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[microspectrophotometric study of the crystalline inclusions in different strains of amoeba proteus].using microspectrometric technique, integral extinction and extinction spectra of crystalline inclusions of two amoeba strains, c and ct, have been studied. the analysis of extinction spectrum form allowed to suggest that the crystals seen in both amoeba strains have identical chemical composition, whereas the morphological differences between cells in their transparency may be due to different mode of the crystal package. the relative amount of the crystals was measured in both amoeba strains o ...1979225850
[effects of ampicillin and cefazolin combined with mecillinam (author's transl)].combination effects of mecillinam + ampicillin and mecillinam + cefazolin were investigated by the cross diffusion test and by the kinetics of bactericidal action. synergism was found by cross diffusion in about 50% of strains of e. coli, klebsiella and proteus. sensitivity against ampicillin was correlated with synergism. in mecillinam-resistant strains, synergism is usually absent. the combination of ampicillin or cefazolin with mecillinam leads to bactericidal acceleration; the effects are co ...1978226099
in vitro combination of mecillinam with cephradine or amoxycillin for organisms resistant to single agents.of 36 multi-resistant gram-negative bacilli isolated from different cases of urinary tract infection, 18 strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus, providencia and serratia with the exception of acinetobacter species showed synergy when mecillinam was combined with cephradine or amoxycillin in the ratio of 1:1. combination with cephradine was synergistic on sixteen occasions and amoxycillin on six. synergy, which might have clinical relevance, was demonstrated only when the ...1979227829
lethal effect of complement and lysozyme on polymyxin-treated, serum-resistant gram-negative bacilli.when genetically serum-resistant escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and citrobacter freundii, but not pseudomonas aeruginosa or proteus mirabilis, were exposed to polymyxin b, they became susceptible to the bactericidal action of normal human and rabbit sera. in constrast, beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics did not render any serum-resistant bacteria serum-sensitive. synergy between polymyxin b and the serum bactericidal system could be demonstrated by the addition of polymyxin b t ...1979229175
[clinical and bacteriological evaluation of sisomicin in sixteen cases of severe bronchopulmonary infection (author's transl)].sisomicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, was used as sole bactericidal therapy in sixteen cases of severe bronchopulmonary infection for an average of 11,5 days (range 7 to 14) with a dose of 3,5 mg/kg per day in three intramuscular injections. fifteen of these hospitalized patients presented with chronic airway obstruction which resulted in lowered o2 saturation (sao2 congruent to 86,1%, range 74 to 93) and, in twelve patients, hypercapnia (paco2 = 55,7 torr, range 33--73). two of these patient ...1979230590
[contribution to gas gangrene of the gallbladder]. 1979230664
specificity of attachment of certain enterobacteriaceae to mammalian cells.the specificity of adherence of various enterobacteriaceae to different mammalian cells was studied in vitro. 3h-labelled organisms of the same species isolated from various clinical sources differed significantly in their abilities to adhere to the same mammalian cells. bacteria frequently adhered better to cells derived from sites other than those analogous to their original source. bacteria did not display consistently 'high' or 'low' attachment to a variety of human and tissue-cultured cells ...1979231084
effect of serum and blood on enterobacteriaceae grown in the presence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin and mecillinam.bacteria from the strains of five species of enterobacteriaceae grown in the presence of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin or mecillinam formed into filamentous or round cells. these filamentous and round cells as well as normal control bacteria were incubated with either fresh human serum or blood, the bactericidal effects of which were then determined. in most cases, the bactericidal effect of either serum or blood on filamentous or round cells was less than the effect on cont ...1979232297
observations on microbial contamination in the sma 12/60. 1979233553
in vitro activity of sisomicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, against clinical isolates.sisomicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic which is produced by micromonospora myoensis, was studied against 565 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. with the exception of serratia marcescens, over 90% of isolates of gram-negative bacilli were inhibited by 1.56 mug/ml or less of sisomicin. sisomicin was slightly more active than gentamicin and tobramycin aganist isolates of escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis and klebsiella spp. it was substantially more active tha ...1975234415
assay of deoxyribonucleic acid homology using a single-strand-specific nuclease at 75 c.we investigated the conditions under which a crude preparation of endonuclease s1 gives maximal hydrolysis of denatured deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) while giving minimal hydrolysis of native dna. the hydrolysis was measured by filtering and determining the acid-insoluble reaction product using 3h-labeled substrates. we also investigated various parameters in making this measurement. under appropriate conditions (in 1 mm znso-4, 0.168 m nacl at ph 4.8) denatured dna is hydrolyzed within 3% of comp ...1975234416
l-amino acid oxidases of proteus rettgeri.proteus rettgeri has been found to contain two separable 1-amino acid oxidases. both enzymes are particulate in nature, neither being ribosomal bound. one of these enzymes appears to have broad specificity, being active toward monoaminomonocarboxylic, imino, aromatic, sulfur-containing, and beta-hydroxyamino acids. the other enzyme has more limited specificity, catalyzing the oxidative deamination of the basic amino acids and citrulline. the affinity of this oxidase for the various substrates at ...1975234421
adsorption of vibrio parahaemolyticus onto chitin and copepods.vibrio parahaemolyticus was observed to adsorb onto chitin particles and copepods. the efficiency of adsorption was found to be dependent on ph and on the concentration of nac1 and other ions found in seawater. highest efficiency was observed in water samples collected from chesapeake bay and lowest in water from the open sea. v. parahaemolyticus was found to adborb onto chitin with the highest efficiency of the several bacterial strains tested. escherichia coli and pseudomonas fluorescens d ...1975234715
role of urease in pyelonephritis resulting from urinary tract infection with proteus.the role of urease in induction of pyelonephritis was studied by treatment of proteus-infected rats with acetohydroxamic acid, a potent inhibitor of urease. infection was produced by introduction of proteus mirabilis into the bladder along with a zinc disk. controls were treated identically but received no acetohydroxamic acid. the number of bacteria per milliliter of urine was the same in both groups. the number of bacteria in the kidneys and the extent of renal damage was much greater in contr ...1975234993
aseptic endotoxemia in radiation injury and graft-vs-host diesease. 1975235772
nationwide epidemic of septicemia caused by contaminated infusion products. iv. growth of microbial pathogens in fluids for intravenous infusions.septicemia caused by contaminated infusion fluid is a newly appreciated hazard of intravenous infusion therapy. microorganisms of the tribe klebsielleae (klebsiella, enterobacter, and serratia) have predominated in these infections. members of this tribe found to possess a selecive ability over common non-klebsielleae microbial pathogens to proliferate rapidly in commerical parential fluids contaning clucose at room temperautre. fifty-one klebsielleae strains, washed twice before inoculation of ...1975236343
long-term therapy of chronic bacterial prostatitis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.trimethoprim (tmp) meets all of the theoretical requirements of diffusion into, and actual concentration in, human prostatic fluid. when tmp is combined with the sulfonamide sulfamethoxazole (smx), potentiation of antibacterial activity is achieved and the development of resistant bacterial strains is less likely to occur. in our initial use of tmp-smx in the treatment of 13 men with chronic bacterial prostatitis due to gram-negative organisms, patients were given two tablets of tmp-smx twice da ...1975236820
cephalothin and cephaloridine therapy for bacterial meningitis.the efficacy of cephalothin and cephaloridine in the treatment of bacterial meningitis was evaluated from a review of 106 cases reported in the literature. fifty-nine percent of 34 patients treated with intravenous cephalothin responded suboptimally; those receiving daily doses of 12 g or more fared significantly better (p less than 0.025). in contrast, 74% of 72 patients treated with cephaloridine responded favorably; those who received concomitant intrathecal cephaloridine responded significan ...1975237448
allantoin racemase: a new enzyme from pseudomonas species.1. allantoin racemase is a novel enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of s(+)-and r(minus)-allantoin into the racemate. 2. the enzyme is present in pseudomonas testosteroni, pseudomonas putida and five biotypes of pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent in a number of other pseudomonas species. 3. the enzyme of ps. testosteroni was purified 133-fold and exposes optimal activity at ph 8.0-8.2 and 50 degrees c. the enzyme is stable on heating for 15 min at 70 degrees c. 4. the enzyme appeared to be s ...1975237557
inhibition of pathogenic enteric bacteria by hyperbaric oxygen: enhanced antibacterial activity in the absence of carbon dioxide.the antibacterial effects of 24-h exposures to high-pressure oxygen in relation to environmental co(2) were studied at 3 atm absolute (ata) and at 1 ata. eight gram-negative, aerobic and facultatively aerobic, pathogenic enteric bacteria (salmonella typhosa, salmonella paratyphi, salmonella schottmuelleri, shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri, proteus vulgaris, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and escherichia coli) were exposed as shallow-broth cultures and agar surface cultures. although broths suppl ...1975238466
metabolism of deoxycorticosterone by human fecal flora.21-dehydroxylation, a feature of metabolism of corticoids in humans, was observed in mixed cultures of fecal flora of normal individuals on a western diet. the model substrate, 11-deoxycorticosterone (doc), was metabolized to 3alpha-21-dihydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one (thdoc), 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan20-one (pregnanolone), and to two unidentified structures, metabolites x and y. doc was not metabolized in all media supporting growth of fecal flora. conversion required an initial ph between 6.0 ...1975238472
studies on stimulation and properties of antiglobulin antibodies. ii. antiglobulin antibodies against homologous globulins and antigens of thermally denatured autologous sera in the sera of rabbits immunized with various antigens.sera of 48 rabbits after long-term immunization with suspensions of diplococcus pneumoniae, klebsiella friedländeri, proteus ox19 and solution of bovine albumin were examined for antibodies reacting with homologous gamma-globulins and antigens of thermally denatured autologous sera. appearance of antibodies of this type was related to duration of immunization, but not related to the type of antigen used. the experimental results were explained as a result of altered antigenic properties of antib ...1975238486
[the effect of pyridoxal phosphate on the tryptophanases of five species of enterobacteriaceae].escherichia coli b and e. aurescens, shigella alkalescens, and proteus vulgaris et p. morganii tryptophanases (tpases) were studied for the spectral forms of the enzyme. the ph effect on the absorption spectrum and on the enzyme specific activity revealed that the coli group tpases are identical with but differ from proteus tpases which differ themselves. the coli group tpases attach 4 mol of pyridoxal phosphate (plp)/mol of enzyme, independently of the ph in the presence of k(plus) ions, and 9 ...1975238730
[clinical evaluation of a new oral cephalosporin preparation, cephradine dry syrup, in pediatrics (author's transl)]. 1975239262
membrane potential and conductance during pinocytosis induced in amoeba proteus with alkali metal ions.an investigation of the relationship between the polarized state of the membrane and the onset and the intensity of pinocytosis was made in amoeba proteus. membrane potential and input resistance was in all instances found to decrease in approximate proportion to the number of channels when pinocytosis was induced by a variety of alkali metal ions at varying ph. channels began to appear when the membrane was depolarized to -30 mv by the inducer of pinocytosis. with all inducers the maximum pinoc ...1975239524
1-alkyl-2-nitroimidazol-5-yl derivatives ii. n-substituted nitrones. 1975239726
comparative inhibitory activity of bl-s640 and two other cephalosporins.in vitro antibacterial activity of bl-s640 was compared to that of cephalothin and cephalexin against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens. bl-s640 demonstrated the best activity on nearly all microbial species studied, except for haemophilus influenzae and diplococcus pneumoniae against which cephalothin was slightly more active.1975239917
studies of introital colonization in women with recurrent urinary infections. i. the role of vaginal ph.the ph of the vaginal introitus was compared to quantitative cultures of the introital mucosa (escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis and streptococcus faecalis) in 800 samples. introital carriage of more than 100 bacteria per ml. was significantly greater at ph of more than 4.4 (p less than 0.005) when compared to mucosal ph of less than or equal to 4.4.1975240038
[comparison of the antibacterial activity of amikacin (bb-k8) with other aminoglycosides against pathogens recently isolated from clinical materials (author's transl) ].we determined the antibacterial activity of amikacin against 1,277 strains of pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical materials during 1974, including beta hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, enterococci, staphylococcus aureus, staph. epidermidis, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, citrobacter, serratia, proteus morganii and pseudomonas aeruginosa, and compared the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of this drug with gentamicin, dibekacin, tobramycin and kanamycin. 1)antibacteri ...1975240047
a further development of electrolyte-deficient medium to demonstrate urea hydrolysis. 1975240118
the specificity of amino acid uptake by amoeba proteus. 1975240626
synthesis and antibacterial properties of methylsulfinyl and methylsulfonyl analongs of some nitrofurans.the sulfoxides 5-methylsulfinyl-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone (2) and 1-[(5-methylsulfinyl-2-fufurylidene)amino]hydantoin (3) as well as the sulfones 1-[(5-methylsulfonyl-2-furfurylidene)animo]hydantoin (1) and 1-(5-methylsulfonly-2-furyl)-2-(6-amino-3-p-ridazyl)ethylene hydrochloride (4) have been prepared and tested for antibacterial activity against a number of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. the compounds are much less active than the corresponding 5-nitrofuran derivatives, possibly ...1975240940
[synthetic medium for testing of susceptibility. ii. susceptibility of bacteria to sulphonamides (author's transl)].a comparative study of 9 media for testing the susceptibility of bacteria to 7 sulphonamides has been carried out. the evaluated culture-media included 4 "mueller hinton" media (mh), 4 others based on the formula of the "diagnostic sensitivity test" agar base (d.s.t.) and a "synthetic medium" (sm) which has been developed in our laboratory. mh and d.s.t. culture-media have been supplied by 4 manufacturing companies in europe and usa. a total number of 21 bacterial cultures have been employed. th ...1975241178
involvement of tyrosine residues in the protomer-protomer interaction of proteus mirabilis flagella as studied by spectroscopic methods, chemical modification and aggregation experiments.using spectrophotometrical titration, chemical modification, and ultraviolet difference spectral methods, the existence of at least two distinct tyrosine groups in the isolated flagellin of proteus mirabilis flagella has been established. three of the five flagellin tyrosines are buried in the protein matrix, whereas the other two seem to lie on the protein surface accessible to perturbants. also about two tyrosine residues, presumably the latter ones exposed to the environment, can be nitrated ...1975241412
in vitro and in vivo evaluation of change of local ph on bacteria in c.s.o.m.an in vitro study has shown a high bactericidal activity of 2 per cent acetic acid. an in vitro study in 400 cases of c.s.o.m. has shown that conservative treatment of c.s.o.m. by ph change with 2 per cent acetic acid is better than antibiotic ear drops alone. however, combined therapy (ph change plus antibiotic ear drops) is definitely superior to single treatment by either of the two methods. two per cent acetic acid is well tolerated by the middle ear mucosa except in 1 per cent cases, where ...1975241771
antimicrobial activity of human peritoneal fluid.cell free peritoneal fluids from 23 normal women had antimicrobial activity which was directed against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against yeasts. the activity was bacteriostatic or bactericidal and seemed to be due to the presence of a variety of factors which varied in their heat stability and dependence on complement. lysozyme was present in the fluids but was not responsible for all the antimicrobial activity.1975242084
inhibition of induced pinocytosis in amoeba proteus by membrane stabilizing drugs.the effect of membrane stabilizing drugs on cation induced pinocytosis was studied in amoeba proteus. initially the presence of local anesthetic drugs during a pinocytosis cycle had a stimulating effect on channel formation, however, the capacity to develop pinocytotic channels was reversibly inhibited after a period of treatment with these drugs. imipramine, vinblastine and the phenothiazines had effects similar to local anaesthetics. the local anesthetics inhibited pinocytosis in the following ...1975242188
abnormal forms of bacteria produced by antibiotics.subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics can produce in vitro aberrant forms of bacteria that are similar to those observed in specimens and cultures from patients being treated with antibacterial agents. eight species of bacteria were grown on membranes placed on agar containing subinhibitory concentrations of nine antibiotics. the resulting organisms were examined by gram stain and electron microscopy. gram stains showed filamentous and granular forms of enterobacteria with bipolar staining ...1975242211
high frequency cotransduction of a morganocinogenic plasmid and markers of r plasmids. 1977244330
infectious complications of burns casualties during the yom-kippur war.during the october 1973 military conflict, 41 burned patients hospitalized at the sheba medical center were closely followed up. all the patients who had burns occupying 20% or more of the body surface developed wound infections. pseudomonas aeruginosa was the major pathogen isolated. most infections occurred during the second week following the injury. serial cultures revealed that only the isolation of proteus species and p. aeruginosa from wounds could predict an infection caused by those mic ...1977244453
[beta-lactamase activity of bacteria of the genus proteus].beta-lactamases of proteus and their role in the mechanism of the microbe resistance to penicillins and ceporin were studied. it was found that the beta-lactamase of proteus had low activity and were produced by both beta-lactamide resistant and sensitive clinical strains of proteus. the resistant cultures of proteus produced enzymes more frequently (3.4--5 times) than the sensitive ones. the synthesis of beta-lactamase in the clinical proteus strains was inducable. the high induction coefficien ...1978246373
[in vitro antibacterial activity of tobramycin used in combination with cephalothin or carbenicillin (author's transl)].combinations of tobramycin (tob) with cephalothin (cet) or carbenicillin (cbpc) were evaluated by in vitro test against 161 clinical isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, indole-positive proteus, enterobacter and serratia marcescens which were not inhibited by 6.25 microgram/ml of cet. the combinations were considered to show synergy when there was a 4-fold or greater reduction in mic values (fic index less than or equal to 0.5) of both antibiotics when combined. synergy of tob wi ...1978246946
cefuroxime, a beta-lactamase-resistant cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of gram-positive and -negative activity.the in vitro activity of cefuroxime, a cephalosporin antibiotic, was investigated against 604 isolates and compared with the activity of other beta-lactam compounds. cefuroxime had activity comparable to that of other cephalosporins, including cefamandole and cefoxitin, against streptococcal and staphylococcal species; most streptococci were inhibited by 0.1 mug or less per ml, and staphylococci were inhibited by 1.6 mug or less per ml. enterococci were relatively resistant. cefuroxime inhibited ...1978248268
antibacterial activity of apalcillin (pc-904) against gram-negative bacilli, especially ampicillin-, carbenicillin-, and gentamicin-resistant clinical isolates.apalcillin (pc-904) is active against carbenicillin- and ampicillin-resistant strains of gram-negative bacilli. among pseudomonas aeruginosa strains highly resistant to carbenicillin (>/=3,200 mug/ml), half of them were susceptible to pc-904 at a concentration of 50 to 1,600 mug/ml. the minimal inhibitory concentration of pc-904 against p. aeruginosa strains resistant to carbenicillin (400 to 1,600 mug/ml) ranged from 3.1 to 25 mug/ml. ampicillin- and carbenicillin-resistant enterobacteriaceae s ...1978248269
[azlocilline and hr 756 in urosepsis and urinary tract infection with multiresistant pseudomonas and proteus morganii]. 1979252458
hr 756, a highly active cephalosporin: comparison with cefazolin and carbenicillin.hr 756, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with cefazolin and carbenicillin for activity against a total of 264 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., proteus mirabilis, proteus spp. (indole positive), enterobacter spp., salmonella typhi, serratia marcescens, providencia stuartii, and staphylococcus aureus. in every comparison, except that with the last organism, hr 756 was clearly more active than cefazolin and carbenicillin. all three compounds had simi ...1978253572
[identification and drug-susceptibility of proteus group (author's transl)]. 1979254702
[antibiotic therapy, intestinal microbial pullulation and risk of infection in children].the effect of antibiotic therapy on the intestinal flora was studied qualitatively and quantitatively in 41 infants. the results have been compared with 27 normal children of the same age and background. antibiotics were responsible for the suppression of sensitive strains and for their replacement by resistant organisms but above all to a rapid multiplication of the intestinal flora. colistin and pristinamycin caused these changes when given orally. ampicillin when given both orally and parente ...1978255089
comparative activities of ampicillin, epicillin and amoxycillin in vitro and in vivo.the antibacterial activities of three aminopenicillins ampicillin, epicillin and amoxycillin were compared in vitro and in vivo. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) of the three penicillins were very similar and the compounds were active against non-beta-lactamase-producing strains of escherichia coli, salmonella and shigella species, proteus mirabilis, haemophilus influenzae and neisseria gonorrhoeae. streptococci including streptococcus faecalis, and non-beta-lactamase-producing staphy ...1979256524
susceptibility of various microorganisms to chlorhexidine.the susceptibility to chlorhexidine of bacteria in aerobic, facultatively anaerobic and anaerobic isolates from clinical specimens of wounds, urine, saliva, and dental plaque was studied. agar diffusion tests using 50 microng chlorhexidine discs and agar dilution tests were performed and the mic values correlated with inhibition zone diameters. anaerobic plaque strains were isolated and tested by the agar dilution method in an anaerobic glove box. regression lines obtained for five agar media de ...1977266752
comparative study of amikacin (bb-k8) and gentamicin activity in vitro against proteus rettgeri. 1977268183
diphtheria toxin has the properties of a lectin.the inhibition of protein synthesis in chinese hamster v79 cells by diphtheria toxin is antagonized by the lectins concanavalin a, succinylated concanavalin a, and wheat germ agglutinin but not by proteus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin or abrus agglutinin. the effects of concanavalin a and wheat germ agglutinin are reversed by methyl alpha-mannoside and n-acetylglucosamine, respectively. the inhibition of diphtheria toxin as a function of concanavalin a concentration fits a model of competitive inh ...1978272642
genetic recombination in fused spheroplasts of providence alcalifaciens.spheroplasts of providence alcalifaciens strain p29 auxotrophs were prepared by combined treatment with glycine and lysozyme-edta. about 15% of spheroplasts had areas of cytoplasmic membrane exposed where cell wall was absent. the spheroplasts of different auxotrophs were mixed pairwise and fusion was attempted with polyethylene glycol or nascent calcium phosphate. after spheroplasts had regenerated to bacterial forms selection was made for recombinants. recombinants arose at frequencies of 3.8 ...1979295358
comparison of in vitro activity of cephalexin, cephradine, and cefaclor.inhibitory activity of cephalexin, cephradine, and cefaclor was compared by the who-ics agar dilution technique. cefaclor was substantially more active against staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci, meningococci, haemophilus, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, salmonellae, and shigellae than was cephalexin, which in turn was more active than cephradine. cefaclor appeared to be less resistant to staphylococcal penicillinase than did the other two ag ...1977301005
the effects of low voltage current on healing of thermal third degree wounds.bilateral third degree burns were created on the flanks of eight miniature swine. each animal had one side treated daily with low intensity direct (lidc) of 400 microamperes (mua) by contact electrode for 2 hours morning and afternoon until healing occurred. the polarity of the electrode was negative in 4 pigs and positive in 4 pigs. one group of 4 pigs had the eschar surgically removed 24 hours post burn. weekly biopsies and cultures were taken of treated and control wounds. results indicated: ...1978303976
[immunological reactivity and the prognosis for allergic complications in the crew of the 2d saliut-4 expedition].immunological reactivity of p. i. klimuk and v. i. sevastyanov was studied before and after their 63-day flight aboard the orbital station salyut-4. the study used the methods to assay reactivity of t- and b-lymphocytes (pha-blast-transformation, nonspecific formation of rosettes with sheep red blood cells, immunofluorescence to identify cells carrying immunoglobulin receptors on their surface, serum level of immunoglobulins as a function of becells). sensitization of the human body to allergene ...1978305975
comparison of bl-s786 with cephalothin, cefamandole and cefoxitin in vitro and in treatment of experimental infections in mice.the activity of bl-s786 was compared to that of cephalothin, cefamandole and cefoxitin in vitro and in treatment of experimental infections in mice. in broth dilution tests, the activity of bl-s786 was less than cephalothin or cefamandole against staphylococcus aureus and less than cefamandole or cefoxitin against haemophilus influenzae. bl-s786 and cefamandole were the two most active drugs against cephalothin-sensitive enterobacteriaceae. in tests with cephalothin-resistant enterobacteriaceae, ...1978306989
diagnostic limulus lysate assay for endophthalmitis and keratitis.the limulus lysate assay is an inexpensive, reliable, and rapid means of detecting and presence of gram-negative endotoxin. in all ten cases of experimentally induced proteus endophthalmitis in rabbits, the assay was positive, and the assay was appropriately negative in all ten cases of staphylococcal endophthalmitis, ten cases of candida endophthalmitis, and ten cases of sterile endophthalmitis in rabbits. in a clinical assessment of keratitis, the assay of corneal scrapings was positive in 11 ...1978307379
combined activitiy of clavulanic acid and ticarcillin against ticarcillin-resistant, gram-negative bacilli.fifty-one clinical isolates of ticarcillin-resistant, gram-negative bacilli were tested for susceptibility to combinations of ticarcillin and clavulanic acid (brl 14151), a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor. minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) were measured by a microdilution method, and minimal bactericidal concentrations for selected strains were measured by the broth dilution method. ticarcillin mics were >/=128 mug/ml for all and >/=512 mug/ml for 38 (75%) of the strains. thirty-nine stra ...1978308792
cp-45,899, a beta-lactamase inhibitor that extends the antibacterial spectrum of beta-lactams: initial bacteriological characterization.cp-45,899 {3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 4,4-dioxide, [2s-(2alpha,5alpha)]} is an irreversible inhibitor of several bacterial penicillinases and cephalosporinases. in the presence of low concentrations of cp-45,899, ampicillin and other beta-lactams readily inhibit the growth of a variety of resistant bacteria that contain beta-lactamases. cp-45,899 used alone displays only weak antibacterial activity, with the notable exception of its potent effects on ...1978309306
[investigations on the correlation of inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentrations testing beta-lactamase positive and negative enterobacteriaceae (author's transl)]. 1978311568
comparative inhibition beta-lactamases by novel beta-lactam compounds.the beta-lactamase-inhibiting activity of cp-45,899, 3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicylo(3,2,0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 4,4-dioxide [2s-(2alpha,5alpha)], was investigated and compared with the beta-lactamase-inhibiting activity of clavulanic acid and dicloxacillin. cp-45,899 was an effective inhibitor of staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase and of those beta-lactamases of gram-negative bacteria which are primarily active against penicillins or equally active against penicillins and cephalosp ...1979311616
[anodically moving thermolabile antigen (ata) of gram-negative bacteria. its antibody-forming capacity in rabbits and mice].injection of purified ata as well as of ata-containing crude sonic extracts of gram-negative bacteria into rabbits or mice causes rapid occurrence of anti-ata antibodies. thus, the retarded occurrence of anti-ata antibodies after immunization with living bacteria can be explained by the rather deep localization of ata in the cell wall.1979312565
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of cefazaflur compared with those of beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporins.the in vitro activity of cefazaflur, a parenteral cephalosporin, was determined against 590 clinical isolates. cefazaflur inhibited the majority of gram-positive cocci at concentrations below 1 mug/ml except for enterococci. the agent was as active as cefamandole or cefoxitin against most escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis. although it inhibited a number of strains of enterobacter, indole-positive proteus, and serratia resistant to cephalothin, it was much less active ...1979313753
emergence of resistance to cefamandole: possible role of cefoxitin-inducible beta-lactamases.selection of resistance to cefamandole has been observed, and the drug has failed to protect animals lethally infected with certain enterobacteriaceae that appeared to be highly susceptible in vitro. using spectrophotometric assays, some of these organisms were found to produce beta-lactamases highly active against cefamandole. cefoxitin, a poor enzyme substrate, was found to be superior to both cephalothin and cefamandole in induction of these enzymes. a simple disk induction test was developed ...1979314270
metabolic carbohydrate-labelling of glycolipids from mouse splenocytes. mitogen-stimulated b and t cells show different labelling patterns.splenic lymphocytes from cba/j, akr/a/j, balb/c/a, c57/bl/6j, c3h/hej and c3h/tif nu/nu mice and b lymphocyte or t lymphocyte preparations derived from cba/j mouse spleen were cultivated in the presence of either concanavalin a, phytohemagglutinin, salmonella minnesota r595 lipopolysaccharide or proteus mirabilis soluble lipoprotein. the mitogens stimulated the incorporation of [14c]galactose into acid-insoluble cell material with the same specificity for b or t cells as that known for thymidine ...1979314379
in vitro antibacterial activity of cefoperazone (t-1551), a new semisynthetic cephalosporin.cefoperazone, a new semisynthetic cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. it is as active as cefazolin and cefamandole against gram-positive bacteria and is more active than cefazolin and cefamandole against such gram-negative bacilli as escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus species, pseudomonas aeruginosa, citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae, and serratia marcescens. the superiority of cefoperazone over cefazolin and cefamandole with respect to activity ...1979316988
comparison of antibacterial activity of a new cephalosporin, ceftizoxime (fk 749) with other cephalosporin antibiotics.fk 749 is a distinctive new parenteral cephalosporin antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum which is more potently active against a wide variety of gram-negative bacilli, including the opportunistic pathogens such as citrobacter and enterobacter species and serratia marcescens, than sce 963, t 1551 and cefmetazole. the activity of fk 749 against escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, pyogenes was by far superior to that of the three other antibiotics. these test organisms were not resi ...1979317284
clinical evaluation of cefoxitin in treatment of infections in 47 orthopedic patients.cefoxitin was administered to 47 patients on an orthopedic service; 1 or 2 g of the drug was given intravenously every 4-8 hr. thirty-one evaluated patients with acute or chronic infections of bone, joint, or muscle and tendon had an overall rate of cure of 84%. ten patients with spinal cord injuries who had urinary tract infections due to serratia or indole-positive proteus were treated, and all 10 were cured. significant adverse effects of cefoxitin included one case of fever due to the drug a ...1979318224
the comparative efficacy of cephalexin and sulfisoxazole in acute urinary tract infection in children.a double blind, comparative study of the efficacy of cephalexin versus sulfisoxazole was conducted on 100 children with initial episodes of urinary tract infections. the overall bacteriologic and clinical cure rates were comparable for both antimicrobials. children treated with cephalexin had a clinical cure rate of 86 per cent and a bacterial cure rate of 84 per cent, while those given sulfisoxazole were found to have rates of 82 and 92 per cent respectively. however, cephalexin was noted to ha ...1977318609
alteration of effectiveness of antibiotics by anaerobiosis.in vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests of facultative organisms are routinely performed under aerobic conditions, despite the fact that many infections caused by these organisms occur in anaerobic areas, i.e., intra-abdominal absess. experiments were performed aerobically and anaerobically to determine the susceptibility of e. coli, p. mirabilis, and k. pneumoniae to gentamicin, tobramycin, cephalothin, cefazolin, and cefamandole. antibiotic sensitivities were determined by disc and agar dilut ...1977318675
fosfomycin and plasmidic resistance.60 fosfomycin-resistant strains of gram-negative bacilli are submitted to conjugation experiments using as recipient cell e. coli k12 which is nalidixic acid resistant. after mating, the number of fosfomycin-resistant e. coli k2 colonies growing on selection plates containing nalidixic acid and fosfomycin never surpassed the normal rate of mutation for fosfomycin-resistance of the recipient strain. in 65% of the experiments, plasmidic resistance to other antimicrobials was transferred to e. coli ...1977318973
treatment of cefazolin in 45 cases of urinary tract infections.we have treated 45 cases of urinary tract infection with cefazolin (i.m.) and cure was achieved in 35 (77.77%). 26 of the 28 patients (92.85%) with acute cystitis who received 250 mg every 12 h for 6-10 days were cured. 17 patients with pyelonephritis received 500 mg every 12 h during 10-14 days and therapeutical success was achieved in 9 of them (52.94%). laboratory control was carried out at the initiation of therapy, at the end, and 1 month after therapy. tolerance to injections of cefazolin ...1977318980
ribitol-containing lipopolysaccharides from proteus mirabilis and their serological relationship.ribitol phosphate was recently identified as a constituent of lipopolysaccharides obtained from 'proteus mirabilis strain d52 giving 1:4-anhydroribitol during acid hydrolysis (gmeiner, 1975). two other proteus mirabilis strains belonging to serogroups o16 and o33 were shown previously to contain an unknown compoound x as lipopolysaccharide constituent (kotelko et al., 1975). in this report the identification of compound x as 1:4-anhydroribotol by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and ...1977319001
significant bacteriuria among the mentally retarded. identification and antibiotic sensitivity of isolates.a study was carried out to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria in a mentally retarded population. with 100,000 or more bacteria per ml. of urine used as a criterion for significant bacteriuria, 24 of 665 persons studied were considered to have significant bacteriuria for an overall prevalence rate of 3.6%. seventeen of the 24 positive urine cultures were either from clean catch or catheter specimens. all patients undergoing catheterization were found to have significant bacteriur ...1977319080
bacteriostasis of escherichia coli by milk. i. colonization of breast-fed infants by milk resistant organisms.human milk has a bacteriostatic effect on escherichia coli in vitro. the milks of 40 mothers were tested for this effect against e. coli isolated from their stools, from those of their own babies, and from those of babies not breast-fed. the milks had a direct bacteriostatic effect, not dependent on complement, on some but not all the strains of e. coli. breast-fed babies receiving supplementary bottle feeds were colonized with milk-resistant strains, whereas bottle-fed babies and, surprisingly, ...1977319169
necrotizing fasciitis: a persistent surgical problem.necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but specific clinical entity which, if not diagnosed early and treated aggressively, is rapidly fatal. the disease was first described during the civil war and continues to be associated with a 50% mortality. the infectious process is diagnosed by the presence of a widespread fascial necrosis with extensive undermining of the adjacent tissues. the initial mechanism of injury as well as the location and etiologic agent of the suppurative fasciitis may vary. a revie ...1977319280
[endotoxic shock in a pregnant woman following transfusion of blood containing proteus mirabilis]. 1977319599
oxolinic acid therapy for urinary tract infections in children.thirty hospitalized children with gram-negative bacillary urinary tract infections were treated with oxolinic acid for 14 to 21 dyas. fifteen of 17 patients with uncomplicated and 11 of 13 with complicated urinary infections had favorable bacteriologic responses. resistant organisms developed in four treatment failures. oxolinic acid urine concentrations were well above the minimal inhibitory concentration for most strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus mirabilis, p vulga ...1977319651
lysis if enterobacteria by cefoxitin, cefuroxime, and cephalothin.cefoxitin, cefuroxime, and cephalothin were added to dense populations of beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria, and the subsequent turbidity changes were monitored continuously. viable counts and antibiotic assays were made at intervals after the addition of antibiotic, and the morphological appearances of the organisms were observed. cephalothin caused lysis of most of the organisms tested, but even at high concentrations, after a few hours the antibiotic was destroyed and the organisms reco ...1977319751
complementary use of aesculin hydrolysis and inositol fermentation in the characterisation of klebsielleae.rates of aesculin hydrolysis and inositol fermentation adequately differentiate klebsielleae from other enterobacteriaceae. in combination with tests for motility and growth in potassium cyanide medium, presumptive differentiation between klebsielleae, and confirmation of klebsiella pneumoniae, is obtained.1977320229
infectious pneumonias: a review.diplococcus pneumoniae remains the most frequent cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. other frequently isolated bacterial pathogens are hemophilus influenzae, klebsiella organisms, and staphylococcus aureus. the etiologic agents most commonly implicated in hopsital-acquired pneumonias are gram-negative bacilli including e. coli, proteus organisms, and species of klebsiella-enterobacter, pseudomonas, and serratia. among older children and young-adults, myocoplasma pneumoniae is a comm ...1977320285
typing of proteus strains by proticine production and sensitivity.a simple, reliable and highly discriminating scheme for the bacteriocine typing of proteus has been developed. strains are typed on macconkey's agar according to their ability to produce a proticine active against one of 14 indicator strains having a single and specific proticine sensitivity and also according to their sensitivity to the different proticines of 13 proticine-producing strains. this new scheme of combined production and sensitivity typing was formulated after 250 strains of proteu ...1977320341
endotoxin effects on the liver. 1977320416
[comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of doxycycline and tetracycline (author's transl)].in order to explain the mechanism of resistance within the tetracycline group, the minimal inhibitory concentration of tetracycline hcl was compared with that of doxycycline in the micro dilution test for bacterial collectives of 48 strains each from the groups of gram-negative and gram-positive cocci, resp. there was no significant difference between the inhibitory effect of doxycycline and tetracycline hcl for the bacterial collectives of e. coli, klebsiella, proteus and staphylococcus aureus ...1977320436
successful granulocyte transfusion therapy for gram-negative septicemia. a prospectively randomized controlled study.we prospectively randomized 27 granulocytopenic patients who experienced a total of 30 episodes of gram-negative septicemia. the control group received an appropriate antibiotic regimen alone, whereas the "transfusion" group received infusions of granulocytes in addition to the antibiotics. five of 14 controls survived, and 12 of 16 in the transfusion group survived, and 12 of 16 in the transfusion group survived (p less than 0.04). an important factor in the outcome of treatment was the recover ...1977320476
prophylactic efficacy of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in urinary infections. biologic effects on the vaginal and rectal flora.we examined bacterial persistence and resistance in the vaginal and fecal flora of 28 women who received a total of 253 months of daily low-dosage prophylaxis with nitrofurantoin macrocystals (100 mg per day) or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40 and 200 mg respectively). during trimethoprim-sulfamehtoxazole prophylaxis, 8.5% of monthly vaginal and 27% of monthly fecal cultures grew escherichia coli, as compared to 36 and 96%, respectively for nitrofurantoin macrocrystals. esch. coli resistant to ...1977320482
short-term versus continuous antimicrobial therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.asymptomatic bacteriuria was identified in 300 pregnant women prior to the 28th week of gestation. in one group of 200 women short-term treatment with either nitrofurantoin or sulfamethizole was given for 14 days, and in another group of 100 women continuous therapy with one of these drugs was given for the remainder of gestation. weekly urine cultures were obtained from all the women. of the women treated with short-term therapy, 65% were abacteriuric for the remainder of pregnancy following on ...1977320525
[diagnosis of lung abscess]. 1977320580
[entobacterial transformation by r6k plasmid dna].preparations of dna of r6k plasmide obtained by various methods on the basis of the "clarified" lysate: by gel filtration on sepharose 4b, centrifugation in cesium chloride with ethidium bromide gradient, were analysed in the e. coli c600. s. typhimurium ag37, pr. vulgaris 4636, s. marcescens 20-10 transformation. the frequency of transformation proved to depend on the extent of dna purification. factors influencing the e. coli c600 competence and the transformation efficacy (the phase of the cu ...1977320804
interaction between rifampicin and trimethoprim in vitro and in experimental infections. 1977321415
conservation of transfer ribonucleic acid and 5s ribonucleic acid cistrons in enterobacteriaceae.the genes for tranfer ribonucleic acid (tdna) and 5s ribonucleic acid (5sdna) were isolated from the total deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) of escherichia coli. the relatedness of tdna and 5s from e. coli and other species of enterobacteriaceae was determined by reassociation of the isolated genes labeled with 32po4 to unlabeled, unfractionated dna. double-stranded dna was separated from unreacted dna by hydroxyapatite chromatography. thermal elution profiles were done to determine the amount of unpa ...1977321428
effect of storage conditions of the performance of bismuth sulfite agar.refrigerated storage of bismuth sulfite agar plates for up to 4 days did not adversely affect growth and colonial characteristics of selected salmonella strains. incubation of inoculated plates for 48 h favored the development of more salmonellae with typical morphology. inoculated plates of freshly poured medium incubated for 48 h gave recoveries similar to those on refrigerated plates and showed a high selectivity against citrobacter freundii and proteus vulgaris, organisms which mimic the col ...1977321469
drug resistance in relation to use of silver sulphadiazine cream in a burns unit.topical chemoprophylaxis of extensive burns with silver sulphadiazine cream led to a large increase in the proportion of sulphadiazine-resistant gram-negative bacilli in a burns unit. when all sulphonamide treatment in the ward was stopped; the incidence of sulphonamide-resistant strains fell back to levels similar to those recorded when silver sulphadiazine treatment was introduced. this was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of resistance of certain gram-negative bacilli (espec ...1977321478
resistance to gentamicin: a growing concern.gentaminic was introduced in 1969 as a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside effective in vitro against a majority of aerobic gram-negative bacilli. in recent years gentamicin-resistant clinical isolates have become more prevalent. in our laboratory in 1975, 32% of pseudomonas sp and 44% of indole-negative proteus sp isolates were resistant to gentamicin. resistance to tobramycin is also increasing; 24% of escherichia coli and 28% of indole-negative proteus sp isolates were found to be tobramycin-resist ...1977322294
the effect of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate on tartrazine azo reduction by intestinal bacteria.1. washed whole-cell suspensions of proteus vulgaris and micro-organisms from rat faeces, reductively cleave the azo bond of the food dye tartrazine under anaerobic conditions. 2. dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate, a common faecal softening laxative, when added to incubations in vitro at concentrations greater than 0.005%, increases tartrazine azo reduction in p. vulgaris whole-cell suspensions. 3. by contrast, concentrations of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate greater than 0.005% when added to incub ...1977322398
[new cephalosporin antibiotic: cephapirin]. 1977322931
the ribitol-phosphate-containing lipopolysaccharide from proteus mirabilis, strain d52. investigations on the structure of o-specific chains.a soluble hydrophilic lipopolysaccharide, termed lipopolysaccharide ii, isolated from proteus mirabilis, strain d52 contained n-acetylglucosamine, glucose, galactose, ribitol phosphate and ethanolamine phosphate as constituents of the o-specific polysaccharide. periodate oxidation studies were carried out on the polymer before and after dephosphorylation with hydrofluoric acid and on oligosaccharides derived from the polymer by partial acid hydrolysis. the results obtained indicate that the poly ...1977323005
method for obtaining more-accurate covalently closed circular plasmid-to-chromosome ratios from bacterial lysates by dye-buoyant density centrifugation.a method that gives high recovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) from crude bacterial lysates using ethidium bromide-cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation is presented. after pronase digestion and shearing of the lysate, essentially 100% recovery of chromosomal dna and a reproducible recovery of covalently closed circular (ccc) plasmid dna is obtained for a specific plasmid in a given strain. this method should be useful for comparing the ccc plasmid/chromosome ratio of various plasmid ...1977323223
emergence of resistance to chloramphenicol in salmonella.surveillance of antibiotic resistance of salmonella isolates from humans in the north-eastern united states has detected resistance to chloramphenicol on eight occasions, three of which were hospital outbreaks. resistance was developed during treatment in five instances, and in another resistance this situation was suspected. on two other occasions chloramphenicol-resistant salmonella appear to have been imported from outside the country. common features of the cases were multiple antibiotic res ...1977323380
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