PMID(sorted ascending)
environmental spread of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing multidrug-resistant bacteria in dhaka, bangladesh.resistance to carbapenem antibiotics through the production of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (ndm-1) constitutes an emerging challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections. to monitor the possible source of the spread of these organisms in dhaka, bangladesh, we conducted a comparative analysis of wastewater samples from hospital-adjacent areas (har) and from community areas (com), as well as public tap water samples, for the occurrence and characteristics of ndm-1-producing bacteria. of 72 ...201728526792
septicemic invasive klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a cynomolgus monkey (macaca fascicularis) with severe diffused suppurative meningoencephalitis.a 2-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (macaca fascicularis) showed neurological symptoms during quarantine for importation into japan, and was euthanized due to poor prognosis. gross anatomical examination revealed a hemorrhagic lesion around the lateral ventricle in the cerebrum. histologically, severe diffused suppurative meningitis and ventriculitis were detected with numerous gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum. immunohistochemically, the bacilli were positively stained with an antibody agai ...201728529273
effect of gnp functionalisation and multiple n-methylation of β-amyloid residue (32-37) on gram-positive the previous report, the authors showed the gold nanoparticle (gnp) functionalised multiple n-methylated fragments of the residue (32-37) of beta (β)-amyloid protein (1-42), cggiglmvg and cgggggiglmvg toward disruption of β-amyloid (1-42), the predominant component of senile plaques. herein the in vitro antimicrobial activities of both normal and multiple n-methylated sequences of cggiglmvg and cgggggiglmvg were screened and it was found that all the eight sequences including four (non-functi ...201728530185
antimicrobial consumption, costs and resistance patterns: a two year prospective study in a romanian intensive care unit.due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (icu) is often called the epicentre of infections. in the present study, we quantified the burden of hospital acquired pathology in a romanian university hospital icu, represented by antimicrobial agents consumption, costs and local resistance patterns, in order to identify multimodal interventional strategies.201728532467
potentiation of antibiotic activity by a novel cationic peptide: potency and spectrum of activity of spr741.novel approaches for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections are urgently required. one approach is to potentiate the efficacy of existing antibiotics whose spectrum of activity is limited by the permeability barrier presented by the gram-negative outer membrane. cationic peptides derived from polymyxin b have been used to permeabilize the outer membrane, granting antibiotics that would otherwise be excluded access to their targets. we assessed the in vitro effica ...201728533232
roles of ramr and tet(a) mutations in conferring tigecycline resistance in carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates.tigecycline is regarded as a last-resort treatment for carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp) infections, but increasing numbers of tigecycline-resistant k. pneumoniae isolates have been reported. the tigecycline resistance mechanisms in crkp are undetermined. this study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tigecycline resistance in 16 tigecycline- and carbapenem-resistant k. pneumoniae (tcrkp) isolates. mutations in tigecycline resistance determinant genes [ramr, acrr, oqxr, ...201728533243
clonal dissemination of oxa-232 carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in neonates.five oxa-232 carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, belonging to the pandemic clone sequence type 15 (st15), were isolated from neonates and coproduced blactx-m-15 and blashv-1 genes. all isolates were resistant to ertapenem (mics of >32 μg/ml) and meropenem (mics of 4 to 8 μg/ml) and susceptible or intermediate to imipenem (mics of 1 to 2 μg/ml). the blaoxa-232 gene was located on a cole-type transformable plasmid of 6,141 bp. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first rep ...201728533245
tail tubular protein a: a dual-function tail protein of klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage kp32.tail tubular protein a (ttpa) is a structural tail protein of klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage kp32, and is responsible for adhering the bacteriophage to host cells. for the first time, we found that ttpa also exhibits lytic activity towards capsular exopolysaccharide (eps) of the multiresistant clinical strain of klebsiella pneumoniae, pcm2713, and thus should be regarded as a dual-function macromolecule that exhibits both structural and enzymatic actions. here, we present our crystallograph ...201728533535
celecoxib enhances the efficacy of low-dose antibiotic treatment against polymicrobial sepsis in mice and clinical isolates of eskape pathogens.treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit staphylococcus aureus infection. however, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. therefore, we have evaluated the potential use of celecoxib i ...201728533769
isolation, purification, and characterization of five active diketopiperazine derivatives from endophytic streptomyces suk 25 with antimicrobial and cytotoxic our search for new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites from streptomyces sp., the ethyl acetate extracts from endophytic streptomyces suk 25 afforded five active diketopiperazine (dkp) compounds. the aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds isolated from endophytic streptomyces suk 25 and evaluate their bioactivity against multiple drug resistance (mdr) bacteria such as enterococcus raffinosus, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, acinetobacter baumanii, p ...201728535606
clonal replacement of epidemic kpc-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in china.klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent nosocomial pathogen causing difficult-to-treat infections worldwide. the prevalence of klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (kpc-kp) is increasing in china. the aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of kpc-kp in a nosocomial outbreak.201728535790
activity of minocycline against klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates, with comparison to doxycycline and tigecycline.we examined the in vitro activity of minocycline against 103 klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing enterobacteriaceae isolates and found approximately half had susceptible (26%) or intermediate (26%) mics. for a subset of 35 isolates, susceptibility was highest to tigecycline (71% fda vs. 20% eucast) followed by minocycline (14%) and then doxycycline (6%).201728535946
enhanced larvicidal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic efficacy of tio2 nanohybrids green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of parthenium hysterophorus.titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. in this study, titanium dioxide (tio2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. tio2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the p. hysterophorus leaf extracts with the tio4 solution. biologically active compounds such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, and fluoroalkanes were involved in bioredu ...201728537028
increasing proportion of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae and emergence of a mcr-1 producer through a multicentric study among hospital-based and private laboratories in belgium from september to november 2015.carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe) strains have been increasingly reported in belgium. we aimed to determine the proportion of cpe among enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalised patients and community outpatients in belgium in 2015. for the hospitalised patients, the results were compared to a previous similar survey performed in the same hospitals in 2012. twenty-four hospital-based and 10 private laboratories collected prospectively 200 non-duplicated enterobacteriaceae isol ...201728537547
[clinical and microbiological study of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in internal medicine services of a venezuelan university hospital].to determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (ca-uti) in patients admitted to the internal medicine services of the hospital universitario de los andes (hula), mérida, venezuela and to establish the clonal distribution of multi-resistant enterobacteriaceae that produce this infection.201728538846
analysis of risk factors of peripherally inserted central catheter induced catheter-related infection in patients with leukemia.peripherally inserted central catheter (picc) is commonly used in nursing for patients with leukemia. the purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of catheter-related infection (cri) in patients with leukemia and to provide some nursing strategies based on the results.201728540264
carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in barbados: driving change in practice at the national level.carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp) is of growing concern globally. the risk for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms across several continents to the caribbean is a real one given its tourism industry. after a cluster of cases of crkp were detected, several studies detailed in this report were initiated to better characterize the problem.201728542162
zinc blocks sos-induced antibiotic resistance via inhibition of reca in escherichia coli.zinc inhibits the virulence of diarrheagenic e. coli by inducing the envelope stress response and inhibiting the sos response. the sos response is triggered by damage to bacterial dna. in shiga-toxigenic e. coli, the sos response strongly induces the production of shiga toxins (stx) and of the bacteriophages that encode the stx genes. in e. coli, induction of the sos response is accompanied by a higher mutation rate, called the mutator response, caused by a shift to error-prone dna polymerases w ...201728542496
relative susceptibility of airway organisms to antimicrobial effects of nitric oxide.nitric oxide (no) is released in the airway as a critical component of innate immune defense against invading pathogenic organisms. it is well documented that bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of no are concentration-dependent. however, few data exist comparing relative susceptibility of common pathogens to no at physiologic concentrations. in this study we evaluated the effects of no on 4 common airway bacteria and 1 fungus, and examined the potential implications of discrepancies in sens ...201728544570
investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity activities of lichens from high altitude regions of nepal.several lichen species are reported to be used tradiationally in many theraupatic practices. many lichen species are reported as sources of several bioactive natural compounds. several lichen species of nepal are so far chemically unexplored.201728545438
site-specific his/asp phosphoproteomic analysis of prokaryotes reveals putative targets for drug resistance.phosphorylation of amino acid residues on proteins is an important and common post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. most research work has been focused on phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, whereas phosphorylation of other amino acids are significantly less clear due to the controversy on their stability under standard bioanalytical conditions.201728545444
heteroleptic metal(ii) complexes of hydrotris(methimazolyl)borate and diimines: synthesis, theoretical calculations, antimicrobial, antioxidant, in vitro cytotoxicity and molecular docking studies.a series of heteroleptic metal(ii) complexes of formulation [m(tm)(diimine)](clo4) (1-8), [tm = hydrotris(methimazolyl)borate, diimine = 2,2'-bipyridyl or 1,10-phenanthroline and m = mn(ii), ni(ii), cu(ii) or zn(ii)] have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. the geometric parameters of the complexes were determined using uv-vis spectroscopy and dft calculations. the analyses of homo and lumo have been used to explain the charge transfer within the molecule. antimicrobial ...201728546116
metabolic engineering of klebsiella pneumoniae j2b for the production of 1,3-propanediol from glucose.the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pdo) from glucose was investigated using klebsiella pneumoniae j2b, which converts glycerol to 1,3-pdo and synthesize an essential coenzyme b12. in order to connect the glycolytic pathway with the pathway of 1,3-pdo synthesis from glycerol, i.e., to directly produce diol from glucose, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase from saccharomyces cerevisiae were overexpressed. additionally, the effect of expression levels and the ...201728549809
time-kill kinetics and biocidal effect of euclea crispa leaf extracts against microbial evaluate antimicrobial potential of the fractions partitioned from euclea crispa leaf extract and determination of their impact on cell membrane disruption.201728552109
emerging extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae causing community-onset urinary tract infections: a case-control-control study.the aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology and risk factors associated with community-onset urinary tract infections (co-utis) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (esbl-kp). a cohort study including all consecutive patients with k. pneumoniae co-uti identified from january 2010 to december 2014 was conducted. patients with co-uti due to esbl-kp were then included as cases in a retrospective case-control-control study; controls were outpatients with c ...201728552471
antimicrobial activity evaluation and comparison of methods of susceptibility for klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing enterobacter spp. isolates.the production of kpc (klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. in this context, forty kpc-producing enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. it was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin b, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, etest(®) (biomérieux), vitek 2(®) automated syst ...201728552659
decrease of ceftriaxone susceptibility in klebsiella pneumoniae according to biofilm maturation. 201728552832
collaborative research on puerperal infections in bangladesh.bangladesh is considered as a high-risk country for emerging infectious diseases because of its high population density, poverty, and unhygienic conditions. although control efforts have primarily been focused on major infectious diseases such as diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, and hiv infection, the prevalence and impact of many local or minor infectious diseases are still unclarified in this country. in this review, we present our recent experience and outcomes of collaborative rese ...201728552890
esbl production among e. coli and klebsiella spp. causing urinary tract infection: a hospital based study.increase in extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbl) producing microbes in recent years has led to limitations of treatment options. this study aimed to assess the prevalence of esbl producing e. coli and klebsiella spp. at a tertiary hospital in nepal.201728553414
graphene oxide as an efficient antimicrobial nanomaterial for eradicating multi-drug resistant bacteria in vitro and in vivo.graphene is a novel two-dimensional nanomaterial with a growing number of practical applications across numerous fields. in this work, we explored potential biomedical applications of graphene oxide (go) by systematically studying antibacterial capacity of go in both macrophages and animal models. three types of bacteria, including klebsiella pneumoniae (kp), escherichia coli (e. coli) and p. aeruginosa (pa) were used for in vitro study. kp was also selected as a representative multidrug resista ...201728554055
total synthesis and pharmacological investigation of cordyheptapeptide a.the present investigation reports the synthesis of a phenylalanine-rich n-methylated cyclopeptide, cordyheptapeptide a (8), previously isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus cordyceps sp. bcc 1788, accomplished through the coupling of n-methylated tetrapeptide and tripeptide fragments followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide unit. structure elucidation of the newly synthesized cyclopolypeptide was performed by means of ft-ir, ¹h-nmr, (13)c-nmr, and fast atom bombardment mass spectr ...201728554994
the occurrence of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in the haihe river (china).antibiotic failure is occurring worldwide. in a routine surveillance study on antibioticresistance genes (args) in natural water bodies, we noted the detection of colistin-resistance gene mcr-1, previously identified in escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from human beings and animals in several countries. the mcr-1 gene might be present in water environments, because aquatic ecosystems are recognized as reservoirs for antibiotic resistant bacteria (arb) and args. in this study, ...201728555063
dissemination of bla oxa-370 gene among several enterobacteriaceae species in brazil.oxa-370 is a recently described oxa-48 variant that has only been described in a few enterobacter spp. and klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. the purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of oxa-370-producing isolates in carbapenem-nonsusceptible enterobacteriaceae recovered from 28 hospitals from brazil. real-time pcr was used to determine the presence of bla ndm-1, bla kpc-2, bla vim-type, bla ges-type, bla oxa-48-like, and bla imp-type genes. a total of 4,451 enterobacteriaceae were scre ...201728555403
mcr-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in china. 201728555574
effect of the 2014 clinical and laboratory standards institute urine-specific breakpoints on cefazolin susceptibility rates at a community teaching hospital.enterobacteriaceae, which include escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis, are identified as the infectious etiology in the majority of urinary tract infections (utis) in community hospitals across the united states. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) is a useful tool when choosing an appropriate antibacterial agent. recent changes to the 2014 clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) guidelines included reporting a urine-specific cefazolin breakpoint for ...201728558707
mortality associated with bacteremia due to colistin-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae with high-level meropenem resistance: importance of combination therapy without colistin and carbapenems.combination therapy including colistin and a carbapenem has been found to be associated with lower mortality in the treatment of bloodstream infections (bsi) due to kpc-producing klebsiella pneumoniae when the isolates show a meropenem or imipenem mic of <16 mg/liter. however, the optimal treatment of bsi caused by colistin- and high-level carbapenem-resistant kpc-producing k. pneumoniae is unknown. a prospective cohort study including episodes of bacteremia caused by colistin-resistant and high ...201728559247
ceftazidime-avibactam is superior to other treatment regimens against carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia.there are no data comparing outcomes of patients treated with ceftazidime-avibactam versus comparators for carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections. at our center, ceftazidime-avibactam treatment of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia was associated with higher rates of clinical success (p = 0.006) and survival (p = 0.01) than other regimens. across treatment groups, there were no differences in underlying diseases, severity of illness, source of bacteremia, or strain ...201728559250
5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide antibacterial derivatives: design, synthesis and bioactivity.tylosin is a 16-membered macrolide broad-spectrum antibiotic that has an important role in veterinary medicine, active against gram-positive and a restricted range of gram-negative bacteria. we synthesized 15 types of tylosin-related derivatives by chemical modification and evaluated them against mastitis pathogens. among them, 20-deoxy-20-{n-methyl-n-[1-(3-quinolyl)-1h-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methylamino}-5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide 2f and 20-deoxy-20-{n-benzyl-n-[1-(3-quinolyl)-1h-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl] ...201728559578
outbreak by hypermucoviscous klebsiella pneumoniae st11 isolates with carbapenem resistance in a tertiary hospital in china.hypervirulent and multidrug resistant klebsiella pneumoniae strains pose a significant threat to the public health. in the present study, 21 carbapenem-resistant k. pneumoniae isolates (crkp) were determined by the string test as hypermucoviscous k. pneumoniae (hmkp), with the prevalence of 15.0% (21/140) among crkp, and 1.1% (21/1838) among all k. pneumoniae isolates. among them, 7 (33.3%), and 1 (4.76%) isolate belonged to capsular serotype k20 and k2 respectively, while 13 (61.9%, 13/21) were ...201728560183
himatanthus drasticus leaves: chemical characterization and evaluation of their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, antiproliferative activities.plant-derived products have played a fundamental role in the development of new therapeutic agents. this study aimed to analyze antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative potentials of the extract and fractions from leaves of himatanthusdrasticus, a plant from the apocynaceae family. after harvesting, h. drasticus leaves were macerated and a hydroalcoholic extract (hdhe) and fractions were prepared. antimicrobial tests, such as agar-diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration ...201728561790
phenotypic methods for screening carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae and assessment of their antimicrobial susceptibility this study, we used phenotypic methods to screen carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cres) and evaluated their antimicrobial sensitivity profile.201728562752
peptide markers for rapid detection of kpc carbapenemase by lc-ms/ms.carbapenemase producing organisms (cpos) represent an urgent public health threat, and the need for new rapid methods to detect these organisms has been widely recognized. cpos carrying the klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (bla kpc ) gene have caused outbreaks globally with substantial attributable mortality. here we describe the validation of a rapid ms method for the direct detection of unique tryptic peptides of the kpc protein in clinical bacterial isolates with an isolate-to-result time ...201728566732
structural insights into the elevator-like mechanism of the sodium/citrate symporter cits.the sodium-dependent citrate transporter of klebsiella pneumoniae (kpcits) belongs to the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter (2-hct) family and allows the cell to use citrate as sole carbon and energy source in anaerobic conditions. here we present crystal structures of kpcits in citrate-bound outward-facing, citrate-bound asymmetric, and citrate-free inward-facing state. the structures reveal that the kpcits dimerization domain remains stationary throughout the transport cycle due to a hydrogen b ...201728566738
experimental sepsis severity score associated to mortality and bacterial spreading is related to bacterial load and inflammatory profile of different tissues.pneumonia-induced sepsis is responsible for about 50% of cases in the world. patients who develop severe sepsis and septic shock present organ dysfunction and elevated plasma cytokine levels, which may lead to death. clinical scores are important to evaluate the framework of septic patients and are used to predict the syndrome progress, prognostics, and mortality. the objective of the present study was to verify the applicability of a murine clinical score system to experimental sepsis (pneumoni ...201728567497
risk factors for recurrent carbapenem resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection: a prospective cohort assess risk factors for recurrent carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream-infection (cr-kp bsi), we performed a prospective observational cohort study of all consecutive adult patients cured of a cr-kp bsi at our hospital over a six-year period (june 2010 to june 2016). maximum follow-up per patient was 180 days from the index blood cultures (bcs). recurrent cr-kp bsi was defined as new evidence of positive bcs in patients with documented clinical response after completing a co ...201728567543
a high-throughput screening strategy to identify inhibitors of ssb protein-protein interactions in an academic screening facility.antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are increasingly prevalent worldwide, and there is an urgent need for novel classes of antibiotics capable of overcoming existing resistance mechanisms. one potential antibiotic target is the bacterial single-stranded dna binding protein (ssb), which serves as a hub for dna repair, recombination, and replication. eight highly conserved residues at the c-terminus of ssb use direct protein-protein interactions (ppis) to recruit more than a dozen important ...201728570838
synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using seaweed padina gymnospora and their catalytic activity as pvp/ptnps nanocomposite towards biological the recent years, synthesis of nanomaterials using seaweeds and their diverse applications is escalating research in modern era. among the noble metals, platinum nanoparticles (ptnps) are of great importance owing to their catalytic property and less toxicity. the significance of this work is a simple one-step synthesis of ptnps using aqueous extract of indian brown seaweed padina gymnospora and their catalytic activity with a polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) as pvp/ptnps nanocomposite towa ...201728570982
effectiveness of cleaning-disinfection wipes and sprays against multidrug-resistant outbreak rooms play an important role in the transmission of several health care-associated pathogens. during the last few years, a number of innovative cleaning-disinfecting products have been brought to market. in this study, commercially available products combining cleaning and disinfection were compared, using 2 different application methods. the aim was to determine which product was most effective in simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of surfaces.201728571980
φbo1e, a newly discovered lytic bacteriophage targeting carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae of the pandemic clonal group 258 clade ii lineage.the pandemic dissemination of kpc carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (kpc-kp) represents a major public health problem, given their extensive multidrug resistance profiles and primary role in causing healthcare-associated infections. this phenomenon has largely been contributed by strains of clonal group (cg) 258, mostly of clade ii, which in some areas represent the majority of kpc-kp isolates. here we have characterized a newly discovered lytic podoviridae, named φbo1e, targeting kp ...201728572684
therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of holarrhena floribunda (g. don) dur. and schinz (apocynaceae).holarrhena floribunda is a plant of wide usage in the togolese folk medicine. a previous ethnobotanical survey on the latex plants of the maritime region of the country revealed that this plant was included in several recipes curing malaria and microbial infections. therefore, this study aimed to seek for the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of the plant in the treatment of these diseases.201728573239
nickel sequestration by the host-defense protein human calprotectin.the human innate immune protein calprotectin (cp, s100a8/s100a9 oligomer, calgranulin a/calgranulin b oligomer, mrp-8/mrp-14 oligomer) chelates a number of first-row transition metals, including mn(ii), fe(ii), and zn(ii), and can withhold these essential nutrients from microbes. here we elucidate the ni(ii) coordination chemistry of human cp. we present a 2.6-å crystal structure of ni(ii)- and ca(ii)-bound cp, which reveals that cp binds ni(ii) ions at both its transition-metal-binding sites: t ...201728573847
antimicrobial resistance of klebsiella pneumoniae stool isolates circulating in kenya.we sought to determine the genetic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (amr) profiles of commensal klebsiella spp. circulating in kenya by testing human stool isolates of 87 k. pneumoniae and three k. oxytoca collected at eight locations. over one-third of the isolates were resistant to ≥3 categories of antimicrobials and were considered multidrug-resistant (mdr). we then compared the resistance phenotype to the presence/absence of 238 amr genes determined by a broad-spectrum microarray and ...201728575064
phosphate crosslinked pectin based dual responsive hydrogel networks and nanocomposites: development, swelling dynamics and drug release characteristics.potential dual responsive hydrogel networks (ppad) are fabricated from pectin, poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)) and phosphate crosslinker bis[2-methacryloyloxy] ethyl phosphate (bmep) by a simple free radical polymerization. these hydrogel networks are successfully utilized for encapsulation of an anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-fu) and also employed as versatile platforms for production of silver nanoparticles. fabricated hydrogel networks and silver nanocomposites were characteri ...201728576553
draft genome sequence of a ctx-m-15-producing endophytic klebsiella pneumoniae st198 isolate from commercial lettuce.ctx-m-15-producing klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections globally. in this study, we present the draft genome sequence of the first ctx-m-15-producing endophytic k. pneumoniae strain, belonging to sequence type 198 (st198) and isolated from commercial lettuce, which can be used as a reference sequence for comparative analysis with clinical and environmental strains of k. pneumoniae.201728576742
ventilator-associated pneumonia: the role of emerging diagnostic technologies.antibiotic resistance has emerged as a key determinant of outcome in patients with serious infections along with the virulence of the underlying pathogen. within the intensive care unit (icu) setting, ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap) is a common nosocomial infection that is frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. antimicrobial resistance is a growing challenge in the care of critically ill patients. escalating rates of antibiotic resistance add substantially to the morbidity, mor ...201728578550
combined spontaneous bacterial empyema and peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax.spontaneous bacterial empyema (sbem) is an underestimated condition in patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax with a high mortality. this study aimed to find whether spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) is a prerequisite for sbem.201728579346
genome watch: klebsiella pneumoniae: when a colonizer turns bad. 201728579608
burden of antimicrobial resistance in an era of decreasing susceptibility.antimicrobial resistance has become a global problem. many pathogens are becoming multidrug-resistant with the attendant increased risk of failure of standard therapies and the under-recognised outcomes such as increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospitalization and costs of treatment. areas covered: we undertook a review of the literature using standard search engines including pubmed, google scholar, scopus and internet sources. key search terms included antimicrobial resistance, antibio ...201728580804
biomedical applications of green synthesized nobel metal nanoparticles.synthesis of nobel metal nanoparticles, play a key role in the field of medicine. plants contain a substantial number of organic constituents, like phenolic compounds and various types of glycosides that help in synthesis of metal nanoparticles. synthesis of metal nanoparticles by green method is one of the best and environment friendly methods. the major significance of the green synthesis is lack of toxic by-products produced during metal nanoparticle synthesis. the nanoparticles, synthesized ...201728582711
in vitro antibacterial activity of poly (amidoamine)-g7 dendrimer.nano-scale dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules that frequently used in medical and health field. traditional anibiotics are induce bacterial resistence so there is an urgent need for novel antibacterial drug invention. in the present study seventh generation poly (amidoamine) (pamam-g7) dendrimer was synthesized and its antibacterial activities were evaluated against representative gram- negative and gram-positive bacteria.201728583153
synergistic activities of meropenem double and triple combinations against carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae.the increasing emergence of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae poses a considerable threat to global health as only limited treatment options are available and has therefore led to efforts to discover antibiotic combination regimens effective. the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro synergistic activity of 10 meropenem double and triple combinations against the 5 most frequently encountered carbapenemases-producing enterobacteriaceae. broth microdilution assays showed that the mer ...201728583381
risk factors and clinical outcomes for carbapenem-resistant gram-negative late-onset sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit.carbapenem-resistant (cr), gram-negative (gn), late-onset sepsis (los) is a serious threat in the neonatal intensive care unit (nicu).201728583886
susceptibility of colistin-resistant, gram-negative bacteria to antimicrobial peptides and ceragenins.the susceptibility of colistin-resistant clinical isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae to ceragenins and antimicrobial peptides (amps) suggests that there is little to no cross-resistance between colistin and ceragenins/amps and that lipid a modifications are found in bacteria with modest changes in susceptibility to ceragenins and with high levels of resistance to colistin. these results suggest that there are differences in the resistance mechanisms to colistin and ceragenins/amps.201728584137
a study of 24 patients with colistin-resistant gram-negative isolates in a tertiary care hospital in south the use of colistin to treat carbapenem-resistant gram-negative infections increases, colistin resistance is being increasingly reported in indian hospitals.201728584435
properties of probiotics kocuria sm1 and rhodococcus sm2 isolated from fish guts.this study characterized probiotics kocuria sm1 and rhodococcus sm2, which were recovered from the intestinal microbiota of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum). the cultures were gram-positive, non-motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative cocci or rods. cell multiplication of sm1 and sm2 was observed at 4-37 °c (45 °c for sm1), in 0-20% (w/v) nacl and at ph 2-11. the viability was not affected when exposed to pepsin at ph 2.0 and 3.0, and pancreatin at ph 8.0. neither isolates wer ...201728585158
knowledge and attitude of physicians about antimicrobial resistance and their prescribing practices in services hospital, lahore, pakistan.a cross sectional study was conducted in services hospital, lahore using a self administered questionnaire to test the knowledge, attitude and prescribing practices of residents and attending physicians using non-probability convenience sampling. a total of 116 questionnaires were filled (response rate=77.3%). knowledge was below average (mean score of 3.66±1.1). only 18 physicians (16%) could correctly estimate the rates of resistance of klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas aeruginosa to cepha ...201728585611
differential th17 response induced by the two clades of the pandemic st258 klebsiella pneumoniae clonal lineages producing kpc-type carbapenemase.the spread of kpc-type carbapenemases is mainly attributed to the global dissemination of klebsiella pneumoniae (kp) strains belonging to the clonal group (cg) 258, including sequence type (st) 258 and other related sts. two distinct clades of cg258-kp have evolved, which differ mainly for the composition of their capsular polysaccharides, and recent studies indicate that clade 1 evolved from an ancestor of clade 2 by recombination of a genomic fragment carrying the capsular polysaccharide (cps) ...201728586386
bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes.antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. the intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. this review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of ...201728587316
in vitro antimicrobial potential of extracts and phytoconstituents from gymnema sylvestre leaves and their biosafety evaluation.the in vitro antimicrobial screening of gymnema sylvestre leaves against 13 test pathogens established its broad spectrum activity with average inhibition zone ranging from 14 to 23 mm. the antimicrobial activity of the classically- optimized aqueous extract was enhanced up to 1.45 folds, when subjected to statistical optimization using response surface methodology (rsm) and was thermostable. ethyl acetate was found to be the best organic extractant with klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (31.5 mm) and sta ...201728587443
species differences in ciprofloxacin resistance among gram-negative bacteria: can "anti-mutant" ratios of the area under the concentration-time curve to the mic be achieved clinically?to explore if the 'anti-mutant' ratios of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (auc24) to the mic overlap the clinically attainable auc24/mics, the selection of ciprofloxacin-resistant escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella pneumoniae mutants was studied in dynamic model that simulates human pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin. four strains each of e. coli and p. aeruginosa and three strains of k. pneumoniae were exposed to ciprofloxacin over a 50-400-fold range of the auc ...201728587559
evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected saudi scorpion venoms tested against multidrug-resistant micro-organisms.scorpion venoms are a rich source of bioactive peptides with promising clinical value that may lead to the discovery and development of new drugs. the present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the venoms extracted from three medically important saudi scorpions (androctonus crassicauda, androctonus bicolor and leiurus quinquestriatus).201728587870
a genoproteomic approach to detect peptide markers of bacterial respiratory pathogens.rapid identification of respiratory pathogens may facilitate targeted antimicrobial therapy. direct identification of bacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is confounded by interfering substances. we describe a method to identify unique peptide markers of 5 gram-negative bacteria by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) for direct pathogen identification in bal.201728588123
activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against clinical isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae, including kpc-carrying isolates, endemic to new york this report, we examined the (1) activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against clinical isolates klebsiella pneumoniae, including those harboring blakpc, (2) potential mechanisms leading to reduced susceptibility, and (3) activity of ceftazidime-avibactam when combined with other agents. of 802 carbapenem-resistant isolates of k. pneumoniae gathered from new york city from 1999 to 2014, all were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) were higher in isolates ...201728590820
association between pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm of patients on mechanical ventilation.the aim of this study was to detect possible associations between respiratory pathogens from tracheal aspirate and oral biofilm samples in intubated patients in an intensive care unit (icu), and to identify the most common respiratory pathogens in oral biofilm, particularly in patients that developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap). two oral biofilm samples were collected from the tongue of intubated patients (at admission and after 48 hours) and analyzed by culture with the antibiotic sen ...201728591237
relationship between β-lactamase production and resistance phenotype in klebsiella pneumoniae strains.this study was designed to evaluate the resistance phenotypes of β-lactamases-producing klebsiella pneumoniae strains. the antibiotic susceptibility and β-lactamase activity of k. pneumoniae strains, including antibiotic-sensitive k. pneumoniae (kpwt), ciprofloxacin-induced resistant k. pneumoniae (kpcip) and clinically isolated k. pneumoniae strains (kpci237, kpci263 and kpci272) were determined in the absence and presence of β-lactamase inhibitors (bli 489, sulbactam, clavulanate and tazobacta ...201728591808
investigation into the antimicrobial action and mechanism of a novel endogenous peptide β-casein 197 from human milk.a novel endogenous peptide cleaved from 197-213 aa of β-casein, named β-casein 197, was identified by tandem mass spectrometry. β-casein 197 constituted a significant proportion of the peptide content in preterm milk. this study investigated the antibacterial effects and mechanisms against common pathogenic bacteria. six bacterial strains were selected for this study: escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica, listeria monocytogenes, klebsiella pneumonia and bacillus subti ...201728591979
colistin and polymyxin b susceptibility testing for carbapenem-resistant and mcr-positive enterobacteriaceae: comparison of sensititre, microscan, vitek 2, and etest with broth microdilution.colistin and polymyxin b remain part of the last line of antibiotics for multi-drug-resistant gram negative bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae current eucast-clsi joint recommendations are for broth microdilution to be performed for mic testing of colistin. commercial susceptibility testing methods were evaluated and compared against reference broth microdilution (bmd), using a susceptible breakpoint of ≤2mg/l for both colistin and polymyxin b. seventy-six enterobacteriacea ...201728592552
synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of [r₄w₄k]-levofloxacin and [r₄w₄k]-levofloxacin-q conjugates.the development of a new class of antibiotics to fight bacterial resistance is a time-consuming effort associated with high-cost and commercial risks. thus, modification, conjugation or combination of existing antibiotics to enhance their efficacy is a suitable strategy. we have previously reported that the amphiphilic cyclic peptide [r₄w₄] had antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of 2.97 µg/ml against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). herein, we ...201728594345
epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in a chinese children's hospital: predominance of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1.the spread of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp) has become a significant problem worldwide; however, relevant data in children are limited. we performed a retrospective study to better understand the epidemiology of crkp bloodstream infections at beijing children's hospital. a total of 164 k. pneumoniae strains were collected from blood cultures between january 2011 and september 2014, of which 52 (31.7%) were crkp strains. all 52 crkp strains were multidrug resistant; 46 (88.5%) ...201728594635
cooperative interactions between toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4 in murine klebsiella pneumoniae infections.klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic and clinically significant emerging pathogen. we investigated the relative roles of toll-like receptor (tlr) 2 and tlr4 in initiating host defenses against k. pneumoniae. tlr2 knockout (ko), tlr4 ko, tlr2/4 double ko (dko), and wild-type (wt) mice were inoculated with k. pneumoniae. mice in each group were sacrificed after either 12 or 24h, and the lungs, liver, and blood were harvested to enumerate bacterial colony-forming units (cfu). cytokine and chem ...201728595383
antimicrobial activity, toxicity and anti-inflammatory potential of methanolic extracts of four ethnomedicinal plant species from punjab, pakistan.the plant species aristolochia indica (ai), melilotus indicus (mi), tribulus terrestris (tt) and cuscuta pedicellata (cp) are widely used in folk medicine in the villages around chowk azam, south punjab, pakistan. the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, phytochemical composition, and the antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory potential of the four medicinal plants listed above. for cp stem, this study represents (to the best of our knowledge) the first ...201728595608
an unusual case of primary hepatic lymphoma with dramatic but unsustained response to bendamustine plus rituximab and literature review.primary hepatic lymphoma is an uncommon cause of hepatic space-occupying lesions.201728596829
[the transmission of kpc-2 gene in klebsiella species].to explore the mechanisms of imipenem resistance inklebsiella spp. and the transmission of klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2(kpc-2) gene in klebsiella species.201628598078
whole genome sequencing of an expec that caused fatal pneumonia at a pig farm in changchun, recent years, highly frequent swine respiratory diseases have been caused by extraintestinal pathogenic escherichia coli (expec) in china. due to this increase in expecs, this bacterial pathogen has become a threat to the development of the chinese swine industry. to investigate expec pathogenesis, we isolated a strain (named slpe) from lesioned porcine lungs from changchun in china, reported the draft genome and performed comparative genomic analyses.201728599670
igm-mediated autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes, but not nitrosylated adducts, are significantly decreased in pregnancy: association with bacterial translocation, perinatal and lifetime major depression and the tryptophan catabolite (trycat) pathway.immunoglubulin (ig)m responses directed to oxidative specific epitopes (oses) and nitric oxide (no)-adducts are significantly associated with major depression and physio-somatic symptoms. end of term serum igm responses to oses and no-adducts were assayed in pregnant women with (n = 24) and without prenatal depression (n = 25) as well as in 24 non-pregnant women. associations of igm/iga responses to gram-negative gut commensal bacteria (leaky gut index) and iga/igm responses to tryptophan catabo ...201728600633
an enhancement of antimicrobial efficacy of biogenic and ceftriaxone-conjugated silver nanoparticles: green approach.of the various methods explored for the synthesis of nanoparticles, biogenesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) received great attention due to their versatile properties. in this report, daucus carota extract was used for the synthesis of agnps and ceftriaxone was conjugated with agnps to enhance their antimicrobial efficacy. the conjugated and unconjugated agnps were characterized by adopting uv-vis spectroscopy, ftir, afm, dls, and tem, which revealed the spr peak at 420 nm and spherical shape ...201728600792
surveillance of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in the indian ocean region between january 2010 and december 2015.the aim of this study was to trace the emergence of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe) on reunion island, a french overseas territory well suited for the surveillance of cpe emergence in patients from the entire indian ocean region.201728602387
clinical predictors and outcomes of klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia in a regional hospital in hong kong.klebsiella pneumoniae (kp) infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality. multidrug resistance, especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) production, in kp is endemic worldwide.201728602703
infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis: an update.patients with liver cirrhosis present an increased incidence of infections. the main cause has been founded in alterations of the enteric flora and of the intestinal barrier probably due to portal hypertension, in addition to a reticulo-endothelial system dysfunction. furthermore, those living with cirrhosis can report a high predisposition to sepsis and septic shock, due to the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a complessive hemodynamic derangement. by the analysis in the exp ...201728603226
patterns of multi-drug resistant bacteria at first culture from patients admitted to a third level university hospital in calabria from 2011 to 2014: implications for empirical therapy and infection control.surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance is fundamental to guide empirical treatment. however, the european antimicrobial resistance surveillance network provides a general picture, which might not be applicable to clinical settings that are excluded from this survey. we evaluated resistance patterns of eskape isolates over a four-year period in a third level university hospital in the province of catanzaro (southern italy). in this retrospective study, we evaluated the frequency of eskape ...201728603227
alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against klebsiella pneumoniae.chronic alcohol consumption perturbs the normal intestinal microbial communities (dysbiosis). to investigate the relationship between alcohol-mediated dysbiosis and pulmonary host defense we developed a fecal adoptive transfer model, which allows us to investigate the impact of alcohol-induced gut dysbiosis on host immune response to an infectious challenge at a distal organ, independent of prevailing alcohol use. male c57bl/6 mice were treated with a cocktail of antibiotics (ampicillin, gentami ...201728604843
bacterial sepsis in neonates: single centre study in a neonatal intensive care unit in bosnia and herzegovina.the aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence, mortality, risk factors, aetiology and the susceptibility to antibiotics of the bacteria responsible for sepsis.201728605923
comparison of methods for detection of plasmid-mediated and chromosomally encoded colistin resistance in enterobacteriaceae.because of the emergence of plasmid-mediated (mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes) and chromosomally encoded colistin resistance, reliable methods for detecting colistin resistance/susceptibility in routine laboratories are required. we evaluated the respective performances of the bd phoenix automated system, the newly developed rapid polymyxin np test and the broth microdilution (bmd) reference method to detect colistin resistance in enterobacteriaceae, and particularly those producing mcr-1 and mcr-2.201728606644
in vitro-in vivo discordance with humanized piperacillin-tazobactam exposures against piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant/pan-β-lactam-susceptible klebsiella pneumoniae strains.recent findings have identified klebsiella pneumoniae strains that are pan-β-lactam susceptible (pbl-s) but piperacillin-tazobactam resistant (tzp-r) in vitro we assessed the efficacy of a humanized exposure of piperacillin-tazobactam (tzp) against 12 tzp-r/pbl-s k. pneumoniae isolates in an immunocompromised murine lung infection model. discordance between the in vitro resistance profile and the in vivo efficacy of human-simulated tzp exposures against this phenotypic profile was observed. addi ...201728607019
population pharmacokinetics of tigecycline in critically ill patients with severe infections.we sought to describe the population pharmacokinetics of tigecycline in critically ill patients and to determine optimized dosing regimens of tigecycline for different bacterial infections. this prospective study included 10 critically ill patients given a standard dose of tigecycline. blood samples were collected during one dosing interval and were analyzed using validated chromatography. population pharmacokinetics and monte carlo dosing simulations were undertaken using pmetrics. three target ...201728607024
conformational control of udp-galactopyranose mutase inhibition.udp-galactopyranose mutase (glf or ugm) catalyzes the formation of uridine 5'-diphosphate-α-d-galactofuranose (udp-galf) from udp-galactopyranose (udp-galp). the enzyme is required for the production of galf-containing glycans. ugm is absent in mammals, but members of the corynebacterineae suborder require ugm for cell envelope biosynthesis. the need for ugm in some pathogens has prompted the search for inhibitors that could serve as antibiotic leads. optimizing inhibitor potency, however, has b ...201728608671
comparison of antimicrobial activity between ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam against multidrug-resistant isolates of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa.this study compared the activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam against 120 bacterial strains, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producers, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre), and pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from patients admitted to cleveland clinic abu dhabi, united arab emirates.201728610832
a fragment of the alarmin prothymosin α as a novel biomarker in murine models of bacteria-induced sepsis.sepsis is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent care. thus, the identification of specific and sensitive biomarkers for its early diagnosis and management are of clinical importance. the alarmin prothymosin alpha (protα) and its decapeptide protα(100-109) are immunostimulatory peptides related to cell death. in this study, we generated bacterial models of sepsis in mice using two klebsiella pneumoniae strains (l-78 and atcc 43816) and monitored sepsis progression using protα(100-109) ...201728611290
the potential of a brown microalga cultivated in high salt medium for the production of high-value compounds.amphora sp. was isolated from the sfax solar saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. it contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. the analysis of fatty acids with gc/ms showed that the c16 series accounted for about 75% of amphora sp. lipids. saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41%) represented 41.31%. amphora sp. was foun ...201728612024
cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of cantharellus cibarius fr. (cantarellaceae).antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of cyclohexane, dichloromethane, methanol, and aqueous extracts of cantharellus cibarius were tested. broth microdilution assay was performed against 10 bacterial strains (staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, micrococcus luteus, bacillus subtilis, enterococcus feacalis, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella abony), with emphasis on helicobacter pylori. methanol extract was the most active against h. pylori strains wit ...201728613963
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