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biological activities of allium sativum and zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important bacterial pathogens, their phytochemical and ft-ir spectroscopic analysis.the spread of bacterial infectious diseases is a major public threat. herbs and spices have offered an excellent, important and useful source of antimicrobial agents against many pathological infections. in the current study, the antimicrobial potency of fresh, naturally and commercial dried allium sativum and zingiber officinale extracts had been investigated against seven local clinical bacterial isolates such as escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumonia, staphylococcus au ...201728653916
identification and characterization of two klebsiella pneumoniae lpxl lipid a late acyltransferases and their role in virulence.klebsiella pneumoniae causes a wide range of infections, from urinary tract infections to pneumonia. the lipopolysaccharide is a virulence factor of this pathogen, although there are gaps in our understanding of its biosynthesis. here we report on the characterization of k. pneumoniaelpxl, which encodes one of the enzymes responsible for the late secondary acylation of immature lipid a molecules. analysis of the available k. pneumoniae genomes revealed that this pathogen's genome encodes two ort ...201728652313
impact of appropriateness of empiric therapy on outcomes in community-onset bacteremia by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase producing escherichia coli and klebisella pneumoniae definitively treated with carbapenems.despite a significant increase of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (esbl)-producing enterobacteriaceae in the community-setting, information regarding clinical outcomes of inappropriate empiric therapy (iat) in patients with those infections is limited. a multicenter-retrospective cohort study was conducted in four hospitals. a total of 249 adults were identified to have community-onset bacteremia caused by esbl-producing escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae, a ...201728643188
molecular characterization of intestinal carriage of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae among inpatients at two iranian university hospitals: first report of co-production of bla ndm-7 and bla oxa-48.gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) could serve as a reservoir for the transmission of these pathogens in the clinical setting. the aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal carriage of cre and to analyze risk factors for cre carriage. rectal swabs were collected from 95 patients at two iranian university hospitals. cre screening was performed using selective media (chromagar and macconkey agar). polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to det ...201728639165
emergence of ceftazidime/avibactam non-susceptibility in an mdr klebsiella pneumoniae isolate.avibactam is a novel broad-range β-lactamase inhibitor active against ambler class a (including esbl and kpc) and some ambler class c and d (e.g. oxa-48) enzymes. we here report on the emergence of ceftazidime/avibactam resistance in clinical, multiresistant, oxa-48 and ctx-m-14-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolate dt12 during ceftazidime/avibactam treatment.201728637339
sirtuin 3 deficiency does not alter host defenses against bacterial and fungal infections.sirtuin 3 (sirt3) is the main mitochondrial deacetylase. sirt3 regulates cell metabolism and redox homeostasis, and protects from aging and age-associated pathologies. sirt3 may drive both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive effects. sirt3 deficiency has been reported to promote chronic inflammation-related disorders, but whether sirt3 impacts on innate immune responses and host defenses against infections remains essentially unknown. this aspect is of primary importance considering the great intere ...201728634345
high-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance.antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the united states alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. however, sy ...201728632788
mait cells launch a rapid, robust and distinct hyperinflammatory response to bacterial superantigens and quickly acquire an anergic phenotype that impedes their cognate antimicrobial function: defining a novel mechanism of superantigen-induced immunopathology and immunosuppression.superantigens (sags) are potent exotoxins secreted by staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes. they target a large fraction of t cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (tss). given the rapidity with which tss develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. equally important, ...201728632753
strain-level metagenomic analysis of the fermented dairy beverage nunu highlights potential food safety risks.the rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. it has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., metamlst, panphlan, and strainphlan, could accurately a ...201728625983
[causative bacterial strains and sensitivityto antimicrobial agents in female acute uncomplicated cystitis].recently, wide spreading of fluoloquinolone resistant escherichia coli is a serious problem inthe treatment of urinary tract infection. to investigate the causative bacterial strains of female acute uncomplicated cystitis (auc) in the community and their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 215 female auc patients treated at our clinics from april 2014 to june 2015. two hundred and nineteen strains were isolated as the causative bacteria from th ...201728625025
comparison of antimicrobial activity between ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam against multidrug-resistant isolates of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa.this study compared the activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam against 120 bacterial strains, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producers, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre), and pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from patients admitted to cleveland clinic abu dhabi, united arab emirates.201728610832
comparison of methods for detection of plasmid-mediated and chromosomally encoded colistin resistance in enterobacteriaceae.because of the emergence of plasmid-mediated (mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes) and chromosomally encoded colistin resistance, reliable methods for detecting colistin resistance/susceptibility in routine laboratories are required. we evaluated the respective performances of the bd phoenix automated system, the newly developed rapid polymyxin np test and the broth microdilution (bmd) reference method to detect colistin resistance in enterobacteriaceae, and particularly those producing mcr-1 and mcr-2.201728606644
infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis: an update.patients with liver cirrhosis present an increased incidence of infections. the main cause has been founded in alterations of the enteric flora and of the intestinal barrier probably due to portal hypertension, in addition to a reticulo-endothelial system dysfunction. furthermore, those living with cirrhosis can report a high predisposition to sepsis and septic shock, due to the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a complessive hemodynamic derangement. by the analysis in the exp ...201728603226
whole genome sequencing of an expec that caused fatal pneumonia at a pig farm in changchun, china.in recent years, highly frequent swine respiratory diseases have been caused by extraintestinal pathogenic escherichia coli (expec) in china. due to this increase in expecs, this bacterial pathogen has become a threat to the development of the chinese swine industry. to investigate expec pathogenesis, we isolated a strain (named slpe) from lesioned porcine lungs from changchun in china, reported the draft genome and performed comparative genomic analyses.201728599670
species differences in ciprofloxacin resistance among gram-negative bacteria: can "anti-mutant" ratios of the area under the concentration-time curve to the mic be achieved clinically?to explore if the 'anti-mutant' ratios of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (auc24) to the mic overlap the clinically attainable auc24/mics, the selection of ciprofloxacin-resistant escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella pneumoniae mutants was studied in dynamic model that simulates human pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin. four strains each of e. coli and p. aeruginosa and three strains of k. pneumoniae were exposed to ciprofloxacin over a 50-400-fold range of the auc ...201728587559
burden of antimicrobial resistance in an era of decreasing susceptibility.antimicrobial resistance has become a global problem. many pathogens are becoming multidrug-resistant with the attendant increased risk of failure of standard therapies and the under-recognised outcomes such as increased morbidity, mortality, length of hospitalization and costs of treatment. areas covered: we undertook a review of the literature using standard search engines including pubmed, google scholar, scopus and internet sources. key search terms included antimicrobial resistance, antibio ...201728580804
combined spontaneous bacterial empyema and peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax.spontaneous bacterial empyema (sbem) is an underestimated condition in patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax with a high mortality. this study aimed to find whether spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) is a prerequisite for sbem.201728579346
synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using seaweed padina gymnospora and their catalytic activity as pvp/ptnps nanocomposite towards biological applications.in the recent years, synthesis of nanomaterials using seaweeds and their diverse applications is escalating research in modern era. among the noble metals, platinum nanoparticles (ptnps) are of great importance owing to their catalytic property and less toxicity. the significance of this work is a simple one-step synthesis of ptnps using aqueous extract of indian brown seaweed padina gymnospora and their catalytic activity with a polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) as pvp/ptnps nanocomposite towa ...201728570982
5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide antibacterial derivatives: design, synthesis and bioactivity.tylosin is a 16-membered macrolide broad-spectrum antibiotic that has an important role in veterinary medicine, active against gram-positive and a restricted range of gram-negative bacteria. we synthesized 15 types of tylosin-related derivatives by chemical modification and evaluated them against mastitis pathogens. among them, 20-deoxy-20-{n-methyl-n-[1-(3-quinolyl)-1h-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methylamino}-5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide 2f and 20-deoxy-20-{n-benzyl-n-[1-(3-quinolyl)-1h-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl] ...201728559578
effect of the 2014 clinical and laboratory standards institute urine-specific breakpoints on cefazolin susceptibility rates at a community teaching hospital.enterobacteriaceae, which include escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and proteus mirabilis, are identified as the infectious etiology in the majority of urinary tract infections (utis) in community hospitals across the united states. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) is a useful tool when choosing an appropriate antibacterial agent. recent changes to the 2014 clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) guidelines included reporting a urine-specific cefazolin breakpoint for ...201728558707
the occurrence of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in the haihe river (china).antibiotic failure is occurring worldwide. in a routine surveillance study on antibioticresistance genes (args) in natural water bodies, we noted the detection of colistin-resistance gene mcr-1, previously identified in escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from human beings and animals in several countries. the mcr-1 gene might be present in water environments, because aquatic ecosystems are recognized as reservoirs for antibiotic resistant bacteria (arb) and args. in this study, ...201728555063
graphene oxide as an efficient antimicrobial nanomaterial for eradicating multi-drug resistant bacteria in vitro and in vivo.graphene is a novel two-dimensional nanomaterial with a growing number of practical applications across numerous fields. in this work, we explored potential biomedical applications of graphene oxide (go) by systematically studying antibacterial capacity of go in both macrophages and animal models. three types of bacteria, including klebsiella pneumoniae (kp), escherichia coli (e. coli) and p. aeruginosa (pa) were used for in vitro study. kp was also selected as a representative multidrug resista ...201728554055
esbl production among e. coli and klebsiella spp. causing urinary tract infection: a hospital based study.increase in extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbl) producing microbes in recent years has led to limitations of treatment options. this study aimed to assess the prevalence of esbl producing e. coli and klebsiella spp. at a tertiary hospital in nepal.201728553414
emerging extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae causing community-onset urinary tract infections: a case-control-control study.the aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology and risk factors associated with community-onset urinary tract infections (co-utis) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (esbl-kp). a cohort study including all consecutive patients with k. pneumoniae co-uti identified from january 2010 to december 2014 was conducted. patients with co-uti due to esbl-kp were then included as cases in a retrospective case-control-control study; controls were outpatients with c ...201728552471
zinc blocks sos-induced antibiotic resistance via inhibition of reca in escherichia coli.zinc inhibits the virulence of diarrheagenic e. coli by inducing the envelope stress response and inhibiting the sos response. the sos response is triggered by damage to bacterial dna. in shiga-toxigenic e. coli, the sos response strongly induces the production of shiga toxins (stx) and of the bacteriophages that encode the stx genes. in e. coli, induction of the sos response is accompanied by a higher mutation rate, called the mutator response, caused by a shift to error-prone dna polymerases w ...201728542496
increasing proportion of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae and emergence of a mcr-1 producer through a multicentric study among hospital-based and private laboratories in belgium from september to november 2015.carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe) strains have been increasingly reported in belgium. we aimed to determine the proportion of cpe among enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalised patients and community outpatients in belgium in 2015. for the hospitalised patients, the results were compared to a previous similar survey performed in the same hospitals in 2012. twenty-four hospital-based and 10 private laboratories collected prospectively 200 non-duplicated enterobacteriaceae isol ...201728537547
environmental spread of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing multidrug-resistant bacteria in dhaka, bangladesh.resistance to carbapenem antibiotics through the production of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (ndm-1) constitutes an emerging challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections. to monitor the possible source of the spread of these organisms in dhaka, bangladesh, we conducted a comparative analysis of wastewater samples from hospital-adjacent areas (har) and from community areas (com), as well as public tap water samples, for the occurrence and characteristics of ndm-1-producing bacteria. of 72 ...201728526792
activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against surveillance and 'problem' enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-fermenters from the british isles.we assessed the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against consecutive isolates collected in the bsac bacteraemia surveillance from 2011 to 2015 and against 'problem' isolates sent to the uk national reference laboratory from july 2015, when routine testing began.201728520867
outbreak of ndm-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in a dutch hospital, with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in unrelated health care centers.in the netherlands, the number of cases of infection with new delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (ndm)-positive enterobacteriaceae is low. here, we report an outbreak of ndm-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in other unrelated health care centers (hccs). next-generation sequencing was performed on 250 carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 42 ndm-positive isolates obtain ...201728515215
selective inhibition of escherichia coli rna and dna topoisomerase i by hoechst 33258 derived mono- and bisbenzimidazoles.a series of hoechst 33258 based mono- and bisbenzimidazoles have been synthesized and their escherichia coli dna topoisomerase i inhibition, binding to b-dna duplex, and antibacterial activity has been evaluated. bisbenzimidazoles with alkynyl side chains display excellent e. coli dna topoisomerase i inhibition properties with ic50 values <5.0 μm. several bisbenzimidazoles (3, 6, 7, 8) also inhibit rna topoisomerase activity of e. coli dna topoisomerase i. bisbenzimidazoles inhibit bacterial gro ...201728513176
anti-restriction protein, klcahs, promotes dissemination of carbapenem resistance.carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (kpc) has emerged and spread throughout the world. a retrospective analysis was performed on carbapenem-resistant k. pneumoniae isolated at our teaching hospital during the period 2009-2010, when the initial outbreak occurred. to determine the mechanism(s) that underlies the increased infectivity exhibited by kpc, multilocus sequence typing (mlst) was conducted. a series of plasmids was also extracted, sequenced and analyzed. concurrently, the comple ...201728512626
study on mics of tigecycline in clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) at a tertiary care centre in north india.members of family enterobacteriaceae are the most common gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. those enterobacteriaceae which have acquired resistance to all β-lactams antibiotics including the carbapenems are considered as carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre). these cre isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resist ...201728511383
mcr-1 and oxa-48 in vivo acquisition in kpc-producing escherichia coli after colistin treatment.the spread of mcr-1-encoding plasmids into carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae raises concerns about the emergence of untreatable bacteria. we report the acquisition of mcr-1 in a carbapenem-resistant escherichia coli strain after a 3-week course of colistin in a patient repatriated to france from portugal. whole-genome sequencing revealed that the klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing e. coli strain acquired two plasmids, an incl oxa-48-encoding plasmid and an incx4 mcr-1-encoding p ...201728507112
a 5-day antibiotic course for treatment of intermittent catheter-associated urinary tract infection in patients with spinal cord injury.this was a retrospective monocentric study conducted at centre calvé, france, with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of a 5-day course of antibiotics for symptomatic (mild urinary tract infection, uti) or asymptomatic (abact) bacteriuria in patients with spinal cord injury on intermittent catheterization.201728503324
major role of pkpqil-like plasmids in the early dissemination of kpc-type carbapenemases in the uk.klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing enterobacteriaceae were first seen in the uk in 2003 and have been increasingly reported since 2010, largely owing to an ongoing outbreak in north-west england. we examined the role of clonal spread and plasmid transmission in their emergence.201728498924
determining the possible etiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia using a clone library analysis in japan.obtaining precise etiological information regarding causative bacteria is important for the proper use of antimicrobials in hospital-acquired pneumonia (hap), which is associated with a high rate of mortality. the aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the bacterial diversity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) in japanese patients with hap by the clone library method using the 16s rrna gene. this study included japanese patients with hap who were treated at our hospital and refer ...201728496015
inhibition of nitric oxide production reverses diabetes-induced kupffer cell activation and klebsiella pneumonia liver translocation.klebsiella pneumoniae (kp) is the most common pathogen of pyogenic liver abscess in east and southeast asia and diabetes mellitus (dm) is a major risk factor. the effect and mechanism of diabetes on kp liver abscess was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and akita mice (c57bl/6j-ins2akita). kp translocation to liver and plasma alaine transaminase levels were increased and liver clearance of kp was decreased in dm mice. diabetic mice exhibited overgrowth of enterococcus as well as e ...201728493939
an uncommon st1224 ndm-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the bloodstream of a leukemia patient in china.this study aimed to analyze the clinical data and characteristics of an ndm-1 (new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1)-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the bloodstream of a leukemia patient.201728490008
liver abscess caused by pannonibacter phragmitetus: case report and literature review.bacterial hepatic abscess is a common occurrence in developing countries, which is mostly caused by klebsiella pneumoniae and escherichia coli. pannonibacter phragmitetus is a gram-negative alkali-tolerant bacillus that exists in the natural environment. human infection by this bacterium is rare, with only four cases reported.201728487855
bacteriological trends and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates at government cancer hospital, marathwada.preventing and starting early treatment of infections in patients whose immunity system is weak due to malignancies can reduce mortality. since our hospital is a newly constructed one, this study aimed to determine microbial and antibiotic resistance patterns in clinical samples of patients with cancer at our center to start early treatment before the results of clinical tests are known.201728485357
impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on antibiotic usage and resistance in a tertiary hospital in china.antimicrobial misuse has been commonly observed in china. this phenomenon can cause antibiotic resistance. this study was designed to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme implemented in a tertiary hospital in china from 2011 to 2014.201728485087
from clsi to eucast guidelines in the interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility: what is the effect in our setting?implementation of the breakpoints established in the european committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (eucast) guidelines in comparison with those of the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) means that the criteria for interpreting the susceptibility of some antimicrobials have been modified, resulting in changes in the reports of accumulated antibiotic susceptibility.201728479139
reduced nosocomial infection rate in a neonatal intensive care unit during a 4-year surveillance period.hospital-acquired infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (nicu). the aim of the study was to investigate the change of nosocomial infection rate in a nicu during a 4-year surveillance period.201728479017
investigation of the antimicrobial effect of natural deep eutectic solvents (nades) as solvents in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.natural deep eutectic solvents (nades) are a third class of liquids, separate from water and lipids. some nades, especially those containing organic acids, have been suggested to possess antimicrobial properties. such properties may be advantageous when nades are used as solvents in e.g. antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. however, to control the toxicity of acid-containing nades, they must retain their specific qualities upon dilution. hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effec ...201728472722
assessment of urinary pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orbifloxacin in healthy dogs with ex vivo modelling.the aim of this study was to investigate the urinary pharmacokinetics (pk) of orbifloxacin (obfx) administered at 5 mg kg-1 in six healthy dogs. a further aim was to use an ex vivo model to evaluate the urinary pk and pharmacodynamics (pd) of obfx to determine its urinary bactericidal titre (ubt), which represents the maximal dilution of urine allowing bactericidal activity.201728470147
frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) in strains of klebsiella and e. coli isolated from patients hospitalized in yazd.frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) and its variants may vary in different geographical areas, as reports indicate their spread in some certain communities. the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of esbls in strains of klebsiella and e. coli, isolated from patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals of yazd.201728465811
characterization of carbapenemases, esbls, and plasmid-mediated quinolone determinants in carbapenem-insensitive escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in riyadh hospitals.the main objective of this work was to characterize carbapenemases, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) among carbapenem-insensitive klebsiella pneumoniae and escherichia coli clinical isolates which were isolated from three hospitals in riyadh. thirty-one carbapenem-insensitive isolates (21 k. pneumoniae and 10 e. coli) were recovered from march 2014 to may 2014. susceptibility testing and phenotypic detection tests were used to characterize ...201728462854
infected aortic and iliac aneurysms: clinical manifestations in the emergency departments of two hospitals in southern taiwan, china.accurate diagnosis of infected aortic and iliac aneurysms is often delayed, hampering timely treatment and potentially resulting in a fatal consequence. the aim of this study was to discover useful clinical features that can help physicians to identify these patients.201728458756
international high-risk clones of klebsiella pneumoniae kpc-2/cc258 and escherichia coli ctx-m-15/cc10 in urban lake waters.the emergence of high-risk clones of multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacteria in aquatic environments has generated an important public health problem, creating an urgent need to strengthen surveillance. this study reports the occurrence of clinically significant mdr enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative bacteria carrying carbapenemases (kpc-2), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ctx-m) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) genes in urban lakes and reservoirs, in southeastern brazil. in this ...201728458208
changing antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolates from an icu over a 3 year period.to study the changing patterns of antimicrobial resistance in gram negative bacilli esp. escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa species and gram positive staphylococcus aureus isolates from a 37 bedded icu of a private hospital.201728457027
arginine-lysine positional swap of the ll-37 peptides reveals evolutional advantages of the native sequence and leads to bacterial probes.antimicrobial peptides are essential components of the innate immune system of multicellular organisms. although cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are known determinants of these amphipathic molecules for bacterial killing, it is not clear how lysine-arginine (k-r) positional swaps influence peptide structure and activity. this study addresses this question by investigating two groups of peptides (gf-17 and 17biphe2) derived from human cathelicidin ll-37. k-r positional swap showed little eff ...201728450045
indistinguishable ndm-producing escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters, sewage, and a clinical specimen in ireland, 2016 to 2017.in this study, new delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (ndm)-producing enterobacteriaceae were identified in irish recreational waters and sewage. indistinguishable ndm-producing escherichia coli by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were isolated from sewage, a fresh water stream and a human source. ndm-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from sewage and seawater in the same area were closely related to each other and to a human isolate. this raises concerns regarding the potential for sewage disch ...201728449738
the susceptibility to fosfomycin of gram-negative bacteria isolates from urinary tract infection in the czech republic: data from a unicentric study.against a background of rapid increase of β-lactamase-producing or multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria and the resulting lack of effective antibiotic treatment, some older antibiotics have been tested for new therapeutic uses. one of these is fosfomycin, to which according to studies these resistant bacteria are very sensitive. our study was designed because there is no data on the fosfomycin susceptibility rate in the czech republic.201728446177
antibiogram profile of septic meningitis among children in duhok, iraq.to determine the prevalence of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf), and the antibiogram profile in pediatric patients with suspected meningitis. methods: this descriptive study was conducted between january 2014 and january 2016 in the hevi paediatric teaching hospital in duhok, iraq. the csf samples were withdrawn from 432 pediatric patients suspected of meningitis. the samples were cultured, and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed.  results: there were 33 (7.6%) culture positive ...201728439602
genotypic detection of the blactx-m-1 gene among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae.extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls), a group of β-lactamase enzymes produced by bacteria in the family enterobacteriaceae, are becoming a major problem in the healthcare community worldwide. although many attempts have been made in the detection of esbl-producing bacteria, the cost and speed of detection remains an important challenge. therefore, this study aimed to develop a rapid, effective and affordable method for detection of the blactx-m-1 esbl gene by a loop-mediated isothermal amplifi ...201728438685
rapid label-free identification of klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistant strains by the drop-coating deposition surface-enhanced raman scattering method.although many methodologies have been developed to identify unknown bacteria, bacterial identification in clinical microbiology remains a complex and time-consuming procedure. to address this problem, we developed a label-free method for rapidly identifying clinically relevant multilocus sequencing typing-verified quinolone-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae strains. we also applied the method to identify three strains from colony samples, atcc70063 (control), st11 and st15; these are the prevalent ...201728437685
hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial action of melilotus albus honey.honey originating from different floral sources exhibits the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity as a result of the presence of hydrogen peroxide as well as nonperoxide bioactive compounds. the mechanisms of antibacterial activity of polish melilot honey were investigated for the first time. polish melilot honey samples (melilotus albus biennial = 3 and annual = 5, melilotus officinalis = 1) were collected directly from beekeepers and analysed for pollen profile, basic physicochemical param ...201728426165
evaluation of the aid carbapenemase line probe assay for rapid detection and identification of carbapenemase genes in gram-negative bacilli.this study evaluated the aid carbapenemase line probe assay (lpa) for the detection and identification of carbapenem resistance genes in enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli (gnb) using bacterial cultures and dna extracts directly from patient urine samples.201728402500
extended spectrum β-lactamase producing escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae: critical tools for antibiotic resistance pattern.drug resistance is a phenomenon where by an organism becomes fully or partially resistant to drugs or antibiotics being used against it. antibiotic resistance poses an exacting intimidation for people with underlying medical immune conditions or weakened immune systems. infections caused by the enzyme extended spectrum β-lactamase (esbl) producing multi drug resistance (mdr) enterobacteriaceae especially escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae are resistant to a broad range of beta lactams, i ...201728397262
direct detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ctx-m) from blood cultures by lc-ms/ms bottom-up proteomics.rapid bacterial species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing in positive blood cultures have an important impact on the antibiotic treatment for patients. to identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbl) directly in positive blood culture bottles, we developed a workflow of saponin extraction followed by a bottom-up proteomics approach using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). the workflow was applied to positive blood cultures with escherich ...201728397101
in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zti-01 (fosfomycin for injection) in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model against escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa.fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum agent with activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including drug-resistant strains, such as extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing and carbapenem-resistant (cr) gram-negative rods. in the present study, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (pk/pd) activity of zti-01 (fosfomycin for injection) was evaluated in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model against 5 escherichia coli, 3 klebsiella pneumoniae, and 2 pseudomonas aeruginosa s ...201728396549
natural product discovery from the human microbiome.human-associated microorganisms have the potential to biosynthesize numerous secondary metabolites that may mediate important host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. however, there is currently a limited understanding of microbiome-derived natural products. a variety of complementary discovery approaches have begun to illuminate this microbial "dark matter," which will in turn allow detailed mechanistic studies of the effects of these molecules on microbiome and host. herein, we review re ...201728389564
modified double-disc test for detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae.this study evaluates the performance of a modified double-disc test (mddt) for the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls) in clinical isolates of escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae. ninety-six isolates of e. coli and 40 k. pneumoniae are studied for esbl production by the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls) combination disc tests and mddt. a total of 112 (82%) isolates (80 [83%] e. coli, 32 [80%] k. pneumoniae) were positive for esbl by mddt compared ...200628705137
nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of japanese society of chemotherapy, the japanese association for infectious diseases, and the japanese society for clinical microbiology in 2012: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.the nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in japan was conducted by japanese society of chemotherapy, japanese association for infectious diseases and japanese society for clinical microbiology in 2012. the isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between january and december in 2012 by three societies. antimicrobial suscept ...201728669567
characterization and formulation into solid dosage forms of a novel bacteriophage lytic against klebsiella oxytoca.to isolate and characterize bacteriophage lytic for the opportunistic pathogen klebsiella oxytoca and their formulation into a range of solid dosage forms for in-vitro testing.201728817689
[the transmission of kpc-2 gene in klebsiella species].to explore the mechanisms of imipenem resistance inklebsiella spp. and the transmission of klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2(kpc-2) gene in klebsiella species.201628598078
risk factors of mortality in bloodstream infections caused by klebsiella pneumonia: a single-center retrospective study in china.the prevalence of klebsiella pneumonia bloodstream infections (kp-bsis) is increasing worldwide. few study reports focus on the kp-bsis published in mainland china over the previous years. this study aimed to describe the risk factors of mortality from kp-bsis.a retrospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in shanghai, china, for a period of 4 years. risk factors related to the patient mortality were analyzed using the binary logistic regression model.of 104 patients with kp-bsis, th ...201728858116
honey-based hydrogel: in vitro and comparative in vivo evaluation for burn wound healing.honey was used to treat wounds since ancient times till nowadays. the present study aimed at preparing a honey-based hydrogel and assay its antimicrobial properties and wound healing activity; in-vitro and in-vivo. topical honey hydrogel formulations were prepared using three honey concentrations with gelling agents; chitosan and carbopol 934. the prepared formulae were evaluated for ph, spreadability, swelling index, in-vitro release and antimicrobial activity. the ph and spreadability were in ...201728851905
pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of temocillin.temocillin, a 6-α-methoxy derivative of ticarcillin, is a forgotten antibiotic that has recently been rediscovered, and issues about clinical breakpoints and optimal therapeutic regimens are still ongoing. temocillin spectrum is almost restricted to enterobacteriaceae. the addition of the α-methoxy moiety on ticarcillin confers resistance to hydrolysis by ambler classes a and c β-lactamases (extended spectrum β-lactamases, klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and ampc hyperproduced enzymes). temo ...201728849402
validation of 2-(18)f-fluorodeoxysorbitol ((18)f-fds) as a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging bacterial infection in the lung.2-(18)f-fluorodeoxysorbitol ((18)f-fds) has been shown to be a promising agent with high selectivity and sensitivity in imaging bacterial infection. the objective of our study was to validate (18)f-fds as a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging bacterial infection longitudinally in the lung. methods: albino c57 female mice were intratracheally inoculated with either live or dead klebsiella pneumoniae (kp) to induce either lung infection or inflammation. one group of mice was imaged to monito ...201728848037
vaborbactam: spectrum of beta-lactamase inhibition and impact of resistance mechanisms on activity in enterobacteriaceae.vaborbactam (formerly rpx7009) is a new beta-lactamase inhibitor based on a cyclic boronic acid pharmacophore. the spectrum of beta-lactamase inhibition by vaborbactam and the impact of bacterial efflux and permeability on its activity were determined using a panel of strains with cloned beta-lactamases from various classes and a panel of klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-3 producing isogenic strains with various combinations of efflux and porin mutations. vaborbactam is a potent inhibit ...201728848018
[formulation of neomycin and streptomycin for the digestive decontamination of carbapenemases producing klebsiella pneumoniae]. 201728847258
klebsazolicin inhibits 70s ribosome by obstructing the peptide exit tunnel.whereas screening of the small-molecule metabolites produced by most cultivatable microorganisms often results in the rediscovery of known compounds, genome-mining programs allow researchers to harness much greater chemical diversity, and result in the discovery of new molecular scaffolds. here we report the genome-guided identification of a new antibiotic, klebsazolicin (klb), from klebsiella pneumoniae that inhibits the growth of sensitive cells by targeting ribosomes. a ribosomally synthesize ...201728846667
prevalence of β-lactamase genes in domestic washing machines and dishwashers and the impact of laundering processes on antibiotic resistant bacteria.to investigate the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in domestic washing machines and dishwashers and the decontamination efficacy of laundering.201728845592
evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of distinct variants of klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc) in enterobacteriaceae.the rapid detection of kpc-producing enterobacteriaceae by microbiology laboratories has been required for infectious control programs. herein we evaluated the performance of a novel immunochromatographic test for detecting kpc-2-, kpc-3-, kpc-4-, kpc-6-, kpc-7-, kpc-8-, and kpc-11-producing isolates and the influence of different growth media on the test performance.201728844719
risk factors and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in xiamen, china.the aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for pneumonia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (esbl-kp) and to analyse the molecular epidemiology of esbl-kp in xiamen, china.201728842361
effect of combination therapy containing a high dose carbapenem on mortality in patients with carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection.to evaluate the impact of high-dose (hd) carbapenem-based combination therapy on clinical outcome in patients with monomicrobial carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (cr-kp) bloodstream-infection (bsi).201728842283
a shorter period of therapy is associated with higher mortality in bloodstream infections caused by carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in a brazilian centre. 201728841082
cofactor engineering for enhanced production of diols by klebsiella pneumoniae from co-substrate.diols, such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pdo) and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-bdo), have several promising properties for many synthetic reactions. here, the cofactor engineering strategy, including the construction of entner-doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase-based nadh regeneration system, was applied in producing diols from mixtures of glucose and glycerol. entner-doudoroff pathway had a high regeneration rate of nad(p)h. this work described a strategy to administrate intracellular nadh/nad(+) ratio a ...201728834346
klebsiella pneumoniae (st1519) producing kpc-19 carbapenemase in a patient undergoing selective digestive decontamination before liver transplant. 201728830804
parastomal gallbladder hernia in a septic patient.parastomal gallbladder herniation is a rare complication of enterostomies with only 6 previously reported cases. most cases have occurred in elderly women. patients typically presented with acute abdominal pain and the majority was managed operatively. here, we report the clinical course of an 88-year-old female who presented with signs of sepsis and minimal abdominal symptoms. she was subsequently found to have a parastomal gallbladder herniation and klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. given the ...201728828113
measuring and modelling the response of klebsiella pneumoniae kpc prey to bdellovibrio bacteriovorus predation, in human serum and defined buffer.in worldwide conditions of increasingly antibiotic-resistant hospital infections, it is important to research alternative therapies. bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria naturally prey on gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains and so b. bacteriovorus have been proposed as "living antibiotics" to combat antimicrobially-resistant pathogens. predator-prey interactions are complex and can be altered by environmental components. to be effective b. bacteriovorus predation needs ...201728827526
ask2 bioactive compound inhibits mdr klebsiella pneumoniae by antibiofilm activity, modulating macrophage cytokines and opsonophagocytosis.the emergence and spread of pathogens harboring extended spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) like carbapenem resistant gram negative bacteria are the major emerging threat to public health. of particular concern klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenamase- producing strains have been recorded worldwide. catheter associated urinary tract infections (cauti) caused by k. pneumoniae are significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. hence the present work was aimed to develop a strategy for addressing th ...201728824881
anodic electro-fermentation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol by recombinant klebsiella pneumoniae l17 in a bioelectrochemical system.3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-hp) is an important platform chemical which can be produced biologically from glycerol. klebsiella pneumoniae is an ideal biocatalyst for 3-hp because it can grow well on glycerol and naturally synthesize the essential coenzyme b12. on the other hand, if higher yields and titers of 3-hp are to be achieved, the sustained regeneration of nad(+) under anaerobic conditions, where coenzyme b12 is synthesized sustainably, is required.201728824709
stress-driven discovery of novel cryptic antibiotics from a marine fungus penicillium sp. bb1122.standard laboratory cultures have long been known to hinder activation of specific gene clusters which in turn hamper production of secondary metabolites with unique properties due to lack of innovation or the inability to trigger cryptic gene clusters' expression. due to challenges related to the avoidance of the isolation of replicated metabolites, resistance-developing pathogens are to be addressed by the scientific community worldwide in order to progress with novel and potent compounds whic ...201728824581
pinocembrin, a novel histidine decarboxylase inhibitor with anti-allergic potential in in vitro.pinocembrin (5, 7- dihydroxy flavanone) is the most abundant chiral flavonoid found in propolis, exhibiting antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. however, the effect of pinocembrin on allergic response is unexplored. thus, current study aimed at investigating the effects of pinocembrin on ige-mediated allergic response in vitro. a special emphasis was directed toward histidine decarboxylase (hdc) and other pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory mediators. preliminary studies, u ...201728821452
the effect of dietary bacterial organic selenium on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and selenoproteins gene expression in broiler chickens.selenium (se) is an essential trace mineral in broilers, which has several important roles in biological processes. organic forms of se are more efficient than inorganic forms and can be produced biologically via se microbial reduction. hence, the possibility of using se-enriched bacteria as feed supplement may provide an interesting source of organic se, and benefit broiler antioxidant system and other biological processes. the objective of this study was to examine the impacts of inorganic se ...201728821244
cost of nosocomial outbreak caused by ndm-1-containing klebsiella pneumoniae in the netherlands, october 2015-january 2016.during october-december 2015, 29 patients in a hospital in the netherlands acquired nosocomial infection with a multidrug-resistant, new delhi-metallo-β-lactamase-positive klebsiella pneumoniae strain. extensive infection control measures were needed to stop this outbreak. the estimated economic impact of the outbreak was $804,263; highest costs were associated with hospital bed closures.201728820386
draft genome sequence of klebsiella pneumoniae 704sk6, an oxa-48- and ctx-m-15-encoding wastewater isolate.the swiss wastewater isolate klebsiella pneumoniae 704sk6, encoding oxa-48 and ctx-m-15 β-lactamases, was fully sequenced. the assembly resulted in an open chromosome of 5,208,104 bp in size (g+c content, 57.6%) and four closed plasmid sequences of 209,651, 197,670, 65,998, and 63,605 bp in size.201728818913
emergence of two distinct subpopulations from klebsiella pneumoniae grown in the stimulated microgravity environment.to isolate and characterize the two phenotypically distinct subpopulations from klebsiella pneumoniae clonal cultures grown in the simulate microgravity environment.201728816520
multidrug-resistant enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci: three major threats to hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.hematopoietic stem cell transplant (hsct) recipients are uniquely threatened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacteria because these patients rely on immediate active antimicrobial therapy to combat bacterial infections. this review describes the epidemiology and treatment considerations for three challenging mdr bacterial pathogens in hsct recipients: mdr enterobacteriaceae, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl)-producing and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre), ...201728815897
a semi-synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate for carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae.hospital acquired infections are an increasingly serious health concern. infections caused by carpabenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (cr-kp) are especially problematic, with a 50% average survival rate. cr-kp are isolated from patients with ever greater frequency: 7% within the eu but 62% in greece. at a time when antibiotics are becoming less effective, no vaccines to protect from this severe bacterial infection exist. here, we describe the convergent [3+3] synthesis of the hexasaccharide r ...201728815890
add-on therapy with ertapenem in infections with multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria: pediatric experience.optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant gnb is not well established due to the weakness of data. patients presenting with bloodstream infections caused by multidrug resistant klebsiella pneumoniae were treated with a combination treatment. optimal therapy for infections with carbapenem resistant gram-negative bacteria is a serious problem in pediatric patients. we presented three cases who were successfully treated with addition of ertapenem to the combination treatment for bact ...201728815094
frequency of colistin and fosfomycin resistance in carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae from a tertiary care hospital in karachi.management of infections with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) is challenging. in recent times, agents such as colistin and fosfomycin have been used in combination with other antibiotics to treat such infections. in this study, we aim to seek frequency of colistin and fosfomycin resistance in cre from pakistan.201728814888
epidemiology and outcomes of endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patients: a 13-year experience in a tertiary referral center in taiwan.endophthalmitis is a severe eye infection leading to disabling outcome. because there were only a few case report illustrating endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patient, we would like to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features of endophthalmitis in chronic dialysis patient in a tertiary referral center.201728814278
low prevalence of mcr-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in bloodstream infections in china. 201728811245
aggregation-induced-emission materials with different electric charges as an artificial tongue: design, construction, and assembly with various pathogenic bacteria for effective bacterial imaging and discrimination.imaging-based total bacterial count and type identification of bacteria play crucial roles in clinical diagnostics, public health, biological and medical science, and environmental protection. herein, we designed and synthesized a series of tetraphenylethenes (tpes) functionalized with one or two aldehyde, carboxylic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups, which were successfully used as fluorescent materials for rapid and efficient staining of eight kinds of representative bacterial species, incl ...201728809473
clinical outcome of dual colistin- and carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections: a single-center retrospective study of 75 cases in india.in this study, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of 75 patients with dual colistin- and carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections over a 5-year period in a single tertiary care hospital in india. we observed a high in-hospital mortality rate of 69.3%. our findings indicate the urgent need for new antibiotics to treat these infections.201728807425
incx3 plasmid harboring a non-tn4401 genetic element (ntekpc) in a hospital-associated clone of kpc-2-producing klebsiella pneumoniae st340/cg258.incx-type plasmids have achieved clinical significance for their contribution in the dissemination of genes confering resistance to carbapenems (most blakpc- and blandm-type genes) and polymyxins (mcr-type genes), both antibiotics considered last resort for multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections. in this study, we report the identification and complete sequence analysis of an incx3 plasmid (designated pkp1194a) carrying a non-tn4401 genetic element (ntekpc) of tnpr-tnpa (partial)-blakpc-2- ...201728807400
a five-year surveillance of carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in a pediatric hospital in china reveals increased predominance of ndm-1.to characterize carbapenem (cpm)-non-susceptible klebsiella pneumoniae (k. pneumoniae) and carbape-nemase produced by these strains isolated from beijing children's hospital based on a five-year surveillance.201728807096
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