disk diffusion antimicrobial assays of agents used in respiratory tract infections in intubated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (icu) of kenyatta national hospital from november to december 1990.sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections to benzylpenicillin, gentamicin and ceftazidime were studied. in a period covering 8 weeks from november to december 1990, tracheal aspirates from a total of 22 intubated patients aged 6-54 years were taken. the duration of stay of patients in the unit by the time of specimen collection ranged from 2-92 days. respiratory tract infections by pathogenic organisms set in earliest on day 4. elevated temperatures (equal to o ...19921505400
effects of ammonium chloride on microbicidal activity in hemocytes of biomphalaria glabrata (mollusca: pulmonata). 19921505694
functional and metabolic changes of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages induced by bacterial vaccines.phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages of guinea pigs injected subcutaneously with bacterial vaccines was found to be increased. the phagocytic index remained unchanged or was decreased. in addition, a decreased candidacidal activity was observed. metabolic activation of macrophages, measured by the int test, was inhibited in unstimulated cells while cells stimulated with zymosan or opsonized zymosan exhibited higher values of the int test as compared with control animals. after injection ...19921505873
composition of urinary calculi related to urinary tract infection.the composition of 3,084 urinary calculi was determined using an infrared spectrophotometer. mixed calcium oxalate-calcium phosphate stones were most frequently implicated. of the urinary calculi analyzed 199 were associated with urinary tract infection. escherichia coli was most frequently isolated (43 strains) and urease-producing organisms, such as proteus mirabilis, were cultured from 40 patients. the core culture of 20 staghorn calculi yielded 15 isolates from 14 stones. there were 13 ident ...19921507358
[the microbiological exam of the urine: what significance in urinary tract infections?].11,829 urine cultures, coming from the pediatrics department of florence and other hospital divisions for adults in the period 1st of july-31st of december 1990, have been examined in the bacteriology and virology laboratory of the university hospital of florence. besides illustrating various methods of drawing, preservation and transport of the urinary specimen, the authors showed the incidence of bacterial species responsible of urinary tract infections (u.t.i.). e. coli was showed to be the m ...19921508751
[biological characteristics of strains of lactobacilli, promising for use as eubiotics].in the course of in vitro studies 3 lactobacillus strains with pronounced antagonistic activity against some pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria (shigellae, enteropathogenic escherichia, proteus, staphylococci) were selected. in experiments on germ-free rats faint colonization by l. plantarum 37 was observed in the small intestine, as well as in the large intestine when low doses of these bacilli were introduced into the gastrointestinal tract of the animals. in vitro experiments demonstrated ...19921509841
[epidemiological features of hospital purulent-septic infections in otolaryngological wards].prospective epidemiological observation in an otorhinolaryngological hospital has made it possible to distinguish the specific features of pyoseptic nosocomial infections. such infections, appearing as cross re- and superinfections, are most frequently induced by staphylococci, as well as by proteus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. high risk groups include patients with purulent otitis and sinusitis, who have contacted infection through instruments in examination and dressing rooms. the main sources ...19921509844
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of ljc 10,627.the in vitro activity of ljc 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. ljc 10,627 inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter agglomerans, enterobacter cloacae, hafnia alvei, citrobacter freundii, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, morganella morganii, proteus rettgeri, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae ...19921510436
evaluation of the usefulness of a novel injectable cephalosporin, e1040, and ceftazidime for management of complicated urinary tract infections caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus mirabilis by using the rat urolithiasis model.a novel injectable cephalosporin, e1040, significantly eradicated pseudomonas aeruginosa from the urine, in contrast to ceftazidime, in rats with complicated p. aeruginosa urinary tract infections associated with urinary stones, suggesting that e1040 is a prospective therapeutic agent in the management of refractory pseudomonas urinary tract infections.19921510458
[retroperitoneal abscess: analysis of 26 cases].herein we present the experience of our hospital, which spans a period of 10 years, in the diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal abscess. the clinical features, origin and localization of the abscesses are described. we underscore the diagnostic value of ultrasound (us) and computerized tomography (ct) which afford a sensitivity of 86.3% and 100%, respectively. an increased incidence of abscess from gram-positive bacteria was observed in i.v. drug addicts.19921510487
intestinal bacterial flora, intestinal pathology, and lipopolysaccharide-induced translocation of intestinal bacteria.the primary aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism and significance of lipopolysaccharide (lps)-induced translocation of intestinal bacteria. female swiss webster mice were purchased from two different animal suppliers. twenty-four hours following parenteral lps, mice from both suppliers had noticeable morbidity and mortality. however, intestinal pathology, gram-negative bacterial overgrowth, and increased bacterial translocation was noted in mice purchased from one supplier but not the ...19921511502
[clinical laboratory approach to evaluate efficacy of amikacin. reevaluation of in vitro mic break points in disc susceptibility test].antimicrobial activities of amikacin (amk) against 269 strains of various clinical isolates obtained in 1989 were determined and the reliability of the amk disc susceptibility test in estimating approximate values of mics was studied. in addition, clinical significance of various systems for the interpretation of the disc tests was evaluated to determine more useful method in the evaluation of clinical efficacy of amk. included in the study were a 3 category system of nccls, a 4 category system ...19921512934
nonspecific reactions of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (tecra) for detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in foods.a staphylococcal enterotoxin visual immunoassay kit (tecra) has recently become commercially available. since the kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system equipped with polyvalent antisera against staphylococcal enterotoxin types a to e (sea to see) and the test is simple and rapid to perform (4 h), it has been widely used for screening purposes. in this study, the sensitivity of the kit for detection of sea, seb, and sec in ham, cheese, and mushrooms was similar to those of kits based ...19921514798
bacterial translocation after major hepatectomy in patients and rats.bacterial infections are frequent complications after liver resection. of 138 patients who underwent major hepatectomy, 11 patients (8%) developed intra-abdominal sepsis in the postoperative period. seven bacterial strains of gut origin were isolated from the abdominal cavity. eight patients had multiple bacteria cultured. in the experimental studies on rat models, positive mesenteric lymph node cultures were seen 2 hours after removal of 70% and 90% of the total weight of the rat liver, and 12 ...19921514914
musculoskeletal manifestations of proteus syndrome: report of two cases with literature review.proteus syndrome is a recently described hamartomatous condition characterized by macrodactyly, hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous (s.c.) tumors, epidermal nevi, and skull anomalies. two new cases are described to illustrate the diagnostic features and the orthopedic problems associated with this rare syndrome. review of available literature shows that 61 patients with proteus syndrome commonly develop macrodactyly, limb overgrowth, spinal deformity, hip dysplasia, genu valgum, exostoses, joint contr ...19921517432
parameters characterizing the in vitro activity of cefixime, a new oral broad spectrum cephalosporin, against respiratory and urinary pathogens.the wide and potent in vitro activity of cefixime, a new oral broad spectrum cephalosporin, has been confirmed on a collection of respiratory and urinary pathogens recently isolated in italy. the new cephem emerged as the most bactericidal of all the comparators tested against several fast as well as slowly-growing gram-negative species including enterobacteria, haemophilus and moraxella, irrespective of their ability to synthetize beta-lactamases. among the gram-positive species streptococcus p ...19921517806
study on the influence of adsorbent substances against the antigen activity of inactivated orovaccines.specific igagm, iga and igg levels were evaluated in two groups of rabbits orally treated with inactivated vaccine consisting of escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus faecalis and with the same vaccine supplemented with charcoal and kaolin, respectively. the determinations demonstrated that charcoal and kaolin do not have a significant, negative effect on immunoresponses at the intestinal and hematic level after both medium (two-week) and prolonged (four-wee ...19921517807
evaluation of aztreonam in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections in a university hospital in saudi arabia.the efficacy and safety of aztreonam were evaluated in an open trial at king khalid university hospital, riyadh, saudi arabia. a total of 45 critically-ill adult patients were enrolled in the study. all patients with documented gram-negative infection were treated with aztreonam as monotherapy. antibiotics active against only gram-positive and/or anaerobic organisms were allowed. twenty cases were clinically evaluable. eleven had lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia), 3 had urinary trac ...19921517810
neonatal proteus meningoencephalitis. case report.proteus is an uncommon pathogen in neonatal meningitis and has, to our knowledge, not previously been described from scandinavia. our case illustrates the typical course of the disease when onset is within the first two weeks of life. the typical patient is a previously healthy, sometimes slightly preterm infant, who develops multiple brain abscesses and has a very poor prognosis. in cases with a later onset, factors predisposing for infection are common and the outcome is less severe. our patie ...19921520485
o-acetylated peptidoglycan: its occurrence, pathobiological significance, and biosynthesis.bacterial cell walls and their structural units, particularly peptidoglycan, induce a vast variety of biological effects in host organisms. the pathobiological effects of peptidoglycan are greatly enhanced by various modifications and substitutions to its basic composition and structure. one such modification is the presence of acetyl moieties at the c-6 hydroxyl group of n-acetylmuramyl residues, and to date, 11 species of eubacteria, including some important human pathogens, such as neisseria ...19921521192
[antimicrobial activities of ceftriaxone against clinically isolated strains].antibiotic activities (mics) of ceftriaxone (ctrx) against 1,210 strains of bacteria including 28 spp. isolated in 1987 and 1990 were compared with those of other cephems. 1. when compared to data on clinically isolated strains reported in the early 1980s, strains of the following species isolated in 1990 showed extremely elevated mic90s of ctrx: staphylococcus spp., streptococcus pneumoniae, escherichia coli, citrobacter spp., enterobacter spp., serratia spp., proteus vulgaris, morganella morga ...19921522669
relative frequency of nosocomial pathogens at a university hospital during the decade 1980 to 1989.we compared the relative frequency of pathogens isolated from 1985 to 1989 (n = 4358) with those isolated from 1980 to 1984 (n = 5290) in a university hospital to determine trends in the relative importance of pathogens causing nosocomial infection.19921524267
[the microbial flora in septic corneal ulcers].the researching of the microbial flora for 101 septic ulcer of the cornea shows the highest frequency of gram-positive embryos, the golden streptococcus has been met for 83 cases of which. the streptococcus was for 7 cases, pneumococcus for 2 cases, gram-positive bacillus of superinfections for 14 cases. among the gram-negative embryos might be mentioned moraxella for 7 observations, proteus for 4 obs., klebsiella for 2 obs., pseudomonas for 2 obs., enterobacter for one case. for all the ulcers ...19921525144
cefodizime given once daily for the treatment of upper urinary tract infections and complicated lower urinary tract infections.the efficacy of cefodizime (cdz) in upper urinary tract infections (uuti) and complicated lower urinary tract infections (luti) was assessed by analysis of the combined results of five clinical trials. doses of cdz 1 g i.m. daily, 1 x 2 g i.v. or i.m. and 2 x 2 g i.v. were investigated; comparative agents were cefuroxime 3 x 1.5 g and ceftizoxime 1 x 2 g. median duration of treatment was seven days. a total of 544 patients, 61% of whom had uuti, entered the studies. four hundred twenty-two patie ...19921526670
in vitro activity of cefodizime.cefodizime is a bactericidal cephem with the typical broad spectrum activity of an aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: its mic90 is 0.125 mg/l for streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes and other streptococci; and 0.05 mg/l for haemophilus spp., neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae and moraxella catarrhalis; while beta-lactamase positive strains of m. catarrhalis require 1 mg/l. less than 1 mg/l is needed for escherichia coli, ...19921526673
[eosinophilic cystitis in children].in a 4-year-old boy, cystitis in a pseudotumoral form with left ureterohydronephrosis wa discovered on the occasion of repeated urinary infections. several biopsies were required to rule out a malignant tumor, and they showed that this condition was an eosinophilic cystitis. healing was obtained with an anti-bilharzial treatment, although this child did not suffer form bilharziasis. a few similar cases were found in the literature. we note that the diagnosis is usually not established before bio ...19921527398
acute phlegmonous gastritis with mural abscess: ct diagnosis. 19921529840
modification of the methodology of stool culture for salmonella detection.a total of 4,284 h2s-positive colonies isolated on salmonella-shigella agar and 4,350 isolated on hektoen agar were flooded with 5 microliters of a reagent (mucap test; biolife italiana s.r.l., milan, italy) and observed after 3 to 5 min for the development of fluorescence produced in the presence of the c8 esterase enzyme. all of the 794 colonies isolated on salmonella-shigella agar and the 752 isolated on hektoen agar and identified as positive for salmonella spp. with conventional biochemical ...19921537931
proteus syndrome.proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that is characterized by a wide variety of deformities including macrodactyly. skin and soft tissue lesions are common; they may increase in size as the child develops and may assume tremendous proportions. the syndrome is often mistaken for other more commonly recognized conditions such as neurofibromatosis. unlike neurofibromatosis, the soft tissue masses in proteus syndrome are not nerve tumors but, rather, are hamartomas composed primarily of li ...19921538109
modulation of effects of lipopolysaccharide on macrophages by a major outer membrane protein of proteus mirabilis as measured in a chemiluminescence assay.our previous studies have shown that a major protein isolated from purified cell walls of proteus mirabilis (39-kda protein) is a strong modulator of the specific immune responses to lipopolysaccharide (lps) from this bacterium. when the protein is mixed with lps before immunization of mice, the responses of antibody-producing cells specific for lps are greatly enhanced and converted predominantly to the immunoglobulin g isotype. in the present study, the immunomodulating effects of the 39-kda p ...19921541521
fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry for bacterial chemotaxonomy: influence of culture age, growth temperature, gaseous environment and extraction technique.extracted phospholipids of escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis and enterobacter cloacae were examined by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry which yielded major peaks between m/z 225 and 761. the result of extracting freeze-dried or 'wet' cells showed that freeze-drying may be omitted although weighing of dried cells offers a useful means of standardizing the extraction procedure. anaerobic growth quantitatively altered the chemical finger-print as a result of increase in ratio of saturated: ...19921541603
osteomyelitis of the zygomatic bone: a case report. 19921542073
[evaluation of the so-called basic cephalosporins using the serum bactericidal test].the serum bactericidal activity (sba) was studied one hour and four hours after intravenous administration of 1 g and 2 g cefotiam, 1.5 g cefuroxime and 2 g cefazolin to six volunteers. the 136 clinical isolates tested included staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis and haemophilus influenzae. one hour after administration no significant differences in the activity against staphylococci were noted in the antibiotics tested. f ...19921542283
detection by elisa of low numbers of shiga-like toxin-producing escherichia coli in mixed cultures after growth in the presence of mitomycin c.techniques currently available to detect shiga-like toxin (slt)-producing escherichia coli lack sensitivity or require specialised equipment and facilities, and in some cases detect only strains belonging to serotype o157. we have used an elisa technique, capable of detecting both slti and sltii with crude p1 glycoprotein from hydatid cysts, in combination with enhancement of toxin production by culture with mitomycin c. supernates of tryptone soya broth cultures containing mitomycin c 200 ng/ml ...19921548693
iga antibody response to klebsiella in ankylosing spondylitis measured by immunoblotting.iga antibodies to klebsiella pneumoniae var oxytoca and proteus mirabilis were measured in 66 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (as) and 31 with rheumatoid arthritis (ra) and in 51 healthy control subjects, using an immunoblotting technique. the number of antigenic bands to klebsiella on nitrocellulose membrane was higher in 28 patients with active as than in 38 patients with inactive as, 31 patients with ra, and 51 healthy control subjects; comparatively smaller increases were found against ...19921550409
capsule structure of proteus mirabilis (atcc 49565).proteus mirabilis 2573 (atcc 49565) produces an acidic capsular polysaccharide which was shown from glycose analysis, carboxyl reduction, methylation, periodate oxidation, and the application of one dimensional and two-dimensional high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to be a high-molecular-weight polymer of branched trisaccharide units composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose (n-acetyl-d-glucosamine), 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-l-galactose (n-acetyl-l-fucosamine), and d-glucuronic ...19921551839
epidermal nevus syndrome: subgroup with neuronal migration defects.epidermal nevus syndrome is one of the sporadic congenital hamartoses in which neurologic abnormalities have been frequently reported. we report two cases with severe primary brain involvement, seizures, mental retardation, and facial hemihypertrophy. we emphasize the superiority of magnetic resonance imaging over other radiographic studies in outlining the primary central nervous system anomalies associated with this syndrome. although attempts were made to distinguish between several variants ...19921552148
protection by a polyvalent vaccine against challenge infection and pyelonephritis.the protective effect of immunization with a polyvalent vaccine (solcourovac) was studied in the mouse and the rat. the i.m. immunization increased the resistance of mice to challenge infection with all homologous strains of bacteria. the ld50 values for e. coli, proteus mirabilis and streptococcus were 3.5-4.5 times and that of klebsiella as much as 600 times that in nonimmunized mice. protection against challenge with heterologous e. coli was also achieved and persisted for about 20 weeks. imm ...19921553795
anti-proteus antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis same-sexed hundred and forty-two ra patients and 121 of their healthy same-sexed siblings were tested for antibodies (abs) to proteus mirabilis and escherichia coli by indirect immunofluorescence. eighty-five individuals had active ra (crp greater than 10 mg/l) and 57 inactive ra. the anti-proteus ab titre in the active ra group was significantly higher than in the inactive ra and non-ra group (p less than 0.0001 in both cases). anti-proteus abs were significantly elevated in 30 individuals with active ...19921555039
[the natural anti-pseudomonas aeruginosa and anti-proteus immunity of the suitable donor population].the natural anti-pyocyanic and anti-proteus immunity of donorable population of kiev before the accident at chernobyl atomic power plant has been studied. blood serums of 3024 deliberately non-immunized persons have been studied. it is determined that there are natural anti-pyocyanic and anti-proteus antibodies in blood serum of people with different group belonging during the all periods of a year (by abo system). the anti-pyocyanic and anti-proteus antibodies of high titers in blood serum are ...19921555719
purification and characterization of a tryptic peptide of borrelia burgdorferi flagellin, which reduces cross-reactivity in immunoblots and man the early immune response in lyme disease is primarily directed against the endoflagellin antigen. isolated flagellar protein of borrelia burgdorferi suggests itself as a suitable test antigen. however, cross-reactivity between flagellins of b. burgdorferi, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, proteus mirabilis and salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated by immunoblotting and elisa with polyclonal rabbit-hyperimmune-sera. tryptic cleavage of recombinant b. burgdorferi 41 kda flagellin, ex ...19921556546
recombination and uv resistance of escherichia coli with the cloned reca and recbcd genes of serratia marcescens and proteus mirabilis: evidence for an advantage of intraspecies combination of p. mirabilis reca protein and recbcd escherichia coli, constituents of the main recombination pathway are provided by the genes reca (reca protein) and recbcd (recbcd enzyme). recombination in conjugation experiments and repair of uv damage of e. coli mutants deleted for reca, for recbcd or for reca plus recbcd were restored, although to different degrees, by the cloned reca and recbcd genes from serratia marcescens or proteus mirabilis. when both recombination enzymes were from the same species, repair and recombination efficie ...19921556554
quantitative separation of bacteria in saline solution using lanthanide er(iii) and a magnetic field.a trivalent lanthanide ion, erbium (er3+), has been used in combination with a magnetic separation technique to isolate seven bacterial species from suspensions in 0.9% saline. erbium has an exceptionally high atomic magnetic moment of 9.3 bohr magnetons, and following addition as ercl3 (final concentration 5 mm) to bacterial suspensions, it imparts the magnetic moment to the bacterial cells by ionic binding to the cell surface. strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabil ...19921556557
[emphysematous cystitis. apropos of a case].emphysematous cystitis is a rare complication of lower urinary tract infection, occurring almost exclusively in diabetic women. the prognosis, usually good, depends on early diagnosis and prompt treatment which consists of urinary drainage, antibiotic therapy and strict blood glucose control. the authors report a case of emphysematous cystitis diagnosed on laparotomy for acute abdomen. death occurred despite treatment.19921558371
bacteremia in a long-term-care facility: a five-year prospective study of 163 consecutive episodes.the clinical features, microbiological characteristics, and outcomes of 163 episodes of bacteremia occurring at a long-term-care facility were evaluated. the rate of nosocomial bacteremia increased from 0.20 to 0.36 cases/1,000 patient-days from 1985 to 1989; there was a parallel increase in the rate of all nosocomial infections combined. bacteremia was documented in 6.5% of all hospital-acquired infections. the majority of isolates were gram-negative, and providencia stuartii was the most commo ...19921562655
comparative activity of meropenem (sm-7338) against major respiratory pathogens and amikacin-resistant nosocomial isolates.meropenem, a new broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against major respiratory pathogens including moraxella catarrhalis, haemophilus influenzae and streptococcus pneumoniae. minimal inhibitory concentrations of meropenem for moraxella catarrhalis and haemophilus influenzae isolates were frequently less than those of imipenem. for nosocomial amikacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli, meropenem had eightfold lower mic90 values compared to imipenem against ...19921563388
effectiveness of cefetamet pivoxil in the treatment of pyelonephritis in children.cefetamet pivoxil was investigated in an open, randomized comparative study involving a total of 37 children with acute pyelonephritis, whose ages ranged from 2 to 14 years. the patients received either 10 mg/kg (n = 18) or 20 mg/kg (n = 8) cefetamet pivoxil twice daily, or 30-50 mg/kg amoxycillin/clavulanic acid three times daily (n = 11) for a period of 7-10 days. escherichia coli was the main causative agent isolated in 28 (75.7%) of the patients; other pathogens included proteus mirabilis (t ...19921568523
microbial adherence on poly(methyl methacrylate) (pmma) surfaces.infection remains a major complication following the use of implanted biomaterials. often these infections are caused by low-virulence organisms or by a mixture of organisms (polymicrobial). in this study two methods were used to quantitate the bacteria which had adhered to poly(methyl methacrylate) (pmma) samples. the bacteria were eluted from the sample using an ultrasonic cleaner. the number eluted was then counted by colony counts, which determines viable organisms and by particle counting w ...19921569113
urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus.we have endeavoured to determine whether there is any difference in the bacteriological pattern of uti and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the pathogens concerned between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. over a period of 1 year, a total of 287 diabetic patients (221 females and 66 males) with community-acquired and nosocomial urinary tract infections were studied. there were 265 patients (228 females and 37 males) without any predisposition to urinary tract infections (uti) and who ser ...19921569307
[evaluation of the atb 32 e system for automated identification of enterobacteriaceae].a new automated system ensuring identification of enterobacteriaceae within four hours was evaluated using 269 routine isolates, comparatively with the techniques routinely used in the laboratory. the atb 32 e system correctly identified 96% (258/270) of strains and yielded incorrect results for 4% (11/269) of strains. atb 32 e is a reliable system which is easy to use in everyday laboratory work.19921570187
formycins a and b and some analogues: selective inhibitors of bacterial (escherichia coli) purine nucleoside phosphorylase.formycin b (fb), a moderate inhibitor (ki approximately 100 microm) of mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase (pnp), and formycin a (fa), which is totally inactive vs. the mammalian enzyme, are both effective inhibitors of the bacterial (escherichia coli) enzyme (ki approximately 5 microm). examination of a series of n-methyl analogues of fa and fb led to the finding that n(6)-methyl-fa, virtually inactive vs. the mammalian enzyme, is the most potent inhibitor of e. coli purine nucleoside pho ...19921576149
operative intervention in active endocarditis in children: report of a series of cases and review.we describe in detail 14 children (age, less than or equal to 19 years) who underwent operative intervention during active infection of the heart and/or great vessels. the series included five children less than 6 years old, who constitute 10% of all such cases reported in this age group to date. we also review the 132 published reports in which children underwent operative intervention during active endocarditis. we found the following: (1) the survival rate for all cases was 77%. (2) persisten ...19921576280
influence of three-day antimicrobial therapy and lactobacillus vaginal suppositories on recurrence of urinary tract infections.forty-one adult women with acute lower urinary tract infections (uti) were randomly treated for three days with norfloxacin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/smx). infection was eradicated in 100% of norfloxacin-treated patients and in 95% of tmp/smx-treated patients. uti recurred in 29% of patients treated with norfloxacin and in 41% of those treated with tmp/smx. post-therapy vaginal administration of lactobacillus suppositories resulted in a recurrence rate of uti of only 21%, while in pa ...19921576619
sequence and characterization of pvuiir, the pvuii endonuclease gene, and of pvuiic, its regulatory open reading frame partially overlaps pvuiir, and genetic evidence implies that this open reading frame, named pvuiic, specifies a positive regulator of pvuiir (t. tao, j. c. bourne, and r. m. blumenthal, j. bacteriol. 173:1367-1375, 1991). inducible constructs of pvuiic produced a protein of the expected size. the site of c.pvuii action appears to lie within pvuiic itself; thus, pvuiic may be a self-contained regulatory cassette.19921577705
further observations on the serological response to experimental salmonella typhimurium in chickens measured by indirect elisa developed for the serological detection of salmonella typhimurium in chickens using lipopolysaccharide as detecting antigen has been evaluated further in experimental infections. following oral infection of 24-week-old laying hens with an invasive strain of s. typhimurium, high titres of specific circulating igg were induced which were maintained for 20 weeks. similar igg titres were found in egg yolk. when 4-day-old chickens were infected high antibody titres persisted for 45 ...19921582466
[the mechanisms of proteus mirabilis resistance to the bactericidal action of blood serum].when studying sensitivity of proteus mirabilis to bactericide effect of blood serum the resistance to alternative way of the complement activation was found in a number of strains. the population of cells with morphologically determinable changes of the surface structures resistant to bactericide effect of the serum is formed as affected by the blood serum of the culture p. mirabilis. proteus proteases capable to inactivate the complement components are one of the factors of p. mirabilis resista ...19921584090
management of refractory peritonitis to maintain the peritoneum for subsequent dialysis.peritonitis and its sequelae remain major clinical problems in treating peritoneal dialysis (pd) patients. one of these sequelae is the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions, preventing a patient from returning to peritoneal dialysis after a tenckhoff catheter is removed for refractory peritonitis. we have recently applied a technique that appears to reduce the incidence of this severe complication. when it is determined that a catheter will be removed for refractory peritonitis, hourly periton ...19921586682
proteinases of proteus spp.: purification, properties, and detection in urine of infected patients.the proteinases secreted by pathogenic strains of proteus mirabilis, p. vulgaris biotype 2, p. vulgaris biotype 3, and p. penneri were purified with almost 100% recovery by affinity chromatography on phenyl-sepharose followed by anion-exchange chromatography. the proteinase purified from the urinary tract pathogen p. mirabilis, which we had previously shown to degrade immunoglobulins a and g, appeared as a composite of a single band and a double band (53 and 50 kda, respectively) on sodium dodec ...19921587593
asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary antibody, and survival in the institutionalized compare clinical status of elderly institutionalized subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria and normal urinary antibody to those with elevated urinary antibody to the major outer membrane of escherichia coli.19921587980
bacteriology of wound infection: evaluation by surface swab and quantitative full thickness wound biopsy culture.a total of 171 cases of wounds of various aetiology were examined and screened bacteriologically for evidence of infection by surface swab culture and quantitative full thickness wound biopsy culture techniques. staphylococcus pyogenes was the most frequently isolated (39.9%) single organism. other organisms being escherichia coli (26.1%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%), klebsiella species (5.8%), streptococcus pyogenes (4.9%), proteus species (4.8%) and coliform organism (3.1%). collectively th ...19921588115
adhesion of proteus mirabilis and proteus vulgaris to uroepithelial cells following exposure to various antimicrobial agents.the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of netilmicin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, aztreonam and piperacillin on the adherence of proteus species to uroepithelial cells was examined. bacterial adhesion to human uroepithelial cells, measured microscopically, was affected by all five antibiotics but to different extents. the most effective was netilmicin. there was a correlation between the decreased rate of bacterial attachment and morphological changes in the drug-exposed bacteria.19921588844
[microorganisms isolated from chronic suppurative otitis media and their antimicrobial sensitivities].in this study mycologic and bacteriologic cultures were made in 100 patients who had chronic suppurative otitis media. we observed 58.8% pure, 35.3% mixed growth (more than one bacteria or bacteria and fungus) in the cultures. in pure cultures, we found mostly proteus sp., s. aureus and pseudomonas sp. respectively. in 134 bacteriologic cultures most frequently isolated bacteria was s. aureus (36.6%). in sabouraud agar, we found mostly aspergillus sp. and candida sp. (28.6%). in antimicrobial se ...19921588848
[a study carried out in 1989 at the sant'antonio hospital of ovada on food poisoning in personnel handling and selling food products and drinks].the search for salmonella spp in the faeces and of staphylococcus aureus in pharyngeal pads during examinations for the renewal of the medical fitness booklet, leads to a number of considerations of a technical-health and economic nature. whereas the identification of staphylococcus aureus is fairly straightforward, that of salmonella in the faeces is not so easy. doubtful results are commonplace and bacteria are often found with features similar to salmonella; this means extra examinations with ...19921589136
selective intestinal decontamination for prevention of wound colonization in severely burned patients: a retrospective this study the effect of selective intestinal decontamination of the digestive tract (sdd) on wound colonization was investigated. ninety-one patients with at least 25 per cent total burned surface area (tbsa) were included in this study. all patients received oral polymyxin. in 63 patients oral co-trimoxazole and amphotericin b were added to the regimen. the addition of co-trimoxazole decreased the incidence of enterobacteriaceae wound colonization from 71 per cent to 11 per cent (p less tha ...19921590940
distribution of beta lactamases in enterobacteriaceae: indoor versus outdoor strains.the distribution of beta-lactamases of indoor and outdoor origin was studied over a 9-month period. we consecutively selected 37 indoor and 48 outdoor strains of the following genera of the enterobacteriaceae family: escherichia (species coli), enterobacter, proteus, and klebsiella. all isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and/or cephalothin and/or cefamandole. all strains showed beta-lactamase activity. we characterized the enzymes by an isoelectric focusing method and by a disc diffusion tes ...19921591949
ru 29 246, the active compound of the cephalosporin-prodrug-ester hr 916. i. antibacterial activity in vitro.the aminothiazolyl-cephalosporin ru 29 246 is the active metabolite of the prodrug-pivaloyl-oxyethyl-ester hr 916. ru 29 246 in vitro activity includes a wide range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. against methicillin-sensitive staphylococci ru 29 246 (mic90 of 0.25 approximately 2 micrograms/ml) was clearly more active than cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefixime and ceftibuten, but slightly less active than cefdinir. ru 29 246 inhibited hemolytic streptococci of the serogroups a ...19921592683
psoas abscess: case report and review of the literature.psoas muscle abscess is rare and presents a diagnostic challenge requiring a high index of suspicion. we report an unusual case of primary psoas abscess caused by proteus mirabilis. primary psoas abscess is most commonly present in children and is usually caused by staphylococcus aureus. a total of 434 cases of psoas abscess has been reported. the subject is discussed noting the differences between primary and secondary cases, and emphasizing the importance of ultrasound and computerized tomogra ...19921593704
[xerophthalmia in liver cirrhosis. correct diagnosis after 15 years].the clinical features of xerophthalmia are described in a 60-year-old patient, who was known to have alcoholic cirrhosis. in this patient, vitamin a deficiency, which presumably had been overlooked for 15 years, was confirmed by determination of the serum vitamin a level. after substitutive vitamin a therapy, superficial punctate keratitis and conjunctival xerosis disappeared completely. although xerophthalmia has only sporadically been described in developed countries, we point out that the pos ...19921594182
reversal by concanavalin a of the inhibitory effects of extracellular ca2+ on pinocytosis in amoeba proteus.when concanavalin a, 1-20 micrograms ml-1 binds to the surface of amoeba proteus the cell's response to ca2+ and to cationic inducers of pinocytosis is strikingly altered. separately, concanavalin a and ca2+ are weak inducers but their combined effects are intense pinocytosis and suppression of the normal inhibitory effect of ca2+ on cation-induced pinocytosis. at high concentrations (greater than 25 micrograms ml-1) the lectin increases cellular uptake and binding of 45ca in the cell surface bu ...19921595356
infectious aneurysm of a mesenteric artery branch in a young patient. 19921599551
endoscopic treatment of frontal sinusitis. 19921602922
[the pathogen spectrum and its resistance behavior in children with urinary tract infections in angola].in 225 children (135 boys, 90 girls) suffering from clinical relevant urinary tract infection the bacterial spectrum and resistance behaviour to routinely used antibiotics were evaluated. in 65.4% of the patients a significant bacteriuria was found: e. coli (34.6%), proteus (22.3%), klebsiella (14.6%), citrobacter (9.2%), enterobacter (5.4%) and pseudomonas (5.4%). in testing a high resistance of bacterias to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol, ampicillin, and gentamycin was found, whereas good suscep ...19921608185
in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new cephalosporin, compared with other cephalosporin antibiotics.the in vitro activity of cefquinome, a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a c-3 bicyclic pyridinium group, was compared with ceftazidime, cefpirome, and cefepime. cefquinome inhibited members of the enterobacteriaceae at less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml for escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, citrobacter diversus, salmonella shigella, proteus mirabilis, morganella, and providencia. although most citrobacter freundii and enterobacter cloacae were inhibited by less than 2 ...19921611848
purification of recombinant helicobacter pylori urease apoenzyme encoded by urea and ureb.helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral-shaped bacterium, is an etiologic agent of human gastritis and peptic ulceration and is highly restricted to the gastric mucosa of humans. urease, synthesized at up to 6% of the soluble cell protein, hydrolyzes urea, thereby releasing ammonia, which may neutralize acid, allowing survival of the bacterium and initial colonization of the gastric mucosa. the urease protein is encoded by two subunit genes, urea and ureb; however, accessor ...19921612735
a staphylococcal multidrug resistance gene product is a member of a new protein family.the complete nucleotide sequence (321 bp) of smr (staphylococcal multidrug resistance), a gene coding for efflux-mediated multidrug resistance of staphylococcus aureus, was determined by using two different plasmids as dna templates. the smr gene product (identical to products of ebr and qacc/d genes) was shown to be homologous to a new family of small membrane proteins found in escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, agrobacterium tumefaciens, and proteus vulgaris. the smr gene was subcloned ...19921615062
review of the in vitro antibacterial activity of cefprozil, a new oral cephalosporin.cefprozil is a newer oral cephalosporin with a spectrum of activity against organisms that include gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. a review of published data shows that cefprozil is active (susceptibility, less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml; moderate susceptibility, 16 micrograms/ml; resistance, greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml) against gram-positive species such as streptococci, methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, and listeria monocytogenes; it may have marginal activi ...19921617037
in vitro activity of loracarbef and effects of susceptibility test methods.loracarbef is a new oral antimicrobial of the carbacephem class with in vitro activity against the common pathogens associated with skin infections, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchopulmonary infections, and urinary tract infections. a review of the literature shows the following ranges for 90% minimum inhibitory concentration (mic90) values (microgram/ml) against the organisms that commonly cause these illnesses: streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.25-2.0; moraxella (branhamella) catarrhalis (beta-lacta ...19921621748
encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis and the proteus syndrome: distinct entities with overlapping manifestations.we have studied three children with cutaneous (epidermal nevi), subcutaneous (lipomas, plantar skin thickening), vascular (hemangioma, lymphangioma), skeletal (osteoma, exostosis, localized hypertrophy), and neurological (hydrocephaly, lissencephaly, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum) developmental defects associated with the proteus syndrome and related hamartoneoplastic conditions. we compared our findings in these three patients with those of 50 others with proteus syndrome and nine wit ...19921621755
six cases of scleritis associated with systemic infection.isolated scleritis (without keratitis) associated with infections is uncommon, and correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy for it are often delayed. six patients with infection-associated scleritis were seen at our institution between may 1983 and may 1990 (these patients represented 4.6% of all patients with scleritis [six of 130 patients] in that period). three of these cases were associated with systemic infections. one was associated with syphilis, one was associated with tuberculosis, and ...19921621786
in vitro evaluation of e1077, a new cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum.e1077 is a novel parenteral cephalosporin with a wide spectrum of potent antibacterial activity against aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. against methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus, e1077 was twice as active as cefpirome, with an mic for 90% of strains tested (mic90) of 0.78 micrograms/ml. methicillin-resistant s. aureus was moderately to highly resistant to e1077, but e1077 was at least twice as active as other beta-lactams tested. against enterococcus f ...19921622167
calculous pyelonephritis.the authors report on 48 patients with calculous pyelonephritis. urinary obstruction was caused by renal calculi in 21 patients and ureteral calculi in 27. urine cultures were positive in 87.5% and bacteremia was seen in 70%. the common organisms in urine and blood culture were e. coli, proteus and klebsiella. septic shock occurred in 10 (20.8%) out of 48 patients. calculous pyelonephritis with urinary obstruction is a very serious condition.19921624252
klebsiella aerogenes urease gene cluster: sequence of ured and demonstration that four accessory genes (ured, uree, uref, and ureg) are involved in nickel metallocenter biosynthesis.the region located immediately upstream from the klebsiella aerogenes urease structural genes was sequenced and shown to possess an open reading frame capable of encoding a 29.8-kda peptide. deletions were generated in this gene, denoted ured, and in each of the genes (uree, uref, and ureg) located immediately downstream of the three structural genes. transformation of the mutated plasmids into escherichia coli resulted in high levels of urease expression, but the enzyme was inactive (deletions ...19921624427
a case of murine typhus in present a case of murine (endemic) typhus, the first to be reported within the last 30 years in australia.19921625620
endophthalmitis following extracapsular cataract surgery: a review of 32 cases.thirty two cases of endophthalmitis following extracapsular cataract surgery that had occurred within our department and had undergone intraocular diagnostic tap between may 1982 and may 1991 were reviewed. an infectious agent was identified in 20 cases (62.5%). the commonest organism was staphylococcus epidermidis (11 cases) (55%). proteus was the only gram negative organism identified (four cases) (20%). both of these organisms were associated with a favourable visual outcome. in the culture p ...19921627512
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to the o-acetylated peptidoglycan of proteus mirabilis.a monoclonal antibody (pmpg5-3) specific for the o-acetylated peptidoglycan of proteus mirabilis 19 was produced by an ns-1 myeloma cell line and purified from ascites fluid by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography. the monoclonal antibody (an immunoglobulin m) was characterized by a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be equally specific for both insoluble and soluble o-acetylated peptidoglycan but weakly recognized chemically de-o-acetylated p ...19921629161
in vitro activation of the serratia marcescens hemolysin through modification and complementation.the hemolytic activity of serratia marcescens is determined by two polypeptides, termed shla and shlb. shla is synthesized as an inactive precursor (shla*) and secreted with the help of shlb, which is located in the outer membrane. in this study, it is shown that a cell lysate containing shlb as well as partially purified shlb converted shla* to the active shla hemolysin. shla remained active after removal of shlb by column chromatography. in contrast to the stable modification of shla* by shlb, ...19921629165
reliability of a bioluminescence atp assay for detection of bacteria.the reliability of bioluminescence assays which employ the luciferin-luciferase atp-dependent reaction to evaluate bacterial counts was studied, both in vitro and on urine specimens. bioluminescence and cultural results for the most common urinary tract pathogens were analyzed. furthermore, the influence of the culture medium, of the assaying method, and of the phase of growth on bioluminescence readings was studied. results show that proteus, providencia, and morganella strains are not correctl ...19921629329
[emphysematous pyelonephritis. a serious complication of diabetes mellitus].pyelonephritis emphysematous (pe) is a life threatening renal infection which is observed practically exclusively as a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. 95% of the 73 cases which have been reviewed were found in diabetic patients. the symptomatology resembles that of severe acute pyelonephritis but the disease differs from this in that, in pe, emphysema develops in the actual renal parenchyma and/or in the perirenal tissues. the most important single factor in the etiology appears to be ...19921631968
potential for local and systemic bacterial infection in some occupational groups in benin city, nigeria.many third world countries may not have adequate facilities for rapid sensitivity testing of antibiotics as an aid to diagnosis and chemotherapy. it may therefore be valuable to relate bacterial carriage on the skin to type of work a person does.19921636931
ofloxacin versus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.a multicenter randomized study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of ofloxacin with that of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/smx) in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults. patients were randomized to receive either oral ofloxacin 200 mg daily for three days (102 patients), or oral tmp/smx 160 mg/800 mg twice daily for seven days (100 patients). the pathogen was eradicated in 73 (97.3%) of the 75 evaluable patients receiving ofloxacin and in 66 (97.1%) o ...19921638586
comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam against strains of escherichia coli and proteus mirabilis harbouring known beta-lactamases.strains of escherichia coli (n = 124) and proteus mirabilis (n = 29) harboring known beta-lactamases were analyzed as to their susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin, and piperacillin alone and in combination with sulbactam, clavulanate, and tazobactam. with tem 1-producing e. coli, a correlation between specific beta-lactamase activity and the mic of piperacillin and ampicillin-sulbactam was observed. these strains also showed significant differences in susceptibilities to the various combin ...19911646771
in-vitro evaluation of ampicillin/brobactam and comparison with other beta-lactam antibiotics.the ability of brobactam to inhibit beta-lactamases and the in vitro activity of ampicillin combined with brobactam was compared with another beta-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid, and other beta-lactam antibiotics. both inhibitors showed good and similar activity against staphylococcal penicillinase and most broad-spectrum beta-lactamases found in the enterobacteriaceae, whether plasmid or chromosomally mediated. both inhibitors were less active against chromosomally mediated cephalosporina ...19911646779
the reca-recbcd dependent recombination pathways of serratia marcescens and proteus mirabilis in escherichia coli: functions of hybrid enzymes and hybrid pathways.the physical maps of cloned recbcd gene regions of serratia marcescens and proteus mirabilis were correlated to genes located in this region. the genes thya, recc, recb, recd and arga were organized as in escherichia coli. the 3 rec genes code for the 3 different subunits of the recbcd enzyme and produced enzymes promoting recombination and repair of uv damage in e coli. the recbcd-dependent stimulation of recombination at specific nucleotide sequences called chi (chi-activation) was determined ...19911655050
transposon mutagenesis in proteus mirabilis.a technique of transposon mutagenesis involving the use of tn5 on a suicide plasmid was developed for proteus mirabilis. analysis of the resulting exconjugants indicated that tn5 transposed in p. mirabilis at a frequency of ca. 4.5 x 10(-6) per recipient cell. the resulting mutants were stable and retained the transposon-encoded antibiotic resistance when incubated for several generations under nonselective conditions. the frequency of auxotrophic mutants in the population, as well as dna-dna hy ...19911655704
imipenem- and meropenem-resistant mutants of enterobacter cloacae and proteus rettgeri lack porins.carbapenems such as imipenem and meropenem are not rapidly hydrolyzed by commonly occurring beta-lactamases. nevertheless, it was possible, by mutagenesis and selection, to isolate mutant strains of enterobacter cloacae and proteus rettgeri that are highly resistant to meropenem and imipenem. two alterations were noted in the e. cloacae mutants. first, the mutant strains appeared to be strongly derepressed in the production of beta-lactamases, which reached a very high level when the strains wer ...19911656855
effects of dietary calcium, magnesium and phosphorus on the formation of struvite stones in the urinary tract of rats.after feeding various diets we studied the effects of dietary calcium, magnesium and phosphorus on the formation of struvite stones in rats with urinary tract infections, and also studied the effects of the administration of vitamin d3 and aluminium gel on stone formation. a low-magnesium diet decreased urinary magnesium and prevented stone formation, but a medium-calcium diet did not significantly decrease stone weight. a high-calcium diet decreased urinary phosphorus and inhibited stone format ...19911659017
pathogenesis of intraabdominal abscess formation: abscess-potentiating agents and inhibition of complement-dependent opsonization of abscess-inducing bacteria.bacteroides fragilis and escherichia coli are synergistic in the production of intraabdominal abscesses. however, these bacteria initiate abscess formation only when inoculated with an agent such as autoclaved colonic contents (acc) or bran (a fiber analogue). the mechanism of action of the abscess-potentiating agent was studied. opsonins in normal mouse serum were determined for phagocytic killing by murine neutrophils of b. fragilis and e. coli. opsonization required fixation of complement by ...19911659600
beta-lactamase inhibitors: relation between kinetic data and in-vitro synergism studies.because of the need for control of beta-lactamase-mediated resistance and the recent development of tazobactam, the author has examined the inhibitors of various beta-lactamases for their effectiveness. on the basis of the kinetic data, tazobactam exhibited the highest affinity to various beta-lactamases. a combination with tazobactam was found to enhance the effectiveness of piperacillin against s. aureus producing penicillinase, e. coli producing tem-1 or tem 2 enzymes and class i beta-lactama ...19911661596
[an electron microscopic study of the interaction of bacterial intestinal microflora and rotavirus virions].transmission electron microscopy has revealed the capacity of rotaviruses for adsorption on escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis cells and the absence of such capacity with respect to enterococcus faecalis, lactobacillus casei and edwardsiella tarda. different degrees and a varying character of the adsorption of rotaviruses by the representatives of the opportunistic group of bacteria have been established, which may aggravate the course of rotavirus diarrhea due to the agg ...19911661985
pyrophosphate inhibition of proteus mirabilis-induced struvite crystallization in vitro.struvite (mgnh4po4.6h2o) crystals, the major mineral component of infectious urinary calculi, were produced in vitro by growth of a clinical isolate of proteus mirabilis in artificial urine. p. mirabilis growth and urease-induced struvite production were monitored by phase contrast light microscopy and measurements of urease activity, ph, ammonia concentrations, turbidity, and culture viability. in the absence of pyrophosphate, struvite crystals appeared within 3-5 h due to the urease-induced el ...19911663844
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