TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
enteroinvasive escherichia coli vs. shigella flexneri: how different patterns of gene expression affect virulence.important features of the enteroinvasive escherichia coli (eiec) phenotype and gene expression likely to confer eiec with a lower ability to cause disease than shigella flexneri were described here for the first time. to confirm the lower pathogenicity of eiec, we have analyzed the keratoconjunctivitis developed in guinea-pigs with eiec or s. flexneri. shigella flexneri induced a more pronounced proinflammatory response, whereas eiec induced a mild form of the disease. eiec showed a significantl ...200919889166
pneumonia caused by shigella sonnei in man returned from india. 200919891897
computational study of the conformational structures of saccharides in solution based on j couplings and the "fast sugar structure prediction software".this article reports on the implementation of j coupling calculations in our recently developed fast sugar structure prediction software (fsps). the fsps combines a smart and exhaustive algorithm to search through conformational space with the calculation of different experimental nuclear magnetic resonance observables to establish the conformation of saccharides in solution. using our algorithm in combination with nmr data, we investigate the solution structure of three simple disaccharides (me ...200919795837
overseas outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease identified in scotland, 2003 to 2007.this article presents information on all potential outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (iid) identified by health protection scotland (hps) involving residents of scotland. unlike other systems, this alert system covers potential outbreaks of iid rather than apparently sporadic cases and covers all gastrointestinal pathogens, all visited countries, and all groups of travelers.200919796102
escherichia coli as reservoir for macrolide resistance genes.the plasmid-borne mph(a) gene that confers resistance to azithromycin and has recently emerged in shigella sonnei is present in multidrug- and non-multidrug-resistant escherichia coli isolates from 4 continents. further spread of mph(a) to shigella and salmonella spp. may be expected.200919861064
the pathogenic properties of a novel and conserved gene product, kerv, in proteobacteria.identification of novel virulence factors is essential for understanding bacterial pathogenesis and designing antibacterial strategies. in this study, we uncover such a factor, termed kerv, in proteobacteria. experiments carried out in a variety of eukaryotic host infection models revealed that the virulence of a pseudomonas aeruginosa kerv null mutant was compromised when it interacted with amoebae, plants, flies, and mice. bioinformatics analyses indicated that kerv is a hypothetical methyltra ...200919779606
genome sequences of escherichia coli b strains rel606 and bl21(de3).escherichia coli k-12 and b have been the subjects of classical experiments from which much of our understanding of molecular genetics has emerged. we present here complete genome sequences of two e. coli b strains, rel606, used in a long-term evolution experiment, and bl21(de3), widely used to express recombinant proteins. the two genomes differ in length by 72,304 bp and have 426 single base pair differences, a seemingly large difference for laboratory strains having a common ancestor within t ...200919786035
shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.shigella, gram-negative bacteria closely related to escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. although shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. during shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type iii ...200919812985
the shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 proteome, profiled in the host intestinal environment, reveals major metabolic modifications and increased expression of invasive proteins.shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (sd1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery. we present the first comprehensive proteome analysis of this pathogen, profiling proteins from bacteria cultured in vitro and bacterial isolates from the large bowel of infected gnotobiotic piglets (in vivo). overall, 1061 distinct gene products were identified. differential display analysis revealed that sd1 cells switched to an anaerobic energy metabolism in vivo. high in vivo abundances of amino ...200919813213
comparative genomics reveal the mechanism of the parallel evolution of o157 and non-o157 enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli.among the various pathogenic escherichia coli strains, enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec) is the most devastating. although serotype o157:h7 strains are the most prevalent, strains of different serotypes also possess similar pathogenic potential. here, we present the results of a genomic comparison between ehecs of serotype o157, o26, o111, and o103, as well as 21 other, fully sequenced e. coli/shigella strains. all ehecs have much larger genomes (5.5-5.9 mb) than the other strains and contain sur ...200919815525
antibiotic therapy for shigella dysentery.shigella dysentery is a relatively common illness and occasionally causes death, worldwide. mild symptoms are self-limiting but in more severe cases, antibiotics are recommended for cure and preventing relapse. the antibiotics recommended are diverse, have regional differences in sensitivity, and have side effects.200919821387
prevalence of staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers in sanliurfa, southeastern diseases represent a persistent global health burden, and food handlers play a major role in their transmission. staphylococcus aureus carriage and intestinal parasitism are important risk factors for the contamination of food and water. this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working in sanliurfa, southeastern anatolia.200919823157
secretory iga-mediated neutralization of shigella flexneri prevents intestinal tissue destruction by down-regulating inflammatory circuits.shigella, a gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium responsible for bacillary dysentery, causes the rupture, invasion, and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic mucosa. we explored the mechanisms of protection mediated by shigella lps-specific secretory iga (siga), the major mucosal ab induced upon natural infection. bacteria, siga, or siga-s. flexneri immune complexes were administered into rabbit ligated intestinal loops containing a peyer's patch. after 8 h, localizations of ...200919828639
beneficial role of green plantain [musa paradisiaca] in the management of persistent diarrhea: a prospective randomized evaluate the beneficial effects of green plantain-based diet on stool volume, frequency and weight gain as compared with a traditional yogurt-based diet in children with persistent diarrhea.200919828902
how autophagy regulates the host cell signaling associated with the postpartum bacteria cocoon experienced as a danger signal.shigella, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, invades the host cell, rapidly breaking the phagosome and multiplying in the cytosol. here, we summarize our recent work showing the targeting of the leftover membrane remnants to autophagy together with trapped membrane-associated signaling molecules recruited during the immediate early entry step. we suggest that this mechanism participates in the bacteria-dependent orchestration of the cell response. moreover, we propose that this si ...200919829050
effect of x-ray treatments on inoculated escherichia coli o157: h7, salmonella enterica, shigella flexneri and vibrio parahaemolyticus in ready-to-eat shrimp.this study was conducted to evaluate the inactivation effect of x-ray treatments on escherichia coli o157: h7, salmonella enteric (s. enterica), shigella flexneri (s. flexneri) and vibrio parahaemolyticus (v. parahaemolyticus) artificially inoculated in ready-to-eat (rte) shrimp. a mixed culture of three strains of each tested pathogen was used to inoculate rte shrimp. the shrimp samples were inoculated individually with selected pathogenic bacteria then aseptically placed in sterile plastic cup ...200919835772
the mannitol operon repressor mtlr belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (pts). the mannitol-specific pts catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. the uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. the expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (mtlr) that was first studied in escherichia coli. here we report the first crystal structures of mtlr from vibrio parahemeolyticus (vp-mtlr) and ...200919840941
uropathogenic escherichia coli suppresses the host inflammatory response via pathogenicity island genes sisa and sisb.extraintestinal pathogenic escherichia coli can successfully colonize the urinary tract of the immunocompetent host. in part, this is accomplished by dampening the host immune response. indeed, the sisa and sisb genes (shia-like inflammation suppressor genes a and b) of uropathogenic e. coli strain cft073, homologs of the shigella flexneri shi-2 pathogenicity island gene shia, suppress the host inflammatory response. a double deletion mutant (deltasisa deltasisb) resulted in a hyperinflammatory ...200919797063
effects of enteropathogenic bacteria & lactobacilli on chemokine secretion & toll like receptor gene expression in two human colonic epithelial cell lines.the intestinal epithelium is part of the innate immune system responding to contact with pathogenic or commensal bacteria. the objective of this study was to compare innate responses of intestinal epithelial cell lines to pathogenic bacteria and to lactobacilli.200919797815
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2007].the number as well as incidence rate of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in xxi century are low. only 64 cases were notified in the year 2007 (incidence rate 0.17/100,000 population), while 35 (incidence rate 0.09) were notified in 2006 and median in the 2001-2005 years was 80, incidence rate 0.21/100,000 population. since 2000 no one-death case was notified. seven imported cases were notified as they got infection being abroad, in egypt 6: 4 cases got s. flexneri, two s. sonne ...200919799247
proteome analysis of an attenuated francisella tularensis dsba mutant: identification of potential dsba substrate proteins.francisella tularensis (f. tularensis) is highly infectious for humans via aerosol route and untreated infections with the highly virulent subsp. tularensis can be fatal. our knowledge regarding key virulence determinants has increased recently but is still somewhat limited. surface proteins are potential virulence factors and therapeutic targets, and in this study, we decided to target three genes encoding putative membrane lipoproteins in f. tularensis lvs. one of the genes encoded a protein w ...200919799467
antibiotic resistance among shigella serogroups isolated in tehran, iran (2002-2004). 200919801811
autophagy in immunity against intracellular bacteria.autophagy is an innate immune defense mechanism against various intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (s. typhimurium), listeria monocytogenes and shigella flexneri. s. typhimurium uses type three secretion systems (t3sss) to invade mammalian cells and replicate in salmonella-containing vacuoles (scvs). a small population of intracellular s. typhimurium is targeted by autophagy shortly after infection. evidence suggests that these bacteria are present ...200919802566
spa15 of shigella flexneri is secreted through the type iii secretion system and prevents staurosporine-induced apoptosis.shigella flexneri is a gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that invades the colonic epithelium and causes bacillary dysentery. we previously demonstrated that s. flexneri inhibits staurosporine-induced apoptosis in infected epithelial cells and that a deltamxie mutant is unable to inhibit apoptosis. therefore, we hypothesized that an mxie-regulated gene was responsible for protection of epithelial cells from apoptosis. analysis of all mxie-regulated genes yielded no mutants that la ...200919805534
microwave assisted, one-pot synthesis of 5-nitro- 2-aryl substituted-1h-benzimidazole libraries: screening in vitro for antimicrobial activity.the efficient and rapid synthesis of 5-nitro-2-aryl substituted-1h-benzimidazole libraries (1a-1j) has been established. thus, both microwave and conventional cyclo-condensation of 4-nitro ortho-phenylenediamine with various phenoxyacetic acids were carried out in the presence of hcl catalyst. the microwave synthesis route afforded advantages, such as good to excellent yields, shorter reaction time (2.5-3.5 min), readily available starting material, and simple purification procedure, which disti ...200919772484
peptide sequences identified by phage display are immunodominant functional motifs of pet and pic serine proteases secreted by escherichia coli and shigella flexneri.plasmid-encoded toxin (pet) and protein involved in colonization (pic), are serine protease autotransporters of enterobacteriaceae (spates) secreted by enteroaggregative escherichia coli (eaec), which display the gdsgsg sequence or the serine motif. our research was directed to localize functional sites in both proteins using the phage display method. from a 12mer linear and a 7mer cysteine-constrained (c7c) libraries displayed on the m13 phage piii protein we selected different mimotopes using ...200919772881
oxidative and antibacterial activity of nanoparticles with diameter ca. 10nm were synthesized by the forced hydrolysis of mn(ii) acetate at 80 degrees c. the x-ray diffraction (xrd), fourier transform infra red (ft-ir) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (sem) and energy dispersive x-ray (edx) techniques were employed to study structural features and chemical composition of the nanoparticles. the unique oxidative activity of the mn(3)o(4) nanoparticles was demonstrated in the polymerization and dye degradation reactio ...200919733434
increasing resistance to nalidixic acid in shigella subgroups in a comparative study between 2001-2003 and 2004-2006.the shigella spp. is an organism with an ongoing changing resistance pattern to different antibiotics, thus making its appropriate treatment difficult. nalidixic acid has been one of the most common agents used for the treatment of shigellosis. recently, some studies have reported an emerging resistance to this agent.200919710978
a novel glucosyltransferase involved in o-antigen modification of shigella flexneri serotype 1c.the o antigen of serotype 1c differs from the unmodified o antigen of serotype y by the addition of a disaccharide (two glucosyl groups) to the tetrasaccharide repeating unit. it was shown here that addition of the first glucosyl group is mediated by the previously characterized gtri cluster, which is found within a cryptic prophage at the proa locus in the bacterial chromosome. transposon mutagenesis was performed to disrupt the gene responsible for addition of the second glucosyl group, causin ...200919717593
multiplexed bead-based mesofluidic system for detection of food-borne pathogenic the present study, a simple and rapid multiplexed bead-based mesofluidic system (bms) was developed for simultaneous detection of food-borne pathogenic bacteria, including staphylococcus aureus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, listeria monocytogenes, salmonella, enterobacter sakazakii, shigella, escherichia coli o157:h7, and campylobacter jejuni. this system is based on utilization of isothiocyanate-modified microbeads that are 250 mum in diameter, which were immobilized with specific amino-modified ...200919717622
when shigella tells the cell to hang on.ospe, a shigella type iii effector binds to integrin-like kinase and enhances cell adhesion to better disseminate and colonize the intestinal epithelium. because of the existence of ospe orthologues in other enteropathogens such as enteropathogenic escherichia coli or salmonella sp., maintenance of cell adhesion appears as a widespread strategy for bacteria that interact with the intestinal epithelium.200919720630
assessment of cell surface properties and adhesion potential of selected probiotic evaluate the physicochemical cell surface and adhesive properties of selected probiotic strains for human use.200919725886
comparison of the entericbio multiplex pcr system with routine culture for detection of bacterial enteric pathogens.the entericbio system uses a multiplex pcr assay for the simultaneous detection of campylobacter spp., salmonella enterica, shigella spp., and escherichia coli o157 from feces. it combines overnight broth enrichment with pcr amplification and detection by hybridization. an evaluation of this system was conducted by comparing the results obtained with the system with those obtained by routine culture, supplemented with alternative pcr detection methods. in a study of 773 samples, routine culture ...200919726596
pcr targeting of antibiotic resistant bacteria in public drinking water of lahore metropolitan, investigate the prevalence of kanamycin (kan) and ampicillin (amp) resistant bacteria in public drinking water.200920337218
an urban, water-borne outbreak of diarrhoea and shigellosis in a district town in eastern september 2007, the gayeshpur municipality reported a cluster of cases with diarrhoea. we aimed to identify the causative agent and the source of the disease.200920334044
acute gastrointestinal illness in new zealand: information from a survey of community and hospital describe and quantify laboratory testing of faecal samples for enteric pathogens as a component of the reporting pyramid of acute gastrointestinal illness (agi) in new zealand.200920148044
highly sensitive detection of shigella flexneri using fluorescent silica nanoparticles.robust signal amplification tactic is a good solution for improving detection sensitivity. unprocessed fluorophores have many limitations. here we describe an effective strategy for highly sensitive detection of bacteria by using fluorescent conjugated nanoparticles. the nanoparticles were synthesized using silica as matrix. fluorescein isothiocyanate distributed in the matrix. s. flexneri specific antibody was coated on the surface of the nanoparticles. compared to the traditional fluorescent a ...200920128444
laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea syndrome; a three years study in two hospitals of infectious diseases.infectious diarrhoea is a syndrome caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. the wide diversity of etiological agents impairs the surveillance and the diagnosis and affects the correct treatment applied to reduce the long-term complications. besides well known enteric pathogens such as salmonella, shigella and yersinia, a high number of emergent and re-emergent aetiologies are now recognised to be ...200920361527
screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from melghat forest in india.cyperus rotundus, caesalpinia bonducella, tinospora cordifolia, gardenia gummifera, ailanthus excelsa, acacia arabica, embelia ribes and ventilago maderspatana from melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, salmonella typhi, shigella flexneri, salmonella paratyphi, salmonella typhimurium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. out of these medicinal pla ...200920448847
sporadic paediatric diarrhoeal illness in urban and rural sites in nyanza province, kenya.investigate differences in the infectious aetiology, health seeking behaviour, and provider practices with regard to diarrhoeal illness among children presenting to urban versus rural clinics in western kenya.200920575313
association of water-borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in parts of ibadan city, nigeria.occurrence of diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases in cities of developing countries has been on the increase over the decades largely due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene among human population. this study examined the relationship between the spatial pattern of water-borne diseases vis-a-vis water quality in parts of ibadan city in nigeria. data on 1334 cases of various water-borne diseases was collected from eight public hospitals with catchments covering the study ...200920734698
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic escherichia coli and shigella species associated with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran.a study was performed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of shigella species and diarrheagenic escherichia coli isolates cultured from patients with acute diarrhea in tehran, iran. between may 2003 and may 2005, 1120 diarrheal specimens were collected and assayed for bacterial enteropathogens by conventional and molecular methods. etiological agents were isolated from 564 (50.3%) specimens, and included 305 (54%) e coli, 157 (27.8%) shigella species, and 102 (18%) from othe ...200920808457
synthesis, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3, the present study, 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (3a-o) have been synthesized by the condensation of 4-methoxybenzohydrazide (1) with different aromatic acids (2a-o) in presence of phosphoryl chloride. the structural assignment of this compound (3a-o) has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, uv, ir, (1)h nmr and mass spectral data. the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi viz., staphylo ...200820390080
comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of parkia biglobosa against enterobacteria.hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of parkia biglobosa (jacq) benth. (mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates escherichia coli, salmonella typhi, shigella dysenteriae and enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains e. coli cip 105 182, salmonella enterica cip 105 150, shigella dysenteriae cip 54-51 and enterococcus faecalis cip 103 907. discs of gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls. the results showed that all the ...200820161943
antimicrobial activity of various extracts of ocimum basilicum l. and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells by use of scanning electron microscopy.the antimicrobial activities of chloroform, acetone and two different concentrations of methanol extracts of ocimum basilicum l. were studied. these extracts were tested in vitro against 10 bacteria and 4 yeasts strains by the disc diffusion method. the results indicated that the methanol extracts of o. basilucum exhibited the antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms. while the chloroform and acetone extracts had no effect, the methanol extracts showed inhibition zones against strain ...200820161958
contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in kaduna metropolis with selected pathogenic bacteria.the study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination of powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal retail outlets in different parts of kaduna metropolis. the assessments of the contamination of the herbal products were carried out using standard procedures: total aerobic bacterial plate count, measurement of some physical parameters, isolation and characterization of selected bacterial pathogens etc. the results showed that out of a total of 150, 70 (46.67%) herbal ...200820162044
safety and colonization of two novel virg(icsa)-based live shigella sonnei vaccine strains in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).shigella are gram-negative bacterium that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). symptoms include diarrhea and discharge of bloody mucoid stools, accompanied by severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, malaise, and fever. persons traveling to regions with poor sanitation and crowded conditions become particularly susceptible to shigellosis. currently a vaccine for shigella has not been licensed in the united states, and the organism quickly becomes resistant to medications. during the past 10 ...200819793462
antimicrobial activity of some macrophytes from lake manzalah (egypt).the antimicrobial activities of aqueous and organic solvents (chloroform, ethanol and methanol) extracts of four plants ceratophyllum demersum l., eichhornia crassipes, potamogeton crispus and potamogeton pectinatus were tested in vitro against seventeen different microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. nine of these identified organisms were obtained from different sources, bacillus subtilis 1020, bacillus cereus 1080, staphylococcus aureus, erwinia carotovo ...200819205264
shigella and salmonella serogroups and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in this study, the serogroup and susceptibility patterns of shigella and salmonella spp. isolated from stool cultures were determined using standard laboratory procedures. among the 76 shigella isolates serogroup b (sh. flexeneri) was the most prevalent species (54.0%) and among the 37 salmonella strains serogroup b was also the most prevalent (81.1%). antibiograms of shigella and salmonella spp. showed 100% resistance to erythromycin and high resistance rates (> or = 75%) to ampicillin, cephalo ...200819166157
in silico comparison of simple sequence repeats in high nucleotides-rich genomes of microorganism.this study determined the distribution of a specific group of simple sequence repeats (ssrs), in genome sequences of 7 chromosomes (shigella flexneri 2a str 301 and 2457 t, shigella sonnei, e. coli k12, m. tuberculosis, m. leprae and s. saprophytycus) have downloaded from the genbank database for identifying abundance, distribution and composition of ssrs. the data obtained in the present study show that: (i) tandem repeats are widely distributed throughout the genomes. (ii) ssrs are differentia ...200819137845
oral immunization: an update.oral immunization with vaccines against intestinal infectious diseases has been extensively explored for several decades. despite the immunologic and economic rationale behind oral immunization, only a few mucosal vaccines are available for the prevention of mucosal infections. here, we summarize the current status of such vaccines, with a focus on intestinal infectious diseases, describe alternative approaches, and analyze advantages and difficulties encountered with a broad implementation of t ...200819122521
genomic analysis of bacteriophage epsilon 34 of salmonella enterica serovar anatum (15+).the presence of prophages has been an important variable in genetic exchange and divergence in most bacteria. this study reports the determination of the genomic sequence of salmonella phage epsilon 34, a temperate bacteriophage that was important in the early study of prophages that modify their hosts' cell surface and is of a type (p22-like) that is common in salmonella genomes.200819091116
analysis of plasmid genes by phylogenetic profiling and visualization of homology relationships using blast2network.phylogenetic methods are well-established bioinformatic tools for sequence analysis, allowing to describe the non-independencies of sequences because of their common ancestor. however, the evolutionary profiles of bacterial genes are often complicated by hidden paralogy and extensive and/or (multiple) horizontal gene transfer (hgt) events which make bifurcating trees often inappropriate. in this context, plasmid sequences are paradigms of network-like relationships characterizing the evolution o ...200819099604
[detection and identification of seven clinical common pathogenic bacteria by oligonucleotide microarray].using 16s rdna and 23s rdna genes as the target sequences to develop a system based on oligonucleotide microarray and to detect the seven clinical pathogenic bacteria, commonly seen.200819103121
water-related diseases outbreaks reported in italy.water related disease outbreak (wrdo) statistics in italy from 1998 to 2005 have been discussed in this paper. the true incidence of wrdo is not reflected in the national surveillance system (nss), although this study has provided information on pathogens associated to different water sources, incidence in regions and inadequacy of regulations. 192 outbreaks and 2546 cases of wrd were reported to the nss, an average of 318 cases per year. cases were associated to shellfish (58.79%), drinking wat ...200819108563
shigella from humans in thailand during 1993 to 2006: spatial-time trends in species and serotype thailand during 1993-2006, a total of 9063 shigella isolates from different medical centers were serotyped and trends over time and spatial clustering analyzed. of 3583 cases with age information, 1315 (37%) cases were from children between 0 and 4 years and 684 (19%) from children between 5 and 8 years. most infections were recorded during 1993-1994 (> 1500 per year), decreasing to < 200 in 2006. the relative species distribution also changed. during 1993-1994, shigella flexneri accounted fo ...200819086804
[structures of o-polysaccharides from two shigella dysenteriae type 8 strains].the structure of the o-polysaccharide (o-antigen) from shigella dysenteriae type 8 bacteria (strain 599) was corrected using modern nmr techniques (structure 1). the revisions concerned the position of the glc residue (in the main, but not the side, chain), the site of its substitution, and the configuration of the o-glycoside linkage of the glcnac residue. the s. dysenteriae type 8 bacterium (strain g1221), the second investigated representative, was found to produce another structural variant ...200819088755
characterization of shigella spp. by antimicrobial resistance and pcr detection of ipa genes in an infantile population from porto velho (western amazon region), brazil.the incidence of shigella spp. was assessed in 877 infants from the public hospital in rondônia (western amazon region, brazil) where shigella represents the fourth cause of diarrhea. twenty-five isolates were identified: 18 were shigella flexneri, three shigella sonnei, three shigella boydii and one shigella dysenteriae. with the exception of s. dysenteriae, all shigella spp. isolated from children with diarrhea acquired multiple antibiotic resistances. pcr detection of ipa virulence genes and ...200819057826
increased isolation and characterization of shigella sonnei obtained from hospitalized children in tehran, iran.shigella flexneri has been the most frequent cause of shigellosis in children in iran. to evaluate the changes in frequency of serogroups, 302 shigella species were isolated in 2003 from hospitalized children, aged less than 12 years, with acute diarrhoea in tehran, iran. the number of collected s. sonnei, s. flexneri, s. boydii, and s. dysenteriae isolates was 178 (58.9%), 110 (37.4%), 10 (3.3%), and 4 (1.3%) respectively. most (94%) s. sonnei isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole. they wer ...200819069621
prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in gondar town, northwest with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. the study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the university of gondar and the gondar teachers training college, gondar, ethiopia. fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. the samples were e ...200819069624
prevalence of shigella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in southern trinidad.the serogroup distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of shigella isolates obtained from stool specimens of persons with acute diarrhoea in community-based studies from southern trinidad during 1997-2006 were reviewed. of the 5,187 stool specimens, 392 (8%) were positive for shigella organisms. from these 392 isolates, 88.8% were recovered from children aged >0-10 year(s). shigella sonnei was the most frequently-isolated serogroup (75%), followed by s. flexneri (19%), s. boydii (4 ...200819069625
gef-h1 mediated control of nod1 dependent nf-kappab activation by shigella effectors.shigella flexneri has evolved the ability to modify host cell function with intracellular active effectors to overcome the intestinal barrier. the detection of these microbial effectors and the initiation of innate immune responses are critical for rapid mucosal defense activation. the guanine nucleotide exchange factor h1 (gef-h1) mediates rhoa activation required for cell invasion by the enteroinvasive pathogen shigella flexneri. surprisingly, gef-h1 is requisite for nf-kappab activation in re ...200819043560
outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. part 4. infective doses and pathogen this article, the fourth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the presence of enteric pathogens in the community, the numbers of organisms required to initiate an infection, and the length of carriage are presented. although workers have been implicated in outbreaks, they were not always aware of their infections, either because they were in the prodromic phase before symptoms began or because they were asymptomatic carriers. pathoge ...200819044283
the acrab-tolc pump is involved in multidrug resistance in clinical shigella flexneri isolates.the two multiple-antibiotic resistance (mar) phenotypes (n = 8, respectively) and susceptible isolates (n = 4) of shigella flexneri from china were characterized involving the efflux pump acrab-tolc. the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, acrab-tolc pcr, and levels of mrna with northern blots were performed in three groups. sequencing of acrab-tolc was performed in selected isolates. an efflux inhibition was performed with phe-arg-beta-naphthylamide. the accumulation of ciprofloxacin at steady state ...200819035770
biometric fingerprinting for visa application: device and procedure are risk factors for infection transmission.biometric fingerprint identity verification is currently introduced in visa application and entry screening at border control. the system implies physical contact between the skin and the surface of the fingerprint-capturing and reading devices.200819006507
functional nanoparticle-based proteomic strategies for characterization of pathogenic bacteria.although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (maldi ms) can be employed to rapidly characterize pathogenic bacteria, bacterial cultures are generally required to obtain sufficient quantities of the bacterial cells prior to maldi ms analysis. if this time-consuming step could be eliminated, the length of time required for identification of bacterial strains would be greatly reduced. in this paper, we propose an effective means of rapidly identifying bacteria--one that do ...200819007241
spa32 interaction with the inner-membrane spa40 component of the type iii secretion system of shigella flexneri is required for the control of the needle length by a molecular tape measure mechanism.the effectors of enterocyte invasion by shigella are dependent on a type iii secretion system that contains a needle whose length average does not exceed 50 nm. previously, we reported that spa32 is required for needle length control as well as to switch substrate specificity from mxih to ipa proteins secretion. to identify functional domains of spa32, 11 truncated variants were constructed and analysed for their capacity (i) to control the needle's length; (ii) to secrete the ipa proteins; and ...200819019157
is escherichia coli o157:h7 a common pathogen in children with bloody diarrhea in shiraz, iran?escherichia coli (e. coli) o157:h7 is a common cause of bloody diarrhea in developed countries. the aim of this study was to determine whether e. coli o157:h7 is a possible pathogen of bloody diarrhea in southern iran. out of 719 children with diarrhea, 243 (34%) patients with positive occult blood took part in our study. the polyclonal antibody test and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were used to identify e. coli o157:h7. stool cultures showed enteropathogens in 107 patients (44%). shigella (3 ...200819014048
[antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains in paediatric infections: there are resistance and resistance!].isolation of a bacterial strain at the infectious site and determination of the susceptibility profile may help to guide appropriate antibiotic treatment. however technical difficulties justify interpretative reading to recognize interfering resistance mechanisms from resistance phenotypes. the aim of this article is to give some examples showing interpretative reading of routine sensitivity test data.200819000854
structure of the shigella t3ss effector ipah defines a new class of e3 ubiquitin ligases.ipah proteins are e3 ubiquitin ligases delivered by the type iii secretion apparatus into host cells upon infection of humans by the gram-negative pathogen shigella flexneri. these proteins comprise a variable leucine-rich repeat-containing n-terminal domain and a conserved c-terminal domain harboring an invariant cysteine residue that is crucial for activity. ipah homologs are encoded by diverse animal and plant pathogens. here we demonstrate that the ipah c-terminal domain carries the catalyti ...200818997778
structure of a shigella effector reveals a new class of ubiquitin ligases.bacterial pathogens have evolved effector proteins with ubiquitin e3 ligase activities through structural mimicking. here we report the crystal structure of the shigella flexneri type iii effector ipah3, a member of the leucine-rich repeat (lrr)-containing bacterial e3 family. the lrr domain is structurally similar to yersinia pestis yopm and potentially binds to substrates. the structure of the c-terminal e3 domain differs from the typical ring- and hect-type e3s. ipah3 synthesizes a lys48-link ...200818997779
a pilot sheds light on secretin assembly. 200818940600
structural characterization of the type-iii pilot-secretin complex from shigella flexneri.assembly of the type-iii secretion apparatus, which translocates proteins through both membranes of gram-negative bacterial pathogens into host cells, requires the formation of an integral outer-membrane secretin ring. typically, a small lipidated pilot protein is necessary for the stabilization and localization of this ring. using nmr spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the c-terminal residues 553-570 of the shigella flexneri secretin mxid encompass the minimal binding domain for its cognate pilo ...200818940609
antimicrobial activity of endemic crataegus tanacetifolia (lam.) pers and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells.up to now an increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been reported and thus new natural therapeutic agents are needed in order to eradicate these pathogens. through the discovery of plants such as crataegus tanacetifolia (lam.) pers that have antimicrobial activity, it will be possible to discover new natural drugs serving as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of nosocomial pathogens and take these antibiotic-resistant bacteria under control. the objective of the present s ...200818946875
detection of protozoan and bacterial pathogens of public health importance in faeces of corvus spp. (large-billed crow).parasites and bacteria are reported in the faeces of birds in the current study. fresh faecal samples of the large-billed crow (corvus spp.) were collected from the study site at bangsar, an urban setting in kuala lumpur, malaysia. these samples were transported to laboratory and analysed for parasites and bacteria. pre-prepared xld agar plates were used for culturing the bacteria in the laboratory. using the api 20etm test strips, 9 different species of bacteria were identified belonging to the ...200818948884
analysis of immune responses and serological cross reactivities among vibrio cholerae o1, shigella flexneri 2a and haemophilus influenzae b.antigenic determinants expressed on the bacterial cell surface are of importance in the serological characterization and microbiological diagnosis. the bacterial strains carrying these identical or similar antigenic epitopes might react with antibodies produced against other strains. in this study, strong immunogenicity and antigenic cross reactivity were demonstrated among v. cholerae o1, s. flexnerii 2a and h. influenzae b surface components. the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) resul ...200818954564
the elucidation of the structure of the core part of the lps from plesiomonas shigelloides serotype o17 expressing o-polysaccharide chain identical to the shigella sonnei o-chain.plesiomonas shigelloides o17 lps contains the same o-antigenic polysaccharide chain as a causative agent of dysentery, shigella sonnei. this polysaccharide can be used as a component of a vaccine against dysentery. core part of the p. shigelloides o17 lps was studied using nmr and mass spectrometry and the following structure was proposed: [structure : see text]. significant similarity of the p. shigelloides o17 lps core with the structure of the p. shigelloides o54 core was observed.200818954864
evaluation by real-time pcr of the expression of s. flexneri virulence-associated genes ospb and phon2 under different genetical backgrounds.under conditions of activated type iii secretion shigella flexneri up-regulates the expression of numerous genes, including the virulence plasmid (pinv)-encoded ospb and phon2 genes. ospb and phon2 are virulence-associated genes which are part of a bicistronic transcriptional unit encoding ospb, a protein (effector) of unknown function secreted by the type iii secretion (tts) apparatus, and phon2 (apyrase or atp-diphosphohydrolase), a periplasmic protein involved in polar icsa localization on th ...200818831939
in this issue: proteomics 20/ this issue of proteomics you will find the following highlighted articles:comprehensively confirmed annotation of short orfsduring the california gold rush, prospectors did not look only for large nuggets to pave their road to riches - they also collected gold dust. the proteomic equivalent of dust is the small orf. it does not pay to put a lower limit on dust or orf size because almost any size may be turned into "cash" or an important peptide. wei et al. demonstrate how a combination of con ...200818924177
closing the diarrhoea diagnostic gap in indian children by the application of molecular techniques.a large proportion of diarrhoeal illnesses in children in developing countries are ascribed to an unknown aetiology because the only available methods, such as microscopy and culture, have low sensitivity. this study was aimed at decreasing the diagnostic gap in diarrhoeal disease by the application of molecular techniques. faecal samples from 158 children with and 99 children without diarrhoea in a hospital in south india were tested for enteric pathogens using conventional diagnostic methods ( ...200818927413
porin-incorporated liposome induces toll-like receptors 2- and 6-dependent maturation and type 1 response of dendritic cell.porin of shigella dysenteriae was incorporated in liposome (pil) and presented to mouse splenic dendritic cells (dc). pil up-regulated toll-like receptor (tlr) 2 and tlr6 on dc, showing that co-expression of the two tlrs is involved in recognition of porin. detection of myeloid differentiating factor 88 (myd88)-tlr2 complex confirmed interaction between the two for triggering the downstream signaling, which ultimately led to tlr2-dependent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa b. pil-ind ...200818931363
[new selective indicator medium for detection of aeromonas and plesiomonas: unisc agar].we evaluated a new selective indicator medium (unisc agar) for isolation of classical enteropathogens, aeromonas spp and plesiomonas shigelloides. the xylose fermentation capacity is indicated by a yellow color (fermenting agents) or blue (no fermenting agent). this, together with the oxidase test, establishes it as an indicator for detecting aeromonas and plesiomonas shigelloides. its productivity and selectivity, as assessed using the absolute count index and relative count index, indicate it ...200818853024
[the distribution and antimicrobial resistance tendency of pathogens associated with diarrhea in beijing].to monitor the constituents and resistant tendency of bacterial pathogens isolated from diarrheal patients in our hospital form 1994 to 2005 to offer the basis for guiding epidemiologic study, vaccination research and clinical treatment.200818843955
[analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis molecular subtyping of shigella strains in shenzhen].to analyze the genetic relations of shigella isolated from shenzhen in 2001-2006 and develop primary molecular subtyping surveillance network of shigella.200818844079
[analysis on incidence of bacillary dysentery in jinan municipality from 1951 to 2005].to explore the epidemic characteristics of bacterial dysentery in jinan municipality, and to provide scientific basis for effective strategy for bacterial dysentery control.200818844085
prevention of the cytopathic effect induced by clostridium difficile toxin b by active rac1.clostridium difficile toxin b (tcdb) glucosylates low molecular weight gtp-binding proteins of the rho subfamily and thereby causes actin re-organization (cell rounding). this "cytopathic effect" has been generally attributed to rhoa inactivation. here we show that cells expressing non-glucosylatable rac1-q61l are protected from the cytopathic effect of tcdb. in contrast, cells expressing rhoa-q63l or mock-transfected cells are fully susceptible for the cytopathic effect of tcdb. these findings ...200818848548
[htpg protein of shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457t evokes inflammatory response in mice].to analyze the function of htpg of s. flexneri 2a 2457t, we constructed an htpg deletion mutant and a recovery mutant.200818837368
[detection of staphylococcus aureus, shigella spp., salmonella spp. in food by multiplex pcr].to establish a multiplex pcr method for simultaneous detection of staphylococcus aureus, shigella spp., salmonella spp. in food.200818839528
'form variation' of the o12 antigen is critical for persistence of salmonella typhimurium in the murine intestine.salmonella enterica subspecies i serotypes are responsible for the vast majority of salmonellosis in mammals and birds, yet only a few factors specific to this group that allow them to persist in this niche have been identified. we show that stm0557, a s. enterica subspecies i-specific gene encoding an inner membrane protein, is critical for faecal shedding and intestinal persistence of s. enterica serotype typhimurium atcc14028 in salmonella-resistant mice, but mutations in this gene do not dim ...200818826410
bacteriophage 2851 is a prototype phage for dissemination of the shiga toxin variant gene 2c in escherichia coli o157:h7.the production of shiga toxin (stx) (verocytotoxin) is a major virulence factor of escherichia coli o157:h7 strains (shiga toxin-producing e. coli [stec] o157). two types of shiga toxins, designated stx1 and stx2, are produced in stec o157. variants of the stx2 type (stx2, stx2c) are associated with high virulences of these strains for humans. a bacteriophage designated 2851 from a human stec o157 encoding the stx2c variant was described previously. nucleotide sequence analysis of the phage 2851 ...200818824528
evaluation of methods for isolation of dna for polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based identification of pathogenic bacteria from pure cultures and water samples.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) provides a reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria in water samples. however, this method can be adversely influenced by the purity of the dna template. this is a particularly important obstacle when the bacterial dna is directly extracted from water samples. in this study we compared the suitability of 8 different methods for isolation of bacterial dna from pure cultures and 10 different methods for isolation of dna from water samples. the quality of extracted ...200818824796
gateways to clinical trials.11d10, 9vpnc-mncc; adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, aln-rsv01, ame-133, amg-317, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, anisodamine, anti-il-5 receptor antibody, apremilast, aripiprazole, atacicept, atazanavir sulfate, atrasentan; banoxantrone, bevacizumab, bibw-2992, binodenoson, bms-387032; cac10, caldaret hydrate, cd-np, ceftobiprole medocaril, celivarone fumarate, certolizumab pegol, cholesteryl hydrophobized polysaccharide-her2 protein complex, ...200818773127
novel cassette arrays of integrons in clinical strains of enterobacteriaceae in hundred and forty-two enterobacteriaceae isolates randomly selected from four general hospitals in nanjing region of china were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility, the presence of integrons and the characterisation of gene cassettes. eighty-five (59.9%) enterobacteriaceae strains contained class 1 integrons, and 17 (65.4%) of 26 shigella contained class 2 integrons. class 3 integrons were not detected in this study. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and dna sequencing a ...200818778917
novel fold of vira, a type iii secretion system effector protein from shigella flexneri.vira, a secreted effector protein from shigella sp., has been shown to be necessary for its virulence. it was also reported that vira might be related to papain-like cysteine proteases and cleave alpha-tubulin, thus facilitating intracellular spreading. we have now determined the crystal structure of vira at 3.0 a resolution. the shape of the molecule resembles the letter "v," with the residues in the n-terminal third of the 45-kda molecule (some of which are disordered) forming one clearly iden ...200818787201
[molecular typing of isolates from two dysentery outbreaks in chengdu, through pulsed field gel electrophoresis technology].using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) typing to analyze strains isolated from two outbreaks caused by shigella sonnei and to trace the source of infection.200818788530
the roles of two-component systems in virulence of pathogenic escherichia coli and shigella spp.two-component systems (tcss) are well conserved among e. coli strains, including pathogenic e. coli and also closely related shigella spp. although 25% of the genome of pathogenic e. coli is strain-specific, only small number of strain-specific tcss is found. regulation of virulence genes in response to environmental stimuli is partly dependent on tcss commonly present in nonpathogenic e. coli strains. some virulence genes are directly regulated by response regulator oftcs but some are affected ...200818792690
molecular approach and bacterial quality of drinking water of urban and rural communities in egypt.water is necessary to life so when supplied as drinking water to consumers, a satisfactory quality must be maintained. in egypt, infectious intestinal diseases are the major cause of hospitalization in almost all regions. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples from urban and rural communities. thirty-five samples of treated (chlorinated) water from taps, 25 samples of bottled water and 15 samples of hand pump (untreated) water ...200818800596
incidence of bacterial enteropathogens among hospitalized diarrhea patients from orissa, india.bacteriological analysis of 1,551 stool/rectal swabs from all age groups of diarrhea patients of different hospitals of orissa from january 2004 to december 2006 was carried out using standard procedures. among all enteropathogens isolated in 886 culture-positive samples, escherichia coli constituted 75.5%, including 13.2% pathogenic e. coli; vibrio cholerae o1 constituted 17.3%; v. cholerae o139, 1%; shigella spp., 4.5% (shigella flexneri type 6, 2.9%, s. dysenteriae type i, 0.7%, s. sonnei, 0. ...200818806340
indications and challenges of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in the management of arthralgias and spondyloarthropathies in inflammatory bowel disease.arthralgia and spondyloarthropathy of the peripheral and the axial joints are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. evidence for this association has been provided by clinical, epidemiologic, and immunologic studies confirming the presence of shared inflammatory pathways in gut and joint. bacterial gut infections such as salmonella typhimurium, yersinia enterocolitica, shigella, campylobacter jejuni may induce reactive peripheral arthritis and 20% of these patients may develop chr ...200818806706
[dysentery and amoebiasis in poland in 2006].the number of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in the three last years (2004, 2005, 2006) is lower and lower and is the lowest of all years since 1918 when notification started. only 35 cases were notified in the year 2006, while 80 were notified in 2005 (incidence rate 0.21/100 000 population), and 74 cases in 2004 (incidence rate 0.19/100 000 population). no one-death case was notified. the last three death cases were notified in 1999. no one outbreak was registered. twelve c ...200818807468
Displaying items 901 - 1000 of 13650