and nonprofessional phagocytic cells, such as the caco-2 human enterocytelike cell line. it was shown recently that shortly after listeriae have been phagocytosed, the phagosomal membrane is dissolved, probably by the action of the bacterial cytolysin listeriolysin o. the listeriae, which are then lying obviously free in the cytoplasm, become surrounded by a coat of actin filaments within a few hours. once form ...19902172164
inactivation of beta-lactamase from shigella flexneri ucsf-129 by 6-beta-iodopenicillanic acid: classification of the enzyme.the beta-lactamase from shigella flexneri ucsf-129 was irreversible inactivated by 6-beta-iodopenicillanic acid. only one serine residue was modified, according to the spectra change and the amino acid analyses. a ph variation of 0.3 units was found when the chemically modified enzyme was submitted to isoelectric focusing. the inactivation constant of the fast time course reaction was 0.1 seg-1. protection of 96% was obtained, using cephradine 2,830 times more concentrated than 6-beta-iodopenici ...19902170824
associations of escherichia coli k-12 ompf trimers with rough and smooth lipopolysaccharides.the associations of both rough and smooth lipopolysaccharides (lps) with the ompf porin of escherichia coli k-12 were examined in gale strains deleted for ompc. transformation with pss37 and growth with galactose conferred the ability to assemble a shigella dysenteriae o antigen onto the core oligosaccharide of e. coli k-12 lps. the association of lps with ompf trimers was assessed by staining, autoradiography of lps specifically labeled with [1-14c]galactose, and western immunoblotting with a m ...19902168378
coxsackie b1 virus infection enhances the bacterial invasiveness, the phagocytosis and the membrane permeability in hep-2 analyze the effect of coxsackie b1 virus infection on bacterial invasiveness, phagocytosis and cytoplasma membrane permeability, we have studied invasiveness of shigella flexneri, unspecific phagocytosis of latex particles and release of the non-metabolizible amino acid, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (aib). virus infection enhanced invasiveness of s. flexneri and phagocytosis of latex beads and increased plasma membrane permeability as measured by release of aib. the effect on all three function ...19902166540
molecular characterization of a trans-acting, positive effector (ipar) of invasion plasmid antigen synthesis in shigella flexneri serotype 5.a trans-acting, positive effector of invasion plasmid antigen (ipa) synthesis has been identified and mapped on the pwr100 invasion plasmid of shigella flexneri serotype 5 (strain m90t-w). recombinant plasmids carrying this regulatory gene, designated ipar, were found to restore full virulence to a non-invasive ipar::tn5 insertion mutant [m90t-w(phs1042)] that had lost the ability to synthesize four ipa antigens (ipaa, 70 kda; ipab, 62 kda; ipac, 42 kda; and ipad, 37 kda). genetic mapping of the ...19902166210
in vitro activity of cefonicid compared to other antibiotics against clinical bacterial isolates.the in vitro activity of cefonicid compared to that of other antibiotics has been evaluated against 401 enterobacteriaceae, 20 h. influenzae, 17 branhamella catarrhalis and 71 staphylococci. cefonicid was always more active than cefazolin, and usually more active than cefamandole and cefuroxime against susceptible gram-negative organisms (e. coli, p. mirabilis, klebsiella, shigella, salmonella, h. influenzae). cefonicid was ineffective against most strains of enterobacter, citrobacter, s. marces ...19902164309
transposition in shigella dysenteriae: isolation and analysis of is911, a new member of the is3 group of insertion sequences.twenty-nine clear-plaque mutants of bacteriophage lambda were isolated from a shigella dysenteriae lysogen. three were associated with insertions in the ci gene: two were due to insertion of is600, and the third resulted from insertion of a new element, is911. is911 is 1,250 base pairs (bp) long, carries 27-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generates 3-bp duplications of the target dna on insertion. it was found in various copy numbers in all four species of shigella tested and in esch ...19902163395
site-specific transposition of insertion sequence is630.is630 is a 1.15-kilobase sequence in shigella sonnei that, unlike many mobile elements, seems not to mediate cointegration between different replicons. to assess its transposition, we constructed composite elements containing inverted copies of is630 flanking a drug resistance gene. we found that these composite elements transposed to plasmid cole1 in escherichia coli. dna sequencing showed that transposition was, in all cases, to the dinucleotide sequence 5'-ta-3'. there were two preferred inse ...19902163390
cell wall structures which may be important for successful immunization with salmonella-shigella hybrid vaccines.three separate lots of s. typhi/s. sonnei hybrid (ty/shig) live oral vaccine strain 5076-1c were tested for efficacy in human volunteers challenged with virulent s. sonnei. two lots (2 and 5) protected volunteers, a third lot (8) did not. the three lots were evaluated by immunological tests and electron microscopy. lots 2 and 5, which protected, contained bacteria that reacted with anti-flagellar serum and had observable attached flagella and pili. lot 8, which failed to protect, did not react w ...19902159678
[aids and gastrointestinal tract: a summary for gastroenterologists and surgeons].the majority of patients with aids suffer from diarrhea and weight loss, as well as opportunistic infection and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; endoscopy is frequently necessary. often, but not always, it is possible to identify an opportunistic tumor or infection which explains the patient's signs and symptoms. in other cases, hiv may itself be pathogenic. the most important opportunistic pathogens are candida albicans (stomatitis and esophagitis), cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus ...19902159657
complete sequence of is629. 19902159625
risk of diarrhea during the first year of life associated with initial and subsequent colonization by specific enteropathogens.the incidence of colonization by enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (detected by dna hybridization with specific radiolabeled probes), salmonella sp., shigella sp., campylobacter jejuni, and rotavirus was related to the presence of diarrhea in a cohort of 75 rural infants followed longitudinally during the first year of life. the study was carried out between august 1985 and february 1987 in the village of lugar sobre la tierra blanca, in th ...19902157338
waterborne disease outbreaks, 1986-1988.from 1986 to 1988, 24 states and puerto rico reported 50 outbreaks of illness due to water that people intended to drink, affecting 25,846 persons. the protozoal parasite giardia lamblia was the agent most commonly implicated in outbreaks, as it has been for the last 10 years; many of these outbreaks were associated with ingestion of chlorinated but unfiltered surface water. shigella sonnei was the most commonly implicated bacterial pathogen; in outbreaks caused by this pathogen, water supplies ...19902156147
future vaccines against enteric pathogens.a small number of bacterial agents, including enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), enteropathogenic e. coli (epec), shigella and vibrio cholerae 01 and one virus, rotavirus, combine to cause a major proportion of the diarrheal illness of public health importance worldwide. salmonella typhi is by far the major cause of enteric fever. attempts to develop safe, practical, and effective vaccines against these agents are under way. examples of vaccine candidates include live oral vaccines against ...19902155260
clinical and parasitologic aspects of cryptosporidiosis in nonhuman primates.eighty-one cases of acute cryptosporidiosis were diagnosed among 157 (52%) infant primates, predominantly macaca nemestrina, housed in the nursery unit of the washington regional primate research center. the mean age at onset of oocyst passage was 38 +/- 25 days. the outbreak was confined to the nursery and no cases were detected among juvenile or adult primates housed in other rooms within the colony. all but one animal manifested symptoms of enteric infection, including severe diarrhea and deh ...19902153858
[sensitivity of enteropathogenic bacteria to furazolidone].the sensitivity in vitro of 348 strains of 18 enteropathogen agents to furazolidone was investigated during the period of 1987-1989. all strains of shigella sonnei (17), s. flexneri (17), s. boydii (16), escherichia coli enteropathogen (40), e. coli enteroinvasive (20), campylobacter jejuni (50), vibrio cholerae 01 (5), vibrio cholerae non 01 (5), v. parahaemolyticus (5), v. alginolyticus (2), aeromonas hydrophila (5), a. caviae (5), a. sobria (5), and plesiomonas shigelloides (12) were sensitiv ...19902152485
development of antimicrobial drug resistance among shigellas isolated at an israeli hospital from 1977 through 1990.treatment of diarrhea due to shigella sp. has become complicated in recent years by drug resistance. the emergence of resistance to antibiotics important in the treatment of shigellosis was studied among shigella sp. isolated at the sheba medical center between 1977 and 1990.19902152154
comparison of methods in the detection of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in a malaysian laboratory.the prevalence of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) in 433 stool samples from diarrhoeal cases of all ages was studied using two commercially available test kits for the detection of heat labile toxin (lt) and the infant mouse assay for the heat stable toxin (st). 16 samples (3.7%) were positive for etec, of which nine were producing st alone, six lt alone and only one was producing both lt and st. although the percentage of isolation rate was low, its occurrence was almost as common as th ...19902152068
[a case of group morbidity from reiter's syndrome in patients with a history of acute intestinal infection]. 19902151299
[antibiotic resistance of shigella isolated in the kara-kalpak a.s.s.r. 1987-1988].sensitivity of shigella spp. isolated in one of the hospitals of nukus within 1987-1988 and earlier in 1977 and 1985 was studied. s. flexneri 1-5 remained the main causative agents of dysentery on the territory. however, beginning from 1987 there were registered cases of dysentery caused by s. dysenteriae 1. the isolates were most sensitive to cefotaxime, cephaloridine, polymyxin b and gentamicin. the majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, levomycetin (chloramphenicol) and stre ...19902144726
[colicinogenotypes of shigella sonnei strains isolated in the west slovakian region 1983-1988].using the method of colicinogenotyping by means of specific indicators, the author examined 1949 strains of shigella sonnei isolated in 1983-1988 from patients with the diagnosis of bacillary dysentery in the capital of slovakia bratislava, as well as in other places in the west slovakian region. colicines accounted for 91.2% of the strains and were classified among 21 colicinogenotypes. most frequently colicinogenotypes e6 were found (40.2%), e6, ia (36.7%), e1 (7.9%) and e6, ib (2.4%). there w ...19902144476
developing epidemiological markers for shigella sonnei: a proposed phage-typing scheme.shigella sonnei isolates are homogeneous when examined by serological methods. since this micro-organism is one of the common isolates in outbreaks of shigellosis, a strong necessity was felt to find a sub-division of it, useful in epidemiological studies.19902135810
changes in the properties of plasma fibronectin in shigella-induced endotoxaemia and the responses to hyperbaric oxygenation and rabbits, shigella endotoxin causes hypoxaemia, metabolic acidosis, and hypocapnia. these changes are more marked at a dose of 1 mg kg-1 than with one of 0.5 mg kg-1 body weight. the endotoxin also reduces the plasma level and heparin-binding activity of fibronectin (fn). during convalescence, fn activity recovers at a slower rate than its level. hyperbaric oxygenation (hbo; 2 atm for 1 h) normalizes blood gas composition and acid-base and electrolyte balance, improves the clinical picture of ...19902132945
[presence of salmonella in the northwest shore of the l'albufera de valencia].for the purpose of ascertaining the amount of pollution reaching the large salt lagoon in valencia from its northwest side, 19 river-beds flowing into it have been studied. for each sample, the presence of markers indicating fecal pollution and the presence or absence of pathogens; salmonella, vibrio cholerae and shigella have been evaluated. for each river-bed, a fecal pollution index has been calculated, this index revealing a positive correlation (p = 0.03) with the isolating of salmonella. s ...19902131632
immunogenic and protective properties of outer membrane proteins of hafnia alvei.outer membrane proteins (omp) extracted from antigenically distinct or related strains of hafnia alvei containing defined composition of major proteins proved to be immunogenic. intraperitoneal immunization of mice with a single dose of such preparations protected the animals against homologous and heterologous hafnia strains. the omp preparations were also found to induce protection with varying intensity against escherichia, proteus, shigella and salmonella.19902130804
studies on nonspecific protection induced with omp of shigella flexneri and other genera of enterobacteriaceae.outer membrane proteins (omp) isolated from shigella flexneri, escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris and salmonella typhimurium were tested for their protective activity. each omp preparate given to mice intraperitoneally in a single injection (5 micrograms/per mouse) protected the animals not only in homologous but also in varying intensity in heterologous systems. evidence was obtained that this nonspecific protection is cell mediated.19902130800
[occurrence of intestinal parasites and the bacterial flora in school-age children in the sjenica highlands]. 19902130024
immunodetection of lipopolysaccharide in macrophages during the processing of non invasive shigella dysenteriae.the location of lipopolysaccharide (lps) was studied by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy in macrophages infected with a non-invasive shigella dysenteriae 1 strain. bacterial degradation began only 3 h after the end of infection. the first visible sign of degradation was detected by immunogold labelling at the level of lps which detached from the bacterial surface and was transferred to the perinuclear lysosomes. after a few hours, it was found in small vesicles spread over the wh ...19902129020
acidity and intestinal bacteria: an in-vitro assessment of the bactericidal activity of hydrochloric acid on intestinal pathogens.the bactericidal activity of hydrochloric acid (hcl) on different intestinal bacteria was evaluated at various ph values and time intervals. the effect of hcl was highest at ph 2 and ph 3 on strains of campylobacter jejuni, aeromonas hydrophila, plesiomonas shigelloides, yersinia enterocolitica, salmonella spp. and shigella spp., producing complete killing after 60 min incubation. however, at higher ph values (ph 4 and above), these organisms not only survived but they also showed evidence of ra ...19902127996
growth inhibition of selected food-borne bacteria, particularly listeria monocytogenes, by plant extracts.six extracts from chinese medicinal plants: tin men chu, sey lau pai, siu mao heung, bak tao yung, kam chin chiu and liao ya, were tested for their inhibitory effect on selected food-borne bacteria by the well assay technique. among them, tin men chu, siu mao heung and sey lau pai inhibited the growth of staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumonia, escherichia coli, shigella flexneri, streptococcus faecalis, salmonella paratyphi, salm. enteritidis, enterobacter aerogenes, pseudomonas fluorescens ...19902127264
the two-component regulatory system ompr-envz controls the virulence of shigella shigella flexneri, the ompb locus (containing the ompr and envz genes) was found to modulate expression of the vir genes, which are responsible for invasion of epithelial cells. vir gene expression was markedly enhanced under conditions of high osmolarity (300 mosm), similar to that encountered in tissues both extra- and intracellularly. two ompb mutants were constructed and tested for virulence and for osmotic regulation of vir genes. an envz::tn10 mutant remained invasive, although its viru ...19902121709
phorbol myristate acetate inhibits hela 229 invasion by bordetella pertussis and other invasive bacterial pathogens.the microfilament inhibitors cytochalasins b and d have been traditionally used to indirectly evaluate the requirement for actin in the uptake of invasive bacterial pathogens by nonprofessional phagocytes. through their effects on microfilaments, both cytochalasins also impart profound alterations in cellular morphology and surface topology, which likely interfere with adherence. alterations affecting adherence would complicate interpretation of the effect of cytochalasins on entry alone. as an ...19902119340
role of enterobacteria and hla-b27 in spondyloarthropathies: studies with transgenic mice.several mhc (major histocompatibility complex) genes are associated with increased incidence of disease. the strongest association is between the class i gene, hla-b27, and ankylosing spondylitis (as). hla-b27 is also highly associated with reiter's syndrome. as not all subjects with hla-b27 develop as or reiter's syndrome, environmental factors may have a key role in the pathogenesis of these arthritic diseases. several studies have implicated klebsiella in the development of as, whereas reiter ...19902115764
acp broadsheet 124: may 1990. examination of faeces for bacterial pathogens. 19902115050
electrolyte abnormalities associated with diarrhea in rhesus monkeys: 100 cases (1986-1987).serum electrolyte values from 100 rhesus monkeys with diarrhea were reviewed. the most frequent finding was hyponatremia (88%), with hypochloremia next most frequently detected (80%). metabolic acidosis was less common (59%) and usually associated with high anion gap values. associations between electrolyte abnormalities and age, housing, or case outcome were not found. bacteriologic culturing was performed on fecal specimens from 90 monkeys. campylobacter coli or c jejuni alone was isolated fro ...19902112122
[experience in using new drug preparations for treating adult patients with acute intestinal infections].ciprofloxacin (bayer, frg), a derivative of hydroxyquinolone acid, was used for the treatment of patients with shigellosis and salmonellosis and for the sanitation of salmonella carriers. the drug turned out to exert a positive effect on bacteriological sanitation of the body. in order to treat patients with food toxinfection of unknown etiology, use was made of intetrix (farmacos, socialist federal republic of yugoslavia). inclusion of the drug into combined treatment of patients with food toxi ...19902110389
improved sectioning and ultrastructure of bacteria and animal cells embedded in lowicryl.lowicryl k4m-embedded gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have a tendency to separate between the cell surface and the resin. this often leads to distortion of bacteria and more especially of mycobacteria. we describe attempts made to overcome this technical problem. different assays were made on bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, and mycobacterium avium: 1) modification of the bacterial surface by coating of bacteria with proteinic compounds; 2) treatment of bacteria with metallic salts ...19902110246
listeria isolations from feces of patients with diarrhea and from healthy food handlers.a study was undertaken on the presence and frequency of listeria sp. in feces from 1,000 patients suffering from diarrheal diseases and from 2,000 healthy persons. furthermore, the feces of patients were examined for other well-documented enteropathogens such as campylobacter, salmonella, shigella, staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica, protozoa and rotavirus as well as for organisms of questionable enteropathogenic potency such as fungi, i.e. candida. finally, in continuation of previo ...19902110118
travelers' diarrhea among u.s. navy and marine corps personnel during a western pacific deployment.the incidence and etiology of travelers' diarrhea was studied in a crew of 1,914 sailors and marines aboard a u.s. navy ship during a western pacific deployment. questionnaires completed by 301 troops indicated that 52% had at least one episode of diarrhea during the deployment; however, only 5% of the ship's company sought treatment. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli was the most commonly identified pathogen (23%), followed by giardia lamblia (6%), salmonella (3%), rotavirus (2%), and shigella, ...19902107464
causative agents of acute diarrhoea in the first 3 years of life: hospital-based study.during the 2 years of the study, 402 patients and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were investigated for the presence of diarrhoeal pathogens. pathogenic organisms were recovered from 277 (68.9%) patients and 97 (24.1%) controls. in the patient group, possible bacterial pathogens were found in 210 (52.2%) cases. enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) was the most frequently found potential pathogen, being recovered in 132 cases (32.8%) with serotypes 026, 086, 0111 and 0124 bei ...19902103408
hybrid vaccines using escherichia coli as an antigen carrier. 19902101482
construction and evaluation of live attenuated vaccine strains of shigella flexneri and shigella dysenteriae 1.shigellosis is an invasive disease of the human colon which is particularly prevalent among children of the developing world. no proper vaccine is available to protect against this enteric disease. it is currently accepted that only live strains with attenuated virulence administered orally may elicit protective immunity at the level of the colonic mucosa, which is the exclusive site of multiplication of causative microorganisms such as shigella flexneri and shigella dysenteriae 1. we have const ...19902101481
etiological agents of diarrhoea.two decades of research have established newer pathogens and techniques in establishing several organisms of diarrhoeal diseases as aetiological agents. it is now possible to detect an agent in 80% of the situation of diarrhoea in a standard laboratory. the brief review describes the list of pathogens, their diagnostic techniques with short description on clinical and epidemiological status.19902101388
management of acute diarrhoea.before 1970, laboratory staff could not only identify the causative organism of acute diarrhea in 20% of cases, but in 1990, they could identify it in 80% of cases. these organisms are either bacteria, virus, or parasites. the bacteria include enterotoxigenic bacteria (vibrio cholerae, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, clostridium perfringens, and staphylococcus aureus) and enteroinvasive bacteria (campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, and salmonella and shigella species). the leading cause of death ...19902101385
multidrug resistant epidemic shigellosis in a village in west bengal, out break of acute bacillary dysentery in a village called dhamasin in hooghly district of west bengal was investigated during march 1984. forty seven percent of families were affected. a total of 91 cases and 2 deaths occurred amongst 937 people giving an over all attack rate of 9.7% and a case fatality rate of 2.2 percent. highest attack rate (22.7%) was observed in below one year age group. multiple drug resistant shigella dysentery type 1 strains were isolated for the first time from 6 ou ...19902101383
outbreak of dysentery due to nalidixic acid resistant s. dysenteriae 1 at agartala, tripura: a hospital based study.during the epidemic of bacillary dysentery at agartala, tripura, a total of 62 hospitalized patients suffering from diarrhoeal diseases were studied during the later part (11-16 june, 1988) of the epidemic. principal features of shigellosis cases were discussed. of these 62 cases investigated, 19(30.6%) cases had the mucoid diarrhoea. from them s.dysenteriae type 1 and s.flexneri had been recovered from 31.6% and 10.5% cases, respectively. all the strains of s.dysenteriae type 1 isolated during ...19902101382
effect of protein rich diet during acute phase of dysentery.ninety six children upto the age of five years suffering from uncomplicated acute dysentery of less than 3 days' duration were studied to find out the impact of feeding of extra-protein rich diet during their acute phase of illness. these children were randomly allocated to either control group (receiving only hospital diet) and study group (receiving hospital diet and extra milk which constituted 30% of ideal total calorie requirement of patients. patients in the two groups were comparable on a ...19902101381
potential shigella flexneri 2a and shigella sonnei i live vaccinal strains. characterization of immunogenicity in animal models.rats and rabbits were immunized intraintestinally with different doses of virulent and nonvirulent live shigella flexneri 2a and shigella sonnei i strains. the nonvirulent strains had one or two attenuating markers. the period of excretion with the faeces of the bacteria and of their polysaccharide antigens, the proliferation of antigen-binding and antibody-producing cells in the spleens and gut-associated lymphoid tissues and the levels of antibodies in sera and faeces were studied. attenuated ...19902099082
[the lytic activity of yersinia pestis phage p 3d serovar].the lytic activity of plague phage ii, serovar 3, with respect to 1,800 bacterial strains has been studied: 760 yersinia pestis strains, 262 y. pseudotuberculosis strains, 252 y. enterocolitica strains, 166 escherichia coli strains, 90 shigella strains and 270 strains of other species. the phage has been found to lyse 81.8% of y. pestis strains, 1 y. pseudotuberculosis strain and 1 y. enterocolitica strain. the representatives of other 19 bacterial species have proved to be resistant to the phag ...19902099066
[the characteristics of the biological properties of shigella dysenteriae 1 circulating in the ussr and india: its biochemical activity and agglutinability].the properties of 71 s. dysenteriae 1 strains isolated from patients in the ussr and india in 1986-1988 were studied. the cultures possessed typical biochemical and serological properties. as revealed in this investigation, high fastidiousness of this infective agent to the quality of synthetic nutrient could become the cause of false negative reactions in different substrates used for the identification of enterobacteria, thus leading to diagnostic mistakes. the variability of the biochemical a ...19902097846
ultrastructural features of microbial colony organization.the ultrastructure of microbial colonies was studied. inside the colonies three types of intercellular contacts were demonstrated. in the colonies of gram-negative bacteria, the cells were found to be connected by tight adhesions of outer membranes of the cell walls and membrane bridges. in the colonies of gram-positive bacteria, the intercellular contacts were formed by fusion of peptidoglucan layers of the cell walls. bacterial cells were differentiated by the presence of a capsule-like envelo ...19902097346
[the clinico-pathogenetic significance of disorders of the immune status in dysentery].as many as 256 patients with flexner's dysentery caused by the same source of infection were examined. it has been established that in patients with a severe and protracted course of the disease, secondary immunodeficiency is formed by the relative hypersuppressor type and the function of phagocytizing macrophages decreases. patients with the reduced immune characteristics manifest deceleration of convalescence and repeated isolation of shigella after the antibiotic therapy. it is concluded that ...19902094988
[a 3-year follow-up study of the incidence of campylobacteriosis in a pediatric population].the authors investigated the incidence of campylobacteriosis in the population of five paediatric health communities of the jihlava policlinic (5831 children) for a period of three years. a total of 2408 specimens faeces from 1501 subjects were examined. campylobacter jejuni was detected in 151 subjects (10.1%), salmonella sp. in 47 (3.1%), shigella sp. in 18 (1.2%), yersinia enterocolitica in 12 (0.8%) and enteropathogenic escherichia coli in five subjects (0.3%). the total incidence of campylo ...19902092913
molecular analysis of strains of shigella boydii isolated in northern and southern the years 1981-1988, shigella boydii played a very limited role in the aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in italy. however, between september and november, 1985, 19 isolates of serotype 2 were recovered in northern italy from a dysentery outbreak which occurred in a geriatrics hospital in abbiategrasso (milan, lombardy) and seven were identified in southern italy during the period january-july, 1986 from apparently unrelated infection cases occurring in brindisi (apulia). these isolates were co ...19902092367
palindromic unit highly repetitive dna sequences exhibit species specificity within enterobacteriaceae.palindromic units (pu, or rep for repetitive extragenic palindrome) constitute a family of dna sequences of 40 nucleotides which is highly repeated in the genome of escherichia coli. we analysed the presence of pu sequences in 99 different bacterial genomes by cross-hybridization. when pu sequences were used as a probe, only dna from enterobacteriaceae closely related to e. coli exhibited an appreciable hybridization signal: shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, salmonella enteritica serotype typhim ...19902092362
specific binding of virg to the vir box requires a c-terminal domain and exhibits a minimum concentration threshold.the positive regulatory protein virg from the virulence region of the ti plasmid of agrobacterium tumefaciens was first demonstrated to possess dna-binding capabilities using chromatographically purified protein and in vitro assays (powell et al., 1989). this paper is an extension of that research and presents evidence on the in vivo dna-binding properties of virg using a transcription interference assay. virg protein bound specifically to a 'vir box' response element and repressed transcription ...19902089226
[reactive arthritis].the term reactive arthritis was introduced to describe an acute non-purulent arthritis complicating an infection elsewhere in the body. reactive arthritis can also be classified into hla-b27 associated and non-associated forms. rheumatic fever is an example of the hla-b27 non-associated forms with genetic factors other than hla-b27 involved. hla-b27 associated reactive arthritis includes enteric, urogenic and idiopathic arthritides. the bacteria known to trigger post-enteritic reactive arthritis ...19902087418
[quantitative evaluation of growth-promoting properties of selected culture media used for isolation of salmonella and shigella strains].growth promoting properties and selectivity of 11 commercially produced media recommended for salmonella and shigella isolation were evaluated. the following media were tested: emb (eosin methylene blue agar), endo, płoskiriew, macconkey, dc (deoxycholate citrate agar), ss (salmonella-shigella agar), bs (bismuth sulfite agar) and mueller-hinton as a medium with no selective properties. the media were produced in czechoslovakia, east germany, west germany, poland, and soviet union. quantitative s ...19902087133
[effect of fluoroquinolones made in china in the treatment of acute bacillary dysentery. a report of 212 cases].212 cases of acute bacillary dysentery were treated with enoxacin and norfloxacin, another 15 cases were treated by chujunsheng. the cure rate in enoxacin group was 99.1%, in norfloxacin group 98.04% and in chujunsheng group 63.64%. the isolated pathogens were tested for susceptibility with disk diffusion and mic determination. the results showed that both enoxacin and norfloxacin are better than gentamycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. side effects of enoxacin ...19902086018
[value of microbiologic studies for diagnosis of post-enteritis reactive arthritis].reactive arthritis may develop within a period of some days until upto 3 weeks after infections with yersinia enterocolitica, yersinia pseudotuberculosis, campylobacter jejuni/coli, shigella and salmonella. intestinal infections with klebsiella pneumoniae, clostridium perfringens, clostridium difficile, cryptosporidium, strongyloides stercoralis, taenia saginata and schistosoma mansoni are, in some cases, considered to be responsible for reactive arthritis. detection of pathogenic bacteria in fe ...19902085058
[clinico-morphological comparisons in different types of dysentery].clinical evidence and morphological picture of rectal biopsy specimens were analysed for 125 dysentery patients. as compared to a light course, moderately severe and severe dysentery presented enhanced microbial adherence and an elevated level of large lymphocytes in the external epithelium of the rectum, deeper penetration of shigella into crypts. on day 9-15 of the disease in attenuation of the clinical symptoms in severe and moderately dysentery morphological shifts persisted whereas the ligh ...19902084341
prevalence of salmonella, shigella and intestinal parasites in food handlers in irbid, jordan.during a one-year period, 283 food handlers in irbid, jordan were investigated for the presence of potential enteropathogens in their stools. the prevalence rate of enteropathogens among non-jordanian food handlers (48.0%) was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that of the jordanian group (12.3%). the isolation rates of salmonella and shigella were 6% and 1.4% respectively. multi-drug resistance was frequent among isolates of salmonella group b and shigella spp. intestinal parasites de ...19902081882
[reactions of different enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae species in brila-mug (fluorocult) bouillion].in order to test the usefulness of brila-mug (= fluorocult) medium (merck) for isolation and identification of total coliforms and faecal coliforms in surface water according to the ec guidelines for bathing waters a total of 969 strains of different enterobacteriaceae and vibrionaceae species was examined under different culture conditions. these included 486 e. coli (reference strains of o-groups 1-170, enterotoxin and verotoxin-producing strains), 149 salmonella (subspecies i-vi), 92 yersinia ...19902080970
[triggering bacterial infections in reactive arthritis].108 patients, 75 men and 33 women, mean age 35 years, with reactive arthritis were studied by microbiological and serological methods for identification of a probable triggering infection. in 32 of the patients a chlamydia infection, in 30 patients--yersinia infection, in 7 patients--staphylococcus infection and in 4 patients--shigella infection were found. in 27 patients no infectious agent was found but in 4 of them a positive cbr for chlamydia in the sex partner was found. the course of the a ...19902080617
[the indices of pancreatic incretory function in acute intestinal infections].results are reported of a study of the incretory function in 156 patients with acute intestinal infections. the incretory pancreatic function was found to be deranged in most patients in the acute period and tended to slow restoration during convalescence. this indicates the necessity of perfecting pathogenetic treatment of these patients and clinico-laboratory follow-up of patients with a history of acute intestinal infection with consideration of the incretory pancreatic function.19902080556
shiga-like toxin and haemolytic-uraemia syndrome. 19902080009
acute renal failure in north indian children.the spectrum and outcome of acute renal failure (arf) were studied in 205 children aged between 1 month and 12 yr. there were 145 boys and 60 girls; 23 per cent were below 1 yr and 49 per cent between 1 and 4 yr. the main causes of arf were haemolytic uraemic syndrome (hus) in 36 per cent, serious infections in 19 per cent, acute gastroenteritis and dysentery in 17 per cent, glomerulonephritis (gn) in 13 per cent and intravascular haemolysis (ivh) in 6 per cent. most patients with hus, serious i ...19902079354
[shigellosis]. 19902076763
in vitro activity of tosufloxacin against bacterial enteric pathogens.the in vitro activity of tosufloxacin (a-61827), a new quinolone antibiotic, was compared with that of four other quinolones against 162 bacterial enteric pathogens. susceptibility testing was performed by using an agar dilution method. the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) was defined as the lowest concentration of antibiotic without visible growth. tosufloxacin was the most active agent against campylobacter jejuni and c. coli, and ciprofloxacin was the most active agent against salmonell ...19902076595
[the mechanism of the development of the epidemic process in sonne dysentery].an epidemic outbreak of sonne dysentery has been studied. the data of epidemiological monitoring before and after the epidemic have been analyzed. the real prognostication value of controlling the biological properties of shigella sonnei and the increase of their intrapopulation heterogeneity at the period of the activation of the epidemic process of sonne dysentery has been established.19902075768
[the drug resistance and dna plasmid profiles of shigella dysenteriae 1 in the ussr and abroad].the medicinal resistance and plasmid profiles of 62 s. dysenteriae strains 1, isolated in the ussr in 1986-1988 from soviet and foreign citizens (from afghanistan, vietnam) and 8 strains obtained from india in 1987 were studied. pronounced similarity between the phenotypes of medicinal, including conjugative, resistance in the strains of soviet and foreign origin was established. in the soviet s. dysenteriae strains 1 the presence of two main types of plasmid dna profiles (140, 6, 4, 2 md and 14 ...19902075761
salmonella krefeld in thailand: i. epidemiology, infection and drug resistance.information from the national salmonella shigella center (nssc), thailand indicated that the most frequently isolated salmonella serotype from humans during 1974-1975 was salmonella typhi (33.1%), during 1976-1982 was s. krefeld (26.6%) and during 1983-1987 was s. derby (12.6%). antimicrobial susceptibility study of various salmonella serotypes indicated that s. krefeld was the serotype with multiple drug resistance persisting for the longest period of time. human salmonellosis due to s. krefeld ...19902075477
the in-vitro activity of cefodizime: a review.for enterobacteriaceae, mic50s and mic90s of cefodizime (mg/l), respectively, were as follows, for naturally non-beta-lactamase-producing species: escherichia coli 0.12 and 0.5, salmonella spp. and shigella spp. 0.25 and 0.5, proteus mirabilis 0.016 and 0.03; for chromosomal penicillinase-producing species. klebsiella spp. 0.25 and 64, and for chromosomal cephalosporinase-producing species. enterobacter cloacae 1 and 64, citrobacter freundii 1 and 128, serratia marcescens 2 and 8: indole-positiv ...19902074248
shigellosis in kentucky, 1986 through 1989.a marked increase in the number of cases of shigellosis was reported in kentucky in 1988. to examine reasons for this increase, we reviewed the 389 cases of shigellosis reported from 1986 through 1989. ninety-three percent (285/305) of cases due to known species were due to shigella sonnei. sixty-two percent (243/389) of cases occurred in children less than 10 years of age. the annual incidence for blacks (6.8 cases per 100,000) was nearly four times that for whites (1.8 per 100,000). the increa ...19912068620
structure of the detoxification catalyst mercuric ion reductase from bacillus sp. strain rc607.several hundred million tons of toxic mercurials are dispersed in the biosphere. microbes can detoxify organo-mercurials and mercury salts through sequential action of two enzymes, organomercury lyase and mercuric ion reductase (mera). the latter, a homodimer with homology to the fad-dependent disulphide oxidoreductases, catalyses the reaction nadph + hg(ii)----nadp+ + h+ + hg(0), one of the very rare enzymic reactions with metal substrates. human glutathione reductase serves as a reference mole ...19912067577
[the possible mechanisms of the adaptation of microbial populations to low positive temperatures].biologically low temperature was studied for its effect on the survival of populations and their biochemical and molecular-genetical state. the research was carried out on yersinia pseudotuberculosis and shigella sonnei models. it is established that the process of low-temperature adaptation of the populations may occur either at the level of the whole population with participation of inducible cold isoenzymes or at the level of a part of population, the temperature being a selection factor of t ...19912067418
[a provisional serovar of shigella dysenteriae isolated in japan from travellers' diarrhea].a bacterial strain was isolated that possessed the biochemical characteristics of shigella dysenteriae but did not belong to any of the established s. dysenteriae serovars, from the feces of a diarrheal case who had travelled to turkey, pakistan, india and thailand for about a month. this strain was invasive to tissue culture cells and gave a positive serény test. preparing antiserum against this strain and examining the antigenic relationship with the established o antigens of shigella and esch ...19912066600
[a report of surveillance on acute diarrhoeal diseases in wuwei prefecture from 1987 to 1988].surveillance on acute diarrhoeal diseases in jinta county, wuwei city for two successive years from january 1987 to december 1988 showed that the annual average incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was 0.079-0.124. the total detection rate of the etiologic agent was 58.95%. bacterial infection was predominant. ten species of pathogenic bacteria were detected, of which shigella remained the prevalent bacteria among which flexneri appeared as the predominant species after a decline for several years s ...19912065350
site-specific recombinase genes in three shigella subgroups and nucleotide sequences of a pinb gene and an invertible b segment from shigella boydii.inversional switching systems in procaryotes are composed of an invertible dna segment and a site-specific recombinase gene adjacent to or contained in the segment. four related but functionally distinct systems have previously been characterized in detail: the salmonella typhimurium h segment-hin gene (h-hin), phage mu g-gin, phage p1 c-cin, and escherichia coli e14 p-pin. in this article we report the isolation and characterization of three new recombinase genes: pinb, pind, and defective pinf ...19912061288
detection of escherichia coli and shigella spp. in water by using the polymerase chain reaction and gene probes for uid.a method was developed for the detection of the fecal coliform bacterium escherichia coli, using the polymerase chain reaction and gene probes, based on amplifying regions of the uid gene that code for beta-glucuronidase, expression of which forms the basis for fecal coliform detection by the commercially available colilert method. amplification and gene probe detection of four different regions of uid specifically detected e. coli and shigella species, including beta-glucuronidase-negative stra ...19912059028
evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) analogues, the inhibitors for polyamine biosynthetic pathway.metabolic and antiproliferative effects of methylglyoxal bis(butylamidinohydrazone) (mgbb) and methylglyoxal bis(cyclopentylamidinohydrazone) (mgbcp), inhibitors for polyamine biosynthetic pathway, on escherichia coli, shigella sonnei, aeromonas sobria, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio cholerae were investigated. mgbb at the concentration of 100 mumol/l depleted intracellular putrescine and spermidine concentrations of e. coli to 25 and 20% of the controls, respectively, while mgbcp depressed the ...19912055790
[etiology of bloody diarrhea in children from a rural community].the etiology of bloody diarrhea was investigated in a cohort of 75 children followed longitudinally from birth during the first two years of life in a rural village of central mexico. of a total of 636 episodes of diarrhea, 71 (11%) showed presence of blood. a single associated pathogen was isolated in 59 (83%) of 71 children; 35% showed the presence of enteroaggregative e. coli (eaec), 11% of e. coli producing shiga-like toxins (slt) i and/or ii; 13% of shigella, 7% of campylobacterjejuni or en ...19912054088
[antibiotic therapy of acute dysentery in children with immunologic deficiency conditions].one hundred children with acute sonnei and flexneri dysentery were followed up with respect to the infection process and main immunity indices. in 32 children the immunity indices were physiological (group 1) and in 68 children secondary immune deficiency was observed (group 2). the children were treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics and prodigiozan and it was stated that the time of recovery in the children with immune deficiency was longer by 5.2 days as compared to that in the children with ...19912053823
a weak adaptive response to alkylation damage in salmonella efficient adaptive response to alkylation damage was observed in several enterobacterial species, including klebsiella aerogenes, shigella sonnei, shigella boydii, escherichia alkalescens, escherichia hermanii, and escherichia fergusonii. increased o6-methylguanine-dna and methylphosphotriester-dna methyltransferase activities correlated with the induction of a 39-kda protein recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against the escherichia coli ada protein. induced methyltransferase activit ...19912050626
prospective study of systemic and mucosal immune responses in dysenteric patients to specific shigella invasion plasmid antigens and lipopolysaccharides.shigellosis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. to find immunological correlates of specific protection against shigellosis, we examined chronological samples of sera, stool extracts, duodenal aspirates, and saliva samples from 39 adults and 22 children with shigellosis from peru for the presence of specific antibody to invasion plasmid antigens (ipa) common to all virulent shigella strains, by using both a whole-organism enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...19912050402
o-specific side-chain toxin-protein conjugates as parenteral vaccines for the prevention of shigellosis and related diseases.only indirect evidence has been cited to document that lipopolysaccharide-mediated virulence at the bacterial level and serum antibodies to the o-specific side chain of the lipopolysaccharide molecule may prevent shigellosis. our proposed use of the b subunit of shiga toxin as a carrier protein is based upon evidence (even more indirect) that serum antitoxin may reduce the severity of dysentery and diarrhea. because animal models of disease may provide information inapplicable to the prediction ...19912047664
an auxotrophic live oral shigella flexneri vaccine: development and testing.through transduction, a wild-type strain of shigella flexneri serotype y (sfl1) was rendered auxotrophic and dependent on aromatic metabolites that are not available in mammalian tissues. monkeys that were orally vaccinated with 10(11) bacteria of the transductant strain sfl114 remained healthy when challenged with 10(11) bacteria of wild-type strains of s. flexneri serotypes y, 1b, and 2a. the safety and immunogenicity of sfl114 were next studied in volunteers who were given either 10(9) or 10( ...19912047663
effect of antibiotics on food intake and absorption of nutrients for children with diarrhea due to shigella.the effect of antibiotic therapy on intake of food and absorption of nutrients for 19 male children aged 1-5 years with suspected shigella infection was studied. the children were admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhea, high fever, abdominal pain, and greater than or equal to 25 red blood cells and white blood cells per high-power field in the stool. microbiologic diagnosis was made within 48 hours of admission. on the basis of clinical and microbiologic criteria, children were classified ...19912047661
response to antimicrobial therapy for shigellosis in thailand.shigella species have been one of the most common causes of acute diarrhea in bangkok, thailand. the incidence of shigellosis increased steadily from 1984 to 1988. the majority of shigella species isolated from specimens from patients with acute diarrhea in bangkok in 1988 were resistant to both ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smz). shigella flexneri was the most commonly isolated organism and had the highest rate of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tmp-smz, and tetra ...19912047660
antimicrobial therapy for controlled clinical trials, which were first performed with use of the sulfonamides, antimicrobial agents have been shown to shorten the duration of symptoms and lessen the excretion of pathogens during episodes of shigellosis. not all antimicrobial agents that are active in vitro against shigella are effective in vivo, and efficacy of an agent can only be assessed by properly conducted clinical trials. resistance to both ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the drugs of choice for t ...19912047659
potentially lethal complications of shigellosis.complications that can lead to death during shigellosis include intestinal as well as systemic manifestations. the former include intestinal perforation, toxic megacolon, and dehydration, and the latter include sepsis, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, seizures and encephalopathy, hemolyticuremic syndrome, pneumonia, and malnutrition. data on the frequency of these complications come primarily from hospital-based studies, in which sepsis-either with shigella or with other enterobacteriaceae-and hypogl ...19912047657
intestinal manifestations of invasive diarrheas and their from studies of 916 children with diarrhea, including 122 from whom shigellae were isolated, and data on patients affected in an epidemic due to shigella dysenteriae type i were analyzed to determine whether a diagnostic clinical profile of shigellosis could be identified. blood and/or mucus in stool, increased frequency of stool, abdominal pain, rectal tenesmus, and fever were noted more frequently in patients with shigellosis. the diagnostic confirmation of shigellosis depends on the isol ...19912047655
shiga toxin: intestinal cell receptors and pathophysiology of enterotoxic effects.shiga toxin is enterotoxic in rabbit small bowel and binds to the microvillus membrane (mvm). the toxin exhibits specificity for glycolipids possessing a terminal gal-alpha 1----4gal disaccharide, including the neutral glycolipid gb3 in mvm. gb3, which is developmentally regulated in the rabbit small bowel, is present in very low concentration until the animals reach day 16 of life. in older animals an increase in gb3 content is paralleled by an increase in the ability of mvm to bind toxin, whic ...19912047654
digalactosyl-containing glycolipids as cell surface receptors for shiga toxin of shigella dysenteriae 1 and related cytotoxins of escherichia coli.purified glycolipids containing galactose-alpha(1-4)galactose bind with shiga toxin of shigella dysenteriae 1 and shiga-like toxins of escherichia coli with high specificity in both thin-layer chromatograms and glycolipid-coated microtiter plates. these glycolipids appear to be the natural cell surface receptors for this class of bacterial toxins since artificial glycoconjugates block cytotoxicity as well as binding of 125i-labeled toxin. cell lines lacking these glycolipids are refractory to to ...19912047653
shiga toxin: purification, structure, and function.shiga toxin is a potent toxin produced by shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains. the toxin has three biologic activities--cytotoxicity, enterotoxicity, and neurotoxicity--and one known biochemical effect: inhibition of protein synthesis. it consists of two polypeptide chains, an a chain (molecular weight, 32,225) and a b chain (molecular weight, 7,691). these two peptides associate with a stoichiometry of one a and five b subunits to form the holotoxin. the a chain is responsible for the biochemic ...19912047652
genetic and molecular basis of epithelial cell invasion by shigella species.bacteria that belong to the four species of the genus shigella cause a dysenteric syndrome by means of their unique capacity to invade the human colonic mucosa. the various steps of invasion of epithelial cells are controlled by a 220-kilobase plasmid. plasmid genes that encode for entry into cells through bacterium-directed phagocytosis have been identified. among these, ipa genes encode four highly immunogenic polypeptides. the ability of intracellular bacteria to multiply subsequently in an e ...19912047651
mortality due to shigellosis: community and hospital data.almost all fatal cases of shigellosis occur in developing countries, and data on mortality are generally compiled from three sources: investigations of epidemics caused by shigella dysenteriae type 1, surveillance of endemic diarrheal disease, and reports from hospitals. attack rates during epidemics of dysentery due to infection with s. dysenteriae type 1 have ranged from 1% to 33%, and case-fatality rates have ranged from 1% to 7%. in matlab, a rural district in bangladesh, most diarrhea-relat ...19912047645
the epidemiologic importance of dysentery in communities.this paper explores the epidemiologic importance of dysentery with use of several community studies that demonstrate its prevalence and incidence as well as its association with pathogens, nutritional status, persistent diarrhea, and death. results of these studies showed that while watery diarrhea was most prevalent in children aged 6-11 months, the prevalence of dysentery peaked between 18 and 23 months of age. severely stunted children were found to have significantly prolonged episodes of dy ...19912047644
shigellosis in vietnam: seroepidemiologic studies with use of lipopolysaccharide antigens in enzyme immunoassays.the performance of enzyme immunoassays (eias) with use of o-antigen-containing lipopolysaccharides (lpss) extracted with phenol-water from shigella dysenteriae type 1, shigella flexneri serotypes 1a-5b, and shigella sonnei for determination of the serum antibody responses after onset of bacillary dysentery is reviewed. for the purpose of several studies, serum samples from a total of 175 vietnamese and 47 swedish patients, for whom shigella species had been isolated from fecal specimens, were ob ...19912047643
epidemiologic aspects of shigellosis and other causes of dysentery in thailand.nearly 20% of children seen in the outpatient department of children's hospital in bangkok, thailand, for diarrheal disease had bloody diarrhea. shigella species and enteroinvasive escherichia coli--isolated from 13% and 2% of children with diarrhea, respectively--were the most frequent causes of bloody diarrhea. campylobacter species and nontyphoidal salmonella species were also isolated frequently but were much less often associated with bloody diarrhea. shigella species were rarely isolated f ...19912047642
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