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extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary care hospital in trinidad and tobago.extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) mediated resistance to third generation cephalosporins, amongst the family enterobacteriaceae, is emerging worldwide. this is the caribbean's first survey on esbl production, and was conducted during two six-month periods in 1998 and 2001, in a tertiary health institution in trinidad and tobago. consecutive ampicillin resistant isolates of the family enterobacteriaceae from in-patients were screened for resistance to third generation cephalosporins, and fo ...200312806752
pharmacological profile of extracts of pelargonium sidoides and their constituents.in areas of southern africa, aqueous extracts from the roots of pelargonium sidoides are employed to cure various disorders. nowadays, a modern formulation (eps 7630), elaborated from the traditional herbal medicine, is successfully used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. we previously observed that root extracts of p. sidoides and their representative constituents exhibit moderate antibacterial and significant immunomodulatory capabilities. the present study was performed to furth ...200312807338
bioactivity of secoiridoid glycosides from centaurium erythraea.as part of our on-going search for bioactive compounds from scottish plants, two secoiridoid glycosides, swertiamarin and sweroside, have been isolated from the aerial parts of centaurium erythraea rafn (family: gentianaceae) by reversed-phase preparative hplc coupled with a photo-diode-array detector. the structures of these compounds were elucidated unambiguously by uv, fabms and extensive 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopic analyses and also by comparing experimental data with literature data. antiba ...200312809366
antiviral activity of n-benzoylphenylisoserinates of lactarius sesquiterpenoid alcohols in vitro.cytotoxic, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties of a new, originally synthesised group of compounds: the n-benzoylphenylisoserinates of sesquiterpenoid alcohols - derivatives of taxol and various sesquiterpenes of lactarius origin were evaluated in vitro. among 16 compounds tested, 6 decreased hsv-1 titres. selectivity indices ranged from 13.9 to 31.7. no activity against rna viruses (parainfluenza 3, coxsackie b3, vesicular stomatitis virus, and encephalomyocarditis virus), bacter ...200312865976
aetiological agents, clinical features and outcome of septicaemia in infants in ibadan.the present study sought to determine the prevalence, clinical features and bacterial aetiological agents of septicaemia in post-neonatal infants (age 1-12 months) presenting with fever at the university college hospital, ibadan, nigeria.200312769303
a survey of common pathogens in wound in patients at the university of port harcourt teaching hospital (u.p.t.h), port harcourt.during a 30-month period, january 1996 to june 1998, a total of 2458 wound swab samples were collected, cultured and identified. in descending order of frequency, the organisms isolated include: staphylococcus aureus (31.60%), escherichia coli (25.97%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.21%), klebsiella species (10.82%), proteus species (8.23%), non-haemolytic streptococci (1.29%), beta-haemolytic streptococcus (0.43%) and candida albicans (0.43%). the variation in frequency of the isolates according t ...200312769308
enhanced microbial biomass assay using mutant luciferase resistant to benzalkonium chloride.in a biomass assay based on adenosine 5(')-triphosphate (atp) bioluminescence, extracellular atp is removed; then intracellular atp is extracted from the microorganism by an atp extractant and subsequently reacted with luciferase. to provide a highly sensitive assay, the concentration of benzalkonium chloride (bac) in the atp extractant was optimized by using a mutant luciferase resistant to bac. the use of 0.2% bac, which was acceptable for the luciferase, simultaneously achieved the maximum ex ...200312871724
[pediatric vesical lithiasis. 70 case reports].the study focuses on 70 vesicals lithiasis, with a sample consisting of 60 boys (86%) and ten girls (14%). the age varies from one year to 14 years. the revealing signs are dominated by mictional troubles in 47 cases (67%), macroscopic hematurie in 26 cases (37%), the pyurie in 12 cases (17%) and acute retention of urine in 7 cases (10%). the most frequent germs are the staphylococcus aureus with 28% of cases, the protéus mirabilis with 24% of cases and the echerichia coli with 24% of the cases. ...200312872601
characterization of escherichia coli strains causing urinary tract infections in patients with transposed intestinal segments.transposition of intestinal segments into the urinary tract predisposes to urinary tract infections. we characterized bacterial infections in these patients and examined the virulence genotype and persistence of escherichia coli isolates.200312771802
[purple urine bag syndrome].the report of purple discoloration in a urinary drainage system, known as purple urine bag syndrome (p.u.b.s.) is rarely described in the literature.200312876527
tolerance to various toxicants by marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury.bacteria highly resistant to mercury isolated from seawater and sediment samples were tested for growth in the presence of different heavy metals, pesticides, phenol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and trichloroethane to investigate their potential for growth in the presence of a variety of toxic xenobiotics. we hypothesized that bacteria resistant to high concentrations of mercury would have potential capacities to tolerate or possibly degrade a variety of toxic materials and thus would be importan ...200312876655
in vitro and in vivo activities of novel 2-(thiazol-2-ylthio)-1beta-methylcarbapenems with potent activities against multiresistant gram-positive bacteria.sm-197436, sm-232721, and sm-232724 are new 1beta-methylcarbapenems with a unique 4-substituted thiazol-2-ylthio moiety at the c-2 side chain. in agar dilution susceptibility testing these novel carbapenems were active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and staphylococcus epidermidis (mrse) with a mic(90) of </=4 micro g/ml. furthermore, sm-232724 showed strong bactericidal activity against mrsa, in contrast to linezolid, which was bacteriostatic up to four times the mic. ...200312878507
candida--agent of the diaper dermatitis?occurrence of candida spp. was determined in a population of 60 infants, 1-15-month-old, with diaper dermatitis, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in hospital saca (kosice, slovakia). specimens were obtained from the perianal, pubic, inguinal, or gluteal areas that showed signs of secondary infection as manifested by erythema, oozing, vesiculopustular lesions, and pus formation. the most frequently isolated species was c. albicans (41), followed by c. parapsilosis (8), c. tropicalis (4) ...200312879751
somatic gene mutation and human disease other than cancer.while the focus of much mutation research is on germ-line mutation, somatic mutation is being found to be important in human disease. neurofibromatosis 1 and mccune-albright are disorders which are detected in the skin and other systems. the skin manifestations were essential for the demonstration of somatic mosaicism in neurofibromatosis 1, while analysis of blood dna demonstrated somatic mutation in neurofibromatosis 2. incontinentia pigmenti is also a disorder seen in skin and other tissues, ...200312644182
target affinities of faropenem to and its impact on the morphology of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.faropenem is a new oral beta-lactam antibiotic unique from carbapenems and other available beta-lactams. determinants of the in vitro activity of beta-lactam antibiotics include affinity to penicillin-binding proteins (pbps) and beta-lactamase stability. in this study, the binding affinity of faropenem to various pbps and its impact on the morphology of staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were evaluated. in general, faropenem demonstrated high binding affinity to high-molecular-weight pbp ...200312886052
[some specific features of vaginal microflora depending on ecological factors].in 75 female residents of vladikavkaz, aged 18-45 years, who had applied to the gynecological department with complaints of vaginal discharge, the qualitative and quantitative composition of vaginal microflora was studied. all these women were divided into 2 groups: group 1 including 38 women living in ecologically unfavorable districts of the city and group 2 including 37 women living under ecologically favorable conditions. the relationship between the ecological situation of the districts of ...200312886612
encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (haberland syndrome) with bilateral cutaneous and visceral involvement.encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis, or haberland syndrome, is a rare congenital neurocutaneous disease. it is characterized clinically by unilateral lipomatous hamartomata of the scalp, eyelid, and outer globe of the eye, ipsilateral porencephalic cysts with cortical atrophy, cranial asymmetry, marked developmental delay and mental retardation. this syndrome should be distinguished from other mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes such as as delleman syndrome, schimmelpenning syndrome, goltz syndrom ...200312823300
diverse effects of ascorbic acid and palmitoyl ascorbate on helicobacter pylori survival and growth.among many antioxidants used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, ascorbic acid (aa) is one of the most important. aa has been suggested to decrease the risk of gastric disease (gastritis, duodenal ulcer, and carcinoma) by direct action on helicobacter pylori. however, there are limited studies on the possible role of aa and its derivatives such as palmitoyl ascorbate (pa) on the growth and survival of h. pylori. in the present study it was demonstrated in vitro that aa in the co ...200312892889
isolation of proteus mirabilis from severe neonatal sepsis and central nervous system infection with extensive pneumocephalus. 200312836017
[bladder rupture caused by spontaneous perforation of an infected urachal cyst].anomalies of the fetal urachus are rare. normally, the postnatal urachus presents as a fibrous band extending from the bladder to the umbilicus. urachal cysts may occur in postnatal life. spontaneous perforation of urachal cysts is a very rare condition, which clinically may not be distinguishable from other acute abdominal conditions. we report a case of a 63-year-old male with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections and a bladder rupture caused by a spontaneous perforation of an infect ...200312851776
biogenesis of melanosomes in kupffer cells of proteus anguinus (urodela, amphibia).the ultrastructural characteristics of melanosomes and premelanosomes observed during the biogenesis of melanosomes in liver pigment cells of the neotenic cave salamander proteus anguinus (proteidae) are described. it is well known that amphibian liver pigment cells, also known as kupffer cells (kc), contain melanosomes and are able to synthesize melanin. liver pigment cells of p. anguinus contain numerous siderosomes and melanosomes. the melanosomes are grouped together within single-membrane-b ...200312859617
chloride dependence of growth in bacteria.chloride is an abundant anion on earth but studies analyzing a possible function of chloride in prokaryotes are scarce. to address the question, we have tested 44 different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria for a chloride dependence or chloride stimulation of growth. none required chloride for growth at their optimal growth (salt) conditions. however, in hyperosmotic media containing high concentrations of na+, 11 bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus megaterium, bacillus subtilis, cor ...200312900036
lipopolysaccharide from proteus mirabilis o29 induces changes in red blood cell membrane lipids and proteins.alterations in red blood cell (rbc) plasma membranes, i.e. in lipids and proteins, and osmotic fragility of these cells after treatment with proteus mirabilis o29 endotoxin (lipolysaccharide (lps)) were examined using a spin labelling method. at the highest concentration of lps, insignificantly decreased fluidity of membrane lipids was observed. changes in conformation of membrane proteins were determined by two covalently bound spin labels, 4-maleimido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (msl) ...200312531246
structure of the o-polysaccharide from proteus myxofaciens. classification of the bacterium into a new proteus-o-serogroup.the o-polysaccharide (o-antigen) was obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of proteus myxofaciens, a proteus strain producing copious amounts of slime, which was isolated from the gypsy moth larvae. the structure of the polysaccharide was studied by chemical analysis and 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy, including 2d cosy, tocsy, roesy and h-detected 1h,13c hmqc experiments. it was found that the polysaccharide contains an amide of glucuronic acid (glca) with an unusual alpha-linked amino acid, nepsil ...200312869193
polymer surface properties and their effect on the adhesion of proteus mirabilis.a problem encountered in patients undergoing long-term catheterization of the urinary tract is that of encrustation and blockage of the catheter by crystalline bacterial biofilms. this is principally caused by the action of the urease-producing pathogen proteus mirabilis. a major aim of this work is to develop materials resistant to encrustation. here, the effects of polymer surface properties on the adhesion of p. mirabilis are examined. spin-coated polymer films were characterized through cont ...200312885198
an inducible tellurite-resistance operon in proteus mirabilis.tellurite resistance (te(r)) is widespread in nature and it is shown here that the natural resistance of proteus mirabilis to tellurite is due to a chromosomally located orthologue of plasmid-borne ter genes found in enteric bacteria. the p. mirabilis ter locus (terzabcde) was identified in a screen of tn5lacz-generated mutants of which one contained an insertion in terc. the p. mirabilis terc mutant displayed increased susceptibility to tellurite (te(s)) and complementation with terc carried on ...200312724390
[etiology and management of persistent hematospermia: a pilot study].to study the etiology of persistent hematospermia and to evaluate the efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography (trus)-guided transperineal needle aspiration and irrigation for diagnosis and treatment of persistent hematospermia.200312749132
in vitro activity of piperacillin/tazobactam and other broad-spectrum antibiotics against bacteria from hospitalised patients in the british isles.piperacillin/tazobactam is used for empirical therapy of severe and complex infections. we assessed its activity, 9 years after launch, against consecutive, clinically significant isolates from in-patients in uk and ireland. standardised disc susceptibility tests were performed on 5031 isolates at 28 hospitals. for quality assurance purposes, 5% of these isolates were collected centrally for mic tests, as were those with exceptional resistances. compared with a similar pre-launch survey in 1991, ...200312842324
antibacterial activity of lactose-binding lectins from bufo arenarum skin.amphibians respond to microbial infection through cellular and humoral defense mechanisms such as antimicrobial protein secretion. most humoral defense proteins are synthetized in the skin. in this study we isolated two beta-galactoside-binding lectins with molecular weights of 50 and 56 kda from the skin of bufo arenarum. these lectins have significant hemagglutination activity against trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes, which was inhibited by galactose-containing saccharides. they are water-solub ...200312847913
the influence of inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment on patients with bloodstream infections in an intensive care unit.to determine the occurrence of inadequate antimicrobial therapy among critically ill patients with bacteremia and the factors associated with it, to identify the microorganisms that received inadequate antimicrobial treatment, and to determine the relationship between inadequate treatment and patients outcome.200312848754
[community acquired urinary tract infection among hospitalized children in northern israel: pathogens, susceptibility patterns and urinary tract anomalies].urinary tract infection (uti) is one of the most common diseases in children. vesicoureteral reflux (vur) has been demonstrated in a substantial number of young children with uti. empiric antibacterial therapy is recommended before results of the urine culture are available in order to shorten the duration of the disease and prevent renal complications.200312754871
a hospitalwide intervention program to optimize the quality of antibiotic use: impact on prescribing practice, antibiotic consumption, cost savings, and bacterial resistance.several findings from argentina provide compelling evidence of the need for more rational use of antimicrobial agents. thus, a multidisciplinary antimicrobial treatment committee for the development of a hospital-wide intervention program was formed to optimize the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals. four successive steps were developed during 6-month periods: baseline data collection, introduction of a prescription form, education, and prescribing control. sustained reduction of drug consum ...200312856209
detection of morganella morganii, a prolific histamine former, by the polymerase chain reaction assay with 16s rdna-targeted primers.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of the most prolific histamine former, morganella morganii, was developed. 16s rdna targeted pcr primers were designed, and the primer specificity and sensitivity of the pcr assay were evaluated. the 16s rdna sequence (1,503 bp) for m. morganii showed 95% identity to those for enteric bacteria, i.e., enterobacter spp., klebsiella spp., citrobacter spp., hafnia alvei, proteus spp., and providencia spp. the unique primer ...200312929824
structure and serological characterization of the o-antigen of proteus mirabilis o18 with a phosphocholine-containing oligosaccharide phosphate repeating unit.a phosphorylated, choline-containing polysaccharide was obtained by o-deacylation of the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of proteus mirabilis o18 by treatment with aqueous 12% ammonia, whereas hydrolysis with dilute acetic acid resulted in depolymerisation of the polysaccharide chain by the glycosyl phosphate linkage. treatment of the o-deacylated lps with aqueous 48% hydrofluoric acid cleaved the glycosyl phosphate group but, unexpectedly, did not affect the choline phosphate group. the polysaccharide ...200312932366
[urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in women in norway].we wanted to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections in adult women in norway.200312934120
extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in enterobacteriaceae in buenos aires, argentina, public hospitals.resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is often associated with plasmid encoded extended spectrum beta-lactamases (esbl). in order to evaluate the prevalence and diversity of esbls in enterobacteria in our city, a 1-month-period survey was carried out from april to may 2000. extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant strains, isolated from inpatient clinical specimens other than stools, were collected among 17 participating hospitals. from a total of 427 enterobacterial strains that were ...200312936986
evaluation of proteus mirabilis structural fimbrial proteins as antigens against urinary tract infections.proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection (uti) and produce several types of different fimbriae, including mannose-resistant/proteus-like fimbriae, uroepithelial cell adhesin (uca), and p. mirabilis fimbriae (pmf). different authors have related these fimbriae with different aspects of p. mirabilis pathogenesis, although the precise role of fimbriae in uti has not yet been elucidated. in this work we expressed and purified recombinant structural fimbrial proteins of these fi ...200312727373
control of encrustation and blockage of foley catheters.urinary catheters often become encrusted and blocked by crystalline proteus mirabilis biofilms. results of experiments in a laboratory model of a foley catheterised bladder infected with p mirabilis showed that when retention balloons were inflated with a solution of triclosan (10 g/l), the catheters drained freely for at least 7 days. triclosan became impregnated throughout the silicone catheter material and completely inhibited the formation of crystalline biofilm, whereas catheters inflated w ...200312727400
structural and serological studies of the o-antigen of proteus mirabilis o-9.the following structure of the o-polysaccharide (o-antigen) of the lipopolysaccharide of proteus mirabilis o-9 was determined by nmr spectroscopy, including 2d 1h,(1)h cosy, tocsy, roesy, and 1h,(13)c hmqc experiments, along with chemical methods: [chemical structure: see text] where the degree of o-acetylation is approximately 70%. immunochemical studies using rabbit polyclonal anti-proteus mirabilis o-9 serum showed the importance of the o-acetyl groups in manifesting the serological specifici ...200312747861
microbiological study of external otitis in rosario city, argentina.mycological and/or bacteriological studies were performed on 294 samples isolated from the external auditory control (eac). it was observed that 185 (81.5%) of the mycological analysis were negative while 42 (18.5%) were positive with the following distribution: 22 candida (9.7%), 15 aspergillus (6.5%) and five associations of aspergillus and candida (2.2%). the bacteriological studies were negative in 52 cases (23.6%) and the frequency of the bacterial agents (75.5%) isolated were as follows: 4 ...200312950900
the effect of low concentrations of ascorbic acid in microbial adherence in vitro.in the present study, we examined the in vitro effect of low concentrations of ascorbic acid (lower than normal plasma levels), on the adherence of five microbial strains (staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and pseudomonas aeruginosa) to human buccal epithelial cells (bec) of healthy volunteers. the study reached the following conclusions: 1) the presence of ascorbic acid significantly reduces the ability of all tested strains (with the exception o ...200312951896
morphological, host range, and genetic characterization of two coliphages.two coliphages, ar1 and lg1, were characterized based on their morphological, host range, and genetic properties. transmission electron microscopy showed that both phages belonged to the myoviridae; phage particles of lg1 were smaller than those of ar1 and had an isometric head 68 nm in diameter and a complex contractile tail 111 nm in length. transmission electron micrographs of ar1 showed phage particles consisting of an elongated isometric head of 103 by 74 nm and a complex contractile tail 1 ...200312957924
multiple ctx-m-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in nosocomial isolates of enterobacteriaceae from a hospital in northern italy.twelve isolates of enterobacteriaceae (1 of klebsiella pneumoniae, 8 of escherichia coli, 1 of proteus mirabilis, and 2 of proteus vulgaris) classified as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producers according to the esbl screen flow application of the bd-phoenix automatic system and for which the cefotaxime mics were higher than those of ceftazidime were collected between january 2001 and july 2002 at the laboratory of clinical microbiology of the san matteo university hospital of pavia (n ...200312958255
protean agonism at histamine h3 receptors in vitro and in vivo.g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs) are allosteric proteins that adopt inactive (r) and active (r*) conformations in equilibrium. r* is promoted by agonists or occurs spontaneously, leading to constitutive activity of the receptor. conversely, inverse agonists promote r and decrease constitutive activity. the existence of another pharmacological entity, referred to as "protean" agonists (after proteus, the greek god who could change shape), was assumed on theoretical grounds. it was predicted fr ...200312960366
effect of rho family gtp-binding proteins on amoeba proteus.while there is a number of studies on the effects of rho gtpases on the actin-based cytoskeleton in higher eukaryotes, studies in protozoans are rather limited. the problem seems to be intriguing since the structure of protozoan cytoskeletons is distinct from most vertebrate cells. by blocking endogenous rho family proteins of highly motile amoeba proteus with c3 transferase and antibodies against human rhoa and rac1, we tried to assess the in vivo role of these proteins in amoebae. in migrating ...200312664280
treatment of gram-negative folliculitis in patients with acne.gram-negative folliculitis may be the result of long-term antibacterial treatment in acne patients. it is caused by bacterial interference and replacement of the gram-positive flora of the facial skin and the mucous membranes of the nose and infestation with gram-negative bacteria. these gram-negative bacteria include escherischia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, serratia marescens, klebsiella and proteus mirabilis. the occurrence of gram-negative folliculitis should be considered in acne patients ...200312680804
a survey of bacterial diversity in ticks, lice and fleas from australia.we isolated bacteria from ticks, lice and fleas. partial small subunit rrna sequences were obtained for each isolate and the closest matches in the fasta database were determined. these bacteria were mostly gram-positive (firmicutes), although representatives from the proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma subdivisions) and cfb group were also isolated. most of the isolates we found were from genera that were present in most of the ectoparasites studied, but a few genera were restricted to one speci ...200312632173
structure of the o-specific polysaccharide of providencia rustigianii o14 containing n(epsilon)-[(s)-1-carboxyethyl]-n(alpha)-(d-galacturonoyl)-l-lysine.the o-specific polysaccharide of providencia rustigianii o14 was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lps and studied by chemical methods and nmr spectroscopy, including 2d 1h,(1)h cosy, tocsy, noesy, and 1h,(13)c hsqc experiments. the polysaccharide was found to contain n (epsilon)-[(s)-1-carboxyethyl]-n(alpha)-(d-galacturonoyl)-l-lysine ('alaninolysine', 2s,8s-alalys). the amino acid component was isolated by acid hydrolysis and identified by 13c nmr spectroscopy and specific optical rotat ...200312681927
tandem tetramer-based microsatellite fingerprinting for typing of proteus mirabilis strains.two microsatellite tandem repeated tetramers, (gaca)(4) and (caat)(4), were used for proteus mirabilis strain differentiation. the microsatellite-based pcr tests were applied for the examination of interstrain diversity for 87 p. mirabilis strains. forty-six of the investigated strains were clinical isolates (5 were hospital isolates and 39 were outpatient clinic isolates); 42 strains were derived from the kauffmann-perch collection of laboratory strains. fingerprinting done with the tetramers h ...200312682159
representation, dispersion, and variation of bacterial indicators in the coastal waters of nagore (east coast of india).the occurrence of bacterial indicators in the coastal waters of nagore on the east coast of india was studied during two monsoon and nonmonsoon cycles from 1995 to1996. proteus/klebsiella, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and total coliforms were typically present at a mean level of 10(9) colony-forming units/g dry sediment, whereas other indicators such as salmonella, shigella, and v. cholerae were at the 10(5) level. in the water column, total coliforms and salmonella were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude l ...200312683465
real-time pcr duplex assay for rickettsia prowazekii and borrelia recurrentis.rickettsia prowazekii, the etiologic agent for epidemic typhus, and borrelia recurrentis, the etiologic agent of relapsing fever, both utilize the same vector, the human body louse (pediculus humanus), to transmit human disease. we have developed an assay to detect both bacterial pathogens in a single tube utilizing real-time pcr. assays for both agents are specific. the r. prowazekii and b. recurrentis assays do not detect nucleic acid from r. typhi, r. canada, or any of eight spotted fever ric ...200312860643
pten: one gene, many syndromes.pten, on 10q23.3, encodes a major lipid phosphatase which signals down the phosphoinositol-3-kinase/akt pathway and effects g1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. germline pten mutations have been found to occur in 80% of classic cowden syndrome (cs), 60% of bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba syndrome (brrs), up to 20% of proteus syndrome (ps), and approximately 50% of a proteus-like syndrome (psl). cs is a heritable multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk of breast, thyroid, and endometrial carcinomas. ...200312938083
bartonella quintana lipopolysaccharide effects on leukocytes, cxc chemokines and apoptosis: a study on the human whole blood and a rat model.bartonella quintana, an emerging gram-negative pathogen, may cause trench fever, endocarditis, cerebral abscess and bacillary angiomatosis usually with the absence of septic shock in humans. b. quintana lipopolysaccharide (lps), a deep rough endotoxin with strong reactivity in the limulus amebocyte lysate (lal)-assay, was studied in human whole blood and in a rat model. a significant (p<0.05) increase of interleukin-8 (il-8) concentration, comparable to the level induced by enterobacterial lps, ...200312781702
hepatic metallothioneins in two neotenic salamanders, proteus anguinus and necturus maculosus (amphibia, caudata).the presence of metallothionein (mt) and the subcellular distribution of copper, zinc and cadmium were investigated in livers of two neotenic salamanders, proteus anguinus and necturus maculosus. in p. anguinus, caught in the wild, hepatic mts were present as a single isoform of (zn, cu, cd)-thioneins, whose molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 12000 by size exclusion chromatography. the percentage of zinc and cadmium was higher in the cytosol and of copper in the pellet. cytosolic ...200312927903
structure of the o-polysaccharide of providencia alcalifaciens o21 containing 3-formamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose.the o-polysaccharide (o-antigen) of providencia alcalifaciens o21 was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide and studied by chemical methods and nmr spectroscopy. it was found that the polysaccharide is built up of branched pentasaccharide repeating units with a terminal residue of 3-formamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (d-fuc3nfo) and has the following structure: [structure: see text]. anti-p. alcalifaciens o21 serum cross-reacted with the o-antigen of proteus vulgaris o47, wh ...200312801716
overgrowth syndromes: is dysfunctional pi3-kinase signalling a unifying mechanism?studies in drosophila and animal models have shown that the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (pi3-kinase) axis plays a central role in normal development, defining the number and size of cells in tissues. dysfunction of this pathway leads to growth anomalies and has been established to play a key role in the pathogenesis of cowden syndrome and tuberous sclerosis. it is probable that dysfunction of this pathway is the basis of other disorders especially those typified by asymmetric overgrowth.200312939652
high-resolution backscatter electron imaging of colloidal gold in lvsem.high-resolution backscatter electron (bse) imaging of colloidal gold can be accomplished at low voltage using in-lens or below-the-lens fesems equipped with either autrata-modified yttrium aluminium garnet (yag) scintillators doped with cerium, or with bse to secondary electron (se) conversion plates. the threshold for bse detection of colloidal gold was 1.8 kev for the yag detector, and the bse/se conversion was sensitive down to 1 kev. gold particles (6, 12 and 18 nm) have an atomic number of ...200312950470
structure of the o-polysaccharide of proteus vulgaris o44: a new o-antigen that contains an amide of d-glucuronic acid with l-alanine.the o-polysaccharide of proteus vulgaris o44, strain prk 67/57 was studied by 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy, including 2d cosy, tocsy, roesy, h-detected 1h, 13c hmqc, hmqc-tocsy and hmbc experiments. the polysaccharide was found to contain an amide of d-glucuronic acid with l-alanine [d-glca6(l-ala)], and the following structure of the linear pentasaccharide repeating unit was established: [structure: see text]. the structural data of the o-polysaccharide and the results of serological studies wit ...200312801717
is combination antimicrobial therapy required for urinary tract infection in children?this retrospective study examined the characteristics of 338 pediatric patients presenting with a first episode of symptomatic urinary tract infection at taichung veterans general hospital from november 1996 to december 2001. escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (72.5%), followed by proteus mirabilis (8.3%), enterococcus (5.6%), and klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%). they were more susceptible to first-generation cephalosporin in comparison with other first-line antimicrobial agents such as ...200312741735
crystallization of urine mineral components may depend on the chemical nature of proteus endotoxin polysaccharides.formation of infectious urinary calculi is the most common complication accompanying urinary tract infections by members of the genus proteus. the major factor involved in stone formation is the urease produced by these bacteria, which causes local supersaturation and crystallization of magnesium and calcium phosphates as carbonate apatite [ca(10)(po(4))(6).co(3)] and struvite (mgnh(4)po(4).6h(2)o), respectively. this effect may also be enhanced by bacterial polysaccharides. macromolecules of su ...200312748265
[inhibition effect of merthiolate used as vaccines preservative on the oxygen-dependent metabolism of neutrophil granulocytes].the influence of the newly developed complex vaccine pyopol, containing the antigens of opportunistic microorganisms and polyoxydonium used as immunomodulator, on the oxygen-dependent metabolism of neutrophils was studied. the study revealed that the main components of the vaccine, both individually and in association, did not change cellular activity in the range of concentrations used in this study. the inhibition of the oxygen-dependent metabolism of neutrophil granulocytes in the presence of ...200312966894
high resolution cryofesem of microbial surfaces.the outer surfaces of three microorganisms, giardia lamblia, enterococcus faecalis, and proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either pt alone or pt plus carbon. cryocoated samples were examined at -125 degrees c in either an in-lens field emission sem or a below-the-lens field emission sem. cryocoating with pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging r ...200312901761
clinical quiz. d proteus syndrome. 200312862023
antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacteria from intensive care units and urology services. a nationwide study in the netherlands 1995-2000.a nationwide 6-year surveillance of resistance in escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical specimens of patients from ten intensive care units and ten urology services was started in 1995. mics of amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanate, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefaclor, ceftazidime, imipenem and gentamicin were determined by broth microdilution. intensive care units had higher resistance levels of amoxycill ...200312791468
mycotic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery--a case report.extracranial internal carotid artery (ica) mycotic aneurysms are rare entities that may result in significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. several operative techniques have been described in the literature for the management of this difficult condition. this case report describes a contained ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial ica associated with proteus mirabilis infection successfully treated by an end-to-end spatulated interposition saphenous vein graft.200312799731
visualization of proteus mirabilis morphotypes in the urinary tract: the elongated swarmer cell is rarely observed in ascending urinary tract infection.proteus mirabilis, a common cause of nosocomial and catheter-associated urinary tract infection, colonizes the bladder and ascends the ureters to the proximal tubules of the kidneys, leading to the development of acute pyelonephritis. p. mirabilis is capable of swarming, a form of multicellular behavior in which bacteria differentiate from the short rod typical of members of the family enterobacteriaceae, termed the swimmer cell, into hyperflagellated elongated bacteria capable of rapid and coor ...200312761147
[long-term cefadroxil prophylaxis in children with recurrent urinary tract infections].the aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose, long-term cefadroxil prophylaxis in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in children. a prospective, randomized trial in 33 children (32 female, 1 male) aged 2-14 years (mean 8.1+/-2.8) was conducted. children with recurrent urinary tract infections were commenced to six-month prophylaxis with cefadroxil at the dosage of 12.5-15.0 mg/kg at bedtime administered every night (group i, n=15) or alternate night (group ...200312761422
new structures of the o-specific polysaccharides of proteus. 3. polysaccharides containing non-carbohydrate organic acids.four new proteus o-specific polysaccharides were isolated by mild acid degradation from the lipopolysaccharides of p. penneri 28 (1), p. vulgaris o44 (2), p. mirabilis g1 (o3) (3), and p. myxofaciens (4), and their structures were elucidated using nmr spectroscopy and chemical methods. they were found to contain non-carbohydrate organic acids, including ether-linked lactic acid and amide-linked amino acids, and the following structures of the repeating units were established: [figure: see text], ...200312765528
ampc beta-lactamase producing multidrug resistant strains of klebsiella spp. & escherichia coli isolated from children under five in chennai.ampc beta-lactamases are group i cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of beta-lactam drugs. plasmid mediated ampc beta-lactamases has been discovered most frequently in isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, salmonella, proteus mirabilis and escherichia coli. the present study was undertaken to study the occurrence of multidrug resistant and ampc beta-lactamase producing klebsiella spp. and escherichia coli in children less than five years of age as this age group i ...200312866821
proteus syndrome associated with liver involvement: case report.we report a patient with proteus syndrome who has epidermal nevus, right-sided asymmetric growth of extremities, pelvis, vertebrae and hemimegalencephaly. this patient also had enlargement of the liver which is not reported before in the proteus syndrome.200312872817
trends in fluoroquinolone resistance of bacteria isolated from canine urinary tracts.fluoroquinolone (fq) antimicrobial agents are used extensively in human and veterinary medicine. widespread use of any antimicrobial agent can apply selective pressure on populations of bacteria, which may result in an increase in the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant isolates. antimicrobial-susceptibility data on bacteria isolated from the canine urinary tract by the university of missouri-columbia veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory, columbia, mo, were used to determine whether there ...200312918814
polypoid cystitis in 17 dogs (1978-2001).polypoid cystitis is a rare disease of the urinary bladder in dogs characterized by inflammation, epithelial proliferation, and development of a polypoid mass or masses without histopathologic evidence of neoplasia. medical records of 17 dogs with polypoid cystitis were reviewed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of this disorder and to assess treatment and outcome. most affected dogs (15/17) were female and presented for evaluation of hematuria or recurrent urinary tract infectio ...200312892301
alterations in human red blood cell membrane properties induced by the lipopolysaccharide from proteus mirabilis s1959.the effect of lipopolysaccharide (lps, endotoxin), isolated from proteus mirabilis s1959 strain, on red blood cell (rbc) membranes in whole cells as well as on isolated membranes was studied. lipid membrane fluidity, conformational state of membrane proteins and the osmotic fragility of rbcs were examined using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectrophotometric method. lipid membrane fluidity was determined using three spin-labeled fatty acids: 5-, 12- and 16-doxylstearic acid ( ...200312902154
comparison and evaluation of osiris and sirscan 2000 antimicrobial susceptibility systems in the clinical microbiology laboratory.the osiris and sirscan 2000 systems are two semiautomated systems that can be used to read and interpret the results on disk diffusion agar plates. they are both used for determination of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. the present study compared both systems versus the nccls standard method of visual reading with a ruler. both inpatient and outpatient samples with a total of 315 nonfastidious gram-negative strains were obtained. in total, 3724 organism-antimicrobial agent combinations t ...200312904366
the xerc recombinase of proteus mirabilis: characterization and interaction with other tyrosine recombinases.xerc and xerd are two site-specific recombinases, which act on different sites to maintain replicons in a monomeric state. this system, which was first discovered and studied in escherichia coli, is present in several species including proteus mirabilis, where the xerd recombinase was previously characterized by our laboratory. in this paper, we report the presence of the xerc gene in p. mirabilis. using in vitro reactions, we show that the two p. mirabilis recombinases display binding and cleav ...200313129609
role of microbiological investigations in the management of non-perineal cutaneous abscesses.pus samples for microbiological examination are routinely sent after incision and drainage of abscesses. there is no evidence that microbiology reports influence treatment for non-perineal cutaneous abscesses.200313679548
a rapid method for determining mycobacterium tuberculosis based on a bulk acoustic wave impedance biosensor.the bulk acoustic wave impedance biosensor was set up and used to monitor the growth of mycobacterium tuberculosis (m.tb). this sensor is rapid, simple, sensitive (lower limit is 2 x 10(3) cells ml(-1)) and cheap (easy to generalize). the typical response curve was different from other bacteria's, such as escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, proteus mirabilis. the frequency detection time was used to quantitatively determine m.tb. it was proportional to logarithm of the initial concentration ...200318968982
unilateral generalized hypertrichosis in proteus syndrome.a young lady was found to have hemihypertrophy, scoliosis, subcutaneous swellings, patchy dermal hypoplasia, plantar hyperplasia and macrodactyly. these suggested a diagnosis of proteus syndrome. she was also having unilateral generalized hypertrichosis. the association of proteus syndrome and unilateral generalized hypertrichosis has not been reported in the literature.200217656984
psoas abscess twenty-one years after ipsilateral nephrectomy.we report an unusual case of psoas abscess, which developed twenty-one years after ipsilateral nephrectomy and was caused by infrequent pathogen, proteus mirabilis. it was diagnosed by computed tomography and was drained percutaneously with a nephrostomy tube guided by ultrasonography.200212899219
information extraction for enhanced access to disease outbreak reports.document search is generally based on individual terms in the document. however, for collections within limited domains it is possible to provide more powerful access tools. this paper describes a system designed for collections of reports of infectious disease outbreaks. the system, proteus-bio, automatically creates a table of outbreaks, with each table entry linked to the document describing that outbreak; this makes it possible to use database operations such as selection and sorting to find ...200212755518
asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.chronic inflammatory state and chronic infections appear to be one of the most important risk factors of morbidity and mortality in patients (pts) on dialysis. the aim of our study was to determine the frequency of urinary tract infections (uti) in clinically asymptomatic patients on capd. the study included 43 (22f, 21m) clinically stable asymptomatic capd patients with diuresis ranged from 300 to 2500 ml per 24 h. clean catch urine specimen, was cultured and identified by standard technique. u ...200212898851
diagnosis, treatment and registration of urinary tract infections in geriatric patients.bacteriuria (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) is a very common phenomenon in elderly people, occurring twice as frequently in women than in men. there are symptomatic and asymptomatic types of bacteriuria. risk factors include: a decrease in the estrogen level in women after the menopause, catheterisation, urinary bladder dysfunction, hypertrophy of the prostate gland, diabetes, neurological illnesses. the diagnosis of bacteriuria is based on quantitative urine culture (positive result--> or = 10(5) cfu/ml ...200212898972
invitro comparative evaluation of aminoglycosides at a cancer centre.a comparative study of in vitro activity of amikacin, gentamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin and isepamicin was done. a total of 200 clinical isolates of gram negative organisms from various clinical sources were tested. e.coli was the most frequently isolated organism followed by pseudomonas spp., klebsiella spp., proteus spp., acinetobacter spp. and enterobacter spp. of the 5 aminoglycosides tested, isepamicin showed the highest numbers of susceptible isolates followed by amikacin, netilmicin, gen ...200212928571
aerobic pathogenic bacteria in post-operative wounds at moi teaching and referral hospital.the emergence of bacterial antimicrobial resistance associated with acquired infections has made the choice of empirical therapy more difficult and expensive, hence the need for continuous research to determine their sensitivity patterns.200212678447
in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against recent clinical isolates of bacteria in korea.gemifloxacin is an enhanced-affinity fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. in korea, resistant bacteria are relatively more prevalent than in other industrialized countries. in this study, we studied the in vitro activities of gemifloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against 1,689 bacterial strains isolated at four korean university hospitals during 1999-2000. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) ...200212482994
[second multicenter study of the in vitro susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam].a study was conducted in 1999 on the activity of piperacillin-tazobactam on 1349 strains collected in a spanish multicenter study involving 10 hospitals. a total of 897 gram-negative bacteria of the following genuses were collected: escherichia coli (169), klebsiella spp. (112), pseudomonas spp. (122), enterobacter spp. (92), serratia spp. (44), citrobacter spp. (37), proteus spp. (114), morganella spp. (49), acinetobacter spp. (47), stenotrophomonas spp. (47), haemophilus spp. (45), moraxella s ...200212582446
[cefepime (maxipime) treatment efficacy in surgical patients ].between september and december 2001 in the "caritas" surgical clinic of bucharest has been conducted a clinical study for the efficiency of cefepime (maxipime) treatment in surgical patients. introduced in therapy in the last decade of the xxth century, cefepime (maxipime) is the most active 4th generation cephalosporin, due to its extended spectrum of activity and its high resistance against beta-lactamases. cefepime (maxipime) has a very large spectrum, including the majority of the microorgan ...200212731215
randomized prospective comparative study: short-term treatment with ciclopiroxolamine (cream and solution) versus boric acid in the treatment of otomycosis.sixty-four patients with symptomatic otomycosis (80 infected ears) confirmed by direct microscopy and culture were randomly treated for i week with ciclopiroxolamine cream 11% (group a, 20 infected ears, 17 patients), ciclopiroxolamine solution 1% (group b, 20 infected ears, 17 patients) and boric acid (group c, 40 infected ears, 30 patients) and daily mechanical suction aspiration of the debris. an attempt was made to match 11 clinical parameters with both the mycological and bacteriological fi ...200212572722
pathogenic agents of chronic suppurative otitis media in ilorin, nigeria.to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic micro-organisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (csom) in our environment.200212625677
antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative uropathogens isolated from obstetric patients.to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative uropathogens isolated from pregnant women.200212625967
on the involvement of the water-polaron mechanism in energy trapping by reaction centers of purple bacteria.a locus for binding a mobile water molecule was searched for in the immediate vicinity of the special pair in the reaction center. using the proteus pc-program (a part of the grasp package) atomic structures of the reaction centers were analyzed in purple bacteria rhodopseudomonas viridis and rhodobacter sphaeroides. in both structures the loci for binding mobile water molecules were found at the distance of about 4.5 a from the middle of the special pair in the reaction center. the reorientatio ...200212495417
[amyloidosis associated with chronic granulomatous disease in a patient with a renal transplant and recurrent urinary tract infections].chronic granulomatous disease is a group of syndromes which share a defect in a component of the phagocyte nadph-oxidase complex. without this enzyme activity, phagocytic cells cannot produce superoxide, peroxide, and other potent microbicidal radicals, and are less able to kill ingested pathogens. the clinical picture is characterised by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and abnormal tissue granuloma formation. on the other hand, amyloidosis is a systemic disease with r ...200212497752
r-factor in proteus vulgaris from ulcerative disease of fish, channa punctatus.a proteus vulgaris isolated from external ulcers of the fresh water fish channa punctatus showed multidrug resistance and heavy metal tolerance. the isolate from the ulcer showed resistance to chloramphenicol (ch), nalidixic acid (nx), streptomycin (str) and tetracycline (tet) with minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) values of 750, 150, 75 and 125 microg/ml, respectively. the isolate showed growth in medium containing cadmium (cd2+), up to a concentration of 2.5 mm indicating its heavy metal ...200212622213
extended spectrum beta-lactamase mediated resistance in urinary tract isolates of family enterobacteriaceae.extended spectrum beta-lactamases (esbl) hydrolyse expanded spectrum cephalosporins like ceftazidime, cefotaxime and monobactam aztreonam. esbl producing bacteria may not be detectable in the routine disk diffusion susceptibility tests leading to inappropriate use of antibiotics and treatment failures. as information on esbl producers causing urinary tract infection (uti) is not available from our country, the occurrence of esbl producing strains causing uti was studied as also the differences b ...200212674828
susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria to biocides: a perspective from the study of catheter biofilms.bacteria resistant to both the agents deployed to prevent infections and those used to treat infections would be formidable nosocomial pathogens. the aim of this paper is to review the evidence that gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics and biocides have emerged and been responsible for catheter-associated urinary tract infection. a study of patients undergoing intermittent bladder catheterization revealed that the frequent application of the antiseptic chlorhexidine to the perineal sk ...200212481841
the role of conjugative transposons in the enterobacteriaceae.although widely studied in gram-positive streptococci and in the gram-negative bacteroides, there is a scarcity of information on the occurrence and nature of conjugative transposon-like elements in the well-studied enterobacteriaceae. in fact, some of the major reviews on conjugative transposons prior to 1996 failed to mention their occurrence in this group. recently, their presence has been reported in salmonella, vibrio and proteus species, and in some cases such as the sxt element in vibrio ...200212568331
development of resistant bacteria isolated from dogs with otitis externa or urinary tract infections after exposure to enrofloxacin in vitro.minimum inhibitory concentrations for enrofloxacin were determined for 63 bacterial isolates from dogs with otitis externa or urinary tract infections. development of resistant mutants was determined after exposing the isolates to enrofloxacin in vitro for up to five serial passages. results indicated that pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococcus spp isolates exposed to enrofloxacin developed resistance rapidly, whereas klebsiella, proteus, and streptococcus spp were less likely to develop resist ...200212584687
a case of purple urine bag syndrome (pubs). 200212212364
electrophoretic analysis of salmonella typhi and other bacteria.a comparative study involving sds-page of salmonella typhi and other bacteria was conducted. protoplasmic antigens of salmonella typhi. salmonella paratyphi a, salmonella typhimurium, proteus sp, klebsiellas sp. pseudomonas aeruginosa, shigella flexneri, staphylococcus aureus were separated and compared on sds-page followed by checking of their cross reactivity by gel diffusion using antisera raised against whole cell and lysates of salmonella typhi. lines of identity between salmonella typhi, s ...200212649947
[investigation of hydrophobicity of proteus vulgaris strains and ability of proteus vulgaris and proteus penneri strains to penetrate bladder membrane hcv t-29 cells ].proteus bacilli play a particularly important role in urinary tract infections (uti). fimbriae and adherence ability and hemolysins production (hpma, hlya) are one of the factors of pathogenicity of these bacteria. in this paper we describe the invasion of hcv t-29 transitional bladder urothelial cells carcinoma strains of p. penneri, as well as p. vulgaris strains belonging to different serogroups. the cytotoxic effect was observed at 8 hour of incubation of the tested cells with p. vulgaris o2 ...200212650056
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