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proteus mirabilis and rheumatoid arthritis: no association with the disease.proteus mirabilis (pm) is implicated in different studies in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (ra) because of the structural homogeneity of its haemolysin b precursor with eqrraa sequences in drb 1 haplotype. the aim of the study was to compare the levels of antibodies specific to pm in the sera of patients with ra and healthy controls in our population. serum samples from 78 consecutive ra patients and 75 healthy controls were analysed for the presence of igg isotype and total immunoglo ...200314576988
[antibacterial effect of nitric oxide].in this study, the antibacterial effects of nitric oxide (no) have been investigated against 4 strains of multidrug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis and 8 klebsiella, 7 escherichia coli, 7 staphylococcus, 5 enterobacter, 7 pseudomonas and 7 proteus clinical isolates by using deta-no ((z)-1-[n-(2-aminoethyl)-n-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) as the no donor. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) were determined by broth microdilution method for all tested microorganisms. th ...200314593897
composition and antimicrobial activity of achillea clavennae l. essential oil.the volatile constituents of achillea clavennae l. (asteraceae), rare plant of europe, have been analysed using gc/ms. twenty- five components making up 81.6% of the oil were characterized with camphor (29.5%), myrcene (5.5%), 1,8-cineole (5.3%), beta-caryophyllene (5.1%) and linalool (4.9%) being the major constituents. the essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. the screening of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil was conducted by a disc diffusion test ...200314595583
argentinean collaborative multicenter study on the in vitro comparative activity of piperacillin-tazobactam against selected bacterial isolates recovered from hospitalized patients.the in vitro activity of piperacillin-tazobactam and several antibacterial drugs commonly used in argentinean hospitals for the treatment of severe infections was determined against selected but consecutively isolated strains from clinical specimens recovered from hospitalized patients at 17 different hospitals from 9 argentinean cities from different geographic areas during the period november 2001-march 2002. out of 418 enterobacteriaceae included in the study 84% were susceptible to piperacil ...200314596972
proteus mirabilis fimbriae (pmf) are important for both bladder and kidney colonization in mice.proteus mirabilis expresses different types of fimbriae simultaneously. several fimbrial types have been described and their role in the colonization of the urinary tract is under study. previously, p. mirabilis fimbriae (pmf) have been shown to be associated with bacterial colonization of the lower urinary tract but not of the kidneys. in this study, a pmfa mutant was generated and used in several in vivo and in vitro studies. two different urinary tract infection models in the mouse and two in ...200314600235
evolution of aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes of four gram-negative bacteria: an 8-year survey in a university hospital in greece.in order to determine the resistance patterns and evolution trends of four common enterobacteriaceae (escherichia coli, proteus spp., klebsiella spp. and enterobacter spp.), aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes of 8917 non-repetitive strains, isolated over an 8-year period, were analysed. phenotypes were defined by examining the susceptibility of the strains to a panel of aminoglycosides, using disk diffusion method. a large diversity of different resistance phenotypes was encountered. a signifi ...200314602373
molecular epidemiology of proteus mirabilis infections of the catheterized urinary tract.proteus mirabilis compromises the care of many patients undergoing long-term indwelling bladder catheterization. it forms crystalline bacterial biofilms in catheters which block the flow of urine, causing either incontinence due to leakage or painful distention of the bladder due to urinary retention. if it is not dealt with, catheter blockage can lead to pyelonephritis and septicemia. we have examined the epidemiology of catheter-associated p. mirabilis infections by use of pulsed-field gel ele ...200314605124
soil microbial populations, community composition, and activity as affected by repeated applications of hog and cattle manure in eastern saskatchewan.a field site near humboldt, saskatchewan, was annually treated with hog or cattle manure and cropped to canola, spring wheat, barley, and canola from 1997 to 2000. during each growing season, soil was analyzed for microbial populations in terms of activity and community structure, and crops were assessed for root rot and foliar diseases. microbial activity in soils treated with cattle manure was higher than in soils treated with hog manure or urea. similarly, nitrous oxide emissions from soil in ...200314608420
comparative evaluation of three chromogenic agars for detection and rapid identification of aerobic gram-negative bacteria in the normal intestinal microflora.to compare three different chromogenic agars and macconkey agar for the detection of aerobic gram-negative bacteria in the normal intestinal microflora and to assess the accuracy of the chromogenic agars for the direct identification of escherichia coli.200314616678
comparative in vitro activity of piperacillin, piperacillin-sulbactam and piperacillin-tazobactam against nosocomial pathogens isolated from intensive care patients.we investigated the antimicrobial activity of piperacillin-tazobactam versus piperacillin-sulbactam against common nosocomial pathogens (n = 565) isolated from intensive care patients. for gram-positive bacteria, antimicrobial susceptibilities to the two piperacillin-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations were almost identical. for gram-negative bacteria, piperacillin-tazobactam exhibited greater activity against escherichia coli and proteus vulgaris than piperacillin-sulbactam. both combinations ...200314616732
[antibacterial activity of pure cultures of cyanobacteria and algae].pure cultures of microcystis aeruginosa, platymonas viridis and nephrochloris salina have been grown on the media with different nitrogen and phosphorus content. their supernatants and pellets, as well as lipid complex, terpene fraction and some its components from m. aeruginosa had selective antibacterial characteristics. the increase of nitrogen content in the medium correlated with the intensification (m. aeruginosa, n. salina) or conservation (p. viridis) of bactericidal activity. the pellet ...200314618789
bioassay screening of amazonian plants.the purpose of this study was to evaluate several biological activities of thirty plant extracts collected in the north west amazon (ecuador). some of these plants are being used for their reputed medicinal properties by the natives of this region.200314619457
separation of glutathione transferase subunits from proteus vulgaris by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.cytosolic glutathione transferases of proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kda to 28.5 kda; a different pi value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. all four subunits existed as basic proteins (pi > 7.0). from these results, we concluded that multi ...200314629019
antimicrobial activity of gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.the ethanolic extract of gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against bacillus pumilis, b. subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against proteus vulgaris and escherichia coli.200314630178
vesical calculi with unrepaired vesicovaginal fistula: a clinical appraisal of an uncommon association.primary vesical calculi are uncommon in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (vvf). we retrospectively analyzed 19 such cases and present our experience with the management of this condition.200314634380
the proteus syndrome associated with life threatening hematuria. 200314634442
role of arginine 226 in the mechanism of tryptophan indole-lyase from proteus vulgaris.in the spatial structure of tryptophanase from proteus vulgaris the guanidinium group of arginine 226 forms a salt bridge with the 3;-oxygen atom of the coenzyme. the replacement of arginine 226 with alanine using site-directed mutagenesis reduced the affinity of the coenzyme for the protein by one order of magnitude compared to the wild-type enzyme. the catalytic activity of the mutant enzyme in the reaction with l-tryptophan was reduced 10(5)-fold compared to the wild-type enzyme. the rates of ...200314640959
polyhalogenated benzo- and naphthoquinones are potent inhibitors of plant and bacterial ureases.polyhalogenated benzo- and naphthoquinones were found to be potent inhibitors of pure ureases from bacillus pasteurii and canavalia ensiformis. they also inhibited ureases in whole cells of helicobacter pylori, klebsiella oxytoca and proteus mirabilis. inhibition was non-competitive with k(i) values in the micromolar range or below. inhibition was irreversible as shown by equilibrium dialysis. inhibitory power decreased considerably when halogens were replaced by -oh, -cn, alkoxy or alkyl groups ...200314644444
structural studies of proteus mirabilis catalase in its ground state, oxidized state and in complex with formic acid.the structure of proteus mirabilis catalase in complex with an inhibitor, formic acid, has been solved at 2.3 a resolution. formic acid is a key ligand of catalase because of its ability to react with the ferric enzyme, giving a high-spin iron complex. alternatively, it can react with two transient oxidized intermediates of the enzymatic mechanism, compounds i and ii. in this work, the structures of native p. mirabilis catalase (pmc) and compound i have also been determined at high resolution (2 ...200314646074
endoscopic treatment in a patient with obstructive jaundice caused by pancreatic pseudocyst.we report a case of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice due to compression of the common bile duct by pancreatic pseudocyst. ultrasonography and computed tomographic scan on admission demonstrated an 8 cm cystic lesion located at the head of the pancreas. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp) revealed a segment of narrowing at the distal common bile duct which was compressed by the pancreatic pseudocyst. communication between the cyst and pancreatic duct was ...200314649681
proteus syndrome.proteus syndrome is a rare sporadic, hamartoneoplastic disorder of vascular, skeletal, and soft tissues that causes asymmetry of the skull, body, arms, and the legs. the name "proteus" of the greek god who had the ability to change his shape was coined to define the variety of deformities including partial gigantism of the hands or feet, asymmetry of the arms and legs, hypertrophy of long bones, plantar hyperplasia, haemangiomas, lipomas, varicosities, linear verrucous epidermal naevi, macroceph ...200314649692
norfloxacin-releasing urethral catheter for long-term catheterization.norfloxacin-releasing urethral catheters were prepared for the purpose of preventing urinary tract infections during long-term catheterization. the outer and inner surfaces of the catheters were coated with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (eva) and an amphiphilic multiblock co-polymer (peo2kpdms), composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(dimethyl siloxane). norfloxacin, a fluoroquinolone synthetic antibiotic, was impregnated into a coating layer. the in vitro drug release behavior was monitored ...200314661872
gentamicin-releasing urethral catheter for short-term catheterization.urethral catheters, widely used for the drainage of the bladder, are associated with most urinary tract infections (utis) that account for 40% of all episodes occurring in acute-care hospitals. this study aimed to develop a gentamicin-releasing catheter that effectively prevents utis for short-term catheterization. for physical loading of gentamicin, the urethral catheters were coated by the simple dipping method with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (eva) and eva/poly(ethylene oxide) (peo) blend ...200314661873
nosocomial outbreak of infections by proteus mirabilis that produces extended-spectrum ctx-m-2 type beta-lactamase.nineteen multidrug-resistant proteus mirabilis strains were isolated from 19 patients suffering from infections probably caused by p. mirabilis. these strains were recovered from urine or other urogenital specimens of 16 inpatients and three outpatients with a hospitalization history in a urology ward of funabashi medical center, from july 2001 to august 2002. these strains demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, and aztreonam, while they were highly susceptible to cefta ...200314662935
differential regulation of the proteus mirabilis urease gene cluster by urer and h-ns.proteus mirabilis, a cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, relies on several virulence factors to colonize the urinary tract. among these, urease contributes to the development of urinary stones resulting from the increase in local ph due to urease-mediated hydrolysis of urea to nh(3) and co(2). urer, an arac-like transcriptional activator, activates transcription of the genes encoding the urease subunits and accessory proteins (uredabcefg) in the presence of urea. urer also init ...200314663072
antibacterial effects of carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.the purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees c. extracts of immature, mature and ripe carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared fro ...200315040064
temporary catheter infections in hemodialysis patients: results from a single center in turkey.in this study, we aimed to determine the frequencies of catheter exit-site infection (cesi), catheter-related bloodstream infection (cr-bsi) and catheter colonization (cc); causative microorganisms; and resistance patterns in patients with temporary hemodialysis catheters. from march 1999 to march 2000, 67 hemodialysis patients (38 males, 29 females; median age: 52, range: 17-84) were evaluated. the cdc criteria were used to diagnose cesi, cr-bsi and cc. the tips of catheters were cultured by ma ...200315068127
detection of anti-proteus antibodies in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.this study was carried out to determine increased level of antibodies to certain bacteria in rheumatoid arthritis (ra) patients. fifty ra patients and 25 each of those suffering from osteoarthritis (oa) and healthy controls were tested for antibodies to somatic ('o) and flagellar ('h') antigens of proteus mirabilis, escherichia coli, and for antibodies to 'o' antigen of klebsiella pneumoniae by standard tube agglutination method. anti-proteus antibodies against 'o' and 'h' antigens could be demo ...200315027757
[comparative study on antibacterial effects of huangqin-tang and its metabolites produced by intestinal flora].to compare the antibacterial effects of huangqin-tang with its metabolites produced by intestinal flora.200315015311
[surveillance of susceptibility of clinical isolates to cefmetazole between 2000 and 2002].the antibacterial activity of cefmetazole (cmz) against clinical isolates from 15 medical institutions all over japan was evaluated yearly for two years from june 2000 to march 2002 and compared with that of other parenteral beta-lactams, cefazolin (cez), cefotiam (ctm), sulbactam/cefoperazone (sbt/cpz), and flomoxef (fmox). in the first surveillance from june 2000 to march 2001, 575 isolates of 13 species were tested, and 548 isolates of the same 13 species were tested in the second surveillanc ...200315007873
involvement of opioid peptides and arginine-vasopressin in the regulation of water-electrolyte exchange in the amoeba amoeba proteus. 200314994529
the incidence of oral gram-negative bacteria in patients with parkinson's disease.background: parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects an increasing number of older people every year. dysphagia is not only a common feature, but one that results in poor nutrition and an increased risk of bronchopneumonia. previous work has suggested that the oral flora is altered in patients with oral pathology. methods: fifty patients were assessed to quantify the incidence of oral gram-negative bacteria. results: sixteen of the patients with parkinson's disease ...200314962700
bacterial dynamics associated with algal antibacterial substances during post harvest desiccation process of sargassum stolonifolium phang et yoshida.brown algae of genus sargassum are known to produce relatively higher amount of alginic acid. optimal extraction of this algalcolloid for local consumption requires in-depth studies on post-harvest treatment of the algal fronds. present investigation endeavors to establish the dynamics and inter-relationship of moisture content and bacteria found on the surface of the alga and alginic acid content during post-harvest desiccation of sargassum stolonifolium phang et yoshida. harvested fronds were ...200315248481
proteus syndrome and somatic mosaicism of the chromosome 16.the authors describe clinical pathologic findings in a patient with a structural chromosome 16 anomaly in mosaic distribution with the phenotypic characteristics of the proteus syndrome. this is the 1st report showing that the proteus syndrome may be associated with a chromosome 16 anomaly; while previous findings suggested that this syndrome was associated with a modification of chromosome 1. as the pathologic hypothesis of this syndrome possibly involves lethal genes in somatic mosaicism, resp ...200315206168
widespread antibiotic resistance in savannah nigeria.there is minimal data on antibiotic resistance from savannah northern nigeria. a retrospective study of 438 patients seen in 12 months (2000) with microbial pathogens from urinary and respiratory tracts was undertaken. antibiotic susceptibilities were determined using stokes disc diffusion technique. resistance in escherichia coli (e. coli) reached 91-96% to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and ampicillin but was 11%, 17% and 28% to colistin, nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid. resistance of other uro ...200315030093
[incidence and sensitivity to antibiotics of germs isolated from surgical wound infections].we studied 119 bacterial strains isolated from postoperative infected wounds. all these strains were considered to be strains that derived from the same number of nosocomial infections, all the postoperative infections of the wounds being nosocomial infections. regarding their frequency, we isolated the following strains: e. coli--68 strains (57%), s. aureus--37 strains (31%), pseudomonas spp.--9 strains (8%) and proteus spp.--5 strains (4%). we performed the bacteriological study of these strai ...200315341326
[relationship between antibacterial activity of aloe and its anthaquinone compounds].to investigate the relationship between the antibacterial activity of aloe and its contents of anthaquinone compounds, measure and compale antibacterial activities of aloin and aloe-emodin, and analyse the effect of glycoside on the antibacterial activity of aloin.200315615409
polymicrobial osteomyelitis of the odontoid process with epidural abscess: case report and review of literature.osteomyelitis of the odontoid process is a rare disease and staphylococcus aureus is the usual causative organism. we present a case caused by a synergistic infection with staphylococcus aureus and proteus mirabilis, which has not been reported previously. a high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis, and early institution of broad antimicrobial therapy, including agents active against gram-negative organisms, is mandatory.200315912167
antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from portuguese endemic species of thymus.thymus species are wild species mostly found in the arid lands of portugal. possible antimicrobial properties of thymus essential oils have been investigated. the chemical composition of the essential oils and the antimicrobial activity of thymus mastichina (l) l. subsp. mastichina, t. camphoratus and t. lotocephalus from different regions of portugal were analysed.200312485339
high-resolution structure and biochemical properties of a recombinant proteus mirabilis catalase depleted in iron.heme catalases are homotetrameric enzymes with a highly conserved complex quaternary structure, and their functional role is still not well understood. proteus mirabilis catalase (pmc), a heme enzyme belonging to the family of nadph-binding catalases, was efficiently overexpressed in e. coli. the recombinant catalase (rec pmc) was deficient in heme with one-third heme and two-thirds protoporphyrin ix as determined by mass spectrometry and chemical methods. this ratio was influenced by the expres ...200312486720
role of rsma in the regulation of swarming motility and virulence factor expression in proteus mirabilis.swarming by proteus mirabilis involves differentiation of typical short vegetative rods into filamentous hyper-flagellated swarm cells that undergo cycles of rapid and co-ordinated population migration across surfaces and exhibit high levels of virulence gene expression. rsma (repressor of secondary metabolites) and csra, its homologue in escherichia coli, control many phenotypic traits, such as motility and pathogenesis in erwinia species, glycogen biosynthesis, cell size and biofilm formation ...200312488561
evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of mangifera indica.mangifera indica is commonly grown in many parts of the world. its seeds have been used for anti-diarrhoeal activity in indian traditional medicine. this study evaluates the potential anti-diarrhoeal activity of methanolic (mmi) and aqueous (ami) extracts of seeds of m. indica in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. both mmi and ami were given orally in the dose of 250 mg/kg, showed significant anti-diarrhoeal activity comparable with that of the standard ...200312499070
integration of a transposon tn1-encoded inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamase gene, bla(tem-67) from proteus mirabilis, into the escherichia coli chromosome.proteus mirabilis nel-1 was isolated from a urine sample of a patient hospitalized in a long-term care facility. strain nel-1 produced a beta-lactamase with a pi of 5.2 conferring resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. sequencing of a pcr amplicon by using tem-specific primers revealed a novel bla(tem) gene, bla(tem-67). tem-67 was an irt-1-like tem derivative related to tem-65 (lys39, cys244) with an additional leu21ile amino acid substitution in the leader peptide. the bioc ...200312499163
occurrence and phenotypic characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among members of the family enterobacteriaceae at the tel-aviv medical center (israel) and evaluation of diagnostic tests.we assessed the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producers among cefuroxime-resistant (cxm-r) (mic > or = 32 micro g/ml) members of the family enterobacteriaceae in our institution. the 438 cxm-r clinical isolates obtained from nonurine sources among inpatients were screened. esbl production was confirmed by disk diffusion assay using cefpodoxime (cpd), cefotaxime (ctx), and ceftazidime (ctz) with and without clavulanate (clav). a difference of ...200312517841
evaluation of a novel automated chemiluminescent assay system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.the newly developed rapid lumi eiken/is60 (rl/is60) system automatically determines mics by detecting chemiluminescence produced in the reaction of a chemiluminescent probe and oxygen metabolites from living microorganisms. the present study evaluated this system for accuracy in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. chemiluminescence intensities after 4 h of cultivation of clinically important strains were plotted against various concentrations of antimicrobial agents, which resulted in curves r ...200312517861
an international survey of the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens from uncomplicated urinary tract infections: the eco.sens project.the eco.sens study is the first international survey to investigate the prevalence and susceptibility of pathogens causing community-acquired acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (utis). midstream urine samples were taken for culture and for testing for the presence of leucocytes from 4734 women not older than 65 years presenting with symptoms of acute uti at 252 community health care centres in 17 countries. recognized urinary tract pathogens were identified and the susceptibility to 12 ...200312493789
lipopolysaccharide from proteus mirabilis o29 induces changes in red blood cell membrane lipids and proteins.alterations in red blood cell (rbc) plasma membranes, i.e. in lipids and proteins, and osmotic fragility of these cells after treatment with proteus mirabilis o29 endotoxin (lipolysaccharide (lps)) were examined using a spin labelling method. at the highest concentration of lps, insignificantly decreased fluidity of membrane lipids was observed. changes in conformation of membrane proteins were determined by two covalently bound spin labels, 4-maleimido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (msl) ...200312531246
urer, the transcriptional activator of the proteus mirabilis urease gene cluster, is required for urease activity and virulence in experimental urinary tract infections.proteus mirabilis, a cause of complicated urinary tract infection, produces urease, an essential virulence factor for this species. urer, a member of the arac/xyls family of transcriptional regulators, positively activates expression of the ure gene cluster in the presence of urea. to specifically evaluate the contribution of urer to urease activity and virulence in the urinary tract, a urer mutation was introduced into p. mirabilis hi4320 by homologous recombination. the isogenic urer::apha mut ...200312540589
structure of the o-specific polysaccharide of proteus vulgaris o45 containing 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose.an o-specific polysaccharide was isolated by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of proteus vulgaris o45 and studied by sugar and methylation analyses along with 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy, including 2d cosy, tocsy, roesy, h-detected 1h,13c hsqc and hmbc experiments. the following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established:-->6)-alpha-d-glcpnac-(1-->4)-alpha-d-galpnac-(1-->4)-alpha-d-galpa-(1-->3)-beta-d-glcpnac-(1-->2)-beta-d-fucp3nac4ac-( ...200312559730
pathogenic colonization of oral flora in frail elderly patients fed by nasogastric tube or percutaneous enterogastric tube.aspiration of infected oropharyngeal content is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia. this complication, mainly related to gram-negative bacteria, threatens percutaneous enterogastric tube as well as nasogastric tube (ngt) fed patients. the objective of this study was to examine the oral microbiota of tuboenterally fed patients and compare it with that of orally fed counterparts.200312560411
mental deficiency, alterations in performance, and cns abnormalities in overgrowth syndromes.mental deficiency, alterations in performance, and central nervous system (cns) abnormalities are discussed in the following overgrowth syndromes: sotos syndrome, weaver syndrome, proteus syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, fragile x syndrome, syndromes with neonatal hypoglycemia, simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome, hemihyperplasia, sturge-weber syndrome, bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba/cowden syndrome, macrocephaly-autism syndrome, peho syndrome, chromosomal syndromes, and other miscellaneous syndromes.200312561058
proteus syndrome: a concern for the anesthesiologist. 200312598301
the etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens.the microbial etiology of urinary infections has been regarded as well established and reasonably consistent. escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen (80%) isolated in acute community-acquired uncomplicated infections, followed by staphylococcus saprophyticus (10% to 15%). klebsiella, enterobacter, and proteus species, and enterococci infrequently cause uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis. the pathogens traditionally associated with uti are changing many of their features, par ...200312601338
[prevalence of antibodies against francisella tularensis in castilla y león (spain) before 1997].the aim of this paper was determine the prevalence of antibodies against francisella tularensis in the representative sample of people from castilla-león (spain) before epidemic outbreak of end 1997.200312605730
bile cultures and sensitivity patterns in malignant obstructive jaundice.bactibilia is one of the important factors in the development of postoperative septic complications. we undertook this retrospective analysis to identify the organisms present in bile and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice.200312617446
vitreous and aqueous penetration of orally administered gatifloxacin in humans.to investigate the penetration of gatifloxacin, a novel extended-spectrum fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic, into the vitreous and aqueous humor after oral administration.200312617704
bmp2 exposure results in decreased pten protein degradation and increased pten levels.the tumour suppressor gene pten encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase that recognizes protein and phosphatidylinositiol substrates and modulates cellular functions such as migration and proliferation. germline mutations of pten have been shown to cause cowden syndrome, bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba syndrome and proteus syndrome. recently, germline mutations in bmpr1a, the gene encoding the type 1a receptor of bone morphogenetic proteins (bmp) have been found in rare families with cowden syndrome, su ...200312620973
acrab multidrug efflux pump is associated with reduced levels of susceptibility to tigecycline (gar-936) in proteus mirabilis.tigecycline has good broad-spectrum activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens with the notable exception of the proteeae: a study was performed to identify the mechanism responsible for the reduced susceptibility to tigecycline in proteus mirabilis. two independent transposon insertion mutants of p. mirabilis that had 16-fold-increased susceptibility to tigecycline were mapped to the acrb gene homolog of the escherichia coli acrrab efflux system. wild-type levels of decreas ...200312543675
essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of santiria trimera bark.the composition and the antimicrobial activity of the bark oil of santiria trimera (oliv.) aubrév., a plant widely used by the traditional healers in s. tomé and príncipe, especially for wound healing, are reported for the first time. the analysis of the essential oil was carried out by gc and gc-ms. the oil contains a high content of monoterpenes, alpha-pinene (66.6 %) being the major constituent, followed by beta-pinene (20.0 %). the essential oil was active against both bacteria and fungi str ...200312567287
antimicrobial activity of ximenia americana.extracts of the bark, leaves, root and stem of ximenia americana were tested for their antimicrobial and antifungal activity.200312628405
serologic evidence of human infection by francisella tularensis in the population of castilla y león (spain) prior to 1997.prior to an outbreak in castilla y león in december 1997, tularaemia was practically non-existent in spain. in this paper we studied the prevalence of antibodies against francisella tularensis in a representative sample of the population (4825 people) from castilla y león (spain) in samples collected before this outbreak. antibodies against f. tularensis were detected in nine (0.19%) of the 4825 sera, with antibody titres ranging from 1/20 to 1/160. of these nine sera, one was positive in seroag ...200312628554
[bacteriological monitoring of infective agents of purulent septic diseases in an emergency hospital].during the period of 1995-2001 bacteriological examination of 13,842 patients with purulent septic diseases (psd) was carried out. the statistical processing of data revealed that equalization of the dynamic rows of intensive and extensive values characterizing the number of patients with psd caused by etiologically important infective agents made it possible to evaluate the reliability of information. a trend to increased etiological importance of the genera pseudomonas, escherichia and klebsie ...200312630345
what have we learnt from community-acquired infections in hong kong?this study was initiated throughout hong kong, to reveal the characteristics of community-acquired infections. all specimens collected by general practitioners from infected patients were followed prospectively, and those that were culture-positive were analysed. four thousand seven hundred and forty-one specimens were collected from 3977 patients by 89 doctors from july 2000 to october 2001. the most common specimens were throat swabs (33%), urine (26%) and sputa (16%). the average culture-posi ...200312654732
effect of rho family gtp-binding proteins on amoeba proteus.while there is a number of studies on the effects of rho gtpases on the actin-based cytoskeleton in higher eukaryotes, studies in protozoans are rather limited. the problem seems to be intriguing since the structure of protozoan cytoskeletons is distinct from most vertebrate cells. by blocking endogenous rho family proteins of highly motile amoeba proteus with c3 transferase and antibodies against human rhoa and rac1, we tried to assess the in vivo role of these proteins in amoebae. in migrating ...200312664280
[morganella morganii endophthalmitis after vitrectomy: case report and review of the literature].postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis are caused in 80 % of the cases by the patient's own flora. most of the time, bacterial agents are gram-positive ((2/3) of cases) and more rarely gram-negative ((1/3) of cases). usually, pseudomonas sp, proteus sp or klebsiella sp are isolated, but very rarely morganella morganii.200312664382
synthesis and antimicrobial activity of [2-[2-(n, n-disubstituted thiocarbamoyl-sulfanyl)-acylamino] thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters.[2-[2-(n, n-disubstituted thiocarbamoyl-sulfanyl)acylamino ]thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters (3a-x) were synthesized by the reaction of potassium salts of n, n-disubstituted dithiocarbamoic acids with [2-(2-chloroalkanoyl)amino-thiazol-4-yl]acetic acid ethyl esters. the structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses, uv, ir, (1)h-nmr, and ei mass spectral data. the antimicrobial activities of all the compounds were investigated by microbroth dilution technique ...200312666252
proteus mirabilis glutathione s-transferase b1-1 is involved in protective mechanisms against oxidative and chemical stresses.we investigated the effects of several xenobiotics, including antimicrobial agents and general stress factors such as starvation, heat and osmotic shock, on the modulation of expression of proteus mirabilis glutathione s-transferase b1-1 (pmgst b1-1). the level of expression of pmgst b1-1 was established by both western- and northern-blot experiments. our results show that several compounds can modulate expression of pmgst b1-1. the level of pmgst b1-1 increased when bacterial cells were exposed ...200312667139
antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens in pediatric emergency department patients.to evaluate the prevalence of resistance of the various urinary tract infection (uti) pathogens obtained from patients in an urban pediatric emergency department (ped), and to identify risk factors for infection with resistant strains.200312670848
characterization of sams genes of amoeba proteus and the endosymbiotic x-bacteria.as a result of harboring obligatory bacterial endosymbionts, the xd strain of amoeba proteus no longer produces its own s-adenosylmethionine synthetase (sams). when symbiont-free d amoebae are infected with symbionts (x-bacteria), the amount of amoeba sams decreases to a negligible level within four weeks, but about 47% of the sams activity, which apparently comes from another source, is still detected. complete nucleotide sequences of sams genes of d and xd amoebae are presented and show that t ...200312674481
[tuberculous otitis media. report of 3 cases].tuberculous otitis media (tom) is a rare cause of chronic suppurative infection of the middle ear. due to that the symptoms and signs are often indistinguishable from those of nontuberculosis chronic otitis media and the fact that the index of suspicion is low, there is frequently a considerable delay prior to diagnosis. this can lead to irreversible complications such as facial nerve paralysis and labyrinthitis. medical therapy with antituberculous drugs is usually effective. we report three ca ...200312680299
treatment of gram-negative folliculitis in patients with acne.gram-negative folliculitis may be the result of long-term antibacterial treatment in acne patients. it is caused by bacterial interference and replacement of the gram-positive flora of the facial skin and the mucous membranes of the nose and infestation with gram-negative bacteria. these gram-negative bacteria include escherischia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, serratia marescens, klebsiella and proteus mirabilis. the occurrence of gram-negative folliculitis should be considered in acne patients ...200312680804
structure of the o-specific polysaccharide of providencia rustigianii o14 containing n(epsilon)-[(s)-1-carboxyethyl]-n(alpha)-(d-galacturonoyl)-l-lysine.the o-specific polysaccharide of providencia rustigianii o14 was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lps and studied by chemical methods and nmr spectroscopy, including 2d 1h,(1)h cosy, tocsy, noesy, and 1h,(13)c hsqc experiments. the polysaccharide was found to contain n (epsilon)-[(s)-1-carboxyethyl]-n(alpha)-(d-galacturonoyl)-l-lysine ('alaninolysine', 2s,8s-alalys). the amino acid component was isolated by acid hydrolysis and identified by 13c nmr spectroscopy and specific optical rotat ...200312681927
characterization of clinical isolates of enterobacteriaceae from italy by the bd phoenix extended-spectrum beta-lactamase detection method.production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) is an important mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in enterobacteriaceae: identification of esbls based on phenotypic tests is the strategy most commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. the phoenix esbl test (bd diagnostic systems, sparks, md.) is a recently developed automated system for detection of esbl-producing gram-negative bacteria. an algorithm based on phenotypic responses to a panel of cephalosporins (ceftazidime plus ...200312682131
tandem tetramer-based microsatellite fingerprinting for typing of proteus mirabilis strains.two microsatellite tandem repeated tetramers, (gaca)(4) and (caat)(4), were used for proteus mirabilis strain differentiation. the microsatellite-based pcr tests were applied for the examination of interstrain diversity for 87 p. mirabilis strains. forty-six of the investigated strains were clinical isolates (5 were hospital isolates and 39 were outpatient clinic isolates); 42 strains were derived from the kauffmann-perch collection of laboratory strains. fingerprinting done with the tetramers h ...200312682159
representation, dispersion, and variation of bacterial indicators in the coastal waters of nagore (east coast of india).the occurrence of bacterial indicators in the coastal waters of nagore on the east coast of india was studied during two monsoon and nonmonsoon cycles from 1995 to1996. proteus/klebsiella, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and total coliforms were typically present at a mean level of 10(9) colony-forming units/g dry sediment, whereas other indicators such as salmonella, shigella, and v. cholerae were at the 10(5) level. in the water column, total coliforms and salmonella were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude l ...200312683465
immunochemical studies on the o-antigens of proteus mirabilis o23 and proteus vulgaris o23.analysis by 1h and 13c nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy demonstrated that the o-specific polysaccharides of proteus mirabilis prk 42/57 and p. vulgaris prk 43/57 are structurally similar to that of p. vulgaris prk 44/57 and different from the polysaccharide of p. mirabilis prk 41/57 studied earlier. the lipopolysaccharides of these strains were tested using enzyme immunosorbent assay, passive hemolysis and western blot with o-antisera against p. mirabilis 42/57 and p. vulgaris 43/57 ...200312691306
bacteraemia due to tribe proteeae: a review of 132 cases during a decade (1991-2000).to characterize the clinical features of bacteraemia due to tribe proteeae, 132 cases among 130 patients from 1991 to 2000 were analysed. the organisms included the proteus species in 63 cases (p. mirabilis in 41, p. penneri in 2 and p. vulgaris in 20), the providencia species in 8 (p. rettgeri in 3 and p. stuartii 5) and morganella morganii in 61. morganella bacteraemia occurred more frequently in the hospital (70.5%). biliary and hepatic diseases were predominant in cases with morganella bacte ...200312693558
a minimal form of proteus syndrome presenting with macrodactyly and hand hyperplasia.proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by progressive course and great variability of clinical presentation with partial gigantism of extremities, hemihyperplasia with macrocephaly, epidermal nevus, mesodermal hamartomas and the presence of peculiar cerebriform masses on the palms/soles. many atypical cases have been reported and this is probably due to the mosaicism of the genetic disorder displaying different clinical features. we describe a patient with an extremely mild ...200312695139
effects of mupirocin at subinhibitory concentrations on flagella formation in pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus mirabilis.colonization of pseudomonas aeruginosa at trachea, nares and oropharynx can cause ventilator-acquired pneumonia. to identify beneficial effects of antibiotics on expression of virulence factors related to colonization by such pathogens, we evaluated the effect of mupirocin on flagella formation in p. aeruginosa and on motility and flagella formation in proteus mirabilis. in p. aeruginosa, subinhibitory concentrations of mupirocin inhibited flagella formation, which was associated with reduced fl ...200312697640
membrane fluidity sensoring microbial fuel cell.a study has been performed to examine the effect of temperature and ethanolic stresses on the coulombic efficiency of a microbial fuel cell. the conventional-type fuel cell containing gram-negative bacteria, proteus vulgaris, was investigated as a model system. from current output measurements, it was found that the coulombic yields were altered by environmental stresses such as temperature shock or ethanol treatment to the bacteria. while high-temperature or ethanolic shock led to a remarkable ...200312699828
bacteriology of burns at the queen elizabeth central hospital, blantyre, malawi.a retrospective study to determine the bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of burn isolates at the queen elizabeth central hospital (qech), blantyre, malawi was undertaken. while a total of 1825 burn patients were admitted to the hospital over a 6-year period (january 1994 to december 1999) only 317 (17.4%) specimens selected from as many patients were processed. one hundred and seventy (170/53.6%) specimens yielded single while the rest (147/46.4%) had multiple isolates givi ...200312706616
crystal structure of proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulfate abc lyase i at 1.9a resolution.chondroitin sulfate abc lyase i from proteus vulgaris is an endolytic, broad-specificity glycosaminoglycan lyase, which degrades chondroitin, chondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronan by beta-elimination of 1,4-hexosaminidic bond to unsaturated disaccharides and tetrasaccharides. its structure revealed three domains. the n-terminal domain has a fold similar to that of carbohydrate-binding domains of xylanases and some lectins, the middle and c-terminal domain ...200312706721
trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities among enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalized patients in the united states from 1998 to 2001.longitudinal surveillance of enterobacteriaceae for antimicrobial susceptibility is important because species of this family are among the most significant and prevalent human pathogens. to estimate rates of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility among hospitalized patients in the united states, data from the surveillance network were studied for 14 agents tested against 10 species of enterobacteriaceae (n = 384,279) isolated from intensive-care-unit (icu) patients and non-icu inpatients from 199 ...200312709339
systematics of primary osmotrophic euglenids: a molecular approach to the phylogeny of distigma and astasia (euglenozoa).nuclear-encoded ssu rrna genes from nine strains of distigma and three strains of astasia were sequenced and analysed phylogenetically with maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods. it could be demonstrated that the genus distigma is paraphyletic, consisting of two distinct clades: one comprises four strains of the type species, distigma proteus, and the other includes four strains of distigma curvatum, distigma gracile, distigma sennii and distigma elegans. these findings are well corro ...200312710635
in vitro synergy studies using aztreonam and fluoroquinolone combinations against six species of gram-negative bacilli.combination antimicrobial therapy is often necessary to eradicate infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.200312714810
[pyomyositis].pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. it is a rare condition which cannot easily be diagnosed. a fatal case of pyomyositis in a 78-year-old man is presented. the clinical signs and diagnostics of pyomyositis are discussed.200312715662
in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of leaf essential oils of chukrasia tabularis adr juss and melia dubia cav (meliaceae).the essential oils of chukrasia tabularis and melia dubia were tested for their antimicrobial activity against ten different pathogenic microorganisms responsible for human pathologies using standard antimicrobial assays. chukrasia tabularis leaf oil exhibited strong antibiotic activities against proteus vulgaris and fusarium oxysporum and did not show any activity against the tested bacteria. melia dubia leaf essential oil exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against pseudomonas ...200312722153
[enterobacter, citrobacter, proteus]. 200312722249
[proteus syndrome: report of two cases].proteus syndrome is a complex disorder, consisting of mesodermal and skeletal malformations as well as hamartomatous overgrowth. it is characterized by highly variable presentation and mosaic-pattern lesions. the two cases described herein illustrate the wide polymorphism of this syndrome. the second case also had a pubic fracture, which we have not previously seen reported in the medical literature on proteus syndrome.200312724087
an inducible tellurite-resistance operon in proteus mirabilis.tellurite resistance (te(r)) is widespread in nature and it is shown here that the natural resistance of proteus mirabilis to tellurite is due to a chromosomally located orthologue of plasmid-borne ter genes found in enteric bacteria. the p. mirabilis ter locus (terzabcde) was identified in a screen of tn5lacz-generated mutants of which one contained an insertion in terc. the p. mirabilis terc mutant displayed increased susceptibility to tellurite (te(s)) and complementation with terc carried on ...200312724390
comparative in vitro potency of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and four oral agents against recent north american clinical isolates from a global surveillance study.the in vitro activity of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid was compared with four comparator oral antimicrobial agents; ampicillin, azithromycin, cefuroxime and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole against 4536 recent clinical isolates covering 29 species isolated in the us and canada between 1997 and 1999. based upon minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics), amoxycillin-clavulanic acid was the most active agent against many gram-positive species and phenotypes including methicillin susceptible staphylococc ...200312727075
evaluation of proteus mirabilis structural fimbrial proteins as antigens against urinary tract infections.proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection (uti) and produce several types of different fimbriae, including mannose-resistant/proteus-like fimbriae, uroepithelial cell adhesin (uca), and p. mirabilis fimbriae (pmf). different authors have related these fimbriae with different aspects of p. mirabilis pathogenesis, although the precise role of fimbriae in uti has not yet been elucidated. in this work we expressed and purified recombinant structural fimbrial proteins of these fi ...200312727373
control of encrustation and blockage of foley catheters.urinary catheters often become encrusted and blocked by crystalline proteus mirabilis biofilms. results of experiments in a laboratory model of a foley catheterised bladder infected with p mirabilis showed that when retention balloons were inflated with a solution of triclosan (10 g/l), the catheters drained freely for at least 7 days. triclosan became impregnated throughout the silicone catheter material and completely inhibited the formation of crystalline biofilm, whereas catheters inflated w ...200312727400
ruptured renal microaneurysms complicated with a retroperitoneal abscess for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.renal artery aneurysm is extremely rare among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.(sle). herein, we report on a 22-year-old male lupus patient who presented with acute abdominal pain, anemia and subsequent hypertension. abdominal computed tomography revealed a peri-renal hematoma over the right kidney. a renal angiography revealed bilateral renal microaneurysms. the patient subsequently developed a right-side retroperitoneal abscess 4 weeks after hematoma formation and received an emergen ...200312729057
susceptibility patterns of orally administered antimicrobials among urinary tract infection pathogens from hospitalized patients in north america: comparison report to europe and latin america. results from the sentry antimicrobial surveillance program (2000).urinary tract infections (utis) remain a worldwide nosocomial infection problem. geographic variations in pathogen occurrence and susceptibility profiles require monitoring to provide information to guide new (garenoxacin [bms284756]) therapeutic options. two thousand seven hundred-eighty uti isolates from europe (n = 783), latin america (531), and north america (1,466) were tested and compared against 44 agents by reference methods in the sentry antimicrobial surveillance program. the top seven ...200312730002
a survey of bacterial diversity in ticks, lice and fleas from australia.we isolated bacteria from ticks, lice and fleas. partial small subunit rrna sequences were obtained for each isolate and the closest matches in the fasta database were determined. these bacteria were mostly gram-positive (firmicutes), although representatives from the proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma subdivisions) and cfb group were also isolated. most of the isolates we found were from genera that were present in most of the ectoparasites studied, but a few genera were restricted to one speci ...200312632173
a uk multicentre study of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infection.to determine the prevalence of resistance amongst urinary tract pathogens against antimicrobials used to treat urinary tract infections (utis) in the uk to provide data to help direct empirical therapy.200312634070
rheumatoid arthritis: proposal for the use of anti-microbial therapy in early cases.rheumatoid arthritis (ra) is a chronic disease, affecting women more than men, especially in those possessing the "shared epitope" (eqk/rraa) amino acid sequences present in hla-dr1/4 molecules. proteus mirabilis carries sequences showing molecular mimicry to the "shared epitope" and to type xi collagen of hyaline cartilage. elevated levels of antibodies to p. mirabilis have been reported from 14 different countries involving 1375 ra patients and the microbe has been isolated from urine cultures ...200312635939
somatic gene mutation and human disease other than cancer.while the focus of much mutation research is on germ-line mutation, somatic mutation is being found to be important in human disease. neurofibromatosis 1 and mccune-albright are disorders which are detected in the skin and other systems. the skin manifestations were essential for the demonstration of somatic mosaicism in neurofibromatosis 1, while analysis of blood dna demonstrated somatic mutation in neurofibromatosis 2. incontinentia pigmenti is also a disorder seen in skin and other tissues, ...200312644182
involvement of nitric oxide donor compounds in the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils in vitro.the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils against extracellular and facultatively intracellular bacteria was studied in the presence of the nitric oxide (no) donors sodium nitroprusside (snp) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (sin-1), a molsidomine metabolite. snp and molsidomine are drugs commonly used as nitrovasodilators in coronary heart disease. it is demonstrated here that the no donor compounds themselves did not affect the viability and survival of the bacterial strains tested. neither sn ...200312676868
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