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combinations of antimicrobial agents. iii. the in vitro sensitivity of 12 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and 12 strains of proteus species ot sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole), polymyxins and combinations of co-trimoxazole and polymyxins.the sensitivity of 12 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and of 12 strains of proteus species to co-trimoxazole, polymyxins and combinations of co-trimoxazole and polymyxins was determined by disc and tray methods. it was found that all strains were sensitive to the combinations of co-trimoxazole and polymyxins. the disc study of the strains of ps. aeruginosa revealed a typical image with many strains. the tray study gave a typical image with two strains of proteus species. the two images are bri ...1976823875
[the effect of microorganisms on protein catabolism in putrefaction studies]. 1976823935
microbiological studies on some bladder irrigation fluids.a 1.5% glycine solution has recently been introduced as a bladder irrigation fluid. in this study, glycine solution was compared with two other recognised bladder irrigants (chlorhexidine and noxythiolin) for its inhibitory activity against common urinary tract pathogens. glycine solution supported the growth of nearly 50% of the bacterial strains tested whereas chlorhexidine and noxythiolin were completely inhibitory. in quantitative studies with selected strains it was found that growth could ...1976824207
outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. xii. molecular-sieving function of cell wall.the permeability function the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria such as salmoenlla was investigated by producing cells with an expanded periplasmic volume, and incubating them with radioactive non-utilizable oligo- and polysaccharides or polyethylene glycols. to quantitative the extent of penetration of these hydrophilic compounds into the periplasm, the radioactivity of the cell pellet was determined after centrifugation. we found that only di- and trisaccharides could fully diffuse into the ...1976824274
sensitivity of providence to antiseptics and disinfectants.seventy isolates of providence were obtained from urinary tract infections in patients from five hospitals. they were all identified as providence b (providencia stuartii). a typing system was devised for these organisms based on their production of and sensitivity to bacteriophage and bacteriocins. using this system, 27 distinct strains were recognized, and it was clear that many patients had been infected with the same strain. the minimum inhibitory concentrations of six antiseptics and disinf ...1976824328
[induced filament formation in various types of salmonella and other bacteria by means of sodium chloride].induced filament formation in various salmonellae (s. typhimurium, s. newport and s. cholerae suis) and other bacteria proteus, e. coli, ps. aeruginosa and sh. flexneri was seen. sodium chloride was used as inducing agent in filament formation. the filaments were reversible morphologic variants and transformed to normal bacteria when the effects of inducing agent were removed from the growth media.1976824532
[in-vitro synergism between beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycoside antibiotics in pseudomonas, proteus and klebsiella (proceedings)]. 1976824893
susceptibility of clinically important gram-negative bacilli to 15 antibiotics. comparison of patterns in poland and federal republic of germany.three hundred and sixty strains of gram-negative bacilli (escherichia coli, salmonella enteritidis, enterobacter cloacae, providencia, indole-positive and indole-negative proteus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and serratia marcescens), were isolated by random in poland and germany, and tested by agar dilution method for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents, including six cephalosporin derivatives, colistin, gentamycin and tobramycin, three newer tetracyclines, ampicillin and ...1976824896
[on the bactericidal action of dibromoisocyanuric acid; experiments concerning the disinfection of hands (author's transl)].the action of dibromoisocyanuric acid (dbi), c12, br2, trichloroisocyanuric acid (tci) and chloramine t against staph. aureus sg 511 was compared. using the suspension test dbi and br2 showed the strongest, chloramine t however, the weakest bactericidal power (tab 2). under the conditions of the "hygienic disinfection of hands" a 0.005 m solution of dbi met the requirements specified in the "richtlinien für die prüfung chemischer desinfektionsmittel" (3. ed., stuttgart: gustav fischer verlag, 1 ...1976824898
in vitro comparison of netilmicin, a semisynthetic derivative of sisomicin, and four other aminoglycoside antibiotics.one hundred isolates of pseudomonas and enterobacteriaceae, of which 85 were chosen because of their resistance to gentamicin or amikacin, were tested for susceptibility to netilmicin (sch 20569), a new semisynthetic derivative of sisomicin, and to four other aminoglycosides. tests were performed in mueller-hinton agar and, with 43 of these isolates, also in mueller-hinton broth. most isolates of escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, citrobacter, and serratia that were gentamicin resistant ...1976825021
protection against gram-negative infection by 'super-active' antigen.'super-active' antigens modified antigens released from bacteria which had been phagocytosed and killed by human leucocytes, were found to induce protective responses in mice within 24 h of immunization. at the earliest time (24 h) when immunized mice were protected against lethal intrapertoneal (i.p.) challenge by the bacteria from which which the 'super-active' antigens were made (proteus mirabilis) the leucocytes of peripheral blood from immunized mice showed enhanced phagocytosis and killing ...1976825449
experimental pyelonephritis in the monkey. iv. vesicoureteral reflux and bacteria.a model was designed to study the relation between urinary infection and vesicoureteral, low-grade, total reflux. surgical alteration of the ureterovesical junction produced grade 2 vesicoureteral reflux in seven of 13 animals. in the other six animals, surgery had rendered the vesicoureteral junction marginally competent and chronic bladder infection caused grade 2 reflux. it was found that grade 2 vesicoureteral reflux in the adult monkey neither prolongs urinary tract infection nor causes con ...1976825481
the aerobic bacterial flora of the anal sac of the red fox. 1976825502
in vitro susceptibility of recently isolated gram-negative bacteria to gentamicin, sisomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin.the emergence of bacteria with r-factor-mediated resistance transferable to many strains of pseudomononas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, serratia marcescens, and some proteus and providencia species has been reported in hospitals in the rhine-main region of germany. in a comparative study, 1,250 strains belonging to 12 clinically important bacterial species were tested for susceptibility to gentamicin, sisomicin, tobramycin, and amikacin by the tube dilution methods. gentam ...1976825585
a rapid, simple method for demonstrating synergy of amikacin and penicillin against various microorganisms.a simple disk diffusion technique with use of triple-layer agar and enzymatic inactivation of penicillin demonstrated synergy between penicillins and aminoglycosides. the method was applied to measurement of the synergistic activity of amikacin and penicillin g against a strain of streptococcus faecalis sensitive to both drugs, amikacin and ampicillin against a strain of s. faecalis sensitive to amplicillin but resistant to amikacin, and amikacin and carbenicillin against a strain of proteus mir ...1976825586
susceptibility of current clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric gram-negative bacilli to amikacin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics.the susceptibility of current clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterobacteriaceae to amikacin and other aminoglycosides was tested by a standardized disk sensitivity method. minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) were determined for all 200 isolates tested, and mean mics were calculated for each of 10 bacterial species. amikacin proved to be the most effective of six aminoglycosides against nine bacterial species; isolates of proteus morganii were slightly more sensitive to gent ...1976825591
[bacteriological results from conjunctival swabs and anterior chamber aspiration of corneal donors (author's transl)].bacteriological investigation of possible cornea donors' conjunctiva and aqueous humor were performed. the results show the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis before keratoplasty.1976825678
[lipid a antibody titers and o antibody titers in crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and acute enteritis (author's transl)].in 18 patients with crohn's disease, 28 patients with ulcerative colitis, 24 patients with acute enteritis and in 68 healthy adults lipid a antibody titers were determined by the passive hemolysis test. in addition o antibody titers to polyvalent escherichia coli, klebsiella, proteus and pseudomonas aeruginosa antigens were measured by indirect hemagglutination. the patients with crohn's disease showed a statistically significant elevation of the lipid a antibody titers compared with each of th ...1976825710
[in vitro activity of cefoxitin, a new cephalosporin (author's transl)].the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) of cefoxitin (cex), cefazolin (cez) and cephalothin (cef) against e. coli (n = 380), klebsiella pneumoniae (n =108) and staph. aureus (n = 47) were determined by the agar diffusion method. for proteus mirabilis (n = 69) and indole-positive proteus species (n = 23), the tube dilution test was used. cef was the most active against staph. aureus while cez showed greater activity against e. coli. cex was the most active against kl. pneumoniae and proteus s ...1976825763
the microbiologic approach in endodontics.the results of an investigation of the microbiologic flora of gangrenous teeth are presented. the rationale of the concept of the microbiologic approach is discussed. a possible explanation for the small differences in the success of endodontically treated teeth obturated after positive and negative bacteriologic cultures is suggested.1976825803
[inhibition of proteus sp. by nalidixic acid].the investigation comprised 192-positive and gram-negative strains of bacteria, including 111 proteus sp. the degree of resistance of these strains to nalidixic-acid was investigated on blood agar with 25 mug, 40 mug, and 50 mug nalidixin-acid per ml medium. none of the proteus strains were able to grow on medium with 50 mug nalidixic-acid per ml, whereas streptococcus sp., corynebacterium pyogenes, peptococcus indolicus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and beta-toxic staphylococci all were found resist ...1976825831
[crystalline l-asparaginase from proteus vulgaris]. 1976825853
[sensitivity of bacteria causing urinary tract infections towards terizidon (author's transl)].in agar diffusion tests 2603 bacterial strains of species known to cause urinary tract infections were tested routinely in regard to their sensitivity towards terizidon, a derivative of cycloserine. in order to relate the results which were obtained in terms of the diameter of the inhibiton zone, to the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic), 304 of these strains were tested additionally in agar dilution tests. the mics of the other strains were estimated from the results of these tests. since ...1976826024
multiple drug resistance in klebsiella-enterobacter, proteus mirabilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa--an analysis of all-nation computer-processed data.this last communication on the results of an one-year computer follow-up of single, double, and multiple antibiotic resistance of so-called problem bacteria in slovakia presents computerised data on double, and important triple, quadruple and quintuple resistance of klebsiella-enterobacter, p. mirabilis and ps. aeruginosa strains. bi- and multi-resistant strains absolutely prevail in klebsiella (more than 60% of many thousands of strains tested), p. mirabilis (90%) and ps. aeruginosa (95%). spec ...1976826047
[study on the antibacterial activity of penicillins and cephalosporines in urine (author's transl)].minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) for penicillin (pen), ampicillin (amp), cephalothin (cef), cefazolin (cez), carbenicillin (car) and ticarcillin (tic) were determined against strep. faecalis, e. coli, k. pneumoniae, prot. mirabilis and ps. aeruginosa in sensitivity test broth (stb) and human urine. marked differences were seen in mic between these two media, especially against p. mirabilis strains tested. against e. coli the mic of amp, cef and cez were similar or slightly lower in urine ...1976826261
[maceration of the interdigital spaces and gram-negative infection of feet].the microbiological flora of the macerated skin of the interdigital spaces of the feet of 64 patients were compared to those of 64 other control patients who had normal toe webs. in the control group coagulase-negative staphylococci and aerobic corynebacteria ("diphtheroids") were the most common bacteria found compared to a great number of different organisms including a high percentage of potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi that were isolated from the macerated toe webs. the clinical app ...1976826508
[further investigations into the effectiveness of gentamicin and other antibiotics against urinary tract infection organisms (author's transl)].in continuance of our investigations from 1968 to 1972, we isolated 32939 microorganisms from urinary tract infections and subjected them to routine sensitivity tests against six antibiotics from 1973 to august 1975. all organisms except enterococci and proteus proved to be sensitive to gentamicin at a level exceeding 90% during the study period of two and a half years. a loss of activity of gentamicin worth mentioning was not detected during the studies. so this antibiotic must further be consi ...1976826773
[perinephric abscess]. 1976826897
[possible circulation of r. prowazekii among animals (according to data of serological studies)].the authors present the results of serological studies of the sera obtained from various animal species in the complement fixation test of agglutination with rickettsial antigens, particularly with the r. prowazeki antigen. the proteus ox19 antigen was also used to ascertain the true nature of the positive agglutination test of the sera of domestic animals with the r. prowazeki antigen; immunochemical analysis of the sera in sephadex g-200 gel was employed. agglutinins to the r. prowazeki antige ...1976827160
the binding site of escherichia coli ribosomal protein s4 on 16-s ribosomal rna from different bacterial species.ribosomal protein s4 of escherichia coli was bound to 16-s ribosomal rnas from several bacterial species and the complexes digested with pancreatic ribonuclease in an effort to isolate heterologous rna binding sites for protein s4. 16-s rnas from aeromonas punctata, pseudomonas fluorescens and vibrio cuneatus each gave rise to protected fragments whose electrophoretic mobility was 7s, i.e. similar to that of the fragment generated from e. coli 16-s rna using the same conditions. no comparable fr ...1976827436
[in vitro action and clinical use of indanyl carbenicillin]. 1976827680
[microflora of trophic ulcers]. 1976827841
[elder people in institutions - problems concerning health and hygiene (author's transl)].on the basis of our earlier studies on the hygienic, health and social situation of old people living in their own flats, we investigated the conditions in all 12 larger old people's homes of a big city in the rhine-main area, as well as 100 selected subjects of a defined socio-economic group within these homes. we checked the existence of pathogenic germs and the total number of germs on a total of 247 air culture plates in as many rooms and 669 impression preparations; additionally, we evaluat ...1976827881
[microbiology of chronic lung diseases in children (author's transl)].the bacterial flora was studied in the bronchial, pharyngeal secretions and sputum of 80 children with cystic fibrosis (cf) and of 21 children with other chronic lung diseases, treated at the pediatric clinic (respiratory unit), university of genoa. staphylococcus aureus was found in 52% of patients, pseudomonas aeruginosa in 48%, proteus in 5%. according to the age, the patients have been distinguished into four groups; in the 6-10 and 11-15 year-old group staphylococcus aureus was the commones ...1976827983
[antimicrobical resistance of bacterial strains isolated in specimens of the respiratory tract (author's transl)].more than 4,000 susceptibility tests of antimicrobical agents performed in two years with six groups of microorganisms: 1) staphylococcus, 2) escherichia coli, 3) proteus, 4) enterobacter and klebsiella, 5) citrobacter, 6) pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been compared. percentages of antimicrobical resistance of every group are here related and statistically compared to discover significant susceptibility variations of bacteria isolated in 1973 and 1974.1976827986
a ten-year survey of bacteriuria in the osaka university hospital.10 consecutive years of observation of the laboratory data of quantitative urinary bacterial culture in the central clinical laboratory of osaka university hospital was made. the marked rise of pseudomonas and other enterobacteriaceae was clearly demonstrated. the difference in bacterial species in bacteriuria between inpatients and outpatients strongly suggests that the origin of infection was quite different. the disappearance of staph. aureus as a causative agent was also demonstrated.1975828085
[evaluation of successful chemotherapie of infections of the urinary system by determination of antibacterial activity in the urine (author's transl)].5,589 urin samples from patients with suspected infections of the urinary tract were screened for inhibiting activity against baz. cereus (atcc 6051). in 19% of these urines such inhibitors could be found. in spite of the antibacterial inhibition activity nearly half of the samples had bacteria in high number. by comparison of the various bacterial species in both groups of urin, in those without antibacterial "problem-bacteria": klebsiella-enterobacter- proteus- candida-species is demonstrated. ...1976828144
taurolin, a new chemotherapeutic agent. 1976828157
[isolating and enriching broths of salmonellae].the authors have tested in 3 isolating and enriching broths some salmonellae; the broths are available commercially (mueller-kaufmann broth, leifson broth and hajna gn broth) and they tested their inhibitory capacity (concerning the growth of intestinal saprophyte flora) and their enriching capacities with regard to the various types of salmonellae also. the method used consists in an exact evaluation of the increase percentage of the germs which were put to incubate in the broths at 37 degree c ...1976828483
[further researches on antimicrobial agents involvement in urine bacteriological analysis (author's transl)].a further investigation on about 2700 urine samples for testing the presence of antimicrobial drugs (spot-test) has been carried out. bacteriostatic agents were present in 35% of all samples analysed, of these, 47% were urines producing no growth on culturing, 10% had a bacterial count of 10(4) and 43% of 10(5) or more. the frequency of the spot-test positive samples was correlated to the origin from the different hospital departments. gram-positive bacteria were the most represented in the samp ...1976828484
[optimal dosage of semisynthetic penicillins. ii. microbiological research]. 1975828598
[catheter septicemia caused by gram negative bacteria in infants: clinical aspects and therapy]. 1976828759
recent status of bacterial sensitivities to various antibiotics. 1976829148
a comparison of three commercially available antiseptics against opportunist gram-negative pathogens.two test methods, a skin replica test and the kelsey sykes test have been used to compare the efficacy of three antiseptics against three gram-negative micro-organisms in an attempt to select the most suitable. the results of both tests showed that an antiseptic containing added ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was superior to the other two. the skin test showed that this superiority was apparent in both the immediate and the persistant bactericidal activity of the antiseptic towards all three gr ...1976829266
[bacteriological and clinical studies of 100 significant urocultures].the authors illustrate a screening for bacteriuria performed on 348 samples of urine by patients occurred to observation in two departments of internal medicine from october 1973 to october 1974. the technique to sampling urine has been the meadstream. colony counts of over 10(5) germs per ml or urine were shown in 100 cases. selective culture media were used for urinary bacteria identification. the aa. show a series of considerations on the pathogenetic significance of microbial cell concentrat ...1975829592
prevalence and characterization of resistance to gentamicin in gram-negative bacteria.a survey of the occurrence of resistance to gentamicin in clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria revealed a 3-fold increase in the percentage of resistant strains between 1974 (4%), and 1976 (12%). gentamicin resistance was mainly found in isolates from hospitalized patients. serratia (35--78%), proteus inconstans (53--62%), klebsiella (6--21%), acinetobacter (9--17%) and pseudomonas (9--14%) exhibited the highest percentage of resistance to this drug. gentamicin inactivating enzymes were d ...1976829605
[low weight newborn infants as carriers of bacteria and their bacterial diseases]. 1976829822
bacteriological evaluation of fosfomycin in clinical studies.since fosfomycin has behaved in vitro as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, an attempt has been made to evaluate this behaviour in controlled clinical study carried out at different spanish hospitals. a total of 959 patients were treated for some of the following infectious clinical processes: gonococcal urethritis, typhoid fever, enterocolitis, acute and chronic urinary tract infections, osteomyelitis, chronic otorrhoea, septicaemia, meningitis, peritonitis, surgical and suppurative infections, bronc ...1977832523
treatment of urinary infections with fosfomycin.this report deals with the study made of the treatment of 45 acute, subacute and chronic urinary infections in a department of general medicine. 43 of these were infections caused by a single species of bacteria and 3 were caused by more than one species. the sensitivity test of the isolated organisms (e. coli, proteus, serratia, pseudomonas, klebsiella and s. faecalis) showed 83.33% of the strains to be senstive and 16.8% of the strains to be resistant. nevertheless, this last group of strains, ...1977832524
fosfomycin in infantile acute gastroenteritis.a clinical test was carried out on 83 children suffering from infectious diarrhoeal processes who were treated with fosfomycin with the oral and paranteral route. coproculture was carried out in all the children before the beginning of treatment and in 51 of them it was repeated at the end of treatment. antibiograms were made on the isolated germs and their mic to fosfomycin studied. tolerance and secondary effects of the medicament were also studied. the study was considered insufficient in 13 ...1977832529
clinical bacteriological evaluation of infantile bacteriuria treated with fosfomycin.the therapeutic action of fosfomycin has been studied in a group of 14 children, with simple and complicated infections of the urinary tract with congenital renal malformations. in the bacteriological study of the urine it was observed that the strains most frequently isolated were e. coli, proteus sp. and klebsiella sp. of the 25 strains isolated 76% were sensitive to the disc of 50 mug fosfomycin and 24% moderately sensitive with a mic of 64 and 128 mug/ml. the doses of fosfomycin used were 15 ...1977832532
activity of fosfomycin in the treatment of bacterial infections.30 patients with different infections were treated with fosfomycin: 13 had urinary infections, 14 had pneumonial infections, 2 had staphylococcus osteomyelitis and 1 had staphylococcus septicemia. the antibiotic was administered in doses ranging from 100 to 230 mg/kg/day, with periods of treatment that lasted from 5 to 58 days. the doses were administered every 6 h by the oral or intramuscular route. a total of 35 organisms were isolated: 7 e. coli, 7beta-hemolitic streptococcus, 6 proteus sp., ...1977832537
interactions of fosfomycin with other antibiotics.we selected 100 strains of organisms that were isolated in our hospital, which came from pathological products and which had an mic of fosfomycin of 256 mug/ml or more and belonged to the genera klebsiella, pseudomonas, escherichia coli, serratia, enterobacter, proteus, acinetobacter, levinea and staphylococcus. we have studied the effect of the association of fosfomycin with 15 antibiotics (beta-lactamins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, etc.) and 5 chemotherapeutics. the 11 selected strains w ...1977832546
the evolution of the sensitivity to fosfomycin over the past two years.the sensitivity of 1,823 bacteriological strains of differing types is shown (e. coli, klebsiella-enterobacter-serratia, proteus-providence, pseudomonas, salmonella-shigella-citrobacter, haemophilus, staphylococcus and streptococcus); all of clinical origin, isolated during march and april, 1975. the methods used were series of double dilutions in mueller-hinton agar and the disc-plate method (weight of 50 mug). a comparative study is made of the sensitivity between a part of the present strains ...1977832547
adverse effect of a cigarette smoke component, acrolein, on pulmonary antibacterial defenses and on viral-bacterial interactions in the lung.intrapulmonary antibacterial activity in normal mice and mice with viral pneumonia was determined after continous exposure to the pure tobacco smoke component, acrolein. after inhalation challenge with staphylococcus aureus and proteus mirabilis, exposure to 1 to 2 ppm of acrolein significantly suppressed the intrapulmonary killing of the organisms in normal mice compared to control mice not exposed to acrolein. sendai virus pneumonia depressed pulmonary antibacterial defenses in a virus dose-re ...1977835891
antimicrobial activity in vitro of netilmicin and comparison with sisomicin, gentamicin, and tobramycin.the antimicrobial activity of netilmicin, a new semisynthetic aminoglycosidic aminocyclitol, was determined against 123 recent gram-negative clinical isolates susceptible to gentamicin and 60 isolates resistant to either sisomicin, gentamicin, or tobramycin. the minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of netilmicin, sisomicin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against pseudomonas, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus mirabilis, and indole-positive proteu ...1977836009
laboratory evaluation of fr10024 a new cephalosporin derivative.fr10024 is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. the in vitro antibacterial activity of fr10024 against clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis is greater than that of any of the cephalosporins developed to date. indole-positive proteus, enterobacter, and citrobacter are resistant to fr10024, as is true for the other cephalosporins. however, more than half of the strains of enterobacter and citrobacter tested were susceptible to fr10024 a ...1977836014
mezlocillin: in vitro studies of a new broad-spectrum penicillin.mezlocillin is a new semisynthetic penicillin that inhibited 71% of the isolates of serratia marcescens, 67% of escherichia coli, 50% of enterobacter spp., and 49% of klebsiella spp. at a concentration of 12.5 mug/ml. it is also active against both indole-positive and -negative proteus spp. and gram-positive cocci, except penicillin g-resistant staphylococcus aureus. at a concentration of 100 mug/ml, it inhibited 94% of the isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa. it is more active than ampicillin, c ...1977836016
aerobic microbial flora of intertrigenous skin.the incidence and density of intertrigenous microflora were determined in subjects using nonmedicated soap. the axilla, groin, toe web, and finger web were examined. the incidence of gram-negative rods was 17% for the axilla, 13% for the groin, 10% for the toe web, and 9% for the finger web. klebsiella, proteus, and enterobacter were the predominant organisms, in that order. the highest incidence of staphylococcus aureus was in the groin (12%) and toe web (11%). lipophilic diphtheroids were the ...1977836026
environmental air and airborne infections.the results of a study on the epidemiology of airborne (aerobic) surgical infections are presented. the first phase of the study was carried out in a surgical suite which contained no environmental or traffic control systems. the second phase of the study took place within a modern "up to date" operating room suite containing multiple air screens as well as an elaborate ventilation system utilizing hepa type filters which provided the operating room with clinically sterile air. one hundred and f ...1977836095
[cefazolin content in the gall bladder (author's transl)].the concentration of cefazolin in the bile obtained by means of duodenoscopy was determined and compared with the values published as results of sampling by gall bladder puncture and t drains. the results obtained using this endoscopic procedure accorded with the results in the literature. when 1 g cefazolin was administered intravenously, high biliary levels of this drug with antibacterial activity were achieved. our preliminary studies show that not only highly-sensitive gram-positive organism ...1977836611
the hospital infection control committee: a personal view. 1977838494
canine urolithiasis: retrospective analysis of 438 cases.in a retrospective analysis of 438 cases of canine urolithiasis, a total of 561 urolithic episodes were found to have occurred in a 6 1/2-year period. the hospital incidence of urolithiasis during that period, defined as the proportion of dogs hospitalized with urolithiasis to the total number of dogs hospitalized, was 2.8%. the major chemical component of the calculus in 307 dogs was phosphate; in 95 dogs, cystine; in 21 dogs, urate; in 12 dogs, oxalate; and in 3 dogs, carbonate. the miniature ...1977838615
[the antibacterial efficacy of various antibiotics and chemotherapeutical agents (author's transl)].sensitivity tests of 5753 organisms (streptococci, klebsiella, escherichia coli, enterococci, pyocyaneus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus group and staphylococci) against sulphonamide, nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, gentamicin, cephalosporin, and chloramphenicol are reported, with special consideration of doxycycline, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. the samples were broken down in accordance with the respective sources. the particularly high resistance quota of co-trimoxazole was striking. the sens ...1977840098
intracellular crystalline deposits by bacteria grown in urine from a stone former.several species of bacteria were found to form an intracellular crystalline material when grown in urine obtained from a subject with a history of infrequent renal calculi formation. the following species: proteus mirabilis, proteus rettgeri, providencia stuartii, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter cloacae, escherichia coli, and candida albicans formed crystals of hydroxyapatite. klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and proteus vulgaris produced crystals of calcite -ii. several of th ...1977844994
[the influence of the permeability of the cell membrane on tmpd oxydase activity (author's transl)].26 bacterial strains representing a variety of both gram-negative and gram-postive groups were investigated for their n,n,n',n'-tetramethyl-1, 4-phenylendiamin (tmpd) oxidase activities and cytochrome contents. the oxidase activites of colonies were examined by dropping the reagent on agar surface colonies. intact and sonicated cells were tested by recording the oxidation of the tmpd reagent at 546 nm after addition to the cell suspensions. cytochromes were determined by recording the difference ...1977848217
microdilution transfer plate technique for determining in vitro synergy of antimicrobial agents.a microdilution transfer plate technique for determining in vitro synergy of antimicrobial agents is described. combinations of gentamicin-nalidixic acid against proteus mirabilis and rifampin-amphotericin b against candida albicans are used as examples to demonstrate the technique. results correlate with published data obtained by conventional methods. the technique is effective for evaluating the in vitro effects of antimicrobial agent combinations against both bacteria and fungi. the techniqu ...1977848924
clindamycin for treatment of sepsis caused by decubitus ulcers.bacteremia was documented in 19 (76%) of 24 patients with sepsis caused solely by decubitus ulcers, persisted in all but two, and was polymicrobial in 10 (42%). obligate anaerobes were isolated from 12 patients (63%) and included bacteroides fragilis in 11 (58%). aerobes, primarily proteus (21%) and staphylococcus (16%), were isolated in nine patients (47%). therapy was judged appropriate when the microbial isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antibiotic used. nineteen patients received cli ...1977850093
empiric treatment with clindamycin and gentamicin of suspected sepsis due to anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.clindamycin and gentamicin were used in combination to treat 107 patients empirically for suspected aerobic-anaerobic sepsis. all patients were seriously ill and required initiation of treatment before results of cultures could be obtained. infections included intraabdominal sepsis, hospital-acquired aspiration pneumonia, and soft tissue infections. exudate cultured from 65 patients showed that the prediction of a mixed aerobic-anaerobic flora was correct in 46 patients (71%). isolates from exud ...1977850096
the isolation of microquantities of myosin from amoeba proteus and chaos carolinensis. 1977851213
fosfomycin in chronic urinary infections.fosfomycin has been used on 40 patients with serious urinary infections of different clinical nature, and produced by repetitive infection (prostatisms, carcinomas, lithiasis, hydronephrosis, etc.) the following were isolated in the urocultures: e. coli (60%), klebsiella (15%), p. aeruginosa (15.0%), proteus sp. (15.0%), staphylococcus (5%), s. faecalis (2.5%) and paracolobactrum coliforme (2.5%). all the germs isolated before treatment were sensitive to fosfomycin. the results, as regards respo ...1977851501
diagnostic antigens and antisera in tablet form.diagnostic antigen suspensions and antisera can be prepared in tablet form with no loss in potency.1977858785
re: "nosocomial infection with highly resistant proteus rettgeri. report of an epidemic". 1977860710
penetration of tobramycin into infected extravascular fluids and its therapeutic effectiveness.the aminoglycoside antibiotic tobramycin was given intramuscularly to 15 patients with infected body fluids (empyema in five patients, peritonitis in five, peritonitis and empyema in one, tracheobronchitis in three, and infection of the pacemaker pocket in one). the infecting bacteria included pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia, escherichia coli, proteus species, and staphylococcus aureus. the mean dose of tobramycin was 1.7 mg/kg given intramuscularly every 8 hr for nine ...1977864291
interdigital athlete's foot: new concepts in pathogenesis.in our view, interdigital athlete's foot usually begins with invasion of the horny layer by dermatophytes. because of hot weather, sweating, exercise, or tight shoes, enough moisture accumulates to stimulate an overgrowth of bacteria. large numbers of normally resident aerobic diphtheroids cause the common wet, macerated type of athlete's foot, while an overgrowth of gram-negative organisms, such as pseudomonas and proteus, is responsible for the more serious cases. the dry, scaly type (dermatop ...1977866279
treatment of hospita-acquired infections with amikacin.amikacin was used in the treatment of 56 serious gram-negative infections in 54 patients of whom 47 survived. in six of the seven nonsurvivors, the infections were under control at the time of death. the clinical isolates were multiple drug-resistant gram-negative organisms, with proteus rettgeri being most common. forty-five (80%) of these infections were nosocomial in origin, and the genitourinary tract was the source in 39 (70%). complications directly related to amikacin therapy were few and ...1977868903
[bacteriuria. bacteriological diagnosis and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents].in a brief introduction, methods for collecting urine and diagnosis criteria are reviewed. data relative to a study of about 10,000 samples of urine from patients admitted to various departments of the milan ca' granda hospital in 1975 are then reported. the frequencies of the various species of bacteria isolated in cases of bacteriuria are reported. those occurring most frequently were proteus (40.7%) of whose four species, proteus mirabilis and proteus rettgeri cover almost all cases, and esch ...1977869699
small nuclear rna localization during mitosis. an electron microscope study.the localization of small nuclear ribonucleic acids (snrnas) during mitosis in amoeba proteus was studied by high voltage (1,000 kv) electron microscope autoradiography. by suitable micromanipulations, the snrna's, labeled with [3h]uridine, were made to be the only radioactive molecules in the cell and thus easy to follow autoradiographically. during interphase the snrna label, which is almost exclusively nuclear, is distributed fairly uniformly through the nucleus with a slightly higher amount ...1977870500
staghorn calculi in children.nineteen children who underwent extensive nephrotomies and anatrophic nephrotomies for staghorn calculi (bilateral in 4 cases) are presented. proteus infection was the cause of the calculus in most cases. in the absence of recurrent stones, renal growth and function were excellent post-operatively. stone recurrence was minimal if all calculi were removed and infection was controlled. followup ranged from a few months to 13 years.1977875206
[main theme i. antibiotics - resistance of infection--nosocomial infections. properties of chemotherapeutics and their influence on the body-specific flora]. 1977876135
clavulanic acid: a beta-lactamase-inhiting beta-lactam from streptomyces clavuligerus.a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor has been isolated from streptomyces clavuligerus atcc 27064 and given the name clavulanic acid. conditions for the cultivation of the organism and detection and isolation of clavulanic acid are described. this compound resembles the nucleus of a penicillin but differs in having no acylamino side chain, having oxygen instead of sulfur, and containing a beta-hydroxyethylidine substituent in the oxazolidine ring. clavulanic acid is a potent inhibitor of many beta-la ...1977879738
serologic relationship of fimbriae among enterobacteriaceae.the existence of serological relationship of fimbriae among serotypes of the same genus and among genera of enterobacteriaceae was determined by agglutination and absorption procedures. it was found that fimbriae of different serotypes of the same genus and among the genera a) escherichia, shigella and klebsiella, and b) salmonella, arizona and citrobacter were more or less antigentically related. no relationship was found among fimbriae of the edwardsiella, enterobacter, hafnia, serratia, prote ...1977880000
subphrenic abscess. the new epidemiology.recent changes in the etiology, topography, and bacteriology of subphrenic abscess are identified in 93 patients treated between 1955 and 1975. gastric and biliary tract operation account for 52% of abscesses. appendicitis is now responsible for only 8% of subphrenic infections, in contrast with the 40% of previous reports. colonic surgery (19%) and trauma (8%) are increasing in importance. left-sided abscesses occur in 40%, and multiple space abscesses in 20% of patients. the bacterial flora co ...1977880040
effect of chloramphenicol on bacterial endosymbiotes in a strain of amoeba proteus.the effect of chloramphenicol (cap) on the bacterial endosymbiotes of a strain of amoeba proteus was studied by growing the symbiotic amebae in media containing 0.5-1.6 mg/ml cap for up to 4 weeks. treatments with cap caused such ultrastructural changes as expansion of the nuclear zone and deformation of symbiotes. the cap treatment also damaged the mitochondria, e.g. disappearance of central and protrusion of peripheral cristae. number of bacteria per ameba decreased to less than 10% of control ...1977881653
the aetiology of renal stones in children. 1977882475
inducible high resistance to colistin in proteus strains.wild-type proteus strains are usually resistant to colistin. we have observed an increase in the level of colistin resistance in four clinical isolates of p. vulgaris, p. morganii, and p. rettgeri by prior treatment with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug. the enhanced resistance in these strains was lost after cultivating them in colistin-free medium, indicating that the enhanced resistance in the proteus group is inducible.1977883810
cutaneous microflora of patients with repeated skin infections.the microflora of normal skin in 16 patients with repeated staphylococcal and streptococcal skin infections was examined to determine whether abnormalities existed which would indicate a protective role for the indigenous flora against colonization by pathogens. five sites-hands, feet, axilla, groin and back-were examined quantitatively and qualitatively and compared with a control group. total populations of indigenous flora were significantly higher from patients with repeated skin infections ...1977886029
the effect of amniotic fluid on bacterial growth in three population groups.eighty-five amniotic fluid from women of three racial groups in the third trimester of pregnancy were each tested for antibacterial activity against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, proteus mirabilis, streptococcus faecalis, and candida albicans. seventy-six per cent of fluid samples from white patients were inhibitory, while the corresponding figures for africans and indians were 33 and 52, respectively. of 19 african fluid samples tested against e. coli only, one proved inhibitory.1977888865
binding of [125i]concanavalin a by interspecific amoeba hybrids.two types of interspecific amoeba hybrids, viz. pnic (amoeba proteus nucleus in a. indica cytoplasm) and inpc (a. indica nucleus in a. proteus cytoplasm), were tested for their [125i]concanavalin a (con a) binding activity at different periods of time. the cell surface binding of the labelled con a was reduced to approx. 40 and 75% in the pnic and inpc cells, respectively, 96 h after the cells were made hybrids. a significant increase in the binding of radioactive con a was observed after the ho ...1977890742
biological and physicochemical properties of the lipopolysaccharide of chromatium vinosum.the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of chromatium vinosum has anticomplementary activity. this anticomplementary activity is destroyed by alkaline digestion of the lps and is suppressed by both mg2+ and ca2+ ions. treatment of the lps with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium deoxycholate, or dimethyl sulfoxide did not affect its toxicity toward mice; however, alkaline-treated lps was not toxic. treatment of the lps with sodium deoxycholate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in ...1977892903
antibacterial sensitivity patterns of bacteria isolated from dogs with otitis externa.from january, 1973, to december, 1975, the most prevalent microorganisms isolated from ear swab specimens taken from 323 dogs with otitis externa were staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and proteus spp. comparison of the antibiograms of these isolants to those reported from england in 1961 and from the united states in 1970 suggested emergence of a greater proportion of bacterial strains with resistance to antibacterial agents commonly used to treat otitis externa of dogs.1977893222
bl-s786, a new parenteral cephalosporin. i. a collaborative in vitro susceptibility comparison to cephalothin against 5,762 clinical bacterial isolates.the in vitro activity of compound bl-s786 was compared with that of cephalothin against 5,762 clinical isolates by the microdilution broth method. bl-s786 demonstrated a broader spectrum and a significantly lower mic against the enterobacteriaceae. although greater susceptibility to bl-s786 than to cephalothin was exhibited by serratia marcescens, proteus morganii and proteus vulgaris, these three species were generally resistant to both drugs. by contrast, the staphylococci were significantly m ...1977893226
bl-s786, a new parenteral cephalosporin. ii. in vitro antimicrobial activity comparison with six related cephalosporins.bl-s786 was compared by in vitro studies with 6 other parenteral cephalosporins (cefamandole, cefazolin, cefoxitin, cephaloridine, cephalothin and cephradine). the following parameters were assessed: comparative mics against a wide variety of bacterial isolates, mic/mbc comparisons and the effect of inoculum size on the mic. bl-s786 showed the greatest antimicrobial activity against k. pneumoniae, c. diversus and salmonella species; was equal to cefamandole against e. coli, e. agglomerans and p. ...1977893227
a comparison of pivmecillinam and cotrimoxazole in the treatment of simple cystitis in general practice.pivmecillinam was compared with cotrimoxazole in the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial cystitis in general practice. similar bacteriological cure rates were obtained with the two treatments. although micrococci were judged resistant to pivmecillinam by the disc sensitivity method used, cystitis attributed to these organisms and to resistant strains of proteus mirabilis responded as readily as those due to apparently sensitive gram-negative bacteria. pivmecillinam was well tolerated.1977893246
0 antigen distribution and sensitivity to the bactericidal effect of normal human serum of proteus strains from clinical specimens.9 antigen distribution and sensitivity to the bactericidal effect of normal human serum were determined in 485 proteus strains isolated from urine, blood, wounds, and feces. of all strains, 62% could be grouped according to 25 0 antigens. the most frequent one, 0 3, appeared in 13% of all the strains. in blood cultures this antigen was found significantly more often. no other 0 group dominated. of all strains, 11% were spontaneously agglutinating but such strains were significantly more common i ...1977895680
[activity of extracellular and intracellular nucleodepolymerases of bacteria of the proteus--providencia group during the process of growth of a cellular population]. 1977899430
[taxonomic position and characteristics of bacteria of the genus rettgerella]. 1977899449
[quantitative patterns in changes in the intestinal microflora of irradiated mice].experiments were conducted on 3 groups of mice, gamma-irradiated in doses of 900, 600 and 300 r. development of acute radiation sickness was accompained by development of intestinal dysbacteriosis. characteristic was reduction of lactobacilli content and increase in the content of purulent microbes (e. coli, clostridia, proteus, and enterococcus) in the large intestine, and an increase of enterococcus and proteus content in the small intestine. changes in the microbial count in the intestine, de ...1977899458
contamination of a fiberoptic bronchoscope with proteus species.we have traced an episode of contamination of a fiberoptic bronchoscope with a proteus species to an index patient. bacterial cultures obtained by aspiration through the fiberoptic bronchoscope from 11 of 12 subsequent bronchoscopies in 8 additional patients grew a proteus species with sensitivities similar to those of the initial isolate. culture of the fiberoptic bronchoscopic specimen yielded an identical organism. there were no definitive ill effects in the patients. these findings necessita ...1977900639
inhibition of beta-lactamase: synergistic bactericidal effect of combination of chloramphenicolcephaloridine. 1977903335
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