nonenteric shigella infections in nonhuman primates. 1976824262
glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria. 1976825019
basic characterization of w-pili.the bacterial drug-resistance plasmids sa, r388 and r7k that comprise the w compatability group were transferred by conjugation to species in the genera escherichia, salmonella, shigella and pseudomonas, chosen for their lack of common pili. on receiving the w plasmids, all strains produced pili, which were similar morphologically, at average frequencies of up to 3-0 pila/cell. the pili determined by the w plasmids were also related serologically, but unrelated to those of other plasmids. r- seg ...1976825614
irradiation of cells by single and double pulses of high intensity radiation: oxygen sensitization and diffusion kinetics.the biological effects of ionizing radiation in living cells are the ultimate result of a long chain of events with the initial step being the local absorption of radiation. whereas such physical abosrption is probably over within 10(-16) s after dose delivery, the biological consequences of radiation do not manifest themselves until very much later times. between these two extremes of time, events occur relatively early at the molecular level which are undoubtedly critically related to the stil ...1976826371
recurrent urinary tract infection due to shigella flexneri--case report.a case of urinary tract infection due to shigella flexneri is reported. the case presented suggests that in persistent and recurrent urinary tract infection in topical countries, investigations for organisms such as shigella flexneri should be considered. urinary tract infection due to shigella flexneri is unknown and as far as we known has not been reported in the literature. a case report is presented in whom recurrent urinary tract infection was due to shigella flexneri and was treated effect ...1976826670
[antibody levels in patients with bacillary dysentery and carriers. iii. igg, igm and iga antibody responses in sonnei dysentery]. 1976828664
[use of the neutralization test for mass population studies].the authors applied the antibody neutralization test (ant) for detection of causative agent of intestinal infections in feces of healthy population in turkmenia. some part of the material was studied in parallel with the aid of the ant and by the bacteriological method. as a result of comparison it appeared that in using the ant causative agents of intestinal infections were revealed much more frequently than by the bacteriological method; in this connection this serological method can be recomm ...1976828825
[intestinal motility and pattern of biliary acids in healthy children and children with acute and chronic diarrheic syndrome].thirteen children between the ages of six months and six years with acute diarrheal syndrome were investigated for small bowel transit time (sbtt). the results were compared with another study made by our section in which eleven children were studied; seven with chronic non-specific diarrhea and four controls. all the subjects had a double lumen catheter positioned in the small intestine with ports located 1 meter apart. a bolus of 4% p.e.g. was delivered into the stomach and the rate of appeara ...1976829877
the evolution of the sensitivity to fosfomycin over the past two years.the sensitivity of 1,823 bacteriological strains of differing types is shown (e. coli, klebsiella-enterobacter-serratia, proteus-providence, pseudomonas, salmonella-shigella-citrobacter, haemophilus, staphylococcus and streptococcus); all of clinical origin, isolated during march and april, 1975. the methods used were series of double dilutions in mueller-hinton agar and the disc-plate method (weight of 50 mug). a comparative study is made of the sensitivity between a part of the present strains ...1977832547
dna maturation by the "headful" mode in bacteriophage t1. 1977845957
xylose lysine deoxycholate agar for the isolation of salmonella and shigella from clinical specimens.xylose lysine deoxycholate (xld) agar was more efficient for the detection of shigella sonnei than salmonella-shigella (ss) agar and drigalski agar, xld was slightly more efficient for the detection of salmonellae by direct plating than ss agar. xylose lysine deoxycholate agar is proposed as the second selective plating medium for shigellae isolation. it is also a useful second selecting plating medium for the isolation of salmonellae serotypes, which form non-characteristic colonies on bismuth- ...1977848209
in vitro activity of cinoxacin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol against shigella and nontyphoid salmonella.the in vitro antibacterial activity of cinoxacin was compared with that of ampicillin and chloramphenicol against 26 strains of nontyphoid salmonella and 44 strains of shigella. cinoxacin was found to have a lower minimal inhibitory concentration than ampicillin and chloramphenicol against all salmonella and shigella sonnei strains. cinoxacin had minimal inhibitory concentrations similar to those of chloramphenicol but lower than those of ampicillin against shigella flexneri and s. boydii strain ...1977856008
[shigella and salmonella in kigali (rwanda)]. 1977856071
[evaluation of new media for the isolation of salmonella and shigella].two hundred stool specimens were studied by using direct and indirect methods on xld, he, emb and ss culture media. the results were consistent with the previous studies. as the media currently used in turkey seem inadequate in the bacteriological diagnosis of salmonella and shigella infections, the introduction of the more satisfactory media such as xld and he is suggested for routine use.1977857121
[characteristics of the antibiotic sensitivity of the pathogenic enterobacteria isolated from sick children].the authors studied 2287 strains of pathogenic enteric bacteria, i.e. shigella, enteropathogenic escherichia and salmonella freshly isolated from children with respect to their sensitivity to the most widely used antibiotics, i.e. levomycetin, tetracycline, streptomycin, monomycin, neomycin, kanamycin and erythromycin. low sensitivity of these strains to the above antibiotics and their combinations was observed. in the treatment of children of this group it is necessary to take into account mult ...1977860871
[shigella growth under the influence of different types of intestinal wall cells]. 1977865325
[the diffusion of salmonellae. study of a homogeneous sample of 1257 children under 3 years of age in day-nurseries of rome].with a view to examining the importance of healthy carriers in the diffusion of salmonellas, 1257 faeces cultures were examined in a homogeneous population sample, well distributed in the area and considered healthy. the research was carried out between 5th march and 16th june 1975. 5 pathogenic germs were isolated: 2 s. london, 1 s. wien, 1 s. blokey and 1 shigella. the s. wien proved resistant to several antibiotics. discussing the technical and epidemiological aspects of this investigation, p ...1977870855
macrophage phagocytic recognition sites. demonstration of selectivity by hetero- and alloantisera.separate and independent phagocytic recognition sites have been identified on mouse peritoneal macrophages through the use of xenogeneic antimacrophage serum (ams) and allogeneic anti h-2 antisera. anti h-2d and anti h-2b antisera inhibit the binding and ingestion of opsonized erythrocytes (ea) by macrophages bearing h-2 haplotypes d and b, respectively. ams and its f(ab')2 and fab fragments inhibit the binding and ingestion of ea, and the ingestion but not the binding of 125i-labelled shigella ...1977873573
shigellosis in chandigarh. 1977873578
elimination of the shigella carrier state in rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.the shigella carrier state was eliminated from its nonhuman primate host, macaca mulatta. each of 31 animals was treated twice a day for ten consecutive days with 16 mg trimethoprim and 80 mg sulfamethoxazole delivered via stomach tube. fresh rectal swab and stool enrichment cultures were taken for seven consecutive days as well as the 35th and 78th days after treatment, and all were negative for shigellae. in addition, no clinical signs of shigellosis were observed during or following an extens ...1977875006
serologic relationship of fimbriae among enterobacteriaceae.the existence of serological relationship of fimbriae among serotypes of the same genus and among genera of enterobacteriaceae was determined by agglutination and absorption procedures. it was found that fimbriae of different serotypes of the same genus and among the genera a) escherichia, shigella and klebsiella, and b) salmonella, arizona and citrobacter were more or less antigentically related. no relationship was found among fimbriae of the edwardsiella, enterobacter, hafnia, serratia, prote ...1977880000
family study of reiter's disease and hla b27 distribution.starting from index patients with confirmed reiter's disease, a clinical and immunogenetic study was performed on 12 families in which there were further cases of arthritis. altogether 51 family members were investigated and some information was available on 15 additional members. in most families there were two or three affected members in addition to the proband. the manifestations included acute polyarthritis (16 cases), which frequently followed urethritis or occurred as a complication of ye ...1977886557
bl-s786, a new parenteral cephalosporin. ii. in vitro antimicrobial activity comparison with six related was compared by in vitro studies with 6 other parenteral cephalosporins (cefamandole, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cephaloridine, cephalothin and cephradine). the following parameters were assessed: comparative mics against a wide variety of bacterial isolates, mic/mbc comparisons and the effect of inoculum size on the mic. bl-s786 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against k. pneumoniae, c. diversus and salmonella species; was equal to cefamandole against e. coli, e. agglomerans and p. ...1977893227
[classification of acute bacterial enteropathies].the first part considers pathogenic microorganisms (vibrio cholerae and parahaemolytic vibrio, clostridium welchii, enteropathogenic e. coli, shigella, salmonella, other enterobacteria and pseudomonas. yersinia, simply enterotoxic staphylococcus and that producing acute enteritis) and the process of infection (formation of a surface link without endocellular penetration with elaboration of hexotoxins, formation of a surface link with subsequent intracellular penetration, submucosa penetration). ...1977896078
giardiasis in day-care centers: evidence of person-to-person august and september 1975, an outbreak of diarrhea occurred in children 1 to 3 1/2 years old attending a day-care center. an investigation revealed overlapping epidemics of shigellosis and giardiasis, with 54% of the children infected with giardia lamblia. at two other centers 29% and 38% of the children had g. lamblia infection, but none had shigella. the prevalence of g. lamblia in the day-care children was significantly higher than the 2% prevalence in age-matched children not in day-care ...1977905014
[incidence of shigella among personnel employed in food-and water-supply plants in the zagreb region during the period from 1964 to 1973]. 1977906347
icmsf methods studies. ix. the influence of selective enrichment broths, differential planting media, and incubation temperatues on the detection of salmonella in dried foods and feed ingredients.ninety-eight dried foods and feed ingredients were analyzed for salmonella using tetrathionate brilliant green (t) and selenite cystine (s) broths incubated at 35 and 43 degrees c. the four enrichment cultures for each sample were subcultured in duplicate onto brilliant green (bg) , salmonella--shigella (ss), and bismuth sulfite (bs) agars, one plate of each being incubated at 35 degrees c, the other at 43 degrees c. salmonellae were isolated from 44 of the 98 samples. differences in the salmone ...1977907918
shigella vaccines, shigella pathogens--dr. jekyll and mr. hyde. 1977908856
studies on the pathogenicity of yersinia enterocolitica. i. experimental infection in rabbits.analysis of the pathogenicity of yersinia enterocolitica was performed with an experimental model successfully produced in rabbits by intraduodenal inoculation with strains isolated from various sources. pathogenic strains easily penetrated the epithelial linings of the intestinal mucous membrane into the target reticuloendothelial tissues of the intestine, such as the lamina propria and lymph follicles, where they multiplied within mononuclear cells and produced granuloma. granuloma, in severe ...1977909458
salmonellosis and shigellosis in togo (west africa), 1971-1973. ii. infections in the urban population of lomé. 1977910286
[infectious agents in diarrhea of hospitalized children in costa rica].shigella, toxigenic escherichia coli (stable toxin) and rotaviruses were frequently found among 50 children hospitalized with diarrhea studied during one year. these agents were less common among 45 controls without diarrhea, of comparable age and from the same wards as the cases reported. there was a greater frequency of respiratory symptoms in the diarrhea associated with rotaviruses. these were characterized by frequent bowel movements and vomiting and often fever. the bacterial diarrheas sho ...1977911458
[microbiological pollution of the environment due to breeding. i. enterobacteriaceae due to cattle breeding].enterobacteriaceae from faeces of cattle belonging to four cattle farms situated in the ferrara district were investigated. at the same time, investigation was made of effluent sewage and recipient wells (upstream and downstream). the cattle (of the italian frisona breed) resulted uncontaminated by salmonellae, but proved to be very susceptible to arizona, citrobacter, shigella and s. gallinarum-pullorum infections, coming from the environment. predominant species in faeces were as follows: prot ...1977911464
infectious diseases of gastrointestinal origin in the richmond, virginia, area. 1977919721
[study of the antibiotic sensitivity of shigella newcastle isolated in zaporozhe province].sensitivity to antibacterial drugs of 510 strains of shigella newcastle isolated from both sporadic patients and cases during the disease outbreaks was studied. the studies revealed a rather high percentage of shigella newcastle resistant to the antibiotics widely used in clinical practice. most of the strains, i.e. 90.5 per cent were resistant to tetracycline and a significant number of the isolates, i.e. 55.6--53.3 per cent were resistant to streptomycin and erythromycin. a statistically relia ...1977921234
c.s. sut, shigellosis in poona 1974. 1977924949
[bacteriological studies on doxycycline (bonnamycin 'cipan') (author's transl)].bonnamycin which is a new tetracycline group antibiotic isolated from a variant strain of streptomyces rimosus and is identified chemically as doxycycline was investigated, comparing with tetracycline. the results are as follows: (1) in in vitro studies of anti-bacterial spectrum, doxycycline is widely effective against standard strains kept in our department. (2) the distribution of susceptibility of 75 staphylococci, 62 salmonella and 64 shigella strains isolated from clinical materials was si ...1976933344
[an accumulation medium for isolation of salmonellae and shigellae from sea water]. 1976941599
mecillinam, a novel penicillanic acid derivative with unusual activity against gram-negative bacteria.the in vitro activity of mecillinam, a 6 beta-amidinopenicillanic acid derivative, was investigated. mecillinam is not active against most gram-positive coccal or bacilliary forms. many members of the enterobacteriaceae are inhibited, with 86% of escherichia coli, 71% of klebsiella, 62% of enterobacter, 75% of salmonella, 69% of shigella, and 70% of citrobacter inhibited by 6.3 mug/ml. indole-positive proteus and serratia were generally resistant as are pseudomonas strains. although mecillinam i ...1976949176
[biochemical characteristics of strains from the citrobacter and hafnia genera and their laboratory identification].a study of biochemical properties of 176 strains of coprocultures isolated from the patients and persons who sustained various acute enteric diseases, and also from contacts and persons examined for prophylaxis showed that they corresponded to the taxonomic definition of the citrobacter and hafnia genus. in connection with the similarity by biochemical properties between bacteria of citrobacter and salmonella genus and bacteria of hafnia and shigella genus it is of expedience in their identifica ...1976961244
[effect of combined plasmids of resistance and colicinogeneity of shigella on the clinical course of acute dysentery]. 1976968614
shigella hepatitis. 1976970392
[providencia isolated from the stools of patients with gastroenteritis].92 providencia strains were isolated from the stools of patients with gastroenteritis. all specimens were negative for other pathogenes such as salmonella, shigella, enteropathogenic e. coli and vibrios. viral etiology was not investigated. the distribution according to years and months is shown in the table. 17 isolations made during august, seemed rather high and gave the impression of a small epidemic.1976979696
[isolation and enumeration of bacteriophages against s. typhi, e. coli, and shigella in the streams of ankara].active bacteriophages were detected agains s. typhi vi4, e. coli 36 and shigella ygr in the streams of ankara, during 27.3.1973 and 19.3.1974. 49 samples were collected from 3 chosen places. bacteriophages in high concentrations were detected against s. typhi vi4, e. coli 36 and shigella y6r even in 0.0001 ml amounts of these water samples. besides bacteriophages, salmonella and shigella were detected as well. these studies showed that the streams in ankara were highly contaminated with bacteria ...1976979697
studies on the pathogenesis of intestinal disease caused by invasive bacteria [proceedings]. 1976983528
a simplified biochemical system to screen salmonella isolates from poultry for serotyping.the 24 most frequently isolated paratyphoids from poultry, along with salmonella gallinarum and salmonella pullorum, plus strains of arizona, citrobacter, edwardsiella, escherichia, klebsiella, prteus, pseudomonas, serratia and shigella were inoculated into triple sugar iron (tsi) and lysine iron (li) slants and into six fermentation broths which were numbered: 1 (dextrose), 2 (lactose), 3 (sucrose), 4 (mannitol), 5 (maltose), 6 (dulcitol). all the salmonella cultures (except s. pullorum) gave a ...1976995819
[study of the penicillinase of the plague microbe, the synthesis of which is determined by the r-episome].penicillinase produced by a culture of the plague microbe with episomic resistance to benzylpenicillin was isolated and purified. comparative investigation of the substrate spectrum, michaelis constant and antigenic properties of the enzymes from the plague and dysentery microbes (r-factor donor) showed that transfer of the r-episome to the new host did not affect the investigated properties of penicillinase the synthesis of which was controlled by this episome.1976999263
heavy trichuris infection and amoebic dysentery in orang asli children. a comparison of the two diseases.children with heavy trichuris infestation were compared with paediatric amoebic dysentery patients and normal children. heavy trichuris infestation was diagnosed by visualization of worms on anoscopy. patients with heavy trichuris infection had a longer duration of disease, more frequent hospitalization and a higher rate of rectal prolapse than did patients with amoebiasis. five trichuris children also had clubbing. trichuris patients had lower mean haematrocrits (27%) and serum albumin (3-3 gm% ...19761006759
[shigellosis related with the cause of death in children].from a series of 4,147 postmortem studies, there were 2,280 cases of infectious processes as responsibility of death out of which, 647 corresponded to the digestive tract. within the group of digestive tract infections, 283 were of bacterial nature and within this last group, there were 43 cases of shigellosis. included in the fatal cases of shigellosis is the description of their description by ages and sexes; the types of enteropathogenic germs identified in the course of disease and at postmo ...19761008934
antimicrobial resistance in organisms isolated at the university hospital of the west indies during 1975. 19761014635
concentrations of cefazolin in human skeletal muscle.tissue concentrations of cefazolin were measured in 18 patients undergoing urological operations. specimens of skeletal muscle and blood were taken simultaneously at predetermined intervals. the concentrations in serum and homogenized skeletal muscle were determined by means of the agar well diffusion method. a comparison of standard curves obtained with phosphate buffer solution and the supernatant of muscle homogenate revealed no substantial binding of cefazolin to the supernatant of muscle ho ...19761017877
inhibition of adp-induced platelet aggregation as a possible test for evaluation of the enterotoxigenicity of some enterobacteria. preliminary study].some culture filtrates or enterotoxin preparations from enterobacteria that activate the adenylate cyclase system (vibrio cholerae, lt fraction from escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae, shigella dysenteriae type 1) exibit an inhibiting effect on adp-induced platelet aggregation, while other enterotoxin preparations not effective on adenylate cyclase system, don't interfere with this model. the a. propose the platelet aggregation as cellular assay to detect enterotoxin fractions effective ...19761028645
shigellosis. another sexually transmitted disease?following the clinical observation that there appeared to be an association between shigellosis and male homosexuality, the medical records of 113 patients at the new york hospital were reviewed retrospectively. of the 38 males studied who were between the ages 19 and 61, seventeen were homosexual (44-7 per cent.). only one of the matched controls was homosexual. of the men with shigellosis who had a history of foreign travel, 10 per cent. were homosexual; however, among the patients without a t ...19761036464
studies on shigella isolated in southern taiwan.during 1969, a total of 1,476 fecal and rectal swab specimens was collected from children with diarrhea and 249 strains of shigella were isolated. the incidence was 16.9%. the serotypes of 249 strains were: shigella dysenteriae, 1.6% (4 strains); s. flexneri, 73.1% (182 strains); s. boydii, 3.2 (8 strains) and s. sonnei, 22.1% (55 strains). there was no marked difference of the isolation rate throughout the whole year. the susceptibility of shigella isolates to chemotherapeutic agents were also ...19761036983
pharmacokinetics and efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of gastroenteritis in vitro studies indicates that the constitutents of the drug combination co-trimoxazole are synergistic against salmonella and effective against shigella isolated from children ill with gastroenteritis. the drug is well absorbed in children with gastroenteritis due to a variety of causes and is distributed, excreted and metabolized in a manner similar to that seen in normal adult volunteers. the drug is tolerated well by children with gastroenteritis even in very high dosages. despite its in vi ...19751039907
letter: shigella infection and antibiotic resistance. 19751041214
pc-904, a novel broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin with marked antipseudomonal activity: microbiological evaluation.pc-904, sodium 6-{d(-)-alpha-(4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxamido) phenylacetamido}-penicillanate, is a novel semisynthetic penicillin derivative that possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities. in low concentrations, pc-904 inhibits growth against large proportions of the gram-positive and gram-negative organisms susceptible to carbenicillin and gentamicin. in addition, pc-904 is several times more potent than carbenicillin against organisms such as pseudo ...19761046355
comparison of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin theraphy for shigellosis in seventy-four infants and children with acute diarrhea were treated as ambulatory patients with either ampicillin (100 mg/kg/day orally in four divided doses) or trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (10 mg tmp and 50 mg smx/kg/day orally in two divided doses). there were 65 patients with shigellosis. responses of those treated with tmp/smx and of those with susceptible shigella treated with ampicillin were comparable. patients with resistant organisms failed to respond to ampicillin. all shi ...19761048183
genetic recombination of bacteriophage t7 dna in vitro.we have demonstrated recombination of bacteriophage t7 dna in vitro. an extract of escherichia coli b cells infected with wild-type t7(t7+) is incubated with mature dna extracted from t7 phage. packaging of the exogenous dna within the phage head appears to be preceded by recombination of exogenously added dna with dna present in the extracts. in order to detect the recombination, we used an exogenous dna bearing a marker (ss-) such that progeny phage which have packaged this marker are able to ...19761062779
antibiotic resistance of shigellas in new zealand.a who assisted survey of antibiotic resistance of shigella sp from various countries in the western pacific region was carried out by the national institute of health, tokyo, japan. of 282 unselected isolates from throughout new zealand, 221 (78 percent) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. the implications of these results in relation to treatment are briefly discussed.19761063919
experience of co-trimoxazole in the treatment of salmonella and shigella infections. 19761064917
bacteriology and pharmacokinetics of the new amidino penicillin-mecillinam. 19761084337
[mixed epidemic of typhoid fever and shigellosis]. 19751089349
somatic antigen of shigella dysenteriae type 3. structural features of specific polysaccharide chain.on mild acid hydrolysis of lipolysaccharide from shigella dysenteriae type 3 the o-specific polysaccharide (hapten) was obtained which appeared to be acidic branched hexosaminoglycan. the repeating unit of this polysaccharide represents a pentasaccharide composed of two d-galactose residues, n-acetyl-d-galactosamine, d-glucose and unidentified acidic component. on the basis of methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, partial acid hydrolysis and chromic anhydride oxidation it is concluded that ...19751089541
antimicrobial resistance of shigellae isolated in michigan.patterns of antimicrobial resistance were studied for 213 strains of shigellae isolated in rural and urban areas of michigan by quantitative techniques: 66% of these organisms were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalexin, or chloramphenicol or had multiple resistance to various combinations of these antibiotics. the incidence of resistant organisms was higher in the detroit-wayne county area, which is the most urban part of the state. nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid were noted to be q ...19751089819
[some immunoallergic tests in patients with ulcerative colitis]. 19751089962
observations on the serologic changes in the recombinants in shigella flexneri serotype 4a.studies on the antigenic composition of 84 diagnostic strains of s. flexneri serotype 4a and their lac+ recombinants from a cross with e. coli hfrc were carried out. considerable differentiation of agglutination reaction was found both in original material and in recombinants. an interesting group included recombinants which completely lost their capability to agglutinate with sera specific for type and group antigens and preserved only the capability to agglutinate in the polyvalent serum of s. ...19751090112
pathophysiology of shigella diarrhea in the rhesus monkey: intestinal transport, morphological, and bacteriological contrast to the "toxigenic diarrheas" caused by vibrio cholerae and escherichia coli, the site and mechanism of fluid loss in shigellosis are unknown. the occurrence of watery diarrhea in shigellosis suggests involvement of the small bowel. therefore, jejunal, ileal, and colonic water and electrolyte transport was studied in shigella flexneri 2a-infected monkeys. infected animals fell into three groups: dysentery alone, diarrhea alone, or diarrhea and dysentery. in controls, net water, sodium ...19751090480
comparison of secretory and histological effects of shigella and cholera enterotoxins in rabbit jejunum.the purpose of this study was to compare the actions of shigella toxin and cholera toxin to determine if mucosal damage is a prerequisite for shigella toxin-induced secretion. the secretory response to maximal doses of cholera toxin and shigella toxin were compared. the maximal rate of secretion and the electrolyte and protein concentration of the intestinal fluid were similar for both toxins. on the other hand, the time of onset after exposure to the toxin was 105 min for shigella toxin and 15 ...19751090481
occurrence of the bacteriophage lambda receptor in some escherichia coli k-12, the receptor for phage lambda is an outer membrane protein which inactivates the phage in vitro. lambda receptor activity was found in extracts from all wild strains of e. coli tested, although most of them fail to support growth of the phage. in some cases this failure is due to a masking of the receptor in vivo, the bacteria being unable to adsorb the phage or to react with antireceptor antibodies. in other cases, adsorption does occur, and the nature of the block in ...19751090748
shiga bacillus dysentery associated with marked leukocytosis and erythrocyte fragmentation.granulocytic leukemoid reactions (white blood cell counts greater than 50,000 with myelocytes and promyelocytes in the peripheral blood) were documented in 15 per cent of 273 patients with dysentery due to shigella dysenteriae, type 1 (shiga bacillus) in bangladesh. peak granulocytosis occurred during the second week of illness, when the children were commonly afebrile and diarrhea had ceased or was subsiding. more than half of the patients with leukemoid reactions subsequently developed a fall ...19751090770
live versus killed bacterial vaccines. 19751090808
attempted prevention of diarrheal disease in apache children with a non-absorbable broad-spectrum antimicrobial.a double-blind study was conducted to test the prophylactic effect of a non-absorbable broad-spectrum antimicrobial (oral colistin sulfate) against acute diarrhea in apache children. children 1 to 6 months old had over twice the morbidity from diarrhea if assigned to the antimicrobial group as compared to placebo, while the toddler group (7-30 months) taking the antimicrobial had somewhat less diarrhea. enteropathogenic e. coli were significantly more often isolated from the antimicrobial group ...19751091171
phage conversion of shigella flexneri group antigens.a temperate phage, designated sf6, has been isolated from shigella flexneri 3a. characterization of sf6 revealed that it possesses the capacity for converting the s. flexneri 3,4 group antigen complex to group factor 6. serological studies and chemical analysis of lipopolysaccharide from converted strains suggest that group factor 6 is a reflection of an acetylation of the preexisting 3,4 antigen complex. evidence is provided that the 3,4 group antigen complex functions, at least in part, as a c ...19751091548
detection of a leukocytic endogenous mediator-like mediator of serum amino acid and zinc depression during various infectious illnesses.serum samples from patients with many different kinds of infection were shown to contain a substance characteristic of leukocytic endogenous mediator. generalized bacterial infections produced more leukocytic endogenous mediator than did localized ones; viral infections produced very little. in typhoid fever, mediator concentrations increased before the onset of illness.19751091555
diarrhoea in general practice: a sixteen-year report of investigations in a microbiology laboratory, with epidemiological assessment.results are presented of the laboratory examination of faeces specimens from 20,273 patients with acute diarrhoea. these were household index cases seen in general practice in a london borough during the years 1953-68. an annual average of about 2 per cent of households in the area were affected, but there was considerable fluctuation with year and season. half the patients were children although only one-fifth of the population at risk was under 15 years of age. the greatest incidence of diarr ...19751091696
chemistry of cephalosporin antibiotics. 30. 3-methoxy- and 3-halo-3-cephems.the exo-methylene group in esters of 7-acylamido- and 7-amino-3-methylenecephams was ozonized to give 3-hydroxy-3-cephems. conditions are described to effect a selective n-acylation of a 3-hydroxy-3-cephem nucleus ester. vilsmeier reagents converted 7-acylamido-3-hydroxy compounds to 3-halo-3-cephem derivatives. diazomethane converted the 3-hydroxy compounds to 3-methoxy-3-cephem derivatives. removal of the ester-protecting group at the c4-carboxyl afforded a select group of cephalosporins with ...19751091736
[retroperitoneal, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema and bacillary dysentery]. 19751092028
[sensitivity of different strains of e. coli and shigella to the inhibitory action of ploskirev's bactoagar].a study was made of the sensitivity of 190 strains of e. coli and 107 strains of shigellae of different serological types to the inhibitory action of ploskirev's bactoagar on the capacity of these bacteria to form colonies. the strains under study proved to be nonhomogenous in this respect: between different strains of e. coli there were revealed 10-, 100- and even 1000-fold differences by this property; the differences between shigellae strains were less marked--in over 90% of shigellae strains ...19751092090
[genetic control of the ability of sh. flexneri to produce a lethal effect on macrophages. i. study of the possible extrachromosomal nature of the cyt+-determinant].it was shown that cyt+-determinant could not be eliminated when the sh. flexneri cultures were treated with ethidium bromide under the regimen providing the elimination of the f'lac-factor in a part of shigellae population. the cytotoxic sh. flexneri strains which acquired the r-factor transmitted the multiple drug resistance to the cyt minus -strain of sh. flexneri, but not the cyt+-properties. there was found no correlation between the cytoxicity of the sh. flexneri strains and their capacity ...19751092094
[lysotypy of shigella sonnei (literature review)]. 19751092095
[typing properties of bacteriophages isolated from sh. sonnei strains].on the basis of studying the lytic activity of eight bacteriophages the authors elaborated a scheme of bacteriophage typing of sh. sonnei consisting of nine bacteriophage types with two subtypes. in typing 2348 strains isolated in various cities of the ussr bacteriophage pattern of sh. sonnei was found to differ in different towns of the ussr. all the strains isolated repeatedly from the same patients were referred to the same bacteriophage type, this pointing to the stability of the type-deter ...19751092096
[polyamines in species of microorganisms of the intestinal group].a study was made of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermin) in various representatives of the enterobacteriaceae family--e. coli, sh, sonnei, sh. flexneri and s. typhi abdominalis. all the strains under study contained putrescine and spermidine, and many shigella and salmonella strains had spermin in addition. there were significant differences in the quantitative content of polyamines in the individual species. by the ratio of nitrogen of polyamine to phosphorus of nucleic acid it is po ...19751092098
[microbial antagonism and its role in the development of infection (literature review)]. 19751092099
[the role of the ability of sh. flexneri to synthesize pili of the common type in the development of dysenteric infections].hep-2 epithelial cells infected with isogenic sh. flexneri strains characterized by capacity to synthesize common pili (confirmed by electron microscopy) were studied. it was shown that although pili promoted an earlier adhesion of shigellae to the cells, they were not very significant for the penetration and intracellular development of dysentery bacilli in the epithelium. the use of bacteria labeled with 3h-glucose offers a possibility of an objective rapid and precise determination of the cap ...19751092108
transfer of e1 and v colicinogenic factors to shigella flexneri.from escherichia coli strains, cole1-ml and colv-k94 factors were transferred to a virulent shigella flexneri 2a strain at 1-2% frequency. s. flexneri colv+ and cole1+v+ produced col- segregants. the cole1 factor was stably incorporated into s. flexneri. the colv+ culture lost its virulence to the guinea pig eye.19751092133
shigellosis at sea: an outbreak aboard a passenger cruise ship.between june 23 and june 30, 1973, 90% of 650 passengers and at least 35% of 299 crew members experienced a diarrheal illness during a 7-day caribbean cruise aboard a passenger cruise liner. symptoms were consistent with shigellosis, and shigella flexneri 6, boyd 88 biotype, was isolated from rectal swabs taken from 8 to 35 ill passengers and 33 of 294 crew members. epidemiologic evidence incriminated the ship's water, including ice, as the probable vehicle of transmission, and elevated coliform ...19751092155
waterborne shigellosis at a public november 1972 an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred at a public school in stockport, iowa. one hundred ninety-four (72%) of 269 pupils and 14 (16%) of 23 staff members were affected. the etiologic agent was a strain of shigella sonnei resistant to multiple antimicrobials. waterborne transmission of shigellosis was documented epidemiologically and by isolation of the organism from the school water system. ninety-seven (14%) of 698 of the students' household contacts developed diarrh ...19751092157
jejunal microflora in malnourished gambian children.growth of bacteria greater than 10-5 organisms/ml was found in 22 children, of whom 17 gave a histroy of chronic diarrhoea. the other 8 children had either no diarrhoea or where having an acute attack lasting for a few days. in those with chronic diarrhoea, esch. coli, bacteroides, and enterococci tended to occur more frequently, whereas streptococci occurred more frequently in those with acute diarrhoea. bacilli, staphylococci, micrococci, klebsiellas, pseudomonads, and candidas often occurred ...19751092272
production and characterization of exotoxin(s) of shigella dysenteriae type 1.a semicontinuous fermenter system was developed in which broth culture filtrates of shigella dysenteriae type 1 yielded substantial amounts of exotoxin. biologic activity of the exotoxin was characterized by means of three assays: the rabbit ileal loop for fluid evocation (enterotoxicity), mouse lethality after parenteral injection (neurotoxicity), and hela cell toxicity in vitro (cytotoxicity). although the culture filtrate was highly active, disc electrophoresis revealed that the toxin is a mi ...19751092769
a simple single-step immunoimmobilisation method for the detection of salmonella in the presence of large numbers of other bacteria.a single-step disk immunoimmobilisation method for the detection of motile salmonellae is described. it combines in a single step the use of the motility of these bacteria in soft agar, their selective growth on salmonella-shigella media, and their immobilisation by polyvalent h antiserum. the method is shown to be 10 to 10,000 times more senstitive than a standard method for detection of salmonella under the experimental conditons used. the time required for detection is shortened to 24-48 h.19751092865
[on flucloxacillin sensitivity determination by the disc method (author's transl)]. 19751092891
undecaprenol phosphate, the endogenous acceptor of glucose from udpglucose in shigella flexneri. 19751093344
superiority of macconkey's agar over salmonella-shigella agar for isolation of shigella dysenteriae type 1.the efficiency of macconkey's agar in the isolation of various types of shigella was compared with that of salmonella-shigella (ss) agar during an extensive 18-month outbreak of disease caused by shigella. in all, 1,580 isolates of shigella were obtained from 12,307 rectal swab and fecal samples of patients with diarrhea and their contacts by direct plating onto macconkey's and ss agars. shigella dysenteriae type 1 and shigella flexneri constituted 55 percent and 33 percent of all isolates, resp ...19751094073
transmissible substrate-utilizing ability in enterobacteria.three of 152 strains of escherichia coli transmitted their ability to utilize sucrose (sac+) to other strains by conjugation. the transfer factor of one of them and of a sac+ salmonella thompson strain was thermosensitive. the raffinose-utilizing ability of 27 of 163 e. coli strains was also transmissible. transmissible raffinose-utilizing ability was a feature of porcine enterpathogenic strains possessing the k88 antigen. the determinants controlling raffinose utilization (raf) and k88 antigen ...19751094091
letter: hemolytic uremic syndrome after shigellosis. 19751094293
[nature of the reactions in vaccination against intestinal infections]. 19751094698
bacteremia in suckling rabbits after oral challenge with vibrio parahaemolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophilic marine enteropathogen, produces diarrhea in man after ingestion of contaminated seafood. only strains capable of producing beta-hemolysis (kanagawa-positive strains) are enteropathogenic. yet the majority of marine isolants are nonhemolytic and kanagawa negative. studies were initiated in suckling rabbits in an attempt to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms. fasting animals were infected orally with kanagawa-positive and kanagawa-negative strains of v. parahae ...19751095481
role of immunoglobulins in protection against shigella-induced keratoconjunctives.various immunoglobulin preparations were tested for their ability to protect guinea pig eyes from infection by a virulent strain of shigella flexneri. secretory immunoglobulin a was effective in delaying or preventing keratoconjunctivitis in eight guinea pigs when it was used to precoat the organism, and was also placed in the eye with the inoculum. neither immunoglobulin g nor immunoglobulin m gave any protection when used in the same way. protection by secretory immunoglobulin a appeared to be ...19751095483
[aminopenicillins from microbiological viewpoint].in this report it was tried to emphasize several microbiological aspects of the amino-penicillin. hereby it turns out that the activity differences of all the substances are very similar on microbiological part. a break of the cross-resistance does not happen with all the amino-penicillins. with regard to the appearance of resistant strains, it can be told that the conditions still are advantageous on non-hospitalized patients in the totality. in the clinic a high part of resistant strains are f ...19751095501
relationships of antibiotics in animal feeds and salmonellosis in animals and man. 19751095537
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